Sample records for air water metals

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  3. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  4. The AIR, the WATER, the SUN, the DUST,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    by pollutants and other chemicals in the air and in the home. Doctors can test to find out which substances (durmuhTIE-tiss) Emphysema (EM-fuh-ZEE-ma)Air pollution and cigarette smoke can break down sensitive#12;The AIR, the WATER, the SUN, the DUST, PLANTS and ANIMALS, and the CHEMICALS and METALS of our

  5. Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment S.C. Jain Professor and Research Engineer Dept. Civil, C., "Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment," in Proceedings of the 48th SFSA Technical An analysis is reported of the water modeling experiments of Bates et al. (1994) to study air entrainment

  6. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  7. ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER PERSPECTIVES ON EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    connected with poor sanitation. Nitrate contamination from fertilized farm fields, heavy metals and organic measures are the first line of defense when sanitation is the problem. Here we touch on ground-water1 ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER PERSPECTIVES ON EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W) FINAL DISCUSSION

  8. Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

  9. THE STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY: Land, Water and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    Figure II-1: 1996 Water Pollution Inventory for the US II-2 Figure III-1: Daily Air Quality IndexTHE STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN ALLEGHENY COUNTY: Land, Water and Air MARCH, 2001 Jose R. Argueta Nutrient Effects: II-8 Nutrient Sources II-8 Metals and AMD II-9 Conclusions II-12 PART III: AIR QUALITY

  10. IntegratedScienceWorkingforYou Air, Water,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IntegratedScienceWorkingforYou Air, Water, and Aquatic Environments Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Montana ecosystem restoration treatments . . . . .4 RPA Assessment: U .S . water supply shortage . . .4 Aviationpersonnelexposuretowildfirerisk . . . .5

  11. Global climate change will affect air, water in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weare, Bryan C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, UC Davis. Hechange will affect air, water in California Bryan C. Wearelikely to include reduced water availability and quality,

  12. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  13. Air bubbles clean produced water for reinjection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reuse of produced water in a waterflood may be hazardous to the health and wealth of the reservoir. Disposal of produced water and finding a new source of water for a waterflood can double your costs. Air flotation is being tested to rehabilitate produced water on a lease in eastern Kansas. The use of air flotation in the oil field is at least forty years old. However, many operators are reluctant to spend the capital for surface equipment to assure a supply of good quality water for their waterflood operation. Before the installation of the air flotation unit only the produced water was filtered through a 75-micron bag and the filter water was then added to the make-up water. Seventy-five micron cartridge filters were used at the wellhead. Both the plant and wellhead filters required frequent replacement. Injection wells averaged more than one cleaning and acidization per year. Since installation of the air flotation unit, the combined produced and makeup water is passed through either a 25-or 10-micron bag filter in the plant and a 10-micron cartridge at the wellhead. The results of the test being conducted by an independent oil operator show a reduction in the cost for the water injection system. This study is part of the Department of Energy Class I PONS with independent oil operators.

  14. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  15. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  16. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  17. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hancher, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hackett, Gail D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  18. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse...

  19. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning...

  20. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  1. High-energy metal air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

  2. airs water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissertations Summary: ??Soils are complex environments comprising various biological (roots, water, air etc) and physical constituents (minerals, aggregates, etc). Synchrotron...

  3. SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 #12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved................................................................3 2.1. Equation fit water to air heat pump and chiller models...............................3 2

  4. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  5. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  6. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  7. air metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air metal hydride First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by...

  8. air-water interactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C (Revised 0809) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION WATER SIDE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS (Part 2 27 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE...

  9. 2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

  10. Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency and orientation of water molecules at an air/water interface has been measured in the presence of cationic spectrum of both the surfactant and water molecules at the water surface. In the presence of the charged

  11. Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

  12. Waste water treatment and metal recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Waste water treatment and metal recovery Nickel catalysts for hydrogen production Nickel and single versions of which contained cobalt, chromium, carbon, molybdenum, tungsten, and nickel. In 1911 and 1912% on their stainless steel production. The company paid sizable dividends to its owners until it was dissolved

  13. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR, WATER SIDE SYSTEM, SERVICE HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Certified Water Heater §111, §113 (a) Water Heater Efficiency §113 (b) Service Water Heating Installation/A" in the column next to the measure. 2: For each water heater, pool heat and domestic water loop (or groupsSTATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR, WATER SIDE SYSTEM, SERVICE HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C

  14. Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state of Florida to protect, maintain, and improve the quality of the air and waters of the state. This Act authorizes the Department of Environmental Protection to enact...

  15. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  16. air water interfaces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B 1999-01-01 198 Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China Texas A&M University...

  17. Adsorption of Natural Organic Matter to Air-Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenhart, John J.

    Adsorption of Natural Organic Matter to Air-Water Interfaces during Transport through Unsaturated. A mathematical model incorporating irreversible, second-order rate laws to simulate adsorption at air theories for SHA adsorption. Introduction Natural organic matter (NOM) consists of a mixture

  18. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  19. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

  20. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  1. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  2. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2—a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid and other chemicals. The catalyst is a metal-oxo complex in which modified pyridine rings surround an earth-abundant, low cost metal, such as molybdenum. Compared to other molecular catalysts, the Berkeley Lab compound has a longer life,...

  3. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system Xingxing Kuang & Jiu Jimmy negative air pressure can be generated in the vadose zone during pumping. The negative air pressure. The initial water-table depth has a significant effect on the generated negative air pressure. The shallower

  4. A study on an air-water Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akayawa, H.; Hirata, M.; Kasayi, N.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase two-component Stirling engine using an air-water mixture as a working fluid is presently constructed and tested. This choice of working fluid, instead of usually adopted gases such as hydrogen and helium, is aimed to realize a high volumetric efficiency by high heat transfer coefficients of evaporation and condensation in the heat exchangers. Based upon the results of the performance test of the engine, the effects of the air-water mixture ratio and the heat input are mainly studied and discussed. It is concluded that using a condensable working fluid is an effective measure to improve the performance of the Stirling engine for a comparatively low temperature heat source.

  5. air water two-phase: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissertations Summary: ??Soils are complex environments comprising various biological (roots, water, air etc) and physical constituents (minerals, aggregates, etc). Synchrotron...

  6. Brewster Angle Microscopy Study of Model Lung Surfactant Systems at the Air-Water and Air-Physiological Buffer Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewster Angle Microscopy Study of Model Lung Surfactant Systems at the Air-Water and Air. Olesik #12;Copyright by Hardy Zingalaoa Castada 2010 #12;ii ABSTRACT The lungs have the ability to function normally due to its physiological and molecular components. In the lungs, air is delivered

  7. Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile change in an air/acetonitrile-water interface as the solution composition varies; the abruptness of which and in the polarization of the signal from the acetonitrile molecules in the interface observed using infrared + visible

  8. AIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the static pressure, / , the slope of the water waves, the air kinematic viscosity. Wave characteristics wereAIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES Hubert Branger1 the structure of the air flow in the very close vicinity of the water-surface above wind-generated waves. We

  9. Air/water oxydesulfurization of coal: laboratory investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warzinski, R. P.; Friedman, S.; Ruether, J. A.; LaCount, R. B.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air/water oxidative desulfurization has been demonstrated in autoclave experiments at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center for various coals representative of the major US coal basins. This experimentation has shown that the reaction proceeds effectively for pulverized coals at temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C with air at a total system pressure of 500 to 1500 psig. Above 200/sup 0/C, the loss of coal and product heating value increases due to oxidative consumption of carbon and hydrogen. The pyritic sulfur solubilization reactions are typically complete (95 percent removal) within 15 to 40 minutes at temperature; however, significant apparent organic sulfur removal requires residence times of up to 60 minutes at the higher temperatures. The principal products of the reaction are sulfuric acid, which can be neutralized with limestone, and iron oxide. Under certain conditions, especially for high pyritic sulfur coals, the precipitation of sulfur-containing compounds from the products of the pyrite reaction may cause anomalous variations in the sulfur form data. The influence of various parameters on the efficiency of sulfur removal from coal by air/water oxydesulfurization has been studied.

  10. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  11. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  12. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  13. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  14. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  15. air-water countercurrent flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C (Revised 0809) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION WATER SIDE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS (Part 2 38 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE...

  16. Water as a lubricant for Stirling air engines: design considerations and operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauvel, O.R.; van Benthem, J.; Walker, G.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is favoured as the working fluid for large, slow-running Stirling engines. Lubricating oil entering the working space could combine with compressed, heated air to form a mixture capable of spontaneous combustion. To preclude this possibility, water may be used as the lubricant in Stirling air engines. This paper reviews the lubrication requirements of Stirling air engines and the potential of water to fulfil these requirements. Some bearing and seal materials suitable for water-lubricated Stirling engines are reviewed in terms of a design case study for a 20 kW water lubricated Ringbom-Stirling air engine. Early operating experience with this engine is reported.

  17. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  18. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  19. Simulation model finned water-air-coil withoutcondensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple simulation model of a finned water-to- air coil without condensation is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows eficient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is short computation time and use of input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important for energy efficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculation or load calculation with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short-time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control performance, are neglected. The part load behavior of the coil is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature on the water side and the air side. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part load conditions. Geometrical data for the coil are not required, The calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficients at nominal conditions is based on the ratio of the air side heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the fin eficiency and divided by the water side heat transfer coefficient. In this approach, the only geometrical information required are the cross section areas, which are needed to calculate the~uid velocities. The formulas for estimating this ratio are presented. For simplicity the model ignores condensation. The model is static and uses only explicit equations. The explicit formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability. This allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods such as automatic system optimization. The paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its simplifications. It is not tailored for a particular simulation program to ensure easy implementation in any simulation program.

  20. Metal-air batteries. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of metal-air batteries. Topics include systems that possess different practical energy densities at specific powers. Coverage includes the operation of air electrodes at different densities and performance results. The systems are used in electric vehicles as a cost-effective method to achieve reliability and efficiency. Zinc-air batteries are covered more thoroughly in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Hydrocarbon Formation in Metallic Iron/Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G , , § T I M O T H Y J . C-labeled hydrocarbons are produced. In the absence of chlorinated ethenes, however, lower con- centrations of many of the same hydrocarbons (methane and C2-C6 alkanes and alkenes) are also produced. Hardy and Gillham (1996

  2. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  3. Quantitative imaging of the air-water flow fields formed by unsteady breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental method for simultaneously measuring the velocity fields on the air and water side of unsteady breaking waves is presented. The method is applied to breaking waves to investigate the physics of the air and ...

  4. Pollution prevention and water conservation in metals finishing operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Shaughnessy, J.; Clark, W. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA (United States); Lizotte, R.P. Jr.; Mikutel, D. [Texas Instruments Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attleboro, Massachusetts is the headquarters of the Materials and Controls Group of Texas Instruments Incorporated (Texas Instruments). In support of their activities, Texas Instruments operates a number of metal finishing and electroplating processes. The water supply and the wastewater treatment requirements are supplied throughout the facility from a central location. Water supply quality requirements varies with each manufacturing operation. As a result, manufacturing operations are classified as either high level or a lower water quality. The facility has two methods of wastewater treatment and disposal. The first method involves hydroxide and sulfide metals precipitation prior to discharge to a surface water. The second method involves metals precipitation, filtration, and discharge via sewer to the Attleboro WTF. The facility is limited to a maximum wastewater discharge of 460,000 gallons per day to surface water under the existing National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. There is also a hydraulic flow restriction on pretreated wastewater that is discharged to the Attleboro WTF. Both of these restrictions combined with increased production could cause the facility to reach the treatment capacity. The net effect is that wastewater discharge problems are becoming restrictive to the company`s growth. This paper reviews Texas Instruments efforts to overcome these restrictions through pollution prevention and reuse practices rather than expansion of end of pipe treatment methods.

