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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Metal-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Metal-air battery assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Office of Legacy Management Weldon Spring Site Air and Water Monitoring 32008 This fact sheet provides information at Weldon Spring, Missouri. This site is managed by the U.S....

4

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

12/2011 12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air monitoring as of December 31, 2000. Groundwater has been routinely monitored at the site since 1986. Separate groundwater monitoring programs were established for the Chemical Plant and Quarry sites because of geographic separation and differences in the hydrogeologic features that influence

5

Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Trace Metals Determination in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. While effective for this purpose, wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water has proven to be a very difficult matrix to analyze a...

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Air transport of plutonium metal : content expansion initiative for the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging.  

SciTech Connect

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Mann, Paul T. (National Nuclear Security Administration); Caviness, Michael L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Yoshimura, Richard Hiroyuki

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts  

This invention comprises an inexpensive catalyst system for water electrolyzers by replacing the noble-metal catalysts that are typically used in ...

12

Measurements of the Electrical Conductivities of Air over Hot Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the conduction current between two electrodes in air over recently boiled water have been interpreted by Carlon as indicating that the humidified air became highly conductive and that large numbers of ions were produced in the air ...

C. B. Moore; B. Vonnegut

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

High-energy metal air batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are embodiments of lithium/air batteries and methods of making and using the same. Certain embodiments are pouch-cell batteries encased within an oxygen-permeable membrane packaging material that is less than 2% of the total battery weight. Some embodiments include a hybrid air electrode comprising carbon and an ion insertion material, wherein the mass ratio of ion insertion material to carbon is 0.2 to 0.8. The air electrode may include hydrophobic, porous fibers. In particular embodiments, the air electrode is soaked with an electrolyte comprising one or more solvents including dimethyl ether, and the dimethyl ether subsequently is evacuated from the soaked electrode. In other embodiments, the electrolyte comprises 10-20% crown ether by weight.

Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Williford, Ralph E.; Liu, Jun

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing Magnetites A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and

17

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water  

SciTech Connect

Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

Goldman, M. (Camp Dresser McKee, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Performance of an air-cooled ammonia-water absorption air conditioner at low generator temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An ammonia--water absorption air conditioning system has been tested to investigate the stability of operation near the cut-off conditions. Circulation ratios were from 8 to 30. Relations for the estimation of the coefficient of performance and for the prediction of operating temperatures were derived and verified experimentally. Possible operating conditions for an air-cooled ammonia--water air conditioning system were concluded.

Dao, K.; Simmons, M.; Wolgast, R.; Wahlig, M.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

MHK Technologies/Water Air Pump WAP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pump WAP Pump WAP < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Water Air Pump WAP.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Shamil Ayntrazi Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Submerged Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description The Water Air Pump WAP uses a partially submerged funnel shaped air pump to compress air collect it in a piping network and feed it to an air turbine Mooring Configuration Gravity base installed at the sea bed Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 11:50.0 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=MHK_Technologies/Water_Air_Pump_WAP&oldid=681697"

22

Ohio River Basin Trading Project Joint Session: Air, Water, Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) project managers in air, water, and climate programs are working together to address the complex, interrelated issues associated with water and air quality in the United States. This session provided background and told the story of the pilot effort in the Ohio River Basin to develop broad, nontraditional collaborations that will support multi-stakeholder programs for water quality trading, carbon trading, and ecosystem services protection. Through this pilot effo...

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

23

Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida) Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida) Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Program Info State Florida Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Florida Department of Environmental Protection It is the policy of the state of Florida to protect, maintain, and improve the quality of the air and waters of the state. This Act authorizes the Department of Environmental Protection to enact and implement regulations designed to control and abate activities which may contribute to air and

24

Study on Water-Cooled Solar Semiconductor Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-cooled solar semiconductor air conditioner was designed. Relevant calculation was made to determine the room's cooling load, which export the solar panels and battery capacity, followed by selection of CNC matcher. Development work also involves ... Keywords: solar energy, peltier effect, semiconductor air conditioner

Dong Zhi-Ming; Chang Ji-Bin; Xiang Li-Juan; Zhou Xue-Bin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Sounding the Skin of Water: Sensing Air–Water Interface Temperature Gradients with Interferometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence for the radiometric determination of air–water interface temperature gradients is presented. Inherent radiometric characteristics in the water molecule cause variations in the absorption coefficient that allow radiation at near-infrared ...

W. McKeown; F. Bretherton; H. L. Huang; W. L. Smith; H. L. Revercomb

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

News and Update: Sensors Continually Monitor Water and Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Initial Microstructural Analysis of A36 Steel from WTC Building 7 by J.R. Barnett, R.R. ... a system of sensors developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia ... The system is designed to continually monitor water or air, in- situ, so sample ... to develop a program to train water utilities to assess system vulnerabilities.

27

Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery  

SciTech Connect

In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Simulation of water hammer phenomenon in a pumping discharge duct protected by air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air chamber and free air dispersed throughout the water are two efficient means of protection of a discharge duct from water hammer damages. The paper presents the results regarding the extreme pressures in the discharge duct of a pumping installation, ... Keywords: air chamber, dissolution, free air, pumping installation, water hammer

Anca Constantin; Claudiu Stefan Nitescu

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

First-Principles Calculation of the Air–Water Second Virial ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... indus- trial drying, and humid-air turbines for power ... 2. WATER WITH INDIVIDUAL GASES ... Calculating B(T ) for Individual Water–Gas Systems (the ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

31

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Improvement to Air2Air® Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling tower with relatively drier and cooler ambient air. This is done in an air-to-air heat exchanger made up of plastic sheets with two discreet air pathways. As the warm,...

32

Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Simulation model finned water-air-coil withoutcondensation  

SciTech Connect

A simple simulation model of a finned water-to- air coil without condensation is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows eficient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is short computation time and use of input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important for energy efficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculation or load calculation with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short-time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control performance, are neglected. The part load behavior of the coil is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature on the water side and the air side. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part load conditions. Geometrical data for the coil are not required, The calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficients at nominal conditions is based on the ratio of the air side heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the fin eficiency and divided by the water side heat transfer coefficient. In this approach, the only geometrical information required are the cross section areas, which are needed to calculate the~uid velocities. The formulas for estimating this ratio are presented. For simplicity the model ignores condensation. The model is static and uses only explicit equations. The explicit formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability. This allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods such as automatic system optimization. The paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its simplifications. It is not tailored for a particular simulation program to ensure easy implementation in any simulation program.

Wetter, Michael

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Sound speed in liquid–gas mixtures: Water–air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sound speed of a two-phase fluid, such as a magma-gas, water-air, or water-steam mixture, is dramatically different from the sound speed of either pure component. In numerous geologic situations the sound speed of such two-phase systems may be of interest: in the search for magma reservoirs, in seismic exploration of geothermal areas, in prediction of P wave velocity decreases prior to earthquakes, and in inversion of crustal and upper mantle seismic records. Probably most dramatically, fluid flow characteristics during eruptions of volcanoes and geysers are strongly dependent on the sound speed of erupting two-phase (or multiphase) fluids. In this paper the sound speeds of water, air, steam, water-air mixtures, and water-steam mixtures are calculated. It is demonstrated that sound speeds calculated from classical acoustic and fluid dynamics analyses agree with results obtained from finite amplitude 'vaporization wave ' theory. To the extent that air and steam are represented as perfect gases with an adiabatic exponent •, independent of temperature, their sound speeds vary in a simple manner directly with the square root of the absolute temperature. The sound speed of pure liquid water is a complex function of pressure and temperature and is given here to 8 kbar, 900øC. In pure water at all pressures the sound speed attains a maximum value near 100øC and decreases at higher temperatures; at high pressures the decrease is continuous, but at pressures below 1 kbar the sound speed reaches a minimum value in the

Susan Werner Kieffer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use abundance, high- energy content, and large surface area, is able to combine with water to produce hydrogen

Barthelat, Francois

38

On Factors Controlling AirWater Gas Exchange in a Large Tidal River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Estuarine Research Federation 2011 Abstract Air­water gas exchange is an important process in aquatic Introduction In rivers and estuaries, knowledge of air­water gas exchange is important for evaluating how floating domes. The opportunistic gas method relies on gases in the water that either occurred naturally (e

Ho, David

39

High performance metal/air fuel cells. Part 1. General review. [Li, Al, Ca, Cd, Mg  

SciTech Connect

Metal/air fuel cells are reviewed in terms of their potential application in electric vehicles. Attention is focused on those metals (light alkali and alkaline earth metals, and aluminum) which, in combination with oxygen, have theoretical energy densities (2--13 kWh/kg-metal) exceeding that of gasoline (utilized in automobiles at 2--3 kWh/kg). Lithium and aluminum have yielded 8- and 4 kWh/kg, respectively, in laboratory experimental cells. The slurry Zn/air system achieves 0.85 kWh/kg-Zn in prototype vehicle cells and is reviewed for comparison. Calcium can probably yield 1.8 kWh/kg-Ca, but its potential as a fuel has not yet been fully explored. The remaining metals appear to be unsuitable for use in aqueous electrolyte fuel cells. The discharge characteristics of lithium, aluminum, and (possibly) calcium/air cells indicate the potential for electric vehicles of the highway performance and minimum range (300 miles) of subcompact automobiles, rapid refueling for unlimited range extension, and the storage in the fuel cell of sufficient metal for ranges in excess of 1000 miles. Barriers to the concept are the economic necessity of recycling cell reaction products (except in the case of calcium), the expansion or creation of vast metal production industries, and the change-over of existing service station infrastructures to allow electric vehicle servicing. The energy efficiency of a transportation system using aluminum was estimated using data on the current aluminum production industry. The total estimated cost of ownership and operation of an aluminum/air cell was 3.0--3.6 cents/km. The relative rarity of lithium would complicate its use. 6 tables.

Cooper, J. F.

1977-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Inhibition ofPremixed Methane-Air Flames by Water Mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuss, SP, Dye, DJ, Williams, BA, and Fleming, JW, "Inhibition of Premixed Methane-Air Flames by Water Mist," Proceedings of the Fall Technical ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A Sensitivity Study of a Theoretical Model Of SO2 Scavenging by Water Drops in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate at which SO2 is removed from air by a water drop has been investigated by solving numerically the convective diffusion equation for SO2 diffusing through air into a water drop where the species SO2·H2O, HSO3?, SO3? and SO4? were assumed ...

L. B. Baboolal; H. R. Pruppacher; J. H. Topalian

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Addition of inexpensive solar air-heaters to a pre-engineered metal building. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Mississippi State University a research project was begun in 1976 to investigate the use of site-built solar collectors for heating air in poultry houses. The purpose of this work was to design and test a functional air heater solar collector which would be inexpensive to construct and acceptable to poultry producers. The results reported are an extension of the original concept. The basic concept is to use a pre-engineered metal building for the structure and incorporate the solar air heaters as an integral part of the south facing wall of the building. The outer skin of the building is used as the absorber plate for the collctors. Construction and testing of the solar collectors and heat storage systems are discussed, and the performance characteristics of the site-built solar collectors are described. (WHK)

Forbes, R E; McClendon, R W

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis of coordinative optimization control for variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow to obtain better power savings is put forward. According to typical meteorological year data, hourly air conditioning load of whole year for every typical room has been calculated with the transmission function method. In order to guarantee each typical room, the highest cooling load rate is used as an input parameter for optimization calculation. Based on the surface cooler check model, the smallest energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization chilled water temperature and chilled water flow were carried out. The case study for a commercial building in Guangzhou showed that the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is lower by 17% only with employment of variable water flow regulation by pump frequency conversion. In the case of optimization control with coordinative control of variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow, the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is reduced by 22% in presence of remarkable power saving effects. Increasing the chilled water temperature will reduce the dehumidified capability of the air cooler, and the indoor relative humidity will increase. The simulation showed that the adjustment optimized process meets the comfort of each typical room. The lower the cooling load rate is, the more obvious the effect of power-saving is. The highest power-saving rate appears in December, which is 36.7%. Meanwhile, the least rate appears in July, which is only 14.5%.

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis of Air- Analysis of Air- Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Jeffrey Munk Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Acknowledgements * Tennessee Valley Authority - David Dinse * U.S. Department of Energy * Roderick Jackson * Tony Gehl * Philip Boudreaux * ZEBRAlliance 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable Speed Heat Pumps - Energy Use Analysis - Measured Performance - Operational Characteristics 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Water Heating Options

50

Numerical simulation of hydraulic shock in a water pumping system protected by air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air may be efficiently used in water pumping system protection from hydraulic shock, due to its elasticity. The paper presents the results regarding the extreme pressures in the discharge duct of a pumping installation, obtained by numerical simulation ... Keywords: air chamber, biphasic flow, dissolution, hydraulic shock, pumping installation

Anca Constantin; Claudiu Stefan Nitescu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Applicability of AIRS Monthly Mean Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiles over the Tibetan Plateau Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research explores the applicability of the gridded (level 3) monthly tropospheric water vapor (version 5) retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on board the NASA Aqua ...

Yuwei Zhang; Donghai Wang; Panmao Zhai; Guojun Gu

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Drinking Water as a Source of Indoor Air Pollution: In-Home Formation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drinking Water as a Source of Indoor Air Pollution: In-Home Formation & Cross-Media Transfer Speaker(s): David Olson Date: April 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host...

54

Heat transfer and condensation of water vapour from humid air in compact heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, an experimental and simulation study of heat transfer in water-to-air compact-plate heat exchanger is presented. A compact-plate heat exchanger made of polypropylene,… (more)

Saraireh, Mohammad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

SciTech Connect

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

The behavior of NaOH at the air-water interface, a computational study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations with a polarizable multi-state empirical valence bond model were carried out to investigate NaOH dissociation and pairing in water bulk and at the air-water interface. It was found that NaOH readily dissociates in the bulk, and the effect of the air-water interface on NaOH dissociation is fairly minor. Also, NaOH complexes were found to be strongly repelled from the air-water interface, which is consistent with surface tension measurements. At the same time, a very strong preference for the hydroxide anion to be oriented towards the air was found that persisted a few angstroms towards the liquid from the Gibbs dividing surface of the air-water interface. This was due to a preference for the hydroxide anion to have its hydrogen pointing towards the air, and the fact that the sodium ion was more likely to be found near the hydroxide oxygen than hydrogen. As a consequence, the simulation results show that surfaces of NaOH solutions should be negatively charged, in agreement with experimental observations, but also that the hydroxide has little surface affinity. This provides the possibility that the surface of water can be devoid of hydroxide anions, but still have a strong negative charge. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

59

X-ray Microtomography Determination of Air?Water Interfacial Area?Water Saturation Relationships in Sandy Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, total smooth air-water interfacial areas were measured for a series of nine natural and model sandy porous media as a function of water saturation using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Interfacial areas decreased linearly with water saturation, while the estimated maximum interfacial area compared favorably to the media geometric surface areas. Importantly, relative interfacial area (i.e., normalized by geometric surface area) versus water saturation plots for all media collapsed into a single linear cluster (r{sup 2} = 0.93), suggesting that geometric surface area is an important, and perhaps sufficient, descriptor of sandy media that governs total smooth interfacial area?water saturation relationships. Measured relationships were used to develop an empirical model for estimating interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. Model-based interfacial area estimates for independent media were generally slightly higher than interfacial areas measured using aqueous-phase interfacial tracer methods, which may indicate that microtomography captures regions of the air-water interface that are not accessible to aqueous-phase interfacial tracers. The empirical model presented here requires only average particle diameter and porosity as input parameters and can be used to readily estimate air-water interfacial area?water saturation relationships for sandy porous media.

Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Harrold, Katherine H.; Lieb-Lappen, Ross M. (Middlebury)

2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

60

Treatment of Oilfield Produced Water with Dissolved Air Flotation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Produced water is one of the major by products of oil and gas exploitation which is produced in large amounts up to 80% of the… (more)

Jaji, Kehinde Temitope

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description The technical approaches are: -UTRC shall develop a lab-based analysis of hybrid-water/air-cooled condensers with minimal water consumption, focusing on combined mist evaporative pre-cooling and mist deluge evaporative cooling technology applied to microchannel heat exchangers. Models to predict evaporative cooling performance will be validated by sub-scale testing. The predicted performance will be compared to that of state-of-the-art commercial evaporative coolers. -UTRC shall analyze the interaction of turbine design and cooling needs and specifically address how an enhanced turbine, which features variable nozzles and diffuser boundary layer suction, would further improve the ORC system performance and enable full utilization of the hybrid-cooled system. UTRC shall design, procure and test the enhanced turbine in an existing 200 kW geothermal ORC system for a technology demonstration. -UTRC shall complete a detailed design of the hybrid-cooled geothermal ORC system with an enhanced turbine that complies with its performance, cost, and quality requirements, and use this system design to prescribe subsystem/component technology requirements and interfaces. UTRC shall optimize UTC's PureCycle® geothermal ORC system integrated with a hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser and an enhanced turbine for net power output, efficiency and water consumption. -UTRC shall analyze the feasibility of addressing pure water supply for hybrid-water/aircooled condenser by using geothermal-driven Liquid-Gap-Membrane-Distillation (LGMD) technology, as an alternative to conventional Reverse Osmosis/De-Ionized treatment.

62

Metal Ferrite Spinels for Solar-thermal Water Splitting REDOX Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Metal Ferrite Spinels for Solar-thermal Water Splitting REDOX Cycles. Author(s), Alan Weimer. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Alan Weimer.

63

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

64

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

65

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses VII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a ...

66

CO2/oxalate Cathodes as Safe and Efficient Alternatives in High Energy Density Metal-Air Type Rechargeable Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present theoretical analysis on why and how rechargeable metal-air type batteries can be made significantly safer and more practical by utilizing CO2/oxalate conversions instead of O2/peroxide or O2/hydroxide ones, in the positive electrode. Metal-air batteries, such as the Li-air one, may have very large energy densities, comparable to that of gasoline, theoretically allowing for long range all-electric vehicles. There are, however, still significant challenges, especially related to the safety of their underlying chemistries, the robustness of their recharging and the need of supplying high purity O2 from air to the battery. We point out that the CO2/oxalate reversible electrochemical conversion is a viable alternative of the O2-based ones, allowing for similarly high energy density and almost identical voltage, while being much safer through the elimination of aggressive oxidant peroxides and the use of thermally stable, non-oxidative and environmentally benign oxalates instead.

Nemeth, Karoly

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Water coning in porous media reservoirs for compressed air energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general purpose of this work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. This research will assist in providing design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. This report presents the analysis and results for the two-phase (air-water), two-dimensional, numerical modeling of CAES porous media reservoirs. The effects of capillary pressure and relative permeability were included. The fluids were considered to be immisicible; there was no phase change; and the system was isothermal. The specific purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the reservoir parameters that were believed to be important to water coning. This phenomenon may occur in reservoirs in which water underlies the air storage zone. It involves the possible intrusion of water into the wellbore or near-wellbore region. The water movement is in response to pressure gradients created during a reservoir discharge cycle. Potential adverse effects due to this water movement are associated with the pressure response of the reservoir and the geochemical stability of the near-wellbore region. The results obtained for the simulated operation of a CAES reservoir suggest that water coning should not be a severe problem, due to the slow response of the water to the pressure gradients and the relatively short duration in which those gradients exist. However, water coning will depend on site-specific conditions, particularly the fluid distributions following bubble development, and, therefore, a water coning analysis should be included as part of site evaluation.

Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Metals in Ulva lactuca in Hong Kong intertidal waters  

SciTech Connect

The levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Ulva lactuca collected from 24 intertidal sites around the Island of Hong Kong were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twelve of the sites are in the rural southern parts of the island where the coastal waters are relatively clean. The remaining 12 sites are located in the north and within Victoria Harbor which receives, apart from industrial effluents, untreated domestic sewage from a population of some 3.5 million. The mean levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Ulva from the urban sites were respectively 4.0, 4.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.4, and 4.6 times those from the rural sites. However, somewhat similar levels of Cd were found in the alga among all the sites. Some locations of high levels of metal contamination have been identified in Victoria Harbor. Preliminary findings indicated that Ulva is a good indicator of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contamination due to its cosmopolitan distribution, simple morphology leading to ease of growth assessment, and its graded tolerance and response to pollutants. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, Y.B. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a significant concentration factor with this sample. For the two samples where CGA flotation was effective, the separation was very rapid and the concentrate volume was reduced when compared to gravity separation under similar conditions. Effective separations were achieved with very low chemical dosages and low residence times, suggesting the possibility of economic viability for processes based on this concept. The CGA flotation experiments described in the following report were conducted to provide preliminary data with which to assess the technical feasibility of using the method for remediation of metals-contaminated mine drainage waters. The experiments were conducted using common, low-cost, precipitating reagents and CGA prepared from several surfactants. Results were evaluated in terms of metals concentration reduction, reagent consumption, and concentrate volume. The results of these preliminary experiments indicate that CGA flotation may be a useful tool for the treatment of some types of mine drainage.

R. Williams Grimes

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells  

SciTech Connect

A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA); Smith, David F. (Boulder Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

72

Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple GPUs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple Compounds A Large-scale Simulation on CFD in Construction Industry Estimation of strong ground motion and manufacturing of plumbing products such as ceramic sanitary wares. In order to re-produce the complex

74

Office of Air, Water and Radiation Protection Policy and GuidanceAcknowledgements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This summary report has been prepared by the DOE Office of Air, Water and Radiation Protection Policy and Guidance (EH-41). The core EH-41 team effort was led by Mr. Ross Natoli with extensive technical assistance from Mr. Paul Lin and Mr. Leroy Banicki. Messrs. James Bachmaier and Stephen Domotor, EH-41, assisted in the development of Groundwater

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer-generated turbulence in a shallow tidal sea, Nature, 400, 251­254. Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole (2001), Gas exchangeEnvironmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

Ho, David

76

Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water ...  

Clean and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels; Can be used with sea water and other abundant, untreated water sources; Applications and Industries.

78

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more efficiently than with the air-cooled (AC) condensers. This fact was behind the idea of a field study conducted in one of the major hospital in Kuwait during a summer season to investigate the performance of WC and AC systems in terms of peak power and energy consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less than that of the AC system, respectively. The maximum reduction in the power demand coincided with the peak power demand period of the utilities i.e. between 14:00 and 17:00 hr, thereby offering a maximum advantage of peak power saving.

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

STUDIES OF METAL-WATER REACTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. III. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE ZIRCONIUM-WATER REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Further studies of the Zr-water reaction by the condenser-discharge method are reported. The reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30- and 60-mil wires in water from room temperature to 315 deg C (1500-psi vapor pressure). Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reactions. This was explained in terms of a 2-step reaction scheme in which the reaction rate is initially controlled by the rate of gaseous diffusion of water vapor toward the hot metal particles and of hydrogen, generated by reaction, away from the particles. At a later time, the reaction becomes controlled by the parabolic rate law, resulting in rapid cooling of the particles. A mathematical model of the reaction of molten metal spheres with water was proposed. Explosive reactions were found to occur with particles smaller than about 1 mm in heated water and 0.5 mm in room-temperature water. The explosive reactions were caused by the ability of the evolving H/sub 2/ to propel the particles through water at high speed. The high-speed motion was detected on motion picture film and had the effect of removing the gaseous diffusion barrier (increasing the Nusselt number), resulting in very rapid reaction. Computed results compared favorably with experimental results obtained by the condenser- discharge experiment and with the results of previous investigators. Computations indicated that the extent and rate of reaction depended on the particle diameter and the water temperature, and were relatively independent of the metal temperature so long as the metal was fully melted. This makes it possible to estimate the extent of Zr-water reaction that would occur during a reactor accident in which the particle sizes of the residue could be estimated. Comparisons were made with the results of meltdown experiments in TREAT, and applications to reactor hazards analysis were discussed. (auth)

Baker, L. Jr.; Just, L.C.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is considerable across the full set of threat contaminants, so preliminary indicators were developed from other well-documented benchmarks to serve as a starting point for validation efforts. By this approach, at least preliminary context is available for water or air, and sometimes both, for all chemicals on the NHSRC list that was provided for this evaluation. This means that a number of concentrations presented in this report represent indirect measures derived from related benchmarks or surrogate chemicals, as described within the many results tables provided in this report.

MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

82

A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Bibliography of work on the heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air: Update Number 1 to June, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is an update of a bibliography, published in May, 1994, of research performed on the photocatalytic oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds in air or water and on the photocatalytic reduction of metal-containing ions in water. The general focus of the research is on removing hazardous contaminants from air water to meet environmental or health regulations. The processes covered are based on the application of heterogeneous photocatalysts. The current state-of-the-art in catalysts are forms of titanium dioxide or modifications of titanium dioxide, but work on other heterogeneous catalysts is also included in this compilation. This update contains 574 references, most published between January, 1993 and June, 1995, but some references are from earlier work that were not included in the previous report. A new section has been added which gives information about companies that are active in providing products based on photocatalytic processes or that can provide pilot, demonstration, or commercial-scale water- or air-treatment systems. Key words, assigned by the author of this report, have been included with the citations in the listing of the bibliography.

Blake, D.M.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

Blake, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Air entrainment in transient flows in closed water pipes: a two-layer approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we first construct a model for transient free surface flows that takes into account the air entrainment by a sytem of 4 partial differential equations. We derive it by taking averaged values of gas and fluid velocities on the cross surface flow in the Euler equations (incompressible for the fluid and compressible for the gas). Then, we propose a mathematical kinetic interpretation of this system to finally construct a well-balanced kinetic scheme having the properties of conserving the still water steady state and possesing an energy. Finally, numerical tests on closed uniforms water pipes are performed and discussed.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stéphane

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water  

SciTech Connect

The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process  

SciTech Connect

The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process  

SciTech Connect

The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Magnetic Process For Removing Heavy Metals From Water Employing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix...

91

Lithium--water--air battery project: progress during the months of May--July  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The abstract is included of a published report which outlines the potential role of metal/air fuel cells in automotive transportation. The energy and dolar cost of metal/air fuel cell systems is estimated, with emphasis given to the energy and dollar cost of aluminum production. Only aluminum, lithium, and (possibly) calcium are capable of providing the power for a full-performance electric vehicle, while aluminum is most favorable from the standpoint of economics. The electrochemistry of the calcium electrode appears to be similar to that of lithium, although the use of an aggressive anion (chloride) is necessary to prevent rapid passivation of the anode. Faradaic efficiencies were found to approach 100 percent close to the diffusion-limited dissolution conditions, as in the case of lithium. However, electrode polarizations of about 1.5 V under such conditions would produce an energy efficiency of discharge of about 40 percent. The two-stage electrolysis process, proposed for the efficient production of lithium, was subjected to further experimental verification. Faradaic efficiencies exceeding 95 percent were obtained for the formation of Li(Hg) from aqueous LiOH at temperatures up to 56/sup 0/C at 75 mA/cm/sup 2/. Concentrations of Li in Hg were obtained which exceeded the liquidus solubility limit by a factor of four without serious loss of efficiency. The solubility of mercury in the candidate fused salt was determined and found to be acceptably low: 250 ppM. 5 figures, 3 tables.

Cooper, J.F.; Hosmer, P.K.; Krikorian, O.

1977-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

92

Water Mass Transformations in the Southern Ocean Diagnosed from Observations: Contrasting Effects of Air–Sea Fluxes and Diapycnal Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transformation and formation rates of water masses in the Southern Ocean are estimated in a neutral-surface framework using air–sea fluxes of heat and freshwater together with in situ estimates of diapycnal mixing. The air–sea fluxes are taken ...

Gualtiero Badin; Richard G. Williams; Zhao Jing; Lixin Wu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed a b s t r a c t Laminar flame speeds of premixed syngas/air mixtures were measured at various fuel

Qiao, Li

94

Evolution of Water Vapor Concentrations and Stratospheric Age of Air in Coupled Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric water vapor concentrations and age of air are investigated in an ensemble of coupled chemistry-climate model simulations covering the period from 1960 to 2005. Observed greenhouse gas concentrations, halogen concentrations, aerosol ...

John Austin; John Wilson; Feng Li; Holger Vömel

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid water in low sloped roofs almost always causes problems. Roofs are designed only to control the migration of vapor, if at all. Small amounts of water leakage/penetration, may cause mold growth or catastrophic corrosion in current roofs systems. In a recent paper by the authors the effect of exterior surface emissive and absorptive properties was found to have a significant effect on the moisture performance of a roof that had a leak. Depending on the surface characteristics, roof systems can be designed to effectively manage water penetration, but at an energy cost. In the roofs system examined previously, air leakage was not included. In the present study, the authors reinvestigated the effect of water penetration and the influence of air leakage on the hygrothermal performance of a few selected roofs. The drying potential of a groove ventilated roof is examined. The performance concept is based on the fact that warming up of air in the groove increases it's ability to transport moisture to the outside. Solar radiation raises the temperature of air in the grooves and on average, during a sunny summer day 0.5 L of water can be ventilated out of the roof per 1m width of the roof. In this paper, one climatic condition was investigated; a hot and humid Climate representative of Houston, TX. The specific questions that the paper addresses are: What are the vapor and liquid control dynamic involved in the moisture migration of a roof in Houston TX? and how does airflow influence the performance of a roof that is initially wet ? A state-of-the-art numerical model was used to address these issues. Results showed that the drying potential depends on the ventilation rates. The roof system with ventilation grooves dried out faster from the initially wet stage than the roof without the ventilation grooves. The total increase in heat loss of the roof was found to be between 0 - 5 % depending on the thickness of the insulation. The ventilation can cool down the temperature of the roof in the middle of a hot and sunny day thus reducing the heat load to the inside.

Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Metal ions in water and sediments of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature, salinity, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the surface water of the Pom-Atasta Lagoon at 15 stations during 5 sampling events from September 1996--May 1997. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ag, Fe, Co, and Ba were also determined in the water and sediments at 15 stations during the study period. The values of salinity, turbidity, and TSS were related to the inputs of river water into the lagoon. Metals in the water and sediments showed no spatial variation. Seasonality in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, and Ba in the water was found and may be related to the resuspension of sediments in the lagoon. The concentrations of metals in sediments did not give significant seasonal variation. Metals in sediments were not correlated with the iron, suggesting an anthropogenic source of metals in the Pom-Atasta Lagoon. The concentrations of dissolved Pb were above the value recommended by the National Water Commission of Mexico.