  5. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  6. Speciation and Fate of Trace Metals in Estuarine Sediments Under Reduced and Oxidized Conditions, Seaplane Lagoon, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, S A; Day, P A; Esser, B; Randall, S

    2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have identified important chemical reactions that control the fate of metal-contaminated estuarine sediments if they are left undisturbed (in situ) or if they are dredged. We combined information on the molecular bonding of metals in solids from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with thermodynamic and kinetic driving forces obtained from dissolved metal concentrations to deduce the dominant reactions under reduced and oxidized conditions. We evaluated the in situ geochemistry of metals (cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese and zinc) as a function of sediment depth (to 100 cm) from a 60-year record of contamination at the Alameda Naval Air Station, California. Results from XAS and thermodynamic modeling of porewaters show that cadmium and most of the zinc form stable sulfide phases, and that lead and chromium are associated with stable carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals. Therefore, there is minimal risk associated with the release of these trace metals from the deeper sediments contaminated prior to the Clean Water Act (1975) as long as reducing conditions are maintained. Increased concentrations of dissolved metals with depth were indicative of the formation of metal HS- complexes. The sediments also contain zinc, chromium, and manganese associated with detrital iron-rich phyllosilicates and/or oxides. These phases are recalcitrant at near-neutral pH and do not undergo reductive dissolution within the 60-year depositional history of sediments at this site. The fate of these metals during dredging was evaluated by comparing in situ geochemistry with that of sediments oxidized by seawater in laboratory experiments. Cadmium and zinc pose the greatest hazard from dredging because their sulfides were highly reactive in seawater. However, their dissolved concentrations under oxic conditions were limited eventually by sorption to or co-precipitation with an iron (oxy)hydroxide. About 50% of the reacted CdS and 80% of the reacted ZnS were bonded to an oxide-substrate at the end of the 90-day oxidation experiment. Lead and chromium pose a minimal hazard from dredging because they are bonded to relatively insoluble carbonate, phosphate, phyllosilicate, or oxide minerals that are stable in seawater. These results point out the specific chemical behavior of individual metals in estuarine sediments, and the need for direct confirmation of metal speciation in order to constrain predictive models that realistically assess the fate of metals in urban harbors and coastal sediments.

  7. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Abstract:...

  8. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  9. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

  10. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  11. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  12. OG 4.4.06 1 Use of Instrumented Water Tanks for the Improvement of Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    OG 4.4.06 1 Use of Instrumented Water Tanks for the Improvement of Air Shower Detector Sensitivity sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS. Considerable efforts have also been made to develop telescopes which detect VHE extensive air showers (EAS

  13. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -resistance water heater and a desuperheater water heater was tested under field conditions at a site near Knoxville. One way : . '-~~ .~ Is to use a desuperheater. or heat recovery water heater, with air conditioners are offering . .. .. · ~'*desuperheaier water heaters (DSWI | as options for their central air conditioners

  14. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  15. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  16. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  17. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  18. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  19. Trace metal contamination of waters, sediments, and organisms of the Swan Lake area of Galveston Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Junesoo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facility (Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority) is located north of the Wah Chang Ditch. Consequently there have been concerns about possible metal contamination in this area. I determined trace metal concentrations in water, sediments, and organisms (oyster...

  20. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water/air cooled condenser with low water consumption and 2) an enhanced turbine with high efficiency.

  1. air water soil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  2. air soil water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basic soil physical and biological properties Soil erosion Land application of waste Water management Irrigation and drainage Water quality 12;Soil...

  3. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lunt, D.L.J. [Tucson Optical Research Corp., AZ (United States)

    1991-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  4. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  5. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

  6. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  7. Environmental Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ecosystem ecology, environmental health, and environmental conservation and sustainability. The curriculumEnvironmental Sciences Air and water pollution, extinction of species, depletion of ozone to examine and understand complex environmental issues, to predict environmental change, and to participate

  8. air-water bubbly flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M 2011-01-01 14 A low diffusive Lagrange-Remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows. Physics Websites Summary: petroleum, the sizing of Liquified...

  9. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  10. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  11. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  12. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  13. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

  14. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy and environmental benefits of WACS over AACS applying to commercial buildings with central air-conditioning. This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of a 3.36 kW prototype water-cooled air conditioner. The prototype is a self...

  15. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  16. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyan Li; Shengfu Mei; Lei Wang; Yunxia Gao; Jing Liu

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc.

  17. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  18. Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200?s. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

  19. activated terbium metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  20. active metal brazing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  1. active filler metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  2. activated metals 6-year: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow...

  3. A Laboratory Study of the Schmidt Number Dependency of Air-Water Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    . Sc = /D denotes the Schmidt number, the ratio of kinematic viscosity of water and the tracersA Laboratory Study of the Schmidt Number Dependency of Air-Water Gas Transfer Kerstin Richter1 of exchange hap- pens with an exponent of 1/2 and links this fraction with a physical property of the wave

  4. CO2/oxalate Cathodes as Safe and Efficient Alternatives in High Energy Density Metal-Air Type Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical analysis on why and how rechargeable metal-air type batteries can be made significantly safer and more practical by utilizing CO2/oxalate conversions instead of O2/peroxide or O2/hydroxide ones, in the positive electrode. Metal-air batteries, such as the Li-air one, may have very large energy densities, comparable to that of gasoline, theoretically allowing for long range all-electric vehicles. There are, however, still significant challenges, especially related to the safety of their underlying chemistries, the robustness of their recharging and the need of supplying high purity O2 from air to the battery. We point out that the CO2/oxalate reversible electrochemical conversion is a viable alternative of the O2-based ones, allowing for similarly high energy density and almost identical voltage, while being much safer through the elimination of aggressive oxidant peroxides and the use of thermally stable, non-oxidative and environmentally benign oxalates instead.

  5. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  6. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  7. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  8. Tropical air mass modification over water (Gulf of Mexico Region)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorgnit, Ernest Frederick

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a dry-adiabatic lapse rate of temperature (temoerature decreases with height at a rate close to 5. 4 F per 1000 ft) and by zero vertical gradient of soecific humiditv. The lapse rate of dew point is very close to 0. 95 F per 100 ft. , while... of thermometers a sys- tematic error of some 0. 8oC appears in the air temperature reports. This error is attributed to the influence of the ships own heat. 3 Commercial vessels also report sea surface temperatures but these are usually intake temperatures...

  9. Optimizing the air flotation water treatment process. Final report, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection water for the Nelson Project is a combination of produced and make-up water, typical of many Eastern Kansas operations. The make-up water is a low-salinity salt water from the Arbuckle Formation and contains dissolved minerals and sulfides. The produced water contains suspended oil, suspended clay and silt particles, along with a combination of other dissolved minerals. The combination of the two waters causes several undesirable reactions. The suspended solids load contained in the combined waters would plug a 75-micron plant bag filter within one day. Wellhead filters of 75-micron size were also being used on the injection wells. The poor water quality resulted in severe loss of injectivity and frequent wellbore cleaning of the injection wells. Various mechanical and graded-bed filtration methods were considered for cleaning the water. These methods were rejected due to the lack of field equipment and service availability. A number of vendors did not even respond to the author`s request. The air flotation process was selected as offering the best hope for a long-term solution. The objective of this work is to: increase the cost effectiveness of the process through optimizing process design factors and operational parameters. A vastly modified air flotation system is the principal tool for accomplishing the project objective. The air flotation unit, as received from manufacturer Separation Specialist, was primarily designed to remove oil from produced water. The additional requirement for solids removal necessitated major physical changes in the unit. Problems encountered with the air flotation unit and specific modifications are detailed in the body of the report.

  10. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic countries such as Lebanon, electric water heaters are often used to generate hot water. Electric water

  11. Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

  12. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Hiroyasu Furukawa,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water-driven heat exchangers3 for use as air-conditioning units in vehicles (heating and cooling are respectively batteries),4 w

  13. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  14. air-water multidimensional impingement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air-water multidimensional impingement First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1...

  15. air-water interface predictive: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air-water interface predictive First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CHAPTER THE...

  16. air-water two-phase flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air-water two-phase flow First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Numerical study of two-phase...

  17. air-water solution interface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air-water solution interface First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Effect of Solute...

  18. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    , Washington, it is vital to determine what the impacts of such growth have had on air and water quality and if greater needs in regulation are needed to curtail emissions. A bi-weekly deposition study of atmospheric particulate matter at seven sites around...

  19. ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER 22 Jan 2003 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION FOR THE SCIENCE CORE: ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and convection (thermal energy flow in solids and fluids) E7 A Solar Pond (energy conversion and storage, solar to thermal): E8 Your Next Car? The hydrogen fuel cell (energy conversion, chemical to electrical and reverse1 ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER 22 Jan 2003 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION FOR THE SCIENCE CORE: ENERGY P

  20. Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    moisture to the outside. Solar radiation raises the temperature of air in the grooves and on average, during a sunny summer day 0.5 L of water can be ventilated out of the roof per 1m width of the roof. In this paper, one climatic condition was investigated...

  1. air-cooled libr-water absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air-cooled libr-water absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN...

  2. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  3. A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

  4. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  5. 14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes in boreal Québec produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO214 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir. No method exists, however, which can directly measure the flux of CO2 across the air-water interface

  6. Navier-Stokes simulations of steep breaking water waves with a coupled air-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Kelli L

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave breaking on the ocean surface significantly facilitates the transfer of mass, momentum, heat and energy across the air-sea interface. In the context of the near field flow about a surface ship, the breaking bow wave ...

  7. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  8. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  9. Novel Metal-Sulfur-Based Air-Stable Passivation of GaAs with Very Low Surface State Densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, Carol I.H.; Baca, Albert G.; Chang, P.-C; Hafich, M.J.; Hammons, B.E.; Zavadil, Kevin R.

    1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new air-stable electronic surface passivation for GaAs and other III-V compound semiconductors that employs sulfur and a suitable metal ion, e.g., Zn, and that is robust towards plasma dielectric deposition has been developed. Initial improvements in photoluminescence are twice that of S-only treatments and have been preserved for >11 months with SiO{sub x}N{sub y} dielectric encapsulation. Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies indicate that the passivation consists of two major components with one being stable for >2 years in air. This process improves heterojunction bipolar transistor current gain for both large and small area devices.

  10. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  11. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramaprabhu, S. [Department of Physics, Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High thermal conducting metal nanoparticles have been dispersed on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) outer surface. Structural and morphological characterizations of metal dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using x-ray diffraction analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanofluids have been synthesized using metal-MWNTs in de-ionized water (DI water) and ethylene glycol (EG) base fluids. It has been observed that nanofluids maintain the same sequence of thermal conductivity as that of metal nanoparticles Ag-MWNTs>Au-MWNTs>Pd-MWNTs. A maximum enhancement of 37.3% and 11.3% in thermal conductivity has been obtained in Ag-MWNTs nanofluid with DI water and EG as base fluids, respectively, at a volume fraction of 0.03%. Temperature dependence study also shows enhancement of thermal conductivity with temperature.

  12. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc] [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  13. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is considerable across the full set of threat contaminants, so preliminary indicators were developed from other well-documented benchmarks to serve as a starting point for validation efforts. By this approach, at least preliminary context is available for water or air, and sometimes both, for all chemicals on the NHSRC list that was provided for this evaluation. This means that a number of concentrations presented in this report represent indirect measures derived from related benchmarks or surrogate chemicals, as described within the many results tables provided in this report.

  14. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  15. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  16. Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  17. Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

  18. The effect of monomolecular films on oxygen transfer across an air-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Tariq Ahmad

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Active Compounds Upon the Diffusion of Gases Across the Air-Water Inter- face. " Retardation of Eva oration b Monola ers; Trans ort Processes, Academic Press, New York and London, p. 67, 1962. 15. Hayes, MD L, "Biological Effects of Hexadecanol Used to Suppress...-9, February 1955. 17. Mansfield, WE W. "The Use of Hexadecanol for Reservoir Evaporation Controiin proceedin s First International Conterence on Reservoir Eva oration Control, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, p. 15-22, April 1956. 18...

  19. Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

  20. Metal ions in water and sediments of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez, G.F.; Enciso, G.; Morales, J.W. [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia] [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia; Sharma, V.K. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nischt, S.L.; Domingo, G.L. [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)] [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the surface water of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon at 15 stations during 5 sampling events from September 1996--May 1997. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ag, Fe, Co, and Ba were also determined in the water and sediments at 15 stations during the study period. The values of salinity, turbidity, and TSS were related to the inputs of river water into the lagoon. Metals in the water and sediments showed no spatial variation. Seasonality in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, and Ba in the water was found and may be related to the resuspension of sediments in the lagoon. The concentrations of metals in sediments did not give significant seasonal variation. Metals in sediments were not correlated with the iron, suggesting an anthropogenic source of metals in the Pom-Atasta Lagoon. The concentrations of dissolved Pb were above the value recommended by the National Water Commission of Mexico.

  1. Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750°C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

  2. Metal-fueled HWR (heavy water reactors) severe accident issues: Differences and similarities to commercial LWRs (light water reactors)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, P.G.; Hyder, M.L.; Monson, P.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Coryell, E.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences and similarities in severe accident progression and phenomena between commercial Light Water Reactors (LWR) and metal-fueled isotopic production Heavy Water Reactors (HWR) are described. It is very important to distinguish between accident progression in the two systems because each reactor type behaves in a unique manner to a fuel melting accident. Some of the lessons learned as a result of the extensive commercial severe accident research are not applicable to metal-fueled heavy water reactors. A direct application of severe accident phenomena developed from oxide-fueled LWRs to metal-fueled HWRs may lead to large errors or substantial uncertainties. In general, the application of severe accident LWR concepts to HWRs should be done with the intent to define the relevant issues, define differences, and determine areas of overlap. This paper describes the relevant differences between LWR and metal-fueled HWR severe accident phenomena. Also included in the paper is a description of the phenomena that govern the source term in HWRs, the areas where research is needed to resolve major uncertainties, and areas in which LWR technology can be directly applied with few modifications.

  3. An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed a b s t r a c t Laminar flame speeds of premixed syngas/air mixtures were measured at various fuel

  4. Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro organized beneath an acetonitrile monolayer at the air/acetonitrile aqueous solution interface? The method-like", and the non-hydrogen bonded "free" OD, responded differently as the acetonitrile bulk concentration

  5. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  6. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  7. Formation of Metal-Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite-Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Formation of Metal-Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite-Water Interface M A R K U S G R A¨ F E. This study investigated the cosorption of As(V) and Zn on goethite at pH 4 and 7 as a function of final environment of As and Zn at the goethite-water interface. Macroscopic sorption studies revealed that As

  8. Advances in the development of energy efficient technologies: Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coony, J.E. [Boston Pacific Co., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to and/or enhancement of air conditioning from mechanical chillers. SWAC pumps cold sea water from the appropriate ocean depths (50 to 3,000 feet depending on the climate and local characteristics) to the shore where it replaces (by direct cooling) or enhances (through use as condenser water) large mechanical chillers found in coastal facilities. SWAC direct cooling uses less than twenty per cent of the electricity of a mechanical chiller and uses no refrigerants whatsoever. Indirect cooling also offers substantial energy savings. Both systems dispense with the need for a cooling tower. Technical advances over the last twenty years in corrosion resistant alloys (titanium or aluminum), bio-fouling deterrence, and deep ocean pipeline deployment allow SWAC installations to use reliable, off-the-shelf technology. SWAC works in a variety of climates (existing installations are in Hawaii and Halifax, Nova Scotia), giving it significant domestic and international potential. Economy-of-scale advantages make it attractive to district cooling schemes.

  9. Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC 25 Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface Markus mg goethite L-1 (ppm). Sorption in the 1000ppm suspensions was rapid with Zn (II) sorption increasing thereafter beyond 500hrs. Initial EXAFS experiments of the 1000ppm goethite suspension system showed

  10. Electrocatalytic Activity Studies of Select Metal Surfaces and Implications in Li-Air Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasteiger, Hubert A.

    Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have the potential to provide ?3 times higher specific energy of fully packaged batteries than conventional lithium rechargeable batteries. However, very little is known about the oxygen ...

  11. HIGH-CURRENT ZINC-AIR MICROBATTERY BASED ON A MICROMACHINED MULTILAYER LATERAL METALLIC SCAFFOLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `skeleton'. This scaffold consists of alternating copper and nickel layers supporting zinc as electrodeposited anode material. A proof-of-concept zinc-air microbattery based on this technology was developed

  12. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  13. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  14. STOMP Sparse Vegetation Evapotranspiration Model for the Water-Air-Energy Operational Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; White, Mark D.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Water-Air-Energy (WAE) Operational Mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator solves the coupled conservation equations for water mass, air mass, and thermal energy in multiple dimensions. This addendum describes the theory, input file formatting, and application of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme for STOMP that is based on a sparse vegetation evapotranspiration model. The SVAT scheme is implemented as a boundary condition on the upper surface of the computational domain and has capabilities for simulating evaporation from bare surfaces as well as evapotranspiration from sparsely vegetated surfaces populated with single or multiple plant species in response to meteorological forcings. With this extension, the model calculates water mass, air mass and thermal energy across a boundary surface in addition to root-water transport between the subsurface and atmosphere. This mode represents the barrier extension of the WAE mode and is designated as STOMP-WAE-B. Input for STOMP-WAE-B is specified via three input cards and include: atmospheric conditions through the Atmospheric Conditions Card; time-invariant plant species data through the Plant Properties Card; and time varying plant species data through the Boundary Conditions Card. Two optional cards, the Observed Data and UCODE Control Cards allow use of STOMP-WAE with UCODE in an inverse mode to estimate model parameters. STOMP-WAE was validated by solving a number of test problems from the literature that included experimental observations as well as analytical or numerical solutions. Several of the UNSAT-H verification problems are included along with a benchmark simulation derived from a recently published intercode comparison for barrier design tools. Results show that STOMP is able to meet, and in most cases, exceed performance of other commonly used simulation codes without having to resort to may of their simplifying assumptions. Use of the fully coupled STOMP simulator to guide barrier design will result in optimized designs with reduced construction costs; reduced environmental impacts at borrow sites; and minimized post-closure care and monitoring needs, while meeting regulatory requirements.

  15. {open_quotes}Methods for the determination of the Clean Air Act Title III metallic HAPS in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, J. [Standard Laboratories, Inc., Evansville, IN (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act was amended in 1990 and additional requirements were added to Title III {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} Title III identified one hundred eighty-nine hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) and Congress directed the EPA to study the effects of emissions of these HAPS on public health and the environment. EPA is to report to Congress in the fall of 1995 concerning their findings and make recommendations regarding fossil fuel fired combustion units. The outcome of the EPA recommendations will be of great interest to coal producers and users. Of the one hundred eighty-nine listed HAPS, eleven are trace metals found in coal. The producers and users may be required to analyze coal for these HAPS, to determine if selective mining and/or beneficiation can lower their occurrence, to determine their fate in the combustion process, etc. Indeed many coal companies have begun to study their reserves to aid the EPA investigation. Currently there are no EPA promulgated test methodologies for these elements in coal. Moreover, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) does not provide standards for the analyses of all of the eleven HAPS either. In view of this lack of standardized analytical protocols the commercial laboratory is left with finding the best methods for meeting these analytical needs. This paper describes how Standard Laboratories, Inc. as a whole and particularly its Environmental Laboratory Division has met this need.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

  17. Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a blanket contract for the supply, commissioning and maintenance of water-and air-cooled chillers

  18. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14; Alternate Water Sources (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #14 Case Study: Overview of the air handler condensate recovery program at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division.

  19. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

  20. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  1. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .25 150 121.86 0.1182 1.92 200 131.55 0.0218 376.9729 1.0864 19 19 20 4.5 150 99.58 0.1013 1.57 150 107.18 0.1013 1163.561 1.6857 20 20 21 1.8 80 22.29 0.965 1.17 65 24.28 2.3884 1408.019 1.8046 21 22 23 1 80 22.29 0.5361 1.17 80 24.24 0.5361 315.0493... Wuxi, P. R. China, 214122 Shanghai? P. R. China, 200070 fxp_99@126.com Zouyun_22@126.com WeidingLong@163.com Abstract: The optimal design of air-conditioning water system is an optimization problem of functions that depend on a series...

  2. Current shunting and formation of stationary shock waves during electric explosions of metal wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Barishpol'tsev, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of experiments on the generation of shock waves during electric explosions of fine copper and tungsten wires in air are analyzed. The generation mechanism of stationary shock wave by a plasma piston formed during the shunting breakdown of the electrode gap in the course of a wire explosion is investigated. The role of structural elements of such discharges, such as the core, corona, and wire environment, is analyzed.

  3. Diverse and tunable electronic structures of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides for photocatalytic water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Li, Xi-Bo; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: ppeng@hnu.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China) [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Peng, Ping, E-mail: ppeng@hnu.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The family of bulk metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (APX{sub 3}, A = M{sup II}, M{sub 0.5}{sup I}M{sub 0.5}{sup III}; X = S, Se; M{sup I}, M{sup II}, and M{sup III} represent Group-I, Group-II, and Group-III metals, respectively) has attracted great attentions because such materials not only own magnetic and ferroelectric properties, but also exhibit excellent properties in hydrogen storage and lithium battery because of the layered structures. Many layered materials have been exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) materials, and they show distinct electronic properties compared with their bulks. Here we present a systematical study of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have very low formation energies, which indicates that the exfoliation of single layer APX{sub 3} should not be difficult. The family of single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides exhibits a large range of band gaps from 1.77 to 3.94 eV, and the electronic structures are greatly affected by the metal or the chalcogenide atoms. The calculated band edges of metal phosphorus trichalcogenides further reveal that single-layer ZnPSe{sub 3}, CdPSe{sub 3}, Ag{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5}PSe{sub 3}, and Ag{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}PX{sub 3} (X = S and Se) have both suitable band gaps for visible-light driving and sufficient over-potentials for water splitting. More fascinatingly, single-layer Ag{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5}PSe{sub 3} is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the calculated optical absorption further convinces that such materials own outstanding properties for light absorption. Such results demonstrate that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides own high stability, versatile electronic properties, and high optical absorption, thus such materials have great chances to be high efficient photocatalysts for water-splitting.

  4. Water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration: A technology for the removal, concentration, and recovery of metal ions from aqueous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of water-soluble metal-binding polymers coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) is a technology under development to selectively concentrate and recover valuable or regulated metal-ions from dilute process or waste waters. The polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercially available UF technology. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal-ions, which are recovered in a concentrated form for recycle or disposal. Pilot-scale demonstrations have been completed for a variety of waste streams containing low concentrations of metal ions including electroplating wastes (zinc and nickel) and nuclear waste streams (plutonium and americium). Many other potential commercial applications exist including remediation of contaminated solids. An overview of both the pilot-scale demonstrated applications and small scale testing of this technology are presented.

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  6. Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C; Holt-Larese, Kathleen C; Bontchev, Ranko

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

  7. Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacsi, Adam P

    The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

  8. A low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The evolution of the interfaces between phases and the consecutive complex dynamics need to be simulatedA low diffusive Lagrange-remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows. Introduction Simulation of free surface flows knows an increasing interest as an essential predictive tool

  9. Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

  10. Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell,*, and Saman Alavi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada ReceiVed: July 9, 2007; In Final Form: July 30, 2007 Surface tensions to the surface tension, while the energy-integral and test area methods provide direct estimates. At 1 atm

  11. Competition between Atmospherically Relevant Fatty Acid Monolayers at the Air/Water Laura F. Voss, Christopher M. Hadad,* and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Competition between Atmospherically Relevant Fatty Acid Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface Laura F. Voss, Christopher M. Hadad,* and Heather C. Allen* Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State Uni Competition and oxidation of fatty acids spread at the air/water interface were investigated using surface

  12. Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullough, Richard D.

    Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air-water interface of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8- trioxanonyl)-2,5-bithiophene), polymer

  13. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  14. A novel integrated concept of urban water management in a megalopolis from Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .g. treatment of high heavy metals waters and emulsified oil wastes ­ ZOUBOLIS et al., 2000). The impurities are moved to the upper layers of the water column by tinny air bubbles, with posterior sludge removal

  15. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  16. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, S.K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.

  17. The following is an un-edited introduction to a volume edited by Jill Ker Conway, Kenneth Keniston, and Leo Marx, called Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Humanistic Studies of the Environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keniston, Kenneth

    , and Leo Marx, called Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Humanistic Studies of the Environment, which Earth, Air, Fire, Water: Humanistic Studies of the Environment Foreword)..........................................................................393 Anton Struchkov (Russian Academy of Science) -- "Modernity and the Environment as a Public Issue

  18. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  19. air-to-water heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  20. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  1. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  2. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  3. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  5. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School... temperatures a cryogenic pump wss necessary. The sire of the pump was computed on the basis of maintaining a one degree Fahrenheit drop of the coolant temperature through the supply systms. The greatest heat load on the supply system being 3718 BTU per hour...

  6. Studien-und Prfungsordnung der Universitt Stuttgart fr den auslandsorientierten Studiengang Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering (WASTE) mit Abschluss Master Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) beschlossen. Der Rektor hat Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) überblickt werden, die Fähigkeit

  7. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  8. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

  9. Likely detection of water-rich asteroid debris in a metal-polluted white dwarf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raddi, R; Koester, D; Farihi, J; Hermes, J J; Scaringi, S; Breedt, E; Girven, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cool white dwarf SDSS J124231.07+522626.6 exhibits photospheric absorption lines of 8 distinct heavy elements in medium resolution optical spectra, notably including oxygen. The Teff = 13000 K atmosphere is helium-dominated, but the convection zone contains significant amounts of hydrogen and oxygen. The four most common rock-forming elements (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) account for almost all the accreted mass, totalling at least 1.2e+24 g, similar to the mass of Ceres. The time-averaged accretion rate is 2e+10 g/s, one of the highest rates inferred among all known metal-polluted white dwarfs. We note a large oxygen excess, with respect to the most common metal oxides, suggesting that the white dwarf accreted planetary debris with a water content of ~38 per cent by mass. This star, together with GD 61, GD 16, and GD 362, form a small group of outliers from the known population of evolved planetary systems accreting predominantly dry, rocky debris. This result strengthens the hypothesis that, integrated over the c...

  10. Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suntivich, Jin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

  11. B.Jhne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water GasTransfer, 1995 by AEON Verlag I Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    of the Influence of Marine Biota on the Carbon Dioxide Ocean- Atmosphere Exchange in High Latitudes P. Prinos M Mixing in the Upper Ocean and Air-Sea Gas Transfer ð #12;B.Jähne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas. Hwang Spatial Measurements of Small-Scale Ocean Waves J. Klinke B. Jähne Measurements of Short Ocean

  12. Experimental investigation of small-scale breaking waves : flow visualization across the air-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Angus Kai

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of breaking waves significantly affect air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, mass and energy across the ocean interface. Breaking waves also contribute considerable loading to offshore and coastal structures, and ...

  13. Trace metal and ancillary data in the open waters of Puget Sound: 1980-1985. Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, A.J.; Curl, H.C.; Feely, R.A.; Geiselman, T.; Krogslund, K.A.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the second of three data reports, the complete data set between 1980 and 1985 for the open waters of Puget Sound is presented. The water column data are divided geographically. The information gained from these data has been interpreted by PMEL scientists and is published in a variety of scientific journals that are listed within each section. Building on research then underway at PMEL on estuarine circulation, laboratory scientists began a coordinated study that began with the description of the distribution of properties (salinity, temperature, trace metals and trace organics) in the water column and underlying sediments. The objectives of the Marine Environmental Quality trace metal program were (1) to quantify the sources and sinks of selected trace metals for Puget Sound, (2) to determine geochemical mechanisms that transform trace metals between the dissolved and particulate phases and (3) to determine to what extent these geochemical mechanisms alter the fate of trace metals entering Puget Sound. The water column data are divided geographically in the following manner: Duwamish River, Duwamish Waterway, Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay and other rivers discharging into Puget Sound. In addition to the water column data, sediment trap, sediment column solid phase and sediment column interstitial phase (pore water) data are presented. The text of the data report consists of the sampling and analytical methods with the accompanying quality control/quality assurance data. The text of the data sections are a summary of the data and published literature in which the data are interpreted along with a catalogue of the data available on microfiche located in the back pocket of the data report. In most cases, a table consists of one station with the parameters as columns and the depths as rows.

  14. air-water flow experimental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STUDY OF MHD FLOWS IN A Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: is to electrically and thermally decouple the liquid metal from the rest of the structure. In the...

  15. air-cooled water chillers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Telephone: (409) 845-1214 Fax: (409) 845-6495 Internet: r-howard1@tamu.edu ix x Lesson 1 Water in Our Daily Lives Every living thing on earth requires water to survive...

  16. air-water vertical upward: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C (Revised 0809) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION WATER SIDE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS (Part 2 30 Chapter 2 x Pressure Distribution in a Fluid 89...

  17. air-water cross flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS CEC-MECH-2C (Revised 0809) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION WATER SIDE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS (Part 2 First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12...

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 085425 (2012) Influence of water on the electronic structure of metal-supported graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -supported graphene: Insights from van der Waals density functional theory Xiao Li ( ),1 Ji Feng ( ),1,* Enge Wang-supported graphene through van der Waals density functional theory calculations. Our results show a systematic increase in the adsorption energy of water on graphene in the presence of underlying metal substrates

  19. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glova, A F; Lysikov, A Yu [State Research Center of Russian Federation 'Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research', Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  20. Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr Outline & notes for water lecture #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ~10cm/yr, Mexico City ~30cm/yr, iv. sea water invasion Florida, pollution invasion D. Dams ­ can. Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Mexico (7 states + Mexico)­ split based on very wet 18 years, so

  1. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  2. Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatarkhanov, Mouslim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal- and hydrogen-bonding competition during waterwith the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formationH and OH to maximize both hydrogen bonding and oxygen-metal

  3. Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past water-column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Combining sedimentological, trace metal (Mn, Mo) and molecular evidence for reconstructing past online 22 June 2013 Abstract Here, we present sedimentological, trace metal, and molecular evidence underscores the value of combining sedimentological, geochemical, and microbiological approaches

  4. Development of an equivalent homogenous fluid model for pseudo-two-phase (air plus water) flow through fractured rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.; Indraratna, B. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Civil Engineering

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fracture flow of two-phase mixtures is particularly applicable to the coal mining and coal bed methane projects in Australia. A one-dimensional steady-state pseudo-two-phase flow model is proposed for fractured rock. The model considers free flow of a compressible mixture of air and water in an inclined planar fracture and is based upon the conservation of momentum and the 'cubic' law. The flow model is coupled to changes in the stress environment through the fracture normal stiffness, which is related to changes in fracture aperture. The model represents the individual air and water phases as a single equivalent homogenous fluid. Laboratory testing was performed using the two-phase high-pressure triaxial apparatus on 54 mm diameter (approximately 2: 1 height: diameter) borehole cores intersected by induced near-axial fractures. The samples were of Triassic arenaceous fine-medium grained sandstone (known as the Eckersley Formation) that is found locally in the Southern Coalfield of New South Wales. The sample fracture roughness was assessed using a technique based upon Fourier series analysis to objectively attribute a joint roughness coefficient. The proposed two-phase flow model was verified using the recorded laboratory data obtained over a range of triaxial confining pressures (i.e., fracture normal stresses).

  5. Towards a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water interface: a density functional theory perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Marcel D.; Kuo, I-F W.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The propensities of the water self ions, H3O+ and OH- , for the air-water interface has implications for interfacial acid-base chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, no consensus has been reached on the question of whether or not H3O+ and/or OH- prefer to be at the water surface or in the bulk. Here we report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the bulk vs. interfacial behavior of H3O+ and OH- that employs forces derived from density functional theory with a generalized gradient approximation exchangecorrelation functional (specifically, BLYP) and empirical dispersion corrections. We computed the potential of mean force (PMF) for H3O+ as a function of the position of the ion in a 215-molecule water slab. The PMF is flat, suggesting that H3O+ has equal propensity for the air-water interface and the bulk. We compare the PMF for H3O+ to our previously computed PMF for OH- adsorption, which contains a shallow minimum at the interface, and we explore how differences in solvation of each ion at the interface vs. the bulk are connected with interfacial propensity. We find that the solvation shell of H3O+ is only slightly dependent on its position in the water slab, while OH- partially desolvates as it approaches the interface, and we examine how this difference in solvation behavior is manifested in the electronic structure and chemistry of the two ions. DJT was supported by National Science Foundation grant CHE-0909227. CJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The potential of mean force required resources of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DEAC05-00OR22725. The remaining simulations and analysis used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. at at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. MDB is grateful for the support of the Linus Pauling Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship Program at PNNL.

  6. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  7. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across the hot water control valve is 5 psi and 2 psi for the coil and pipeline. The flow coefficient of the control valves are 9 GPIW~S~~,~ for hot water valve and 13 GPIW~S~~.~ for the chilled water control valve. The designed loop pressure is 7... 14: Using dry coil model will introduce certain error for the cooling coil simulation since the heat transfer coefficient is higher when the coil is wet. Thermostat Model: The thermostat generates a pneumatic pressure signal from 3 to 15 psig...

  8. Interactive influences of bioactive trace metals on biological production in oceanic waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruland, K.W.; Donat, J.R.; Hutchins, D.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present an overview of the oceanic chemistries of the bioactive trace metals, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn; the authors combine field data with results from laboratory phytoplankton culture-trace metal studies and speculate on the potential influences of these trace metals on oceanic plankton production and species composition. Most field studies have focused on the effects of single metals. However, they propose that synergistic and antagonistic interactions between multiple trace metals could be very important in the oceans. Trace metal antagonisms that may prove particularly important are those between Cu and the potential biolimiting metals Fe, Mn, and Zn. These antagonistic interactions could have the greatest influence on biological productivity in areas of the open ocean isolated from terrestrial inputs, such as the remote high nutrient regions of the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. The emerging picture of trace metal-biota interactions in these oceanic areas is one in which biology strongly influences distribution and chemical speciation of all these bioactive trace metals. It also seems likely that many of these bioactive trace metals and their speciation may influence levels of primary productivity, species composition, and trophic structure. Future investigations should give more complete consideration to the interactive effects of biologically important trace metals.

  9. Subantarctic Mode Water formation : air-sea fluxes and cross-frontal exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    found that Ekman transport of cold and fresh water from thetransports of nearly 30 Sv approximately counterbalance in the surface layer. Coldcold or warm core rings or as deviations from a long- term mean, have been shown to transport

  10. Enhanced water desalination efficiency in an air-cathode stacked microbial electrodeionization cell (SMEDIC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reserved. 1. Introduction Water scarcity is a major global challenge, and it is predicted that by 2025 two and anion exchange mem- branes to balance charge [6]. The performance of MDC is limited by several factors including the microbial community composition on the anode, electrode materials, pH imbalances, and internal

  11. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  12. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  13. The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, D.

    1992-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

  14. An ecological study examining the correlation of end-stage renal disease and ground water heavy metal content in Texas counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Scott Alan

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ecological study was conducted to examine the correlation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the ground water heavy metal level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and the cumulative level of all four metals in Texas counties. The heavy meal...