Vazquez, G.F.; Enciso, G.; Morales, J.W. [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia] [UNAM, Distrito Federal (Mexico). Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnologia; Sharma, V.K. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nischt, S.L.; Domingo, G.L. [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)] [PEMEX, Campeche (Mexico)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality  

SciTech Connect

From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Metal-fueled HWR (heavy water reactors) severe accident issues: Differences and similarities to commercial LWRs (light water reactors)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Differences and similarities in severe accident progression and phenomena between commercial Light Water Reactors (LWR) and metal-fueled isotopic production Heavy Water Reactors (HWR) are described. It is very important to distinguish between accident progression in the two systems because each reactor type behaves in a unique manner to a fuel melting accident. Some of the lessons learned as a result of the extensive commercial severe accident research are not applicable to metal-fueled heavy water reactors. A direct application of severe accident phenomena developed from oxide-fueled LWRs to metal-fueled HWRs may lead to large errors or substantial uncertainties. In general, the application of severe accident LWR concepts to HWRs should be done with the intent to define the relevant issues, define differences, and determine areas of overlap. This paper describes the relevant differences between LWR and metal-fueled HWR severe accident phenomena. Also included in the paper is a description of the phenomena that govern the source term in HWRs, the areas where research is needed to resolve major uncertainties, and areas in which LWR technology can be directly applied with few modifications.

Ellison, P.G.; Hyder, M.L.; Monson, P.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Coryell, E.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Federal Guidance No. 12: External Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water, and Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

402-R-93-081 402-R-93-081 FEDERAL GUIDANCE REPORT NO. 12 EXTERNAL EXPOSURE TO RADIONUCLIDES IN AIR, WATER, AND SOIL Keith F. Eckerman and Jeffrey C. Ryman September 1993 ERRATUM p. 218 Table C.2. Scaled External Bremsstrahlung from Electrons for Water For T = 1000.0 and k/T = 0.10, the table entry .0223 should read 1.0223. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its associated coil and valve stem position. Thus, the non-intrusive virtual flow meter introduced in this paper provides a solution to one of the measurement barriers and challenges: a low cost, reliable energy metering system at the AHU level. Mathematical models were built and the preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the virtual flow meter applications. As a result, the valve flow meter can be a cost effective means for water flow measurements at the AHU and thus provides an effective index for detecting and diagnosing the AHU operation faults.

Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Trace metal contamination of waters, sediments, and organisms of the Swan Lake area of Galveston Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Swan Lake is a sub-bay of the Galveston Bay system. The area received runoff from a tin smelter via the Wah Chang Ditch which ran through it in the past but the ditch is now cut off by a hurricane protection levee. An industrial waste disposal facility (Gulf Coast Waste Disposal Authority) is located north of the Wah Chang Ditch. Consequently there have been concerns about possible metal contamination in this area. I determined trace metal concentrations in water, sediments, and organisms (oyster, mussel, snail, crab, fish, shrimp, and spartina) in the area. Sediments and organisms were analyzed for total Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, and Zn. Water samples were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Sn. The variabilities and geographic trends in sediment trace metals indicated that waste disposal and airborne inputs from facilities located at the Tex Tin site were likely sources for metal pollution found in the sediments. Sediments in the study area showed elevated trace metals relative to Galveston Bay and other Texas bay sediments. Three different samplings of the Wah Chang Ditch showed no temporal patterns in metal distribution in the sediments. Lead especially was uniformly high on the three different trips, respectively averaging 1250 (Trip 1), 893 (Trip H), and 1350 ppm (Trip V). Metal enrichments at depth in the sediment column indicated that the Swan Lake area has recently received less input of metal contaminated sediment than in the past. Anthropogenic inputs did not greatly influence the natural concentrations of Fe, Al, and Ni in sediments either in the past or at present. Most organisms showed very small spatial variations. However, the oysters in Swan Lake are enriched in most metals relative to Galveston Bay and other U. S. Gulf of Mexico oysters. The mussels in this study do not reflect the unusually elevated environmental metal concentration in the sediments from which they were taken. Iron and Pb concentrations in oysters seemed to be directly related to sediment concentrations at each location. Oysters show higher concentrations in most metals than those in mussels. The Zn level was II 3 times higher in oysters. For organisms collected from the Swan Lake area trace metal concentrations were generally in the order oysters > snail > crab > shrimp > fish. Metal concentrations in Wah Chang Ditch water were very elevated relative to those of the Brazos River and Galveston Bay and closely reflect those in sediments of the Wah Chang Ditch.

Park, Junesoo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Electrocatalytic Activity Studies of Select Metal Surfaces and Implications in Li-Air Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have the potential to provide ?3 times higher specific energy of fully packaged batteries than conventional lithium rechargeable batteries. However, very little is known about the oxygen ...

Gasteiger, Hubert A.

104

Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Knoll, R.W. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Madison, WI (USA))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Time-dependent response of a charcoal bed to radon and water vapor in flowing air  

SciTech Connect

Extremely high airborne concentrations of radon gas may be encountered during the remediation of uranium mill tailings storage facilities. Radon is also a constituent of the off-gas of mill-tailing vitrification. An effective way to remove radon from either gas is to pass the gas through a packed bed containing activated charcoal. Measurements of radon concentrations in the environment using charcoal canisters were first described by George. Canisters similar to those used by George in his first experiments have become the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) standard for measuring environmental radon and were described in the EPA protocol for environmental radon measurement. The dynamic behavior of EPA charcoal canisters has been previously described with a mathematical model for the kinetics of radon gas adsorption in air in the presence of water vapor. This model for charcoal canisters has been extended to large charcoal beds with flowing air containing radon and water vapor. The mathematical model for large charcoal beds can be used to evaluate proposed bed designs or to model existing beds. Parameters that affect the radon distribution within a charcoal bed that can be studied using the mathematical model include carrier gas relative humidity and flow velocity, and input radon concentration. In addition, the relative performances of several different charcoals can be studied, provided sufficient information about their adsorption, desorption, and diffusion constants is known.

Henkel, J.A.; Fentiman, A.W.; Blue, T.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Water-hydroxyl phases on an open metal surface: breaking the ice rules Matthew Forster,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water-hydroxyl phases on an open metal surface: breaking the ice rules Matthew Forster,a Rasmita hexagonal c(2 Ã? 2) 2H2O:1OH network. None of these phases obey the conventional `ice rules', instead catalyzed redox reactions, yet establishing the phase diagram for water/hydroxyl adsorption on metal

Alavi, Ali

108

Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve  

SciTech Connect

A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Trace metal speciation in saline waters affected by geothermal brines. Final technical report. [GEOCHEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The computer program GEOCHEM was developed and applied to calculate the speciation of trace elements, such as Li, B, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As, in mixtures of geothermal brines with soil waters. A typical speciation calculation involved the simultaneous consideration of about 350 inorganic and organic complexes and about 80 possible solid phases that could form among the macro- and microconstituents in the mixtures. The four geothermal brines chosen for study were from the East Mesa, Heber, and Salton Sea KGRA's. Two examples of East Mesa brine were employed in order to illustrate the effect of brine variability within a given KGRA. The soil waters chosen for study were the Holtville, Rosita, and Vint soil solutions and the Vail 4 drain water. These waters were mixed with the four brines to produce 1%, 5%, and 10% brine combinations. The combinations then were analyzed with the help of GEOCHEM and were interpreted in the context of two proposed general contamination scenarios. The results of the speciation calculations pointed to the great importance, in brine, of sulfide as a precipitating agent for trace metals and of borate as a trace metal-complexing ligand. In general, precipitation and/or exchange adsorption in soil were found to reduce the levels of trace metals well below harmful concentrations. The principal exceptions were Li and B, which did not precipitate and which were at or very hear harmful levels in the soil water-brine mixtures.

Sposito, G.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Electrochemical Surface Potential Due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the driving forces for ion adsorption to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and a term that is of the form of a negative electrochemical surface potential. We carefully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory. Our research suggests that the electrochemical surface potential due to point charge models provides anions with a significant driving force to the air-water interface. This is contrary to the results of ab initio simulations that indicate that the average electrostatic surface potential should favor the desorption of anions at the air-water interface. The results have profound implications for the studies of ionic distributions in the vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces and proteins.

Marcel D. Baer; Abraham C. Stern; Yan Levin; Douglas J. Tobias; Christopher J. Mundy

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

Not Available

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.

Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor. By means of testing data analysis, it is indicated that several problems such as unsuitable operation schedule of the chiller, low COP, irrational matching of pump and motor, unbalanced conditions of chilled water flow, and low working stability and efficiency ratio of the pump are existent. The paper presents suggestions for improvement with relevance based on the induction and analysis of system fault found in measurements.

Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

Merrymon, T.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14; Alternate Water Sources (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #14 Case Study: Overview of the air handler condensate recovery program at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division.

Not Available

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

(Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife  

SciTech Connect

This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Microwave plasma source operating with atmospheric pressure air-water mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall performance of a surface wave driven air-water plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure and 2.45 GHz has been analyzed. A 1D model previously developed has been improved in order to describe in detail the creation and loss processes of active species of interest. This model provides a complete characterization of the axial structure of the source, including the discharge and the afterglow zones. The main electron creation channel was found to be the associative ionization process N + O {yields} NO{sup +}+ e. The NO(X) relative density in the afterglow plasma jet ranges from 1.2% to 1.6% depending on power and water percentage, according to the model predictions and the measurements. Other types of species such as NO{sub 2} and nitrous acid HNO{sub 2} have also been detected by mass and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The relative population density of O({sup 3}P) ground state atoms increases from 8% to 10% in the discharge zone when the input microwave power increases from 200 to 400 W and the water percentage from 1% to 10%. Furthermore, high densities of O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) singlet delta oxygen molecules and OH radicals (1% and 5%, respectively) can be achieved in the discharge zone. In the late afterglow the O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) density is about 0.1% of the total density. This plasma source has a flexible operation and potential for channeling the energy in ways that maximize the density of active species of interest.

Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J. P.; Felizardo, E.; Lino da Silva, M.; Ferreira, C. M. [Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Gordiets, B. [Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Heterogeneous reactivity effects in medium- and high-enriched uranium metal-water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of heterogeneity on reactivity of low-, medium-, and high-enriched, water-moderated uranium metal systems has been examined for various hydrogen-to-fissile (H/X) ratios using the CSAS1X sequence in SCALE and MCNP. For the calculations, an infinite array of close-packed unit cells was modeled which consisted of centered uranium metal spheres surrounded by water. The enrichments used correspond to the average enrichments of fragmented fuel plates in three proposed waste shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis performed to obtain peak reactivity for each enrichment as a function of particle size and H/X ratio led to the development of the topic discussed in this paper.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Using Transformation and Formation Maps to Study the Role of Air–Sea Heat Fluxes in North Atlantic Eighteen Degree Water Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Walin water mass framework quantifies the rate at which water is transformed from one temperature class to another by air–sea heat fluxes (transformation). The divergence of the transformation rate yields the rate at which a given temperature ...

Guillaume Maze; Gael Forget; Martha Buckley; John Marshall; Ivana Cerovecki

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Water Mass Analysis of Effect of Climate Change on Air–Sea CO2 Fluxes: The Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impacts of climate change on air–sea CO2 exchange are strongly region dependent, particularly in the Southern Ocean. Yet, in the Southern Ocean the role of water masses in the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is still debated. Here, a methodology is ...

Roland Séférian; Daniele Iudicone; Laurent Bopp; Tilla Roy; Gurvan Madec

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

First-Order Structure Function Analysis of Statistical Scale Invariance in the AIRS-Observed Water Vapor Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power-law scale dependence, or scaling, of first-order structure functions of the tropospheric water vapor field between 58°S and 58°N is investigated using observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Power-law scale dependence ...

Kyle G. Pressel; William D. Collins

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

STUDIES OF METAL-WATER REACTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES: I. THE CONDENSER DISCHARGE EXPERIMENT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH ZIRCONIUM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The condenser-discharge method of conducting molten metal- water reactions at high temperatures was refined. Two methods to measure energy input to specimen wires and, therefore, to compute initial metal temperatures were developed. Calculated metal temperatures were estimated to be accurate to within 100 deg C. Two reaction cells were designed, one for operation at atmospheric pressure with water at room temperature, and the other for operation at high pressure and with water at elevated temperature. Means were developed to determine the surface area of metal exposed to reaction and to determine the total extent of reaction. Pressure transducers were used to record the rate of reactions. The zirconium- water reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30 and 60-mil wires in room-temperature water. Initial pressures in these runs were the vapor pressures of water at room temperature (20-30 mm). Runs were made with 60-mil wires in water heated to 200 deg C (225 psi). Results in room-temperature water indicated that the reaction became explosive at an initial metal temperature of 2600 deg C. Below this temperature, 20% or less reaction occurred. At higher water temperatures, reaction ranged from 40 to 70%. Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reaction, reaching 50% for fully melted metal at the melting point (1840 deg C). Results suggested that the rates of both solid-state processes and the diffusion of water vapor through the hydrogen blanket surrounding reacting particles must be considered. (auth)

Baker, L. Jr.; Warchal, R.L.; Vogel, R.C.; Kilpatrick, M.

1961-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of air-water, {Theta}{sub wa}, or air-liquid contact angles is customary in surface science, while oil-water contact angles {Theta}{sub ow}, are of paramount importance in subsurface multiphase flow phenomena including petroleum reocovery, nonaqueous phase liquid fate and transport, and geological carbon sequestration. In this paper we determine both the air-water and oil-water contact angles of silica surfaces modified with a diverse selection of silanes, using hexadecane as the oil. The silanes included alkylsilanes, alkylarylsilanes, and silanes with alkyl or aryl groups that are functionalized with heteroatoms such as N, O, and S. These silanes yielded surfaces with wettabilities from water-wet to oil wet, including specific silanized surfaces functionalized with heteroatoms that yield intermediate wet surfaces. The oil-water contact angles for clean and silanized surfaces, excluding one partially fluorinated surface, correlate linearly with air-water contact angles with a slope of 1.41 (R = 0.981, n = 13). These data were used to examine a previously untested theoretical treatment relating air-water and oil-water contact angles in terms of fluid interfacial energies. Plotting the cosines of these contact angles against one another, we obtain a linear relationship in excellent agreement with the theoretical treatment; the data fit cos {Theta}{sub ow} = 0.667 cos {Theta}{sub ow} + 0.384 (R = 0.981, n = 13), intercepting cos {Theta}{sub ow} = -1 at -0.284. The theoretical slope, based on the fluid interfacial tensions {Theta}{sub wa}, {Theta}{sub ow}, and {Theta}{sub oa}, is 0.67. We also demonstrate how silanes can be used to alter the wettability of the interior of a pore network micromodel device constructed in silicon/silica with a glass cover plate. Such micromodels are used to study multiphase flow phenomena. The contact angle of the resulting interior was determined in situ. An intermediate wet micromodel gave a contact angle in excellent agreement with that obtained on an open planar silica surface using the same silane.

Grate, Jay W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes  

SciTech Connect

Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an average of 6.2% per year, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS) system is one of the available techniques that can be utilized to reduce peak electricity demand of buildings when national electricity consumption is at its highest level. This paper demonstrates that the use of CWTS system reduces the peak power demand and energy consumption of AC systems for design day conditions by 36.7% - 87.5% and 5.4% - 7.2%, respectively. This reduction depends on selected operating strategies as compared with conventional AC system. Furthermore, results show that the annual energy consumption of CWTS systems decreases by between 4.5% and 6.9% compared with conventional systems, where chillers and pumps significantly contribute to this reduction.

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Use of MgO doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation for removing arsenic from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods for use of magnesium hydroxide, either directly or through one or more precursors, doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, for removing arsenic from drinking water, including water distribution systems. In one embodiment, magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH).sub.2 (a strong adsorbent for arsenic) doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is used to adsorb arsenic. The complex consisting of arsenic adsorbed on Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation is subsequently removed from the water by conventional means, including filtration, settling, skimming, vortexing, centrifugation, magnetic separation, or other well-known separation systems. In another embodiment, magnesium oxide, MgO, is employed, which reacts with water to form Mg(OH).sub.2. The resulting Mg(OH).sub.2 doped with a divalent or trivalent metal cation, then adsorbs arsenic, as set forth above. The method can also be used to treat human or animal poisoning with arsenic.