  15. Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

  16. NORIA - a finite element computer program for analyzing water, vapor, air, and energy transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NORIA is a finite element computer program that solves four nonlinear, parabolic, partial differential equations simultaneously. The four equations describe the transport of water, water vapor, air, and energy through partially saturated porous media. The numerical procedure uses the standard Galerkin finite element method to handle spatial discretization of two-dimensional domains with either planar symmetry or axisymmetry. Time integration is performed by a third-order predictor-corrector scheme that uses error estimates to automatically adjust time-step size so as to maintain uniform local time truncation error throughout the calculation. Thus, the user is not required to select time-step size except at the first time step. Nearly all material properties, such as permeability, can either be set to constant values or can be defined as functions of the dependent and independent variables by user-supplied subroutines. The gas phase is taken to be ideal. This report is intended primarily as a user`s manual but also includes discussions of the theory of two-phase transport in porous media and the numerical procedure used in NORIA. 33 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Envir202b ­ Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams ­ A Case Study Assignment & Schedule for Day 2 We will next work as your group will be asked to answer the following questions: 1) What changes (if any) to the dams

  18. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  19. Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  20. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

  1. Process for analyzing CO.sub.2 in air and in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, James E. (Eugene, OR); Akse, James R. (Roseburg, OR); DeHart, Jeffrey (Yoncalla, OR)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO.sub.2 into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte phase. CO.sub.2 is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO.sub.2 with the membrane into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species in the second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO.sub.2 to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 in the first CO.sub.2 sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument.

  2. Process for analyzing CO[sub 2] in air and in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, J.E.; Akse, J.R.; DeHart, J.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO[sub 2] into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte phase. CO[sub 2] is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO[sub 2] with the membrane into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species in the second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO[sub 2] to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO[sub 2] in the first CO[sub 2] sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument. 43 figs.

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  4. Sediment water exchange of trace metals and nutrients in Galveston Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warnken, Kent Wayne

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -10% Of PO-3 4 10-17% of Si(OH)4, 5-31 % of Mn, 39-49% of Ni and 25-38% of Zn could be attributed to diffusion. To gain a further understanding of the distribution of trace metals between solid sediment and porewater, sequential sediment leaching experiments...

  5. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  6. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  7. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  8. Exploration of tektite formation processes through water and metal content measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    was used for water measurements and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used data on 46 laser ablation spots from 19 tektite samples and Ó The Meteoritical Society, 2011

  9. Water-soluble organometallic compounds. 3. Kinetic investigations of dissociative phosphine substitution processes involving water-soluble group 6 metal derivatives in miscible aqueous/organic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Bischoff, C.J. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanistic aspects of ligand substitution reactions of group 6 metal carbonyl derivatives containing the trisulfonated phosphine P(m-C[sub 6]H[sub 4]SO[sub 3]Na)[sub 3] (hereafter referred to as TPPTS) in pure water and water/THF media have been investigated by examination of the reactions of these derivatives with carbon monoxide as an incoming ligand. The reactions, which were carried out under 500 psi of CO in the temperature range 110-160[degrees]C, were monitored in situ by infrared spectroscopy employing a cylindrical internal reflectance reactor. Kinetic measurements show the reactions are first-order in metal complex concentration and independent of CO pressure at high CO pressures, and the rates are retarded by added TPPTS. The activation parameters for TPPTS dissociation from M(CO)[sub 5]TPPTS derivatives (M = Mo, W), e.g., in 1:1 THF/H[sub 2]O, [Delta]H[double dagger] = 28.8 [plus minus] 1.4 kcal/mol and [Delta]S[double dagger] = [minus]4.2 [plus minus] 3.5 eu and [Delta]H[double dagger] = 31.8 [plus minus] 1.5 kcal/mol and [Delta]S[double dagger] = [minus]0.73 [plus minus] 3.6 eu, respectively were shown to be quite similar to those determined for the analogous processes involving the nonsulfonated PPh[sub 3] ligand in the same solvent systems. In addition only small solvent effects were noted in going from aqueous to organic solvents for these dissociative processes. For the cis-Mo(CO)[sub 4][TPPTS][sub 2] derivative, in which the sodium ions are encapsulated by a cryptand, kryptofix-221, a steric acceleration of TPPTS dissociation is noted relative to its PPh[sub 3] analog. 27 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj:'I,\ W C 5%ZL,o-c'3 I,

  11. An investigation of the transfer of alkali metal chlorides from dimethyl sulfoxide to water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roger

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    works well with sodium metal also. In some preliminary investigations lithium amalgam was prepared electrolytically by depositing lithium at a stirred mercury cathode from a concentrated solution of lithium hydroxide. Lithium amalgams could... -7 -1 18. 3-18. 4o C Redistilled Dimethyl sulfoxide Wate r -7 -1 -1 9. 4x 10 ohm cm -8 -1 -1 2 5x 10 ohm cm 17, 8-17. 9 C 13 Salutes. Salts used in the preparation of solutions were lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium chlorrdes. Each...

  12. Consequence analysis of IWTS metal water reactions (Fauske and Associates report 99-35)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the consequences of postulated thermally unstable conditions in the IWTS knock out pot. The consequence analysis shows that both the knock out pot and particulate bed will stay intact, and that releases will be minor. Reaction rate limitations prevent knock out pot pressure and/or temperature from even approaching values that would threaten structural integrity. Source term calculations based on a particle bed with a homogeneous mixture of metal and oxide particles yield a release above the K Basin pool of about 12 grams.

  13. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  14. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M. [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2022 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water between Metal Walls under Electric Field: Dielectric Response and Dynamics after Field Reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyohei Takae; Akira Onuki

    2015-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study water between parallel metal walls under applied electric field accounting for the image effect at $T=298$ K. The electric field due to the surface charges serves to attract and orient nearby water molecules, while it tends to a constant determined by the mean surface charge density away from the walls. We find Stern boundary layers with thickness about $5$ $\\rm \\AA$ and a homogeneously polarized bulk region. The molecules in the layers more sensitively respond to the applied field than in the bulk. As a result, the potential drop in the layers is larger than that in the bulk unless the cell length exceeds 10 nm. We also examine the hydrogen bonds, which tend to make small angles with respect to the walls in the layers even without applied field. The average local field considerably deviates from the classical Lorentz field and the local field fluctuations are very large in the bulk. If we suppose a nanometer-size sphere around each molecule, the local field contribution from its exterior is nearly equal to that from the continuum electrostatics and that from its interior yields the deviation from the classical Lorentz field. As a nonequilibrium problem, we investigate the dynamics after a reversal of applied field, where the relaxation is mostly caused by large-angle rotational jumps after 1 ps due to the presence of the hydrogen bond network. The molecules undergoing these jumps themselves form hydrogen-bonded clusters heterogeneously distributed in space.

  16. Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

  17. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Scandium Group (Sc, Y, La)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mioduski, Tomasz [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03195 Warsaw (Poland); Gumi?ski, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents an assessment of solubility data for rare earth metal fluorides (generally of trivalent metals and of CeF{sub 4}) in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were seldom studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or binary salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. The literature has been covered through the end of 2013.

  18. Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in our environment. The chief sources of exposure are from (1) Lead paint ­ commonly present in house interiors (2) Leaded gasoline ­ soils along major roadways are strongly enriched in lead

  19. Effects of Adding Sewage Sludge and Urea-Phosphate Fertilizers to the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh, Falmouth, MA on Heavy Metals and Microbial N-Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in the United States is in car and industrial lead- acid batteries (Wernick & Themelis 1998). Zinc is the least is important in regulating the exchange of nitrogen through the air, soil and organic matter. In this study, the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act were passed to help combat the increase of metal contamination

  20. active duty air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 Electrocatalytic Activity Studies of Select Metal Surfaces and Implications in Li-Air Batteries MIT - DSpace Summary: Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have the potential...

  1. aire activated tissue: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. 37 Electrocatalytic Activity Studies of Select Metal Surfaces and Implications in Li-Air Batteries MIT - DSpace Summary: Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have the potential...

  2. Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using a Room-Air Natural Convection Loop: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze prevention for passive solar domestic water heating systems.

  3. Lecs 2 and 3. Properties of air and water and Earth system; GFD1 AS509/OC512 Winter 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sound speed (or `compressibility'), specific heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing hydrogen molecules attract one another giving the liquid some long-range order. Water is a generally density than liquid water (most substances are more dense when frozen). The density of pure water, about

  4. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  5. Reorientation of the ‘free OH’ group in the top-most layer of air/water interface of sodium fluoride aqueous solution probed with sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ran-Ran; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many experimental and theoretical studies have established the specific anion, as well as cation effects on the hydrogen-bond structures at the air/water interface of electrolyte solutions. However, the ion effects on the top-most layer of the air/water interface, which is signified by the non-hydrogen-bonded so-called ‘free O-H’ group, has not been discussed or studied. In this report, we present the measurement of changes of the orientational angle of the ‘free O-H’ group at the air/water interface of the sodium fluoride (NaF) solutions at different concentrations using the interface selective sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) in the ssp and ppp polarizations. The polarization dependent SFG-VS results show that the average tilt angle of the ‘free O-H’ changes from about 35.3 degrees ± 0.5 degrees to 43.4 degrees ± 2.1degrees as the NaF concentration increase from 0 to 0.94M (nearly saturated). Such tilt angle change is around the axis of the other O-H group of the same water molecule at the top-most layer at the air/water interface that is hydrogen-bonded to the water molecules below the top-most layer. These results provide quantitative molecular details of the ion effects of the NaF salt on the structure of the water molecules at the top-most layer of the air/water interfacial, even though both the Na+ cation and the F- anion are believed to be among the most excluded ions from the air/water interface.

  6. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

  7. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shiqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Childs, Joanne [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of soil respiration to atmospheric and climatic change will have profound impacts on ecosystem and global C cycling in the future. This study was conducted to examine effects on soil respiration of the concurrent driving factors of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, rising temperature, and changing precipitation in a constructed old-field grassland in eastern Tennessee, USA. Model ecosystems of seven old-field species in 12 open-top chambers (4 m in diameter) were treated with two CO2 (ambient and ambient plus 300 ppm) and two temperature (ambient and ambient plus 3 C) levels. Two split plots with each chamber were assigned with high and low soil moisture levels. During the 19-month experimental period from June 2003 to December 2004, higher CO2 concentration and soil water availability significantly increased mean soil respiration by 35.8% and 15.7%, respectively. The effects of air warming on soil respiration varied seasonally from small reductions to significant increases to no response, and there was no significant main effect. In the wet side of elevated CO2 chambers, air warming consistently caused increases in soil respiration, whereas in other three combinations of CO2 and water treatments, warming tended to decrease soil respiration over the growing season but increase it over the winter. There were no interactive effects on soil respiration among any two or three treatment factors irrespective of testing time period. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was reduced by air warming, lower in the wet than the dry side, and not affected by CO2 treatment. Variations of soil respiration responses with soil temperature and soil moisture ranges could be primarily attributable to the seasonal dynamics of plant growth and its responses to the three treatments. Using a conceptual model to interpret the significant relationships of treatment-induced changes in soil respiration with changes in soil temperature and moisture observed in this study, we conclude that elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability had both direct and indirect effects on soil respiration via changes in the three controlling factors: soil temperature, soil moisture, and C substrate. Our results demonstrate that the response of soil respiration to climatic warming should not be represented in models as a simple temperature response function. A more mechanistic understanding of the direct and indirect impacts of concurrent global change drivers on soil respiration is needed to facilitate the interpretation and projection of ecosystem and global C cycling in response to atmospheric and climate change.

  8. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  9. A low diffusive Lagrange-Remap scheme for the simulation of violent air-water free-surface flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of applications. This includes for instance the safety study of water dams, tsunamis, the extraction of offshore treatment, flocculation processes, bio-Engineering, medical applications, etc. The evolution for a multidimensional evolution of the fluids while a direction-by

  10. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  11. The use of kelp sieve tube sap metal composition to characterize urban runoff in southern California coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manley, Steven L.

    The use of kelp sieve tube sap metal composition to characterize urban runoff in southern California a b s t r a c t This study introduces an innovative method for biomonitoring using giant kelp analyses indicate that polluted seawater may affect kelp uptake of metals essential for cellular function

  12. Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption, and Local Air Temperature in Phoenix, AZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption Area This study examined 16 Census Block Groups (2000) within the City of Phoenix to investigate are critical for long-term urban planning. Figure 2: Study Area: 16 Census Block Groups within City of Phoenix

  13. Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water-air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

    Effect of surface tension on the acoustic radiation pressure-induced motion of the water to be a function of the surface tension. The time of mound formation measurementsin cleanwaterat low.Our objectiveisto investigatetheeffectsof surface tension on mound formation. We usea boundaryintegralmethodto

  14. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  15. Bibliography of work on the heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air, Update Number 2 to October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Industrial Program has developed processes that destroy hazardous substances in or remove them from water and air. The processes of interest in this report are based on the application of heterogeneous photocatalysts, principally titanium dioxide or modifications thereof, but work on other heterogeneous catalysts is included in this compilation. This report continues bibliographies that were published in May, 1994, and October, 1995. The previous reports included 663 and 574 citations, respectively. This update contains an additional 518 references. These were published during the period from June 1995 to October 1996, or are references from prior years that were not included in the previous reports. The work generally focuses on removing hazardous contaminants from air or water to meet environmental or health regulations. This report also references work on properties of semiconductor photocatalysts and applications of photocatalytic chemistry in organic synthesis. This report follows the same organization as the previous publications. The first part provides citations for work done in a few broad categories that are generic to the process. Three tables provide references to work on specific substances. The first table lists organic compounds that are included in various lists of hazardous substances identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second table lists compounds not included in those categories, but which have been treated in a photocatalytic process. The third table covers inorganic compounds that are on EPA lists of hazardous materials or that have been treated by a photocatalytic process. A short update on companies that are active in providing products or services based on photocatalytic processes is provided.

  16. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  17. Assessment of trace metals during episodic events using DGT passive sampler: A proposal for water management enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    disturbance (dredging) and provide proposal for a better water management. The results indicate that: (1) DGT is the lack of reliable and low-cost water quality sensors for continuous monitoring (Aisopou et al. 2012

  18. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  19. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit between the roof and the attic. · Apply modifications to traditional roofing assembly and roofing roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  20. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  1. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  2. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - airs requirements definition Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and HVAC Summary: requires some processes called air-conditioning; including: Simple heating: raising the air temperature... air normally contains some water vapor (moisture)....

  4. An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Summary Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal by extracting it from liquid manure and potentially using the recovered NH3 as fertilizer. For this purpose, lab

  5. As was hypothesized, annual ET water losses appears to be driven by seasonal variations in the total aboveground biomass of the treatment wetland. We found that only air temperature and PAR were significant climatic drivers of ET. However, unlike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    in the total aboveground biomass of the treatment wetland. We found that only air temperature and PAR were budget of an aridland" urban wastewater treatment wetland" Experimental Design and Field Sampling! · 10.T.A. 2003. Water and mass budgets of a vertical=-flow constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollutant effects Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modelling Pollution Control Air pollution and Meterology 7. Global Change 1 week Greenhouse effect... transport Water and waste water treatment Legislations 6. Air Pollution 2.5...

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Metal-Organic Frameworks with Precisely Designed Interior for Carbon Dioxide Capture preservation of the IRMOF structure. Carbon dioxide capture from combustion sources such as flue gas in power this carbon capture challenge. The preferred method for measuring the efficiency of a given material

  8. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  9. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Alison

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for PAH emissions. The PAHs from tank water heaters in theIncreased Tankless Water Usage: PAHs Heavy Metals to WaterIncreased Tankless Water Usage: VOCs PAHs Heavy Metals to

  10. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

  11. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    directly replace the existing forced air furnace and water heater, and consist of a high efficiency water heater or boiler and an optimized hydronic air handler. The air handlers...

  12. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane Yongjun Leng,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    density of most types of batteries, and (3) scalability of hydrogen technologies for grid- scale electrolyte water electrolysis, non-precious metals can be used as the electrocatalysts for the hydrogen M KOH, can react with carbonate anions formed by adsorption of carbon dioxide from the air to form

  13. Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Air Pollution Control code is adopted pursuant to Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101). ) By authority of the same State...

  14. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  15. Analytical and experimental investigations of the behavior of thermal neutrons in lattices of uranium metal rods in heavy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simms, Richard

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the intracellular distribution of the activation of foils by neutrons were made in lattices of 1/4-inch diameter, 1.03% U-235, uranium rods moderated by heavy water, with bare and cadmium-covered foils of ...

  16. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  17. air station usa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the USA Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Parasitoids Air pollutants Heavy metals Metalloids INTRODUCTION Insect parasitoids (insects living parasitoids in...

  18. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air. For a storage tank water heater, the greater the hotthe water heater with cold water Note: The TANK program usesof a natural draft tank type water heater can be without

  19. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  20. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  1. Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jory A. Yarmoff; Christopher Amrhein

    2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  2. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  3. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  4. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  5. Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater Regulation on Land --PlantsPlants WWipip= W= Wrr + W+ Waa --WWtt --WWss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater waters internal water WWrr =Roots=Roots WWaa = Air= Air WWtt = Transpiration= Transpiration WWss = Secretions= Secretions Water Regulation on Land - Plants Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance

  6. Neutron probe measurements of air saturation near an air sparging well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acomb, L.J. [Geosphere, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); McKay, D.; Currier, P. [Army Corps of Engineers, Hanover, NH (United States). Cold Regions Research Engineering Lab.; Berglund, S.T.; Sherhart, T.V.; Benediktsson, C.V. [Federal Aviation Administration, Anchorage, AK (United States). Airway Facilities Div.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ air sparging is being used to remediate diesel-fuel-contaminated soils in the zone of water table fluctuation at a remote Alaskan Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) air navigation aid site. A neutron probe was used to measure changes in percent air saturation during air sparging in a uniform, aeolian sand. Air was injected about 15 ft below the water table at air flowrates of 4 to 16 ft{sup 3}/min (cfm). The neutron probe data show that during air sparging the distribution of injected air changed through time, initially expanding outward from the sparge well screen, then consolidating around the air sparging well, until a steady-state condition was reached. The maximum radius of influence, measured at an air flowrate of 16 cfm, was about 15 ft during steady-state flow. At all air flowrates the percent air saturation was highest near the air sparging well and decreased radially away from the sparging well. Near the sparging well, the percent air saturation ranged from about 30% to >50% at air injection rates of 4 to 16 cfm. Where the percent air saturation is similar to that in the vadose zone, volatilization and biodegradation may occur at rates similar to those in the vadose zone. Selected air saturation results are presented, and dissolved oxygen and saturated zone pressure data are summarized.

  7. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  8. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  9. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  10. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan. The fan is aspecify the VAV box cooling design supply air temperature (the underfloor supply plenum (thereby, reducing room cooling

  11. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  12. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  13. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  14. Sensitivity of Forced Air Distribution System Efficiency to Climate, Duct Location, Air Leakage and Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Air Leakage and Insulation Iain S. Walker Energy Performance of Buildings Group Indoor Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Duct Insulation, Location and Leakage Examples............................................................... 4 Figure 2. Sheet metal ducts in a basement insulated with asbestos

  15. alkali metal carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ... Kurpiewski, John Paul 2005-01-01...

  16. alkali metal li: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Elisabetta Caffau 2008-12-11 77 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

  17. air heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit....

  18. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  19. Metal-Air Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod EggertMercuryAdvanced

  20. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  1. Gas adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willis, Richard R. (Cary, IL); Low, John J. (Schaumburg, IL), Faheem, Syed A. (Huntley, IL); Benin, Annabelle I. (Oak Forest, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Yazaydin, Ahmet Ozgur (Evanston, IL)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention involves the use of certain metal organic frameworks that have been treated with water or another metal titrant in the storage of carbon dioxide. The capacity of these frameworks is significantly increased through this treatment.

  2. NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely used in...

  3. Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1 and Richard Purvis2 UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK A study is presented of the interaction(s) between air and water in determining the motion of a large surrounding air motion. I.Nomenclature A = magnitude of shear flow in the air c = ratio U /V D

  4. Possibility of Using a Satellite-Based Detector for Recording Cherenkov Light from Ultrahigh-Energy Extensive Air Showers Penetrating into the Ocean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shustova, O P; Khrenov, B A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have estimated the reflected component of Cherenkov radiation, which arises in developing of an extensive air shower with primary energy of 10^20 eV over the ocean surface. It has been shown that, under conditions of the TUS experiment, a flash of the reflected Cherenkov photons at the end of the fluorescence track can be identified in showers with zenith angles up to 20 degrees.

  5. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  6. Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations of the Arkansas Air Operating Program are adopted in accordance with the provisions of Part UU of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act, Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101,...

  7. air suspension system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  8. air suspension systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  9. air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  10. air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  11. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During building cooling the chillers supply 42 °P water towith 42°P supply air always reduced cooling and totalpart-load) cooling with cold air supply. In most California

  12. air force space: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  13. air heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  14. air treatment system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  15. air systems metodologia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  16. aire acondicionado solar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  17. air flotation system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  18. air treatment heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  19. axially heated air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  20. air heating systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  1. air source heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  2. air foil system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  3. air contaminants combining: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  4. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  5. air sampling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  6. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    for the training of scientists in water resources. Through the years, projects have included irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water, efficient septic heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title

  7. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  8. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  9. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  10. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heavy metals to surface runoff following storm events. Evaluating runoff water quality response, innovative domestic wastewater disposal systems, ground water modeling and landuse mapping, erosionArkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Arkansas Water Resources Center

  11. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  12. A time-series study of the health effects of water-soluble and total-extractable metal content of airborne particulate matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Elton, Robert A; Hibbs, Leon R; Agius, Raymond M; Beverland, Iain J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -soluble and total-extractable content of 11 trace metals determined in each sample. Time series were analysed using generalised additive Poisson regression models, including adjustment for minimum temperature and loess smoothing of trends. Methods were explored...

  13. Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Monitor the Kinetics of Metal Sorption Reactions at the Soil/Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Monitor the Kinetics of Metal Sorption Reactions on the surface coordination environment of Ni sorbed onto clays and aluminum oxides using X-ray absorption fine

  14. Transport of entrained air bubbles in fresh concrete due to pressure variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macha, Ravi Kumar

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkali (Soluble) on Air Entrainment in Concrete [22]. 31 Figure 11. Figure 12. Effect of Cement Fineness on Air Content of Fresh Concrete [22]. Change in Void Size Distribution on Vibration of Air Entrained Concrete [17]. 32 33 Figure 13. Effect.... Reduction in Water and Sand Contents Made Possible by Various Percentages of Entrained Air Content [21]. 38 Page Figure 16. Relationship of Solubility of Air and Internal Pressure to the Size of an Air Bubble in water at 20 C [14...

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  16. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  17. EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type Size Category (Btu/h) Size.ahridirectory.org/ceedirectory/pages/ac/cee/defaultSearch.aspx 12,000 Btu/h = 1 ton Less than 65,000 Btu/h Air Conditioners, Air Cooled Air Conditioners, Water completed by the California Energy Commission at a rate of 12,000 Btu/h per ton of air conditioning Source

  18. An in situ intercomparison exercise on passive samplers for the monitoring of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides in surface waters. Various PSs were used and compared at 2 rivers sites aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface water C. Miège1* , N. Mazzella2 , S. Schiavone1 , A. Dabrin, the interlaboratory variability of field blanks, time weighted average water concentrations and its uncertainties

  19. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  20. Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, B.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump Bin Zheng and Mingsheng Liu Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract Traditionally, chilled water pump speed is modulated to maintain the water loop... differential pressure set point and the control valve at the air handling unit (AHU) is modulated to maintain the supply air temperature. This paper introduces a new VFD pump speed control algorithm, optimal pump head control strategy, in variable water...

  1. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  2. air-sea gas exchange: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were Ho, David 49 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND RAIN ON THE GAS TRANSFER Geosciences Websites Summary: AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE:...

  3. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  4. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner David Morin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster features 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award winner David Morin of the U.S. Air Force's Laughlin Air Force Base in Texas.

  5. Air flow through common type window openings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holleman, Theo Rufus

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface pressures surrounding it? WIM O TA L E AIR WASHER LOUVERS- EXCELSIOR MAT WATER SPRAY ~-- ? EGG CRATE ~ ? CHEESE -CLOTH / Figure 4 Wind Tunnel (Flan and Section) Courtesy of Texas Engineering Exgerirent Station psgure 4-p Wind Tunnel...