Moore, Robert C; Holt-Larese, Kathleen C; Bontchev, Ranko

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

130

Materials Reliability Program: Primary Water Stress Corrosion Testing of Alloys 690 and Weld Metals -- An Update (MRP-309)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) continues to cause increased costs for operation, maintenance, assessment, and repair of thick-walled, pressurized water reactor (PWR) components made of Alloy 600 and its weld metals Alloys 182 and 82. Thick-section Alloy 690 and its weld metals (Alloys 52, or 52M, and 152) are now being widely used, particularly for nozzle penetrations during replacement of RPV heads and for repairs to other components in the primary system. Three reports have already bee...

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

131

A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20th Century, especially in coastal areas, and their concomitant influence on land use, vehicular traffic, and industrial growth have been responsible for major outputs of combustion-derived hydrocarbon to the atmosphere and fallout of such carbon-rich particulate matter over the urban airsheds. This, in turn, has led to local health effects on human populations and a decrease in the quality of regional hydrological cycling. Due to continuous coastal development and increase in population in Puget Sound, Washington, it is vital to determine what the impacts of such growth have had on air and water quality and if greater needs in regulation are needed to curtail emissions. A bi-weekly deposition study of atmospheric particulate matter at seven sites around the Puget Sound (from urban to rural) have been performed for the purpose of developing appropriate regional and temporal estimates of contaminant fluxes to the surface of Puget Sound. The present study focuses on anhydrosugars, molecular markers of biomass combustion, in atmospheric particles to characterize the sources of combustion-derived materials. These are then compared to combustion-derived condensed hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and their signature ratios. Sample series were extracted for anhydrosugars and analyzed via gas chromatography mass spectrometry. All stations showed temporal variability in fluxes of levoglucosan, a major biomass combustion anhydrosugar, over the four months studied (Aug-Nov, 2008), with values ranging close to two orders of magnitude (15-450 uGu/m2.day). Replicate sampling at different stations during the study period showed a good reproducibility (wood burning. Levoglucosan concentrations are not correlated to pyrogenic PAHs in all but one rural station suggesting a predominant biomass source of combustion at that site. A specific PAH ratio associated with biomass combustion (1,7 DMP/[1,7+2,6 DMP]) was positively correlated to levoglucosan at all stations confirming the usefulness of this ratio for tracing non fossil fuel sources of pyrogenic PAHs in natural environments.

Aguirre, Danielle

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

132

Enhanced Natural Convection in a Metal Layer Cooled by Boiling Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics and the solidification of the molten metal pool concurrently with forced convective boiling of the overlying coolant to simulate a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. The relationship between the Nusselt number (Nu) and the Rayleigh number (Ra) in the molten metal pool region is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature and experimental data with subcooled water. Given the same Ra condition, the present experimental results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with coolant boiling are found to be higher than those predicted by the existing correlations or measured from the experiment with subcooled boiling. To quantify the observed effect of the external cooling on the natural convection heat transfer rate from the molten pool, it is proposed to include an additional dimensionless group characterizing the temperature gradients in the molten pool and in the external coolant region. Starting from the Globe and Dropkin correlation, engineering correlations are developed for the enhancement of heat transfer in the molten metal pool when cooled by an overlying coolant. The new correlations for predicting natural convection heat transfer are applicable to low-Prandtl-number (Pr) materials that are heated from below and solidified by the external coolant above. Results from this study may be used to modify the current model in severe accident analysis codes.

Cho, Jae-Seon [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang-Hyun [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Rae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants ProMIS/Project No.:DE-NT0005647  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology to reduce Fresh-WAter evAporAtIve coolIng loss At coAl-BAsed thermoelectrIc poWer plAnts promIs/project no. :de-nt0005647 Background The production of electricity requires a reliable, abundant, and predictable source of freshwater - a resource that is limited in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. The process of thermoelectric generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas is water intensive. According to the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey, thermoelectric-power withdrawals accounted for 48 percent of total water use, 39 percent of total freshwater withdrawals (136 billion gallons per day) for all categories, and 52 percent of fresh surface water withdrawals. As a growing economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater

134

Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Enthalpy Transfer across the Air–Water Interface in High Winds Including Spray  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled experiments were conducted in the Air–Sea Interaction Saltwater Tank (ASIST) at the University of Miami to investigate air–sea moist enthalpy transfer rates under various wind speeds (range of 0.6–39 m s?1 scaled to equivalent 10-m ...

Dahai Jeong; Brian K. Haus; Mark A. Donelan

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Forced convective flow and heat transfer of upward cocurrent air-water slug flow in vertical plain and swirl tubes  

SciTech Connect

This experimental study comparatively examined the two-phase flow structures, pressured drops and heat transfer performances for the cocurrent air-water slug flows in the vertical tubes with and without the spiky twisted tape insert. The two-phase flow structures in the plain and swirl tubes were imaged using the computerized high frame-rate videography with the Taylor bubble velocity measured. Superficial liquid Reynolds number (Re{sub L}) and air-to-water mass flow ratio (AW), which were respectively in the ranges of 4000-10000 and 0.003-0.02 were selected as the controlling parameters to specify the flow condition and derive the heat transfer correlations. Tube-wise averaged void fraction and Taylor bubble velocity were well correlated by the modified drift flux models for both plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition. A set of selected data obtained from the plain and swirl tubes was comparatively examined to highlight the impacts of the spiky twisted tape on the air-water interfacial structure and the pressure drop and heat transfer performances. Empirical heat transfer correlations that permitted the evaluation of individual and interdependent Re{sub L} and AW impacts on heat transfer in the developed flow regions of the plain and swirl tubes at the slug flow condition were derived. (author)

Chang, Shyy Woei [Thermal Fluids Laboratory, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China); Yang, Tsun Lirng [Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 142, Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District, Kaohsiung City 81143 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of atmospheric aerosols that can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long range transport of water soluble N?, S?, P?, and metal?containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle?into?liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR?MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of probable elemental formulae. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba?containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal?containing species that were reemitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, persistence, and dispersion of metal?containing aerosols as well as their environmental effects is needed.

Chang-Graham, Alexandra L.; Profeta, Luisa Tm; Johnson, Timothy J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water/Ethanol Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports preparation and separation testing results of water-selective zeolite membrane, such as NaA (or 4A-type), supported on a robust, porous metal sheet of 50um thickness. The thin sheet support is of large potential for development of a low-cost, inorganic membrane module of high surface area packing density. The porous Ni alloy sheet of micrometer or sub-micrometer mean pore size, which was prepared by a proprietary process, is used to evaluate different zeolite membrane deposition methods and conditions. The membranes are characterized by SEM, XRD and water/ethanol separation tests. Quality NaA zeolite membrane at thickness ethanol separation factor of >10,000 and water permeation flux of about 4 kg/(m2•h) at 75ºC with a feed of 10wt% water in ethanol. The membrane is also demonstrated with good stability in 66-hour continuous testing at 75ºC and 90ºC.

Zhang, Jian; Liu, Wei

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Effect of Air Bubbles on Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was suggested that absorption by a weakly absorbing droplet may be increased substantially by the presence of air bubbles within a droplet. The authors use an exact solution of the scattering of electromagnetic waves by a spherical particle ...

Petr Chýlek; Gorden Videen; Dat Ngo

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Experimental investigation of small-scale breaking waves : flow visualization across the air-water interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of breaking waves significantly affect air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, mass and energy across the ocean interface. Breaking waves also contribute considerable loading to offshore and coastal structures, and ...

McDonald, Angus Kai

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances Michael J. Iacono, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., 131 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 USA 1. Overview Objectives: * Evaluate water vapor and temperature simulation in two versions of CAM3 by comparing modeled and observed cloud-cleared AIRS spectral radiances. * Use spectral differences to verify comparisons between modeled water vapor and temperature and observed fields retrieved from AIRS radiances. Models: OSS: Optimal Spectral Sampling model developed at AER was used to simulate clear sky AIRS radiance spectra in CAM3. RRTMG/McICA: ARM-supported LW and SW radiative transfer model developed at AER for application to GCMs. RRTMG has been fully

142

Synthesis of Methods Used in Air-Water Multiphase Pollutant TMDLs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act was enacted in 1972 to regulate and protect the surface waters of the United States. This legislation empowered states to develop water quality standards and impose controls for waterbodies not in compliance with the standards. The mechanism to regulate point and nonpoint source loading is the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). TMDLs start with the end point of water quality to meet a waterbody’s designated uses, and then calculate the permissible loading of pollutants. That ...

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

143

Program on Technology Innovation: Weld Metals and Welding Processes for Fabrication of Advanced Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light water reactors have traditionally been constructed using roll-formed plates for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) shells, which were assembled via horizontal and vertical seam welds. Weld filler metals often contained significant quantities of copper, other residual elements such as vanadium, and nonmetallic elements such as phosphorous and sulfur. Low-alloy steel weld filler metals of this chemical composition contributed to the degree of neutron radiation-induced embrittlement of vessel ...

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

144

A Numerical Model for Evaluating the Impact of Noble Metal Chemical Addition in Boiling Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The technique of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), accompanied by a low-level hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), is being employed by several U.S. nuclear power plants for mitigating intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the vessel internals of their boiling water reactors (BWRs). An improved computer model by the name of DEMACE was employed to evaluate the performance of NMCA throughout the primary coolant circuit (PCC) of a commercial BWR. The molar ratios of hydrogen to oxidizing species in the PCC under normal water chemistry and HWC are analyzed. The effectiveness of NMCA is justified by calculated electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) around the PCC and in a local power range monitoring (LPRM) housing tube, in which practical in-vessel ECP measurements are normally taken.Prior to the modeling work for the BWR, the Mixed Potential Model, which is embedded in DEMACE and responsible for ECP calculation, was calibrated against both laboratory and plant ECP data. After modeling for various HWC conditions, it is found that the effectiveness of NMCA in the PCC of the selected BWR varies from region to region. In particular, the predicted ECP in the LPRM housing tube is notably different from that in the nearby bulk environment under NMCA, indicating that cautions must be given to a possible, undesirable outcome due to a distinct ECP difference between a locally confined area and the actual bulk environment.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China)

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

146

Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Subsurface Air, Water and Soil in Western Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surveys of radon concentrations in western Japan were carried out to estimate the contents not only of waters in the environment but also in soil gas. The maximum concentration measured for drinking water as public supply exceeded the 1991 United States Environmental Protection Agency?recommended limit for drinking water (11? Bq ? L ?1 ) but did not exceed that of several European countries (100? Bq ? L ?1 ). Overall

Masami Fukui

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An Experimental Test of a Theoretical Model to Determine the Rate at which Freely Falling Water Drops Scavenge SO2 in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental method involving the UCLA Rain Shaft is described. This method allows determining the rate at which SO2 is scavenged from air by freely falling water drops. In the present experiment water drops of radii near 300 ?m were allowed ...

C. Walcek; P. K. Wang; J. H. Topalian; S. K. Mitra; H. R. Pruppacher

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Bibliography of Work on the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air--Update Number 4 to October 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is the fifth in a series of bibliographies of work on the photocatalytic oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds in air or water and on the photocatalytic reduction of inorganic compounds in water. This search contains information extracted from 1149 new references to papers, books, and reports from searches conducted between October 1996 and April 2001.

Blake, D.

2001-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

149

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) on board the NASA DC-8 measured high-resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NASA African Monsoon ...

Syed Ismail; Richard A. Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; Gao Chen; Bruce Anderson; Susan A. Kooi; Anthony Notari; Carolyn F. Butler; Sharon Burton; Marta Fenn; Jason P. Dunion; Gerry Heymsfield; T. N. Krishnamurti; Mrinal K. Biswas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

Suntivich, Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Moya, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O at 650 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing  

SciTech Connect

Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

155

Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

1995-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

156

Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14: Alternate Water Sources, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #14 Case Study: Overview of the air handler condensate recovery program at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division.

157

Guidelines for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Water Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are being installed on coal-fired power plants in response to federal and state air pollution regulations limiting sulfur dioxide emissions. FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous waste stream that contains metals adsorbed from flue gas. At the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is reviewing, and may tighten, water discharge limits on trace metals. Collection of accurate data on the trace metal composition of FGD water discharges is therefore esse...

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

158

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 1, Site assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an effort for the evaluation of potential removal of ground water contamination at the Base. This report presents a current assessment of the nature and extent of the contamination believed to be migrating across the southwestern boundary of Area C and the northern boundary of Area B based upon analysis of existing environmental data obtained from several sources. The existing data base indicates widespread, low-level contamination moving across Base boundaries at levels that pose no immediate threat to the Mad River Valley well fields. An investigation by the City of Dayton in May and June 1990, however, implies that a more identifiable plume of PCE and TCE may be crossing the southwestern boundary of Area C immediately downgradient of Landfill 5. More data is needed to delineate ground water contamination and to design and implement a suitable control system. This report concludes that although an extensive study of the boundaries in question would be the preferred approach, a limited, focused investigation and subsequent feasibility study can be accomplished with a reasonable certainty of achieving the desired outcome of this project.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The evaluation of the use of metal alloy fuels in pressurized water reactors. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of metal alloy fuels in a PWR was investigated. It was found that it would be feasible and competitive to design PWRs with metal alloy fuels but that there seemed to be no significant benefits. The new technology would carry with it added economic uncertainty and since no large benefits were found it was determined that metal alloy fuels are not recommended. Initially, a benefit was found for metal alloy fuels but when the oxide core was equally optimized the benefit faded. On review of the optimization of the current generation of ``advanced reactors,`` it became clear that reactor design optimization has been under emphasized. Current ``advanced reactors`` are severely constrained. The AP-600 required the use of a fuel design from the 1970`s. In order to find the best metal alloy fuel design, core optimization became a central effort. This work is ongoing.

Lancaster, D.