  6. Conserve Energy by Optimizing Air Compressor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, V. A.

    is the compressed air plant(s), cating air compressors with one 60-hp and one 30-hp which many times include compressors, ancillary screw compressor; (2) the repiping of the existing equipment, and/or an operating sequence that is screw compressors cooling water...

  7. Air Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

  8. air mass approaches: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We also analyzed the behaviour of meteorological parameters during 96 h transport to SPC Boyer, Edmond 9 Tropical air mass modification over water (Gulf of Mexico Region) Texas...

  9. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study 14: Alternate Water Sources,...

  10. ESPC Success Story - Dyess Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (FEMP) Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) Success Story on water conservation and green energy at Dyess Air Foce Base at Dyess, Texas. espcssdyess.pdf More Documents &...

  11. air analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF...

  12. Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a comparison of room cooling load and supply air to roomtemperatures, cooling load profiles, supply airflow rate,water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

  13. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  14. Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, Ralph E.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of ~20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg-1, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte (~70%). Lithium-metal anodes and KB-carbon anodes account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only ~ 20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products

  15. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  17. Urban air quality of Kathmandu valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.K. [Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley occupying about 600 sq. km. of area is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the alley, i.e. Kathmandu, Litilpur, and Bhaktapur. Out of the three the most populated is the Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has 668,000 population in an area of approximately 50 sq. km. The city population consumes energy about 1/3 of total imports of Nepal in the form of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicle has increased several fold leading in recent months to 100,000 in number in a road of about 900 kms., out of which 25% is only metalled. Most of two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission gases as well as dust particulate. SO{sub 2} has been found to go as high as 202 micro grams per cubic meter and NO{sub 2} to 126 micro gram particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10:00 AM in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m{sup 3} a day and also liquid waste directly dumping in Bagmati river to the tune of 500,000 liters per day makes city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water, and land are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals are considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50 to 60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce legal frame work for pollution control but it will take time to be effective like in other developing countries unless government is strong.

  18. Long-Term Oxidation of Candidate Cast Iron and Advanced Austenitic Stainless Steel Exhaust System Alloys from 650-800 C in Air with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Leonard, Donovan N [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 C compared to 650-700 C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  19. air electrodes applied: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ... Kurpiewski, John Paul 2005-01-01 30...

  20. air samplers based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1 Computer...

  1. air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  2. air source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  3. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO? catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrasco, Javier [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); CIC Energigune, Minana, Alava (Spain); Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Lopez-Duran, David [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); CIC Energigune, Minana, Alava (Spain); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Duchon, Tomas [Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Evans, Jaime [Univ. Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crumlin, Ethan J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matolin, Vladimir [Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO?(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO?(111) compared with pyramidal Ni? particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²? species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO? has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.

  4. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO? catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO?(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO?(111) compared with pyramidal Ni? particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of thismore »support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²? species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO? has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.« less

  5. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li Danzhen, E-mail: dzli@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  6. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  7. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  8. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trically rechargeable metal-air batteries, the positivebatteries, and water electrolyzers, air elec­ trodes are being used increasingly in metal

  9. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of a Smart Water Heater. ” In Workshop inFreezers, Furnaces, Water Heaters, Room and Central AirNovember. ADL. 1982b. Water Heater Computer Model User’s

  10. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  11. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air 2008, August 17-perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longeraddressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting

  12. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  13. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning

  14. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  15. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  16. City Water Light and Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Water Light and Power (CWLP) offers rebates to help commercial customers increase the energy efficiency of participating facilities. Energy efficient air-to-air, geothermal and water-loop...

  17. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Ground-water Flow and Transport Focus Category: Non Point Pollution, Surface Water, Toxic Substances Descriptors: Benthos, Bioindicators, Biomonitoring, Ecosystems, Heavy metals, Insects, Land use, PollutantsWater Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Introduction - Research

  18. alkali-metal atoms li: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under certain Schnadt, Joachim 90 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

  19. Air Pollution Control (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter enumerates primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and the significant deterioration increments. Significant deterioration refers to an increase in ambient air pollution...

  20. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  1. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  2. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  3. The distribution of copper, manganese, zinc, and iron in antarctic waters and the relation of the concentrations of these metals to biological primary productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhelger, Martin Edward

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ? 7 centration of this species is only about 5 x 10 pg/1 (Cooper 193 7b) . The distribution of particulate iron in sea water appears to be rather inhomogeneous, especially near the coast (Cooper 1948a, b; Shaefer and Bishop 1958), but may be more... to the ferrous ion, have been described by Diehl and Smith (1960). None of the ions present in sea water at their normal concentrations interfere with these 12 reagents. Dipyridyl and tripyridyl were used by Cooper (1937a, b) in the English Channel...

  4. Metalization of lipid vesicles via electroless plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrar, W.T.; O'Brien, D.F.; Warshawsky, A.; Voycheck, C.L.

    1988-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The encapsulation of metallic particles and metallic oxides within lipid vesicles has recently been of interest for applications such as catalysis, water splitting, and magnetic control of spin coupling. In this communication the authors introduce the concept and practice of the deposition of metal on vesicles by using electroless plating techniques. Coordination of low valent transition metals to organic functional groups on the surface of the bilayer membrane provides a means of binding metal atoms to vesicles. Chemical reduction produced zero valent atoms which serve as sites for further metal deposition by the chemical reduction techniques of electroless plating. Specifically, this procedure involved the binding of a small amount of tetrachloropalladate to the vesicle bilayer, reduction of the palladium(II) to palladium(0), followed by the deposition of much larger amounts of metal from an electroless plating solution. Electroless plating solutions were used for the deposition of palladium, nickel, cobalt, or copper metal onto the catalytic palladium centers. Since the metallic particles were associated with the vesicles, colloids were formed that were stable in water for much longer periods than the control metal particles formed in water alone. If the vesicles were composed in part of unsaturated lipids, with the olefinic groups on the hydrocarbon chains, the initial evidence suggests the transition metal was directed into the bilayer, rather than staying on the surface.

  5. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  6. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  7. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

  8. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

  9. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

  10. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Stephen Meyers

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial furnaces and boilers, air conditioners and heat pumps, and water heatersCOMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EPACT 1992 Water Heaters,

  11. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  12. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  13. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  14. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  15. Health damages from air pollution in China Kira Matus a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health damages from air pollution in China Kira Matus a,1 , Kyung-Min Nam b,1, *, Noelle E. Selin c to its environment, including air pollution, the availability of clean water, and desertification. Issues in negative health outcomes, such as contaminated water and high levels of air pollution, also incur real

  16. The role of colloidal particles on the migration of air bubbles in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Ji-seok

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    into account the movement of air bubbles and colloidal particle capture on discrete air-water interface. Generally colloidal particles are treated as suspended particles in the water, so the hypothesis is that the rising air bubble can collect the particles...

  17. 2000 Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin Full Of Hot Air?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemenway, Mary Kay

    ©2000 Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin Full Of Hot Air? Introduction Light has standing by a pool, the medium is air. If you are looking at the Moon from under water after you jump into the pool, the mediums are both air and water. The Moon would appear dif- ferent from underwater because

  18. Air Electrode Design for Sustained High Power Operation of Li/air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of portable electronic devices increasingly requires much more energy to support advanced functions. However, currently available batteries do not meet the high energy requirement of these devices. Metal/air batteries, especially Li/air batteries, have a much higher specific energy than most other available batteries, but their power rate is limited by the accumulation of reaction products in the air electrode. Several approaches to improve the power rate of Li/air batteries have been analyzed in this work, including adjustment of air electrode porosity and catalyst reactivity distributions to minimize diffusion limitations and maximize air electrode material utilization. An interconnected dual pore system (one catalyzed and one noncatalyzed) is proposed to improve oxygen transport into the inner regions of the air electrode, but this approach alone cannot supply high power for long term applications. A time-release multiple catalyst approach is analyzed to provide temporal release of reactivity in the air electrode. When coupled with the dual pore configuration and catalysts with high reactivities, the time-release catalyst concept can extend the duration of higher powers to longer times, and result in maximum utilization of air electrode materials.

  19. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  20. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal oxides Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals Calcium water, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride... , and chlorinated hydrocarbons Carbon, activated calcium...

  2. Mathematics: Food, Soil, Water, Air, Free Speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russo, Bernard

    this death rate compares to that of hunter-gatherers going after woolly mammoths, but it is not comforting or transplants. Less dramatic, but nevertheless impactful, say in the United States, are "western diet" related another outbreak of food borne disease with some hospitalizations and deaths. This time it is Escherichia

  3. Water Formation in the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bialy, Shmuel; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that high abundances of water vapor could have existed in extremely low metallicity ($10^{-3}$ solar) partially shielded gas, during the epoch of first metal enrichment of the interstellar medium of galaxies at high redshifts.

  4. Understanding the movements of metal whiskers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor G. Karpov

    2015-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. In addition, metal whiskers exhibit a rather unusual dynamic property of relatively high amplitude movements under gentle air flow or, according to some testimonies, without obvious stimuli. Understanding the physics behind that motion would give additional insights into the nature of metal whiskers. Here, we quantitatively analyze several possible mechanisms potentially responsible for the observed movements: (1) minute air currents, (2) Brownian motion due to random bombardments with the air molecules, (3) mechanically caused movements, such as (a) externally transmitted vibrations of the sample, and (b) torque exerted due to material propagation along curved whiskers responsible for the whisker growth (similar to the known garden hose oscillations), (4) time dependent electric fields due to diffusion of ions across the metal surface, and (5) nonequilibrium electric field configurations making it possible for {\\it some} whiskers to move. For all these scenarios we provide numerical estimates. Our conclusion is that the observed movements are likely due to the minor air currents, intentional or ill-controlled, and that external mechanical vibrations could force such movements in a rather harsh environment or/and for whiskers with severe constrictions. We argue that under non-steady state conditions, such as caused by changes in the external light intensity, some whiskers can exercise spontaneous oscillations.

  5. Understanding the movements of metal whiskers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor G. Karpov

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. In addition, metal whiskers exhibit a rather unusual dynamic property of relatively high amplitude movements under gentle air flow or, according to some testimonies, without obvious stimuli. Understanding the physics behind that motion would give additional insights into the nature of metal whiskers. Here, we quantitatively analyze several possible mechanisms potentially responsible for the observed movements: (1) minute air currents, (2) Brownian motion due to random bombardments with the air molecules, (3) mechanically caused movements, such as (a) externally transmitted vibrations of the sample, and (b) torque exerted due to material propagation along curved whiskers responsible for the whisker growth (similar to the known garden hose oscillations), (4) time dependent electric fields due to diffusion of ions across the metal surface, and (5) nonequilibrium electric field configurations making it possible for {\\it some} whiskers to move. For all these scenarios we provide numerical estimates. Our conclusion is that the observed movements are likely due to the minor air currents, intentional or ill-controlled, and that external mechanical vibrations could force such movements in a rather harsh environment or/and for whiskers with severe constrictions. We argue that under non-steady state conditions, such as caused by changes in the external light intensity, some whiskers can exercise spontaneous oscillations.

  6. Understanding the movements of metal whiskers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor G. Karpov

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal whiskers often grow across leads of electric equipment and electronic package causing current leakage or short circuits and raising significant reliability issues. The nature of metal whiskers remains a mystery after several decades of research. In addition, metal whiskers exhibit a rather unusual dynamic property of relatively high amplitude movements under gentle air flow or, according to some testimonies, without obvious stimuli. Understanding the physics behind that motion would give additional insights into the nature of metal whiskers. Here, we quantitatively analyze several possible mechanisms potentially responsible for the observed movements: (1) minute air currents, (2) Brownian motion due to random bombardments with the air molecules, (3) mechanically caused movements, such as (a) externally transmitted vibrations of the sample, and (b) torque exerted due to material propagation along curved whiskers responsible for the whisker growth (similar to the known garden hose oscillations), (4) time dependent electric fields due to diffusion of ions across the metal surface, and (5) nonequilibrium electric field configurations making it possible for {\\it some} whiskers to move. For all these scenarios we provide numerical estimates. Our conclusion is that the observed movements are likely due to the minor air currents, intentional or ill-controlled, and that external mechanical vibrations could force such movements in a rather harsh environment or/and for whiskers with severe constrictions. We argue that under non-steady state conditions, such as caused by changes in the external light intensity, some whiskers can exercise spontaneous oscillations.