1992-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" 5. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Cooled Buildings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Residential-Type Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air Conditioning Units","Swamp Coolers","Other" "All Buildings ................",67338,58474,8329,9147,14276,2750,12909,36527,2219,1312 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6774,4879,890,700,962,"Q","Q",2613,253,"Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",8238,6212,1606,707,1396,"Q","Q",3197,181,"Q"

162

Comparison of Short-Term Oxidation Behavior of Model and Commercial Chromia-Forming Ferritic Stainless Steels in Air with Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-purity Fe-20Cr and commercial type 430 ferritic stainless steel were exposed at 700 and 800 C in dry air and air with 10% water vapor (wet air) and characterized by SEM, XRD, STEM, SIMS, and EPMA. The Fe-20Cr alloy formed a fast growing Fe-rich oxide scale at 700 C in wet air after 24 h exposure, but formed a thin chromia scale at 700 C in dry air and at 800 C in both dry air and wet air. In contrast, thin spinel + chromia base scales with a discontinuous silica subscale were formed on 430 stainless steel under all conditions studied. Extensive void formation was observed at the alloy-oxide interface for the Fe-20Cr in both dry and wet conditions, but not for the 430 stainless steel. The Fe-20Cr alloy was found to exhibit a greater relative extent of subsurface Cr depletion than the 430 stainless steel, despite the former's higher Cr content. Depletion of Cr in the Fe-20Cr after 24 h exposure was also greater at 700 C than 800 C. The relative differences in oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of the coarse alloy grain size of the high-purity Fe-20Cr material, and the effects of Mn, Si, and C on the oxide scale formed on the 430 stainless steel.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [University of Manitoba, Canada; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

164

Materials Reliability Program: Loading Effects on the Low-Temperature Crack Propagation Phenomenon in 182 Weld Metal in a Pressurize d Water Reactor Environment (MRP-285)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of a study of loading effects on the low-temperature crack propagation (LTCP) phenomenon in 182 weld metal in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

165

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

DOE/EA-1673: Environmental Assessment for Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment (July 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment July 2009 8-i CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 8-1 8.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 8-1 8.3 AIR POLLUTANT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................ 8-1 8.4 AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS ...................................................................................... 8-3

167

Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer, pressure drop, and void fraction were simultaneously measured for upward heated air-water non-boiling two-phase flow in 0.51 mm ID tube to investigate thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow in micro-channels. At low liquid superficial velocity j{sub l} frictional pressure drop agreed with Mishima-Hibiki's correlation, whereas agreed with Chisholm-Laird's correlation at relatively high j{sub l}. Void fraction was lower than the homogeneous model and conventional empirical correlations. To interpret the decrease of void fraction with decrease of tube diameter, a relation among the void fraction, pressure gradient and tube diameter was derived. Heat transfer coefficient fairly agreed with the data for 1.03 and 2.01 mm ID tubes when j{sub l} was relatively high. But it became lower than that for larger diameter tubes when j{sub l} was low. Analogy between heat transfer and frictional pressure drop was proved to hold roughly for the two-phase flow in micro-channel. But satisfactory relation was not obtained under the condition of low liquid superficial velocity. (author)

Kaji, Masuo; Sawai, Toru; Kagi, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, 930 Nishi-mitani, Kinokawa, Wakayama 649-6493 (Japan); Ueda, Tadanobu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratory, Incorporated, 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

171

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft  

SciTech Connect

This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

173

Bulk Metallic Glasses X  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications for Bulk Metallic Glasses and Matrix Composites · Air Oxidation of a Binary Cu64.5Zr35.5 Bulk Metallic ...

174

Bulk Metallic Glasses VII  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society ... Air-Oxidation of a ( Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc · Anelastic ...

175

Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Trace metal speciation in saline waters affected by geothermal brines. [GEOCHEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A description is given of the chemical equilibrium computer program GEOCHEM, which has been developed to calculate trace element speciation in soil, irrigation, drainage, or Salton Sea waters affected by geothermal brine. GEOCHEM is applied to irrigation water-brine mixtures and to Salton Sea water-brine mixtures in order to compute the chemical speciation of the elements Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, along with the oxyanions of As and B. The results suggest that the computer simulation can have an important effect on a program for managing brine spills. Appendices include published papers on related research.

Sposito, G.; Page, A.L.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Energy Technologies for the West: possible effects of energy technology on land, water, and air resources. Workshop held in San Francisco, California, 21 September 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

John Fraser, Association of California Water Agencies, spoke on the effect of energy technology on California's water resources. He pointed out that by the year 2000, a water deficiency of about 2,250,000 acre-feet will exist in California; therefore, many agencies will not indefinitely commit supplies of fresh water for power plant cooling. Legislation for siting power plants along the coastline is summarized. Dr. James Liverman, ERDA, noted a remark by Mr. Fraser that, in its national plan, ERDA ''does not appear to pay much attention to the water issue''; he agrees, but says ERDA is committed to working with the Water Resources Council, with establishments in each state. Professor Robert Hagan, Univ. of California, reports on a program to investigate the energy required to develop water, or, in short, to move water to where it is to be used; water which may be associated with the use and conservation of water; the energy associated with waste-water treatment; and waste-water reuse. Speaker Zock Willey, Environmental Defense Fund, briefly evaluated the environmental impact of an energy technology by saying that the public has a right to know and say what the risks are in terms of the trade-offs. Russ Freeman, EIA, says he doesn't believe it possible to have an energy program in the traditional concept of a government program. EPA has learned that energy is an input to every societal process and pollution is an output from virtually everything that society does. The final speaker, Fayne L. Tucker, Lake County Air Pollution Control District, reviewed the potential of geothermal resources, saying that it is believed the Lake County government can, with the state and Federal government, plan geothermal development. It is also believed the Geysers should be considered as a payoff area. An extensive question and answer session completed the workshop. (MCW)

Not Available

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ground water source), electrically operated, unitary central air conditioners and central air conditioning heat pumps

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Bulk Formulation of the Heat and Water Vapor Fluxes at the Air–Sea Interface, Including Nonmolecular Contributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of the air–sea sensible and latent heat fluxes is vital for nearly all applications of atmosphere and ocean models. Existing theories of heat transfer over rough surfaces provide a starting point, but they seem incomplete ...

James A. Mueller; Fabrice Veron

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using a Room-Air Natural Convection Loop: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze prevention for passive solar domestic water heating systems.

Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Recovery of precious metals from military electronic components  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components from dismantled weapons components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminium and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non- hazardous waste.

Gundiler, I.H. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Lutz, J.D.; Neiswander, P.G.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

THE EFFECT OF RADIATION ON THE CORROSION OF METALS BY WATER. (Problem No. 322 MLC 2213)  

SciTech Connect

Long-time tests have been made on the effect of various types of radiation on the corrosion of 2S aluminum in simulated W water. In no case was any acceleration of corrosion by the radiation observed; the effect of radiation, if any, appeared to be a protective one. Deuteron irradiation did accelerate the corrosion of mild steel at low flow rates in hot water of pH 6 to 7, but no appreciable effect was observed with copper, stainless steel, or tuballoy. The general theory of the effect of radiation on corrosion is discussed, with the conclusion that no acceleration of corrosion by radiation is to be expected in most cases of practical interest. (auth)

Allen, A.O.; Bowman, M.C.; Goldowski, N.; Larson, R.G.; Treiman, L.

1944-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

185

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

186

Flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in a horizontal circular micro-channel  

SciTech Connect

Adiabatic two-phase air-water flow characteristics, including the two-phase flow pattern as well as the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop, in a circular micro-channel are experimentally studied. A fused silica channel, 320 mm long, with an inside diameter of 0.53 mm is used as the test section. The test runs are done at superficial velocity of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-16 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow pattern map is developed from the observed flow patterns i.e. slug flow, throat-annular flow, churn flow and annular-rivulet flow. The flow pattern map is compared with those of other researchers obtained from different working fluids. The present single-phase experiments also show that there are no significant differences in the data from the use of air or nitrogen gas, and water or de-ionized water. The void fraction data obtained by image analysis tends to correspond with the homogeneous flow model. The two-phase pressure drops are also used to calculate the frictional multiplier. The multiplier data show a dependence on flow pattern as well as mass flux. A new correlation of two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical application. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Horizontal Convective Rolls in Cold Air over Water: Buoyancy Characteristics of Coherent Plumes Detected by an Airborne Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft and airborne cloud radar data are used to describe the vertical structure of the convective boundary layer (CBL) during cold-air outbreaks over Lake Michigan in January 2004. Two days with mesoscale cloud street structure and a day with ...

Qiong Yang; Bart Geerts

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

CFD Analyses for Water-Air Flow With the Euler-Euler Two-Phase Model in the Fluent4 CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

Framatome ANP develops a new boiling water reactor called SWR 1000. For the case of a hypothetical core melt accident it is designed in such a way that the core melt is retained in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) at low pressure owing to cooling of the RPV exterior and high reliable depressurization devices. Framatome ANP performs - in co-operation with VTT - tests to quantify the safety margins of the exterior cooling concept for the SWR 1000, for determining the limits to avoid the critical heat fluxes (CHFs). The three step procedure has been set up to investigate the phenomenon: 1. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled global model, with the aim to investigate the global flow conditions 2. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled, 10 % sector model, with the aim to find a flow sector with almost similar flow conditions as in the global model. 3. Final CHF experiments for a 1:1-scaled, 10 % sector., the boarders of this model have been selected based on the first two steps. The instrumentation for the water/air experiments included velocity profiles, the vertically averaged average void fraction and void fraction profiles in selected positions. The experimental results from the air-water experiments have been analyzed at VTT using the Fluent-4.5.2 code with its Eulerian multiphase flow modeling capability. The aim of the calculations was to learn how to model complex two-phase flow conditions. The structural mesh required by Fluent-4 is a strong limitation in the complex geometry, but modeling of the 1/4 sector from the facility was possible, when the GAMBIT pre-processor was used for the mesh generation. The experiments were analyzed with the 150 x 150 x 18 grid for the geometry. In the analysis the fluid viscosity was the main dials for adjusting the vertical liquid velocity profiles and the bubble diameter for adjusting the phase separation. The viscosity ranged between 1 to 10000 times the molecular viscosity, and bubble diameter between 3 to 100 mm, when the calculation results were adjusted for a good agreement with the experimental data. The analysis results were very valuable for designing the final water/steam facility for final CHF tests. The validation against data from the air-water experiments proved that the present CFD codes approach to the state where they can be used for simulating such two-phase experiments, where the fraction of both phases is essential and the flow is strongly affected by the density differences. It is still too early to predict, if the CFD calculation of the 1:1 scale critical heat flux experiments is successful, could the result be used for formulating a new type of a critical heat flux correlation, where the effects of CRD's on the flow patterns and gap dimensions are model parameters. (authors)

Miettinen, Jaakko [VTT Process, P.O. Box 1000 Tietatie 3 Espoo FIN-02044 (Finland); Schmidt, Holger [Framatome ANP GmbH, Department FANP NT31, Freyeslebenstrasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

190

Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Forced air fireplace furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of heating system for buildings including a fireplace with an open front hearth for burning firewood, a chimney extending from the upper portion of the hearth, a metal firebox being open in the front and closed on the sides and back, a plenum chamber within and surrounding the sides and back of the metal firebox and the chimney lower portion, a horizontal heat distribution chamber positioned in the building attic and communicating at one end with the plenum chamber is described. An air distribution duct connects to the other end of the air distributing chamber, the duct extending to discharge heated air to a place in the building remote from the fireplace. A fan is placed in the horizontal air distributing chamber, and a return air duct extends from selected place in the building and communicates with the plenum chamber lower portion so that the fan draws air through the return air duct, through the plenum chamber around the firebox where the air is heated, through the horizontal distribution chamber, and out through the distribution duct for circulation of the heated air within the building.

Bruce, R.W.; Gorman, R.E.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

Condensers for Combined-Cycle Plants: Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers Design Best Practices and Procurement Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC) power plants are expected to play an increasing role in the mix of new power generation. Additional guidance is needed for utilities, contracted engineering firms, and suppliers to better specify, design, supply, and operate these next-generation plants. This document focuses on the steam condensers, both wet and air-cooled, which are anticipated to serve these plants. It provides guidance, best practices, and lessons learned in regard to these condensers and offers insi...

2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

193

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium amy accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRe computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities.

Jeppson, D.W.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

An ecological study examining the correlation of end-stage renal disease and ground water heavy metal content in Texas counties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ecological study was conducted to examine the correlation of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the ground water heavy metal level of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and the cumulative level of all four metals in Texas counties. The heavy meal dab was collected from the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) measurement and covered the twenty-one year span 1970- 1990. The ESRD data was gathered from the Texas Department of Health Kidney Program ESRD Registry for the five-year span 1988-1992. This registry included more than 99% of incident ESRD cases over the same time period. The 1990 U.S. Census data was used to estimate county population by age, race and sex. Exposure was defined as residence in a county with ground water measurements that fell in the highest quartile for each metal (mercury 0.297ug/, arsenic 3.216ug/l, lead 4.685ug/l, cadmium 1.423ug/l, cumulative metal level 8.911ug/l). Outcome was defined as an incident case of ESRD between the years 1988-1992 and examined as five-year incidence of ESRD per 10,000 persons. Among 254 Texas counties, 52 had at least 7 years of metal measurements for lead and cadmium, 51 counties had at least 7 years of metal measurements for arsenic and mercury and 50 counties had 7 years of measurements for all four metals. Linear and logistic regression procedures were carried out to examine the relationship between heavy metal ground water levels and incidence of ESRD. None of the metals demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship with five-year incidence of ESRD per 10,000 persons. Counties with high levels of heavy metals did not indicate an increased odds of having a five-year ESRD incidence per 10,000 persons above the 1988-1992 state average. The percentage of Black or Hispanic persons in a county was a positive predictor of increased five-year incidence of ESRD per 10,000 persons.

Bishop, Scott Alan

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agencys Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14: Alternate Water Sources, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

drought in the southeastern United States caused drought in the southeastern United States caused the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address the need for water conservation and develop a water management plan for their Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD). The water management plan aimed to reduce SESD's potable water usage (more than 2.4 million gallons in fiscal year 2008) through an air handler condensate recovery project. The EPA SESD encompasses 12 acres in Athens, Georgia. A single laboratory building was constructed in 1996 consisting of 66,200 square feet configured for a mix use of laboratory and office activities. In May 2008, SESD completed an air handler condensate recovery system. The system routes condensate from rooftop air handler units to the facility's cooling tower,

196

Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) cloud parameterizations generally include an assumption about the subgrid-scale probability distribution function (PDF) of total water and its vertical profile. In the present study, the Atmospheric ...

Andrea Molod

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Two novel chains based on capsules supported by water-soluble calixarenes and metal complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two novel coordination polymers [Ca{sub 4}(C4AS){sub 2}({mu}{sub 3}-2,2 Prime -bpno) Bullet 15H{sub 2}O]{sub n} Bullet 2nH{sub 2}O (1) and [Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sub n} Bullet [Cu{sub 2}(TC4AS)({mu}-2,2 Prime -bpno) Bullet 3H{sub 2}O]{sub n} Bullet 10nH{sub 2}O (2) (C4AS=p-sulfonato-calix[4]arene, TC4AS=p-sulfonatothiacalix [4]arene and 2,2 Prime -bpno=2,2 Prime -bipyridine-1,1 Prime -dioxide) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the rail-like chains of 1 composed of bicapsule units in upper-to-upper way are parallel to the bilayers of 1, whereas the zigzag-like chains of 2 made up of capsules via upper-to-lower mode run through the bilayers of 2. The magnetic properties of complex 2 were examined, indicating weak ferromagnetic interactions between the copper(II) ions in the temperature range of 20-300 K. - Graphical abstract: The rail-like chain composed of bicapsule units and the zigzag-like chain made up of capsules based on water-soluble calix[4]arenes are obtained. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two 1D calix[4]arenes-supported complexes were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rail-like chain (1) composed of bicapsule units in upper-to-upper way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The zigzag-like chain (2) made up of capsules via upper-to-lower mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic properties of complex 2 were examined.

Xiong Kecai [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang Feilong; Wu Mingyan [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Gai Yanli [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Qihui [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang Shuquan; Ma Jie; Han Dong [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hong Maochun, E-mail: hmc@ms.fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal to Ethylene Glycol and Its Related Technology, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Electrically and Hydraulically Rechargeable Zinc-air Battery  

A secondary zinc air battery, which can be either eletrically or hydraulically recharged, is provided with an inventive metal ...

199

Lithium Air Electrodes - Available Technologies - PNNL  

Comparing metal air batteries, ... are in a race to find cutting edge technologies that deliver more powerful batteries in smaller packages and lower ...

200

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite. 2 figs.

Erickson, D.C.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A TOUGH2 equation-of-state module for the simulation of two-phase flow of air, water, and a miscible gelling liquid  

SciTech Connect

The injection of grout into the subsurface can be used to encapsulate contaminated regions of an aquifer, or to form underground barriers for the isolation of contaminant sources and to prevent the spreading of existing plumes. This requires identifying grouts, or barrier fluids, which when injected into the subsurface exhibit a large increase in viscosity and eventually solidify, sealing the permeable zones in the aquifer. Simulation and modeling analysis are indispensable tools for designing the injection and predicting the performance of the barrier. In order to model flow and transport in such systems, the thermophysical properties of the fluid mixtures have to be provided, and the governing mass- and energy-balance equations for multiphase flow in porous media have to be solved numerically. The equation-of-state module EOS11 described herein is an extension of the EOS7 module of the TOUGH2 code for flow of saline water and air. In the modeling approach, the chemical grout is treated as a miscible fluid the viscosity of which is a function of time and concentration of the gelling agent in the pore water. If a certain high viscosity is reached and the movement of the grout plume ceases, the gel is assumed to solidify, leading to a new porous medium with changed soil characteristics, i.e. reduced porosity and permeability, increased capillary strength for a given water content, and changed initial saturation distribution.

Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection Ecosystem Standards and Planning Biodiversity BranchThis page has been intentionally left blank ii Preface Preface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

British Columbia is recognized globally for its exceptional wildlife, diversity of ecosystems, and rich natural resources. The Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection (WLAP) works to maintain these valuable natural assets, which lie at the heart of many recreational and economic activities enjoyed by British Columbians in all regions of the province. The Ministry has responsibility for the protection and stewardship of British Columbia’s environment. To fulfil this responsibility, it develops policy and legislation, regulations, codes of practice, environmental contracts and covenants (legal agreements). It also monitors and reports on selected species and habitats, as well as acquires information on habitat and species health. It sets science- and results-based objectives and standards and provides best practices for activities that affect our environment. Together, clear goals and objectives, meaningful performance measures and science-based tools guide Ministry actions in improving environmental management. Regulatory frameworks allow headquarters and regional staff to

Instream Works

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The effects of channel diameter on flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in circular micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase air-water flow characteristics are experimentally investigated in horizontal circular micro-channels. Test sections are made of fused silica. The experiments are conducted based on three different inner diameters of 0.53, 0.22 and 0.15 mm with the corresponding lengths of 320, 120 and 104 mm, respectively. The test runs are done at superficial velocities of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-42.36 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow visualisation is facilitated by systems mainly including stereozoom microscope and high-speed camera. The flow regime maps developed from the observed flow patterns are presented. The void fractions are determined based on image analysis. New correlation for two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical applications. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Bibliography of work on the heterogeneous photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air, Update Number 2 to October 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Industrial Program has developed processes that destroy hazardous substances in or remove them from water and air. The processes of interest in this report are based on the application of heterogeneous photocatalysts, principally titanium dioxide or modifications thereof, but work on other heterogeneous catalysts is included in this compilation. This report continues bibliographies that were published in May, 1994, and October, 1995. The previous reports included 663 and 574 citations, respectively. This update contains an additional 518 references. These were published during the period from June 1995 to October 1996, or are references from prior years that were not included in the previous reports. The work generally focuses on removing hazardous contaminants from air or water to meet environmental or health regulations. This report also references work on properties of semiconductor photocatalysts and applications of photocatalytic chemistry in organic synthesis. This report follows the same organization as the previous publications. The first part provides citations for work done in a few broad categories that are generic to the process. Three tables provide references to work on specific substances. The first table lists organic compounds that are included in various lists of hazardous substances identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second table lists compounds not included in those categories, but which have been treated in a photocatalytic process. The third table covers inorganic compounds that are on EPA lists of hazardous materials or that have been treated by a photocatalytic process. A short update on companies that are active in providing products or services based on photocatalytic processes is provided.

Blake, D.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Interlaboratory Validation of EPA 1600 Series Methods: Draft EPA Method 1638 for Analysis of Metals in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal and state permits are requiring wastewater dischargers to monitor for ever lower concentrations of trace metals, in some cases at levels that may preclude reliable measurement. In this joint EPA-EPRI interlaboratory data collection effort, eight laboratories evaluated draft EPA Method 1638: Determination of Trace Elements in Ambient Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. This method is intended for the analysis of low levels (parts per trillion) of antimony, cadmium, copper, lead,...

2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys [Corrosion and Mechanics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Oxidation Kinetics for Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share

207

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Materials Reliability Program: Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Tube Mat erial and Weld Metals Alloy 52 and 152 (MRP-340)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) continues to cause increased costs for operation, maintenance, assessment, and repair of thick-walled pressurized water reactor (PWR) components made of Alloy 600 and its weld metals Alloys 182 and 82. Thick-section Alloy 690 and its weld metals (Alloys 52 [(or 52M] and 152) are now being widely used, particularly for nozzle penetrations during the replacement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and for repairs to other components in the primary ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Evaluation of the Atmospheric Water Budget Following an Intense Cold-Air Outbreak over the Gulf of Mexico?Application of a Regional Forecast Model and SSM/I Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric water budget is examined for a 12-day period following an intense cold-air outbreak over the Gulf of Mexico. Budget terms are compared using analyses from the U.S. National Meteorological Center's operational Nested Grid Model (...

Robert M. Rabin; Lynn A. McMurdie; Christopher M. Hayden; Gary S. Wade

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

213

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heater storage tank wastes energy to continuous heating.fired water heater Total Energy Total Waste Emissions (Air)fired water heater Total Energy Total Waste Emissions (Air)

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode  

SciTech Connect

A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

216

Metal Interactions at the Biochar-Water Interface: Energetics and Structure-Sorption Relationships Elucidated by Flow Adsorption Microcalorimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interest in biochars and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals have increased in recent years. However, a systematic understanding of the mechanisms involved in biochar-metal interactions and conditions under which a given mechanism is predominant is still needed. We used flow adsorption micro-calorimetry to study structure-sorption relationships between twelve plant-derived biochars and two metals of different ionization potential (Ip). Biochar structure influenced the amount of K+ (Ip = 419 kJ mol-1) or Cd(II) (Ip = 868 kJ mol-17 ) sorption but had no effect on the mechanism of sorption. Irrespective of the biochar, K+ sorption was exothermic, surface-controlled and occurred via an ion-exchange mechanism on negatively- charged sites with molar heats of adsorption (_Hads) of -4 kJ mol-1 on wood versus -8 kJ mol-1 on grass biochars. In contrast, Cd(II) sorption was endothermic and favored surface complexation on uncharged biochar surfaces with _Hads of around +17 kJ mol-1. Cadmium sorption transitioned from surface- to diffusion-controlled on biochars formed at ? 350 oC and _Hads for Cd(II) sorption was the same on grass and wood biochars. We concluded that, in general, metals with lower Ip favor electrostatic interactions with biochars, while metals of higher Ip favor more covalent-like interactions.

Harvey, Omar R.; Herbert, Bruce; Rhue, Roy D.; Kuo, Li-Jung

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Ga Air Compressor, Ga Air Compressor Products, Ga Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ga Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Ga Air Compressor Products from Global Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Ga Air Compressor ...

218

Alkali metal nitrate purification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

219

Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

None

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

Short-Crack Response of Alloy 182 Weld Metal Undergoing Stress Corrosion Cracking in High-Temperature PWR Primary Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanistic investigations of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC), to date, have focused more on propagation relative to initiation. At the same time, components spend most of their life in the initiation and "short-crack" growth regimes. Prior exploratory work conducted at General Electric Global Research Center (GE GRC) showed that stainless steels, Alloy 600, and Alloy 182 weld metal exhibit lower average growth rates when the cracks are very short or small (1050 m). In those tests, the transition...

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Ducts Air Ducts Tips: Air Ducts June 24, 2013 - 7:23pm Addthis Air Ducts: Out of Sight, Out of Mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy and money. Air Ducts: Out of Sight, Out of Mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy and money. Your air ducts are one of the most important systems in your home, and if the ducts are poorly sealed or insulated they are likely contributing to higher energy bills. Your home's duct system is a branching network of tubes in the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other materials.

222

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Treating water-reactive wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some compounds and elements, such as lithium hydride, magnesium, sodium, and calcium react violently with water to generate much heat and produce hydrogen. The hydrogen can ignite or even form an explosive mixture with air. Other metals may react rapidly only if they are finely divided. Some of the waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory includes these metals that are contaminated with radioactivity. By far the greatest volume of water-reactive waste is lithium hydride contaminated with depleted uranium. Reactivity of the water-reactive wastes is neutralized with an atmosphere of humid nitrogen, which prevents the formation of an explosive mixture of hydrogen and air. When we adjust the temperature of the nitrogen and the humidifier, the nitrogen can be more or less humid, and the rate of reaction can be adjusted and controlled. Los Alamos has investigated the rates of reaction of lithium hydride as a function of the temperature and humidity, and, as anticipated, they in with in temperature and humidity. Los Alamos will investigate other variables. For example, the nitrogen flow will be optimized to conserve nitrogen and yet keep the reaction rates high. Reaction rates will be determined for various forms of lithium waste, from small chips to powder. Bench work will lead to the design of a skid-mounted process for treating wastes. Other water-reactive wastes will also be investigated.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Development of Bulk Metallic Glasses with High Plasticity Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc · Anelastic Deformation of a Metallic Glass · Anisotropy in Metallic Glasses.

225

Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. (MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Energy Basics: Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems Air-Source Heat Pumps Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps Geothermal Heat Pumps Supporting Equipment for Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating...

227

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New development demonstrates that inexpensive and New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation. The production of solar fuels (e.g., H 2 from H 2 O, hydrocarbons from CO 2 ) via direct photoelectrochemical reactions is a promising approach in the pursuit of renewable energy sources. Production of O 2 is the only scalable and renewable oxidation that can balance these fuel-forming reduction reactions. However, few materials have the necessary properties (e.g., strong visible light absorption, stability to corrosion, n-type conductivity) to evolve O 2 as photoanodes, and the few that meet these general requirements often have significant limitations (e.g., high charge recombination, sluggish charge transport, poor charge transfer to catalysts) that result in low

229

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This broader assessment considered 65 different air toxics including metals, PAHs, coke oven emissions, and diesel particulate matter (DPM). Source apportionment yielded...

230

Metal Aminoboranes  

Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be ...

231

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total plant energy use. Furthermore, air compression is inefficient with up to 95% of compressor power dissipated as heat. Thus even minor improvements in system operation, control strategies, and efficiency can yield large energy savings and significant non-energy or productivity benefits from reliable compressed air. Compressed air is often called the ""fourth utility"" in industrial facilities after electricity, natural gas, and water. It provides motive power for machinery, cooling, materials handling, and hand tools. It is a safe, flexible, and powerful resource, but one that is seldom run for low operating costs or best productivity. Learning the basics of compressed air systems represents the beginning of both reducing energy costs and enjoying the productive benefits of reliable compressed air. Compressed air management systems, including a system approach to managing demand, stabilizing pressure, reducing leaks and compressor controls, can allow the industrial end user to save 20% - 50% of their air compressor electricity usage. The monitoring capabilities of compressed air management systems provide a useful tool through power, pressure and flow trending to maintain both the energy savings and increased system reliability. More efficiently managed compressed air systems are less costly to maintain and have less impact on the environment. The most important issues of industrial compressed air in relation to energy efficiency and management are: 1. Compressed air is an essential industrial utility; 2. Compressing air is a fundamentally inefficient energy transformation process; 3. Optimal operation of compressed air systems in industrial plants is seldom a priority and adequate management infonnation is rare, resulting in negative impacts on production and even less efficiency."

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium may accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRE computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities. 1 ref., 10 figs.

Jeppson, D.W.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air enthalpy. During the economizer cycle, outside air flow is modulated to seek mixed air temperature at a supply air temperature set point. Since the outside air may be dry during the economizer cycle, humidification is required for AHUs with humidity control. As a result, the economizer cycle saves cooling energy but requires excessive steam for humidification. Therefore the economizer cycle may not be economical. An optimal outside air control method is developed to minimize the total cost of mechanical cooling and steam humidification. The impacts of chilled water price, steam price, and space minimum humidity set point are analyzed. Finally the optimal outside air control zones are presented on a psychrometric chart under differential energy price ratios and minimum indoor humidity set points.

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Powdered coal air dispersion nozzle  

SciTech Connect

An improved coal/air dispersion nozzle introduces fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine as a finely atomized, dispersed spray for a uniform combustion. The nozzle has an inlet that receives finely powdered coal from a coal transport or coal/air fluidizer system and a scroll swirl generator is included within the nozzle to swirl a fluidized coal/air mixture supplied to the inlet of the nozzle. The scroll is in the form of a thin, flat metal sheet insert, twisted along its length, and configured to prevent build-up of coal particles within the nozzle prior to ejection from its outlet. Airblast air jets are included along the length of the nozzle body to assist in the discharge of the fluidized coal from the nozzle outlet and an angular pintle tip overlies the outlet to redirect coal/air mixture through a desired fluidized coal spray angle.

Kosek, T.P.; Steinhilper, E.A.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

236

Air cathode structure manufacture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

HEXOS—Humidity Exchange Over the Sea A Program for Research on Water-Vapor and Droplet Fluxes from Sea of Air at Moderate to High Wind Speeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEXOS is an international program for the study of evaporation and spray-droplet flux from sea to air. The program includes measurements in the field at moderate-to-high wind speeds, wind-tunnel studies, instrument development, boundary-layer ...

Kristina B. Katsaros; Stuart D. Smith; Wiebe A. Oost

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION OF SUBMICRON COAL PARTICLES DISPERSED IN AIR AND CAPTURE OF COAL PARTICLES BY WATER DROPS IN A SCRUBBING COLUMN.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Present day water spray based dust removal technologies do not effectively remove respirable submicron coal and silica dust particles in the underground coal mines causing… (more)

Chakravorty, Utshab

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Corrosion of well casings in compressed air energy storage environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to determine corrosive effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) environments on several well casing materials to aid in material selections. A literature search on corrosion behavior of well casing material in similar environments revealed that corrosion rates of 0.20 to 0.25 mm/y might be expected. This information was employed in designing the laboratory study. Unstressed electrically isolate samples of various carbon steels were autoclaved at varying humidities, temperatures, and exposure durations to simulate anticipated environments in the well bore during CAES operation. All compressed air tests were run at 12.1 MPa. Temperatures varied from 323/sup 0/K to 573/sup 0/K, and humidity varied from 100% to completely dry air. The effects of salts in the humidified air were also studied. Results indicated that typical well casings of carbon steel as used in oil, gas, and water production wells adequately withstand the anticipated CAES reservoir environment. An acceptable corrosion rate arrived at by these laboratory simulations was between 0.0015 and 0.15 mm/y. Corrosion was caused by metal oxidation that formed a protective scale of iron oxide. Higher temperatures, humidity rates, or salinity content of the humid air increased corrosion. Corrosion also increased on a metal coupon in contact with a sandstone sample, possibly due to crevice corrosion. For each of these factors either singularly or collectively, the increased corrosion rates were still acceptable with the maximum measured at 0.15 mm/y. When coupons were reused in an identical test, the corrosion rates increased beyond the anticipated values that had been determined by extrapolation from one-time runs. Fine cracking of the protective scale probably occurred due to thermal variations, resulting in increased corrosion rates and a greater potential for particulates, which could plug the reservoir.