  7. alkali metal ion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Pramitha,V 2010-01-01 88 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

  8. alkali metal ions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (more) Pramitha,V 2010-01-01 88 Ab initio prediction of thermodynamics in alkali metal-air batteries . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Electric vehicles ("EVs")...

  9. Waste Heat Recovery in the Metal Working Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMann, F. C.; Thurman, J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE METAL WORKING INDUSTRY Fred C. McMann Jimmy Thurman North American Manufacturing Co. Combustion Services Company Woodlands, Texas Houston, Texas The use of exhaust gas heat exchangers to preheat combustion air...

  10. aqueous single metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with water-soluble salts of heavy metals. The best results were obtained with lanthanum nitrate, uranyl acetate, and lead perchlorate. The molecules appear as filaments...

  11. Arkansas Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title: Vadose-zone losses of soluble heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter

  12. Mathematical Programming techniques in Water Network Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 5, 2014 ... water networks, where the fluid is transported in pipes with no air contact and .... sume only non-positive values, possibly bounded from below.

  13. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  14. A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  15. Reducing Water Use In Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz,J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 The Project Technical, Operational, and Free Air Cooling Technical and Free Air Cooling • Technical: One cooling tower filtration system upgrade costs less than $100,000 to install but promises more than $60,000 in annual... water and sewer savings—paying for itself in less than two years. • Free Air Cooling: A minor $4,000 equipment upgrade to expand free air cooling promises nearly $40,000 in annual savings. ESL-KT-14-11-32 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency...

  16. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  17. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................................... 39 12 Zr6 prepared at 205 ?C with HF as a solubilizing agent ................................ 43 13 Layered structure of Zn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) viewed along the c-axis. The coordinating water molecules are between... acid groups form hydrogen-bonded pairs in in Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O). ..................... 55 15 Inorganic layered structure common to divalent metal phosphonates. Octahedral metal ions are coordinated by five phosphonate...

  18. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  19. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  20. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  1. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  2. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water units and water heaters is developed in [7] using detailed physical models. In all the aforementioned for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water

  3. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  4. Healthy Air Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

  5. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  6. A water soluble antigen unique to Brucella abortus Strain 19: isolation, immunological characterization and use in an enzyme immunoassay for differential diagnosis of vaccinated and Brucella abortus infected cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smithwick, Charles Ripley

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    :7;20:25) for 10 min and allowed to air dry. The gel bed was then divided into separate equal fractions with a metal d fractionating grid and each fraction scooped out and resuspended in 10-12 ml distilled water. The pH of each fraction was measured... and proteins as visualized eluted from appropriate gel fractions with distilled water and stored at -20 C. Ca rine immune sera. Caprine antisera were prepared against a crude water soluble extract of B. abortus Strain 19. Crude extract was lyophilized...

  7. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  8. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  9. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  10. MAD-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

  11. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  12. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  13. Innovative technology summary report: in situ air stripping using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ air stripping (ISAS) technology was developed to remediate soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISAS employs horizontal wells to inject (sparge) air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOCs from vadose zone soils. The innovation is creation of a system that combines two somewhat innovative technologies, air sparging and horizontal wells, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  14. RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR SCRAP METAL: PRELIMINARY COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS Prepared for: Radiation Protection Division Office of Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Prepared from nuclear facilities. Upon their completion, EPA plans to release the preliminary draft regulations

  15. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  16. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  17. Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  19. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  20. METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D.

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

  1. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air energy storage (ICAES) system. The system captures the heat from compression in water and stores the captured heat until it...

  2. adsorption air conditioner: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    establishment of a network of solarair conditioner is an Arkla gas-fired ammonia-water chiller, modified for operation using solar- Dols, C. 2010-01-01 177 Air Pollution Spring...

  3. air conditioning desarrollo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 36 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based...

  4. automobile air conditioners: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1) and the establishment of a network of solarair conditioner is an Arkla gas-fired ammonia-water chiller, modified for operation using solar- Dols, C. 2010-01-01 263 Air...

  5. air pollutants regulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India MIT - DSpace Summary: Using the most...

  6. air pollution regulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India MIT - DSpace Summary: Using the most...

  7. Annual Simulation Results for an Air-Cooled Binary Power Cycle Employing Flash Cooling Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buys, A.; Gladden, C.; Kutscher, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to perform detailed simulation of air cooled cycle with flash supplied cooling water using two types of evaporative enhancement, spray nozzels and evaporative media.

  8. A continuous emissions monitor for metals: Field demonstration of a prototype probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flower, W.; Peng, L.; Woods, C. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories conducted field tests of a prototype continuous emissions monitor for metals at Clemson University, August 5-11, 1994, in cooperation with the joule-melter vitrification project at Clemson and Savannah River. The monitor is based on Laser Spark Spectroscopy, an established laboratory diagnostic technique that has been adapted for monitoring metal emissions from thermal waste treatment facilities. In the field tests described in this report, emissions were measured from a joule melter that was processing a surrogate waste-water treatment sludge from Oak Ridge. Data from this test provides the first insight into how emissions change (in real time) as operating parameters such as waste feed rate are changed. We detected all metals that were present above the estimated minimum detectability limits (in the parts-per-billion range for Clean Air Act metals), in addition to glass-making species such as calcium, boron, and silicon. This report summarizes the Clemson field tests, including design of the prototype probe, preparations leading up to the tests, the tests themselves, and analysis of results.

  9. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  10. Metals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    raw leachate contains concentrations of heavy metals in excess ofthe drinking water standards of the un- saturated zone. If municipal solid waste is placed di- rectly into ground water, or if leachateMetals in Municipal Landfill Leachate And Their Health Effects STEPHEN C. JAMES, BS, MSCE Abstract

  11. Air Resources Laboratory Publications FY 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Atmospheric Transport of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metals, Durham, North Carolina, May 1993. J. CO2 exchange and water use efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 67:291-321 (1994 Report DPG Document No. DPG/JCP-94/012, B. Grim, Project Manager, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway

  12. Air Resources Laboratory Publications FY 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Lindberg. Contributions to Arctic Pollution 2002: Persistent Organic Pollutants, Heavy Metals.Y. Ku, and R. Clark. Boundary layer evolution and its effects on ground-level ozone concentrations to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy

  13. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  14. Emergency Factsheet for Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an alternate water source during the treatment period. Most water treatment equipment (such as water heaters, release the air to allow the tank to be filled with chlorinated water. Drain all hot water heatersEmergency Factsheet for Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination Mark L. McFarland, Associate

  15. Contour forming of metals by laser peening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz (Rocklin, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by generating laser induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts. A light beam of 10 to 100 J/pulse is imaged to create an energy fluence of 60 to 200 J/cm.sup.2 on an absorptive layer applied over a metal surface. A tamping layer of water is flowed over the absorptive layer. The absorption of laser light causes a plasma to form and consequently creates a shock wave that induces a deep residual compressive stress into the metal. The metal responds to this residual stress by bending.

  16. Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards are established pursuant to the provisions of Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Act 472 of the Acts of Arkansas...

  17. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  18. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  19. Air Pollution Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The mission of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management's Office of Air Quality implements federal and state regulations to protect human health and the environment while allowing the...

  20. Air Pollution Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

  1. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  2. Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

  3. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  4. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  5. VOLUME 85, NUMBER 9 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 AUGUST 2000 Turbulence and Wave Breaking Effects on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    rates: turbulent transport when no wave breaking occurs and bubble dominated transport when wave is correlated with measured acoustic emissions, indicating that bubble creation and dynamics dominate air carbon ( 38 000 gigatons) than the atmosphere and 38 times more than the total vegetative carbon

  6. Innovative Water Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted... energy! By evaporating Water! Cooling Towers 43% Boilers 4%Toilets 20% Other Plumbing 8% Food Service 8% Sterilizers 6% Dialysis 3% Leaks 3% Cleaning 3% Other 2% A Large Hospital in Florida Cooling 50% Indoor 40% Irrigation 10...

  7. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Case study details Naval Air Station Oceana findings that its heating needs could be met more efficiently by...

  8. FAPRI-UMC Report #01-07 Estimating Water Quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Carbon Sequestration...................................10 CRP EffectsFAPRI-UMC Report #01-07 Estimating Water Quality, Air Quality, and Soil Carbon Benefits Quality, Air Quality, and Soil Carbon Benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program FAPRI-UMC Report #01

  9. Water for Energy in the Eagle Ford 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water and Hydraulic Fracturing 12/18/2013 CATEE Conference San Antonio, TX Dr. Calvin Finch Texas A&M Water Conservation and Technology Center ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Water Components ?Water for Drilling...

  10. Water for Energy in the Eagle Ford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water and Hydraulic Fracturing 12/18/2013 CATEE Conference San Antonio, TX Dr. Calvin Finch Texas A&M Water Conservation and Technology Center ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-44 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Water Components ?Water for Drilling...

  11. AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

  12. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 SLAC's air emissions are regulated through a federally mandated site-wide permit as well

  13. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  15. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1987-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a model within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. 8 figs.

  16. Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Health Risk Assessment: scale-dependent effects of urban air pollution on mortality M. Valari(1), L;-Pollutants concentrations [c] ·Average outdoors pollution ·Indoors air quality ·Other sources of intoxication (food, water etc.) -Population exposure: [c] x dt -Health data & air pollution health effects Health

  17. Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, Christy

    Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

  18. Compressed Air System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  19. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  20. Microscale Laser Shock Processing (LSP) of Metal Thin Films Wenwu Zhang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    surfaces is the major cause of failure for silicon-based micro-engines, while tungsten-coated polysilicon of these metal microstructures, such as micro- electromechanical actuators, metal gears, and metal switches the confining medium (such as water) onto a metallic surface, which is applied with a sacrificial coating

  1. Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These control strategies mainly involve optimal chiller sequencing control, cooling tower sequencing control, optimal water pressure differential set-point control, AHU supply air static pressure reset control and DCV-based fresh air control, etc. To assess...

  2. ISSN 0378-4738 = Water SA Vol. 27 No. 1 January 2001 71Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za Plant-soil interactions of sludge-borne heavy metals and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.wrc.org.za Plant-soil interactions of sludge-borne heavy metals and the effect on maize (Zea mays L.) seedling 0002, South Africa Abstract The use of sewage sludge as an organic fertiliser under South African interpreted as total metal content is limiting the agricultural use of sludge. A glasshouse experiment, which

  3. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  4. Selection of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of Urban Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejmankova, Eliska; Bayer, David E

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UC Davis KEYWORDS: Wetlands, Water Treatment, Urban Runoff,of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of UrbanValley Wetlands Biomass Response to Heavy Metal Treatment

  5. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapu, M.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States) Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. (Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)); Akanya, H.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Minna (Nigeria)); Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  6. Two-phase ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Two-phase ¯ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells Z.H. Wanga rights reserved. Keywords: Two-phase transport; PEM fuel cells; Analytical modeling; Numerical simulation excessive water, in parti- cular, for the air cathode of direct methanol PEM fuel cells. Modeling water

  7. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  8. air volume air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Preheat Economics Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy...

  9. Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for hazardous air...

  10. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  11. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  14. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  15. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  16. Air Quality (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nova Scotia Environment is responsible for monitoring the air quality in the province, as well as administering fines and permits relating to air quality. The Air Quality Regulations state...

  17. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  18. Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

  19. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC`S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described.

  20. Making Compressed Air System Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    . The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added... specification, selection and installation process will follow. BACKGROUND For more than 100 years compressed air has been used throughout industry as a safe and reliable utility. The generation of this utility is performed by an air compressor. The first...