Elmore, R.P.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Air-Oxidation of a [(Co  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Bulk Metallic Glasses VIII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a [(Co 50Cr15C15Mo14B6)97.5Er2.5]93Fe7 Bulk Metallic Glass at 600 - 725 oC.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

242

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Air2Air™ Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants – SPX Cooling Systems Use of Air2Air™ Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants – SPX Cooling Systems In this project, SPX Cooling Systems, formerly Marley Cooling Technologies, Inc., evaluates the performance of its patented Air2Air(tm) condensing technology in cooling tower applications at coal-fired electric power plants. Researchers quantify Air2Air(tm) water conservation capabilities with results segmented by season and time of day. They determine the pressure drop and energy use during operation. Additionally, SPX Cooling Systems develops a collection method for the recovered water, analyzes water quality, and identifies potential on-site processes capable of utilizing the recovered water.

243

Light Water Reactors [Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials] - Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactors Light Water Reactors Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share To continue safe operation of current LWRs, the aging degradation of the

244

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

245

Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Dual Environment Effects on the Oxidation of Metallic Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e. H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e. air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air-side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air/air, H2/air, and H2/Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; and Bullard, Sophie J.

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Possibility of Using a Satellite-Based Detector for Recording Cherenkov Light from Ultrahigh-Energy Extensive Air Showers Penetrating into the Ocean Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have estimated the reflected component of Cherenkov radiation, which arises in developing of an extensive air shower with primary energy of 10^20 eV over the ocean surface. It has been shown that, under conditions of the TUS experiment, a flash of the reflected Cherenkov photons at the end of the fluorescence track can be identified in showers with zenith angles up to 20 degrees.

Shustova, O P; Khrenov, B A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Metal-Air Battery - Energy Innovation Portal  

Partially alleviate gas accumulation and cathode consumption issues typical of primary alkaline batteries; Increases mechanical integrity; Suitable ...

249

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

251

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Validation of AIRS Retrievals of Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Using Measurements from a Network of Ground-Based GPS Receivers over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust and easily implemented verification procedure based on the column-integrated precipitable water (IPW) vapor estimates derived from a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers has been used to assess the quality of ...

M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Seth I. Gutman; James G. Yoe; Larry M. McMillin; Jiang Zhao

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Purification of alkali metal nitrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

256

Issue and Improvement Measure of Multi-split Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing problems of traditional air source variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system are analyzed. The disadvantages of traditional VRF air-conditioning system are described in detail: 1) its properties are seriously affected by outdoor ... Keywords: energy saving, simulation, variable refrigerant flow air conditioning, water loop

Sun Tingting; Ni Long; Yao Yang; Ma Zuiliang; Yi Lingli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process  

SciTech Connect

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250/sup 0/F and about 700/sup 0/F and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing watersoluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Kalina, T.; Wolfs, D.Y.

1980-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Metal Aminoboranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

259

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of batch-process solar disinfectors. Water Research 35(4),Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Controlled Shear Band and Fracture in Bulk Metallic Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications for Bulk Metallic Glasses and Matrix Composites · Air Oxidation of a Binary Cu64.5Zr35.5 Bulk Metallic Alloy at 573 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

262

Propagation of surface hybrid modes on metallic cylindrical nanoshells  

SciTech Connect

Propagation of surface hybrid modes on a system consisting of metal-air-metal cylinder has been investigated theoretically. The effect of increasing the interwall spacing between two metals on plasmon dispersion relation is shown. The dispersion relation can lead to a simple equation for m = 0. Calculations show that the plasmon energy of this structure depends on the interwall spacing between two metals.

Bahari, Ali; Amraie, Elhame [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Air Pollution (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

265

Gas adsorption on metal-organic frameworks  

SciTech Connect

The present invention involves the use of certain metal organic frameworks that have been treated with water or another metal titrant in the storage of carbon dioxide. The capacity of these frameworks is significantly increased through this treatment.

Willis, Richard R. (Cary, IL); Low, John J. (Schaumburg, IL), Faheem, Syed A. (Huntley, IL); Benin, Annabelle I. (Oak Forest, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Yazaydin, Ahmet Ozgur (Evanston, IL)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

266

PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

Knighton, J.B.

1963-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of ~20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg-1, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte (~70%). Lithium-metal anodes and KB-carbon anodes account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only ~ 20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products

Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, Ralph E.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. [MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Process for the production of hydrogen from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

270

Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Evaporation and Precipitation Surface Effects in Local Mass Continuity Laws of Moist Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local mass balance equations of cloudy air are formulated for a model system composed of dry air, water vapor, and four categories of water condensate particles, as typically adopted for numerical weather prediction and climate models. The ...

Ulrike Wacker; Thomas Frisius; Fritz Herbert

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13...

274

Laboratory Equipment - Air Control Inc. Microvoid 4F Fume ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Polypropylene cabinet and work surface; Deionized water from both the sink and spray gun; Nitrogen air gun; Three acid work areas: ...

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

Air-Quality Improvement Tax Incentives | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Quality Improvement Tax Incentives Air-Quality Improvement Tax Incentives Air-Quality Improvement Tax Incentives < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Heating Wind Program Info State Ohio Program Type Other Incentive Provider Ohio Air Quality Development Authority The Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OAQDA) provides assistance for new air quality projects in Ohio, for both small and large businesses. For qualifying projects, the OAQDA also projects tax benefits. For qualifying projects, the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OAQDA) can provide a 100 percent exemption from the tangible personal property tax

276

Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

Foster, Nancy S. (Boulder, CO); Koval, Carl A. (Golden, CO); Noble, Richard D. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

278

Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

Sun Meng [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li Danzhen, E-mail: dzli@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Muscatine Power and Water - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

clothes washers, dryers, ranges, room air and central air conditioners, ground source heat pumps, and water heaters are eligible for this program. The rebate amount...

280

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - A Novel Concept for Reducing Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Management A Novel Concept for Reducing Water Usage and Increasing Efficiency in Power Generation - University of Pittsburgh A unique gas turbine intake air cooling...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Light Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative processes; Anode design and operation; Cell fundamentals and ... Hot-rolling technologies; Deformation of materials; Primary metal production.

282

Feasibility of air capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

Ranjan, Manya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren �stergaard Jensen

284

Primary zone air proportioner  

SciTech Connect

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

285

Air Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the Department of Environmental Management and the Air Pollution Control Board, which are tasked with the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution by all...

286

Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Method of treating waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, James P. (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Hybrid Zero-Valent Iron Water Treatment Technology: Removing Trace Metals from Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In previous laboratory- and field bench-scale tests, the hybrid zero-valent iron (hZVI) process had been demonstrated capable of removing selenium, mercury, nitrates, and other pollutants from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. By incorporating zero-valent iron (ZVI) with magnetite and certain Fe(II) species, the hZVI technology creates a highly reactive mixture that can transform and immobilize various trace metals, oxyanions, and other impurities from aqueous streams. To further evaluate ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

292

Metals removal from spent salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Precious Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Advances in the Extractive Metallurgy of Selected Rare and Precious Metals" ( 1991 Review of Extractive Metallurgy), J.E. Hoffmann, April 1991, pp. 18-23.

294

Mathematics: Food, Soil, Water, Air, Free Speech  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Atrazine in Contaminated Soils Using Dairy-Manure Biochar Xinde Cao,*, Lena Ma, Yuan Liang, Bin Gao, Florida 32611 bS Supporting Information ' INTRODUCTION Biochar is increasingly receiving attention, and crop residues have been used for biochar production.1 Biochar is produced as a soil amendment

Russo, Bernard

295

Air-water spray analysis. [BWR  

SciTech Connect

The analytic and numerical investigation of the aerodynamic behavior of a gas-liquid spray system is desribed. Detailed work is presented on spray droplet flow, and the key analysis momentum transfer between spray droplets and the surrounding medium is reported. Similarity solutions presented for the plant turbulent spray system and the numerical scheme proposed to solve the two-phase fluid dynamical equations are outlined.

Yeung, W.S.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Pulsed Corona in Air for Water PROEFSCHRIFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and construction of the U.S. mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility and purchase of long lead equipment MOX fuel fabrication facility; fabricate U.S. and Russian MOX fuel lead assemblies, and publish final

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

297

CHAPTER ____ THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE: TURBULENCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport processes at gas-liquid interfaces are of importance in a number of areas, such as for equipment polynomial fit to gas transfer data in terms of the wind velocity. Because of the nonlinear nature of the gas, natural convection associated with heat loss is an important factor in the field and clearly an area where

California at Santa Barbara, University of

298

Energy Basics: Solar Air Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Air Heating Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Solar air collectors (devices to heat air...

299

Enabling Sustainability through the Physics of Metals & Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Heavy metals in natural water, industrial water and wastewaters are a worldwide ... complexes is released as HCN gas under strength acidic conditions ... Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for ...

300

Isokinetic air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

Sehmel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

MOIRA-PLUS: A decision support system for the management of complex fresh water ecosystems contaminated by radionuclides and heavy metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment leads to the necessity of applying suitable countermeasures for the restoration of the polluted environment. However, despite their obvious benefits, such interventions may result ... Keywords: Countermeasures, Decision systems, Fresh water ecosystems, MOIRA DSS, Modelling, Multi-attribute analysis

Luigi Monte; John E. Brittain; Eduardo Gallego; Lars Håkanson; Dmitry Hofman; Antonio Jiménez

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Dehumidifying Air for Cooling & Refrigeration: Nanotechnology Membrane-based Dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Dais is developing a product called NanoAir which dehumidifies the air entering a building to make air conditioning more energy efficient. The system uses a polymer membrane that allows moisture but not air to pass through it. A vacuum behind the membrane pulls water vapor from the air, and a second set of membranes releases the water vapor outside. The membrane’s high selectivity translates into reduced energy consumption for dehumidification. Dais’ design goals for NanoAir are the use of proprietary materials and processes and industry-standard installation techniques. NanoAir is also complementary to many other energy saving strategies, including energy recovery.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fatigue Behavior of Tough Fe-Based Bulk-Metallic Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Fracture Mechanics Model of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Bulk-Metallic ... Air- Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc.

304

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval...

305

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility...

306

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

307

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Ga Air Compressor Products at ...

308

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

309

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers, Screw Type Ac Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor, Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Traders, ...

310

ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

DEVELOPMENT OF A FABRICATION PROCESS FOR SOL-GEL/METAL HYDRIDE COMPOSITE GRANULES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An external gelation process was developed to produce spherical granules that contain metal hydride particles in a sol-gel matrix. Dimensionally stable granules containing metal hydrides are needed for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification that require columns containing metal hydrides. Gases must readily flow through the metal hydride beds in the columns. Metal hydrides reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes. This is accompanied by significant volume changes that cause the metal hydride to break apart or decrepitate. Repeated cycling results in very fine metal hydride particles that are difficult to handle and contain. Fine particles tend to settle and pack making it more difficult to flow gases through a metal hydride bed. Furthermore, the metal hydrides can exert a significant force on the containment vessel as they expand. These problems associated with metal hydrides can be eliminated with the granulation process described in this report. Small agglomerates of metal hydride particles and abietic acid (a pore former) were produced and dispersed in a colloidal silica/water suspension to form the feed slurry. Fumed silica was added to increase the viscosity of the feed slurry which helped to keep the agglomerates in suspension. Drops of the feed slurry were injected into a 27-foot tall column of hot ({approx}70 C), medium viscosity ({approx}3000 centistokes) silicone oil. Water was slowly evaporated from the drops as they settled. The drops gelled and eventually solidified to form spherical granules. This process is referred to as external gelation. Testing was completed to optimize the design of the column, the feed system, the feed slurry composition, and the operating parameters of the column. The critical process parameters can be controlled resulting in a reproducible fabrication technique. The residual silicone oil on the surface of the granules was removed by washing in mineral spirits. The granules were dried in air at 40 C. The granules were heated to 230 C for 30 minutes in argon to remove the remaining water and organic materials. The resulting product was spherical composite granules (100 to 2000 micron diameter) with a porous silica matrix containing small agglomerates of metal hydride particles. Open porosity in the silica matrix allows hydrogen to permeate rapidly through the matrix but the pores are small enough to contain the metal hydride particles. Additional porosity around the metal hydride particles, induced using abietic acid as a pore former, allows the particles to freely expand and contract without fracturing the brittle sol-gel matrix. It was demonstrated that the granules readily absorb and desorb hydrogen while remaining integral and dimensionally stable. Microcracking was observed after the granules were cycled in hydrogen five times. The strength of the granules was improved by coating them with a thin layer of a micro-porous polymer sol-gel that would allow hydrogen to freely pass through the coating but would filter out metal hydride poisons such as water and carbon monoxide. It was demonstrated that if a thin sol-gel coating was applied after the granules were cycled, the coating not only improved the strength of the granules but the coated granules retained their strength after additional hydrogen cycling tests. This additional strength is needed to extend the lifetime of the granules and to survive the compressive load in a large column of granules. Additional hydrogen adsorption tests are planned to evaluate the performance of coated granules after one hundred cycles. Tests will also be performed to determine the effects of metal hydride poisons on the granules. The results of these tests will be documented in a separate report. The process that was developed to form these granules could be scaled to a production process. The process to form granules from a mixture of metal hydride particles and pore former such as abietic acid can be scaled up using commercial granulators. The current laboratory-scale external gelation column produc

Hansen, E; Eric Frickey, E; Leung Heung, L

2004-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

313

TANGO ARRAY An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new Air Shower Observatory has been constructed in Buenos Aires during 1999, and commissioned and set in operation in 2000. The observatory consists of an array of four water \\v{C}erenkov detectors, enclosing a geometrical area of $\\sim$ 30.000 m$^{2}$, and is optimized for the observation of cosmic rays in the ``knee'' energy region. The array detects $\\sim$ 250 to $\\sim$ 1500 showers/day, depending on the selected triggering condition. In this paper, the design and construction of the array, and the automatic system for data adquisition, daily calibration, and monitoring, are described. Also, the Monte Carlo simulations performed to develop a shower database, as well as the studies performed using the database to estimate the response and the angular and energy resolutions of the array, are presented in detail.

P. Bauleo; C. Bonifazi; A. Filevich; A. Reguera

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

315

Activated-charcoal filters: water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. January 1970-July 1988 (citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated-charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic gases and pollutants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, swimming pool filtration, waste conversion, automobile fuel and exhaust systems, and footwear deodorizing. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Georgia Air Quality Control Act (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Quality Control Act (Georgia) Air Quality Control Act (Georgia) Georgia Air Quality Control Act (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Climate Policies Environmental Regulations Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The Georgia Air Quality Control Act (AQCA) is a set of environmental regulations, permitting requirements, and air quality standards that control the amount of pollutants emitted and who emits them. The AQCA

318

Indoor air radon  

SciTech Connect

This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references.

Cothern, C.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

320

Air Entrainment Processes and Bubble Size Distributions in the Surf Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new optical instrument was deployed in the surf zone in a trial experiment to measure bubble size distributions and visualize air entrainment and bubble formation mechanisms within breaking surf. Images of bubbles and the evolving air–water ...

Grant B. Deane; M. Dale Stokes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Thin Air Breathing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is controlled by the brainstem. Anyway-the reason that it is harder for some people to breathe at higher altitudes is that the air pressure differences aren't as great between the inside of the lungs and outside.

322

Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

Metal Preparation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Tap water Ambient to 71 Ambient to 160 30â??60 2-Wash Alkaline cleaner, 7.5â??22.5 g/L (1â??3 oz/gal) 60â??71 140â??160 60â??90 3-Rinse Tap water 60â??71 140â??160 30â??60 4-Wash Alkaline cleaner, 7.5â??22.5 g/L (1â??3 oz/gal) 60â??71 140â??160 60â??90 5-Rinse Tap water Ambient to 71 Ambient to 160 30â??60 6-Rinse Tap water...

324

Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials (Electronic Format)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... 133-136]The Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals in MSWI Bottom Ash by Carbonation Reaction with Diffeent Water Content[pp.

325

A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hybrid regional air pollution models  

SciTech Connect

This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

Drake, R.L.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fired Power Plants An Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fired Power Plants Using Energy Stored in Main Condenser Cooling Water - University of Florida This project replaces the cooling tower in a fossil fired power plant with an innovative diffusion driven desalination (DDD) plant that will render the power plant a net producer of fresh water. The energy required to drive the desalination process comes from the main condenser cooling water, which would otherwise be discharged. Saline water is used to condense the low pressure steam exiting the turbine. The hot, saline water exiting the condenser is sprayed into the top of a diffusion tower. The diffusion tower is filled with high surface area packing material such as that used in air stripping towers to enhance the water/air surface area. Air is blown through the bottom of the tower and becomes humidified. The humidified air goes to a direct-contact condenser where the fresh water is condensed. This process has an advantage over conventional desalination technology in that it may be driven by waste heat with very low thermodynamic availability. Also, cold air is a byproduct of this process which can be used to cool buildings.

328

Indoor Air Quality Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... CONTAM has been used at NIST to study the indoor air quality impacts of HVAC systems in single-family residential buildings, ventilation in large ...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verifkztion

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verification

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

332

Air Pollution Project: Scenario  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Summary HELP Index Summary Scenario Internet Links Student Pages SubjectContent Area: ScienceChemistry, Environment - Air Pollution Target Audience: High school chemistry...

333

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Adsorption air conditioner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

Rousseau, Jean L. I. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners year month keywords appliance energy efficiency energy efficiency incentives Market Transformation standards url https isswprod lbl gov...

336

Air Pollution Controls  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

337

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and metal absorber tube attached to a fin. The fin is covered with a coating that absorbs solar energy well, but which inhibits radiative heat loss. Air is removed, or evacuated,...

338

Eddy Modulation of Air–Sea Interaction and Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eddy modulation of the air–sea interaction and convection that occurs in the process of mode water formation is analyzed in simulations of a baroclinically unstable wind- and buoyancy-driven jet. The watermass transformation analysis of Walin is ...

Ivana Cerove?ki; John Marshall

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The Role of Air Pollution in Decreasing Trends of Orographic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Role of Air Pollution in Decreasing Trends of Orographic Precipitation and Respective Water Resources Speaker(s): Daniel Rosenfeld Date: September 16, 2005 - 12:00pm Location:...

340

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

materials or chemicals Proven mechanical systems using steel, water, and air SustainX Heat Transfer Technology (CompressionExpansion) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Lead Acid Lithium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Synthetic fuel concept to steal CO2 from air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concept, called Green Freedom(tm), for large-scale production of carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuels and organic chemicals from air and water. February 12, 2008 Los Alamos National...

342

Intelligent Control of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposed a simulation-optimization energy saving strategy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems' condenser water loop through intelligent control of single speed cooling towers' components. An analysis of system components ...

Patrick Low Kie; Lau Bee Theng

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

MHK Technologies/Ocean Powered Compressed Air Stations | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Powered Compressed Air Stations Powered Compressed Air Stations < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Ocean Powered Compressed Air Stations.png Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Power Plant Inc Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber - Submerged Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 4 Proof of Concept Technology Description The Ocean Powered Compressed Air Station is a point absorber that uses an air pump to force air to a landbased generator The device only needs 4m water depth and electricity production fluctations through storing energy at a constant air pressure Technology Dimensions Device Testing Date Submitted 13:16.5 << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from

344

Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Air Pollution Control Code (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Fuel Distributor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Arkansas Air Pollution Control code is adopted pursuant to Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101). ) By authority of the same State law, the Commission has also adopted Regulation 19, Regulations of the Arkansas Plan of Implementation for Air Pollution Control (Regulation 19) and Regulation 26, Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Regulation 26)

345

Thermostat Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...A thermostat metal is a composite material (usually in the form of sheet or strip) that consists of two or more materials bonded together, of which one can be a nonmetal. Because the materials bonded together to form the composite differ in

346

METAL COMPOSITIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

Seybolt, A.U.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

REFRIGERATIONREFRIGERATION ((svsv: Kylteknik): Kylteknik) 424503 E424503 E 20102010 #7#7 --rzrz 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the top of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g Ron Zevenhoven Ã?Ã?bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

348

Process for the disposal of alkali metals  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

Lewis, Leroy C. (Arco, ID)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Steam flow distribution in air-cooled condenser for power plant application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Air-cooled steam condensers are used in arid regions where adequate cooling water is not available or very expensive. In this thesis the effect… (more)

Honing, Werner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, R.L.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

351

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method  

SciTech Connect

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000{degrees}C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000[degrees]C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Water Electrolysis at the Thermodynamic Limit.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Metal oxide catalysts for alkaline water electrolysis were created through cathodic electrodeposition and the deposition variables were explored. It was discovered that the use… (more)

Merrill, Matthew D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

Chaiko, D.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

Chaiko, D.J.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

358

Meeting the Air Leakage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting the Air Leakage Meeting the Air Leakage Requirements of the 2012 IECC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The newest edition of the International Energy Conservation Code ® (IECC) (2012) sets the bar higher for energy efficiency, and new air sealing requirements are one of the key new provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the new air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these new measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, Best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code (IRC) requirements are referenced throughout the guide.

359

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is ?open. ? An open air intake water heater is assigned theof air intake, physical size and load profile of the waterwater heater does not consume a fossil fuel, the air-intake

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

300 Water Heaters: 25 - 100 Tankless Water Heaters: 100 Heat Pump Water Heater: 300 Air SealingAttic Insulation: Up to 300 Energy Star Home Performance: 33.3% of cost up to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA) Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA) Agency/Company /Organization: ICLEI Sector: Climate Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Buildings, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, - Anaerobic Digestion, Ground Source Heat Pumps, - Solar Hot Water, - Solar PV, Wind, Transportation, Forestry, People and Policy, Water Conservation, Offsets and Certificates, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Resource Type: Software/modeling tools, Guide/manual User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.icleiusa.org/action-center/tools/cappa-decision-support-tool/

362

METAL MEDIA FILTERS, AG-1 SECTION FI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One application of metal media filters is in various nuclear air cleaning processes including applications for protecting workers, the public and the environment from hazardous and radioactive particles. To support this application the development of the ASME AG-1 FI Standard on Metal Media has been under way for more than ten years. Development of the proposed section has required resolving several difficult issues associated with operating conditions (media velocity, pressure drop, etc.), qualification testing, and quality acceptance testing. Performance characteristics of metal media are dramatically different than the glass fiber media with respect to parameters like differential pressures, operating temperatures, media strength, etc. These differences make existing data for a glass fiber media inadequate for qualifying a metal media filter for AG-1. In the past much work has been conducted on metal media filters at facilities such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to qualify the media as High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters. Particle retention testing has been conducted at Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility and at Air Techniques International (ATI) to prove that the metal media meets or exceeds the 99.97% particle retention required for a HEPA Filter. Even with his testing, data was lacking to complete an AG-1 FI Standard on metal media. With funding secured by Mississippi State University (MSU) from National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a research test stand is being designed and fabricated at MSU's Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) Facility to obtain qualification data on metal media. This in turn will support required data needed for the FI Standard. The paper will discuss in detail how the test stand at MSU will obtain the necessary data to complete the FI Standard.

Adamson, D.

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Energy Conservation in Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Energy Conservation in Metals. Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and ...

364

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

366

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable emissions standards and...

367

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DEEP Air Management Department Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Division Environmental Protection Division; Bureau of Air Management Address 79 Elm Street Place...

368

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Air Shower Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro [Centro de Tecnologias de Informacion y Comunicaciones, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru); Araya, Ignacio J. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Knapp, Johannes [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Air heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM METAL BY CARBON REDUCTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of uranium metal by the carbon reduction of an oxide of uranium is described. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a charge composed of carbon and uranium oxide is heated to a solid mass after which it is further heated under vacuum to a temperature of about 2000 deg C to produce a fused uranium metal. Slowly ccoling the fused mass produces a dendritic structure of uranium carbide in uranium metal. Reacting the solidified charge with deionized water hydrolyzes the uranium carbide to finely divide uranium dioxide which can be separated from the coarser uranium metal by ordinary filtration methods.

Holden, R.B.; Powers, R.M.; Blaber, O.J.

1959-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industry trends toward stringent indoor air quality codes, spearheaded by ASHRAE 62-89: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, present four challenges to the building industry in hot and humid climates: 1. Infusion of large quantities of make-up air to code based on zone requirements 2. Maintenance of tight wet bulb and dry bulb temperature tolerances within zones based on use 3. Energy management and cost containment 4. Control of mold and mildew and the damage they cause Historically, total air management of sensible and latent heat, filtration and zone pressure was brought about through the implementation of non-integrated, composite systems. Composite systems typically are built up of multi-vendor equipment each of which perform specific, independent functions in the total control of the indoor air environment. Composite systems have a high up-front cost, are difficult to maintain and are costly to operate. Today, emerging technologies allow the implementation of fully integrated system for total building air management. These systems provide a single-vendor solution that is cost effective to purchase, maintain and operate. Operating saving of 23% and ROIs of 2.3 years have been shown. Equipment specification is no longer based primarily on total building load. Maximum benefits of these dynamic systems are realized when systems are designed with a total operating strategy in mind. This strategy takes into consideration every factor of building air management including: 1. Control of sensible heat 2. Balance management of heat rejection 3. Latent heat management 4. Control of process hot water 5. Indoor air quality management 6. Containment of energy consumption 7. Load shedding

Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Feature - Lithium-air Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Develop Lithium-Air Battery Li-air Li-air batteries hold the promise of increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries by as much as five to 10 times. But that potential will...

374

Air Carrier Flight Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and ...

Midkif, Alan H.

375

AIR RESOURCES BOARD Acknowledgements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared with the assistance and support from other agencies, divisions and offices of the Air Resources Board, and private firms. Staff would especially like to thank the following individuals for their assistance in developing this proposed pathway:

Green Wastes; Green Wastes; Richard Corey; Deputy Executive Officer; Cynthia Marvin Chief; Michael Waugh Chief; Kamal Ahuja; Brian Helmowski; Wes Ingram; Ray Asregadoo (arb; Juliet Bohn (hwma; Richard Boyd (arb; Alicia Chakrabarthy (ebmud; Steven Cliff (arb; Kevin Dickison (ebmud; Jacques Franco (calrecycle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have an air economizer cycle for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. During the economizer cycle, the outside air and return air dampers are modulated to seek mixing air temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control. Actually the dehumidification is not necessary when outside air dew point is less than 55°F. Meanwhile the space may have less cooling load due to envelope heat loss and/or occupant schedule. These provide an opportunity to use higher supply air temperature to reduce or eliminate mechanical cooling and terminal box reheat. On the other hand the higher supply air temperature will require higher air flow as well as higher fan power. Therefore the supply air temperature has to be optimized to minimize the combined energy for fan, cooling and heating energy. In this paper a simple energy consumption model is established for AHU systems during the economizer and then a optimal supply air temperature control is developed to minimize the total cost of the mechanical cooling and the fan motor power. This paper presents AHU system energy modeling, supply air temperature optimization, and simulated energy savings.

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

An Air-Sea Interaction Model for Cold-Air Outbreaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional dry model for the atmosphere is coupled with a two-dimensional primitive equation model for the ocean to investigate how cold fronts interact with the Gulf Stream and its adjacent waters during cold-air outbreaks. The ...

Shenn-Yu Chao

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Category: NEPA Resources...

380

FREE AIR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Indenter gages, Wiancko gages, and interferometer gages were used to measure air overpressure vs time at essentially ground level stations for both the surface (S) and undprground (U) atomic explosions. For the S Burst several instruments were placed on a line extending from an overpressure region of 13 psi to a region of less than one psi. The air measurements for the U Burst ranged from 32 to 2 psi. (D. L.G.)

Howard, W.J.; Jones, R.D.

1952-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

THE LIQUID METAL LINEAR GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In the utilization of nuclear heat energy, liquid metal could be used in a vapor cycle to propel a column of liquid metal in a jet pump or injector where electrical energy could be extracted by means of a MHD arrangement. The recirculating system is being studied as a means of increasing the efficiency. Results are described briefly for a preliminary run made using steam and water; the efficiency of conversion of steam kinetic energy to liquid kinetic energy was approximates 20%. The possible causes of the low efficiency and some of the methods for decreasing hydraulic losses are outlined. (D.L.C.)

Sowa, E.S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Characteristics of ashes from different locations at the MSW incinerator equipped with various air pollution control devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characteristics of ashes from different locations at a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) equipped with a water spray tower (WST) as a cooling system, and a spray dryer adsorber (SDA), a bag filter (BF) and a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) as air pollution control devices (APCD) was investigated to provide the basic data for further treatment of ashes. A commercial MSWI with a capacity of 100 tons per day was selected. Ash was sampled from different locations during the normal operation of the MSWI and was analyzed to obtain chemical composition, basicity, metal contents and leaching behavior of heavy metals. Basicity and pH of ash showed a broad range between 0.08-9.07 and 3.5-12.3, respectively. Some major inorganics in ash were identified and could affect the basicity. This could be one of the factors to determine further treatment means. Partitioning of hazardous heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cr, Hg and Cd was investigated. Large portions of Hg and Cd were emitted from the furnace while over 90% of Pb, Cu and Cr remained in bottom ash. However 54% of Hg was captured by WST and 41% by SDA/BF and 3.6% was emitted through the stack, while 81.5% of Cd was captured by SDA/BF. From the analysis data of various metal contents in ash and leach analysis, such capturing of metal was confirmed and some heavy metals found to be easily released from ash. Based on the overall characteristics of ash in different locations at the MSWI during the investigation, some considerations and suggestions for determining the appropriate treatment methods of ash were made as conclusions.

Song, Geum-Ju; Kim, Ki-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Sam-Cwan

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Lansing Board of Water & Light - Hometown Energy Savers® Residential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-50 HID Replacement Fixtures: 25-120 HID Replacement Lamps: 0.30watt saved HVAC and Process Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: 6-30ton Air and Water Cooled Chillers:...

385

Lansing Board of Water & Light - Hometown Energy Savers Commercial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

30-50 HID Replacement Fixtures: 25-120 HID Replacement Lamps: 0.30watt saved HVAC and Process Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: 6-30ton Air and Water Cooled Chillers:...

386

Thermodynamic approach to glass-forming ability of water-quenched Pd-P-based and Pt{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}P{sub 25} bulk metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect

Despite its importance, a thermodynamic approach to determining the glass-forming ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glass (BMG) remains a goal to be achieved. We examined the GFA of water-quenched Pd-P-based and Pt{sub 60}Ni{sub 15}P{sub 25} BMG's in which their molten alloys were sufficiently treated with a dehydrated B{sub 2}O{sub 3} flux prior to and during quenching to room temperature. This allowed us to envisage the applicability of the classical steady-state homogeneous nucleation theory because the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation worked effectively. GFA was examined by comparing the critical cooling rate R{sub c}{sup h} for glass formation with the maximum diameter d{sub max} of glass. To calculate R{sub c}{sup h}, the homogeneous nucleation rate I{sub ss}(T), and the growth rate u{sub c}(T) were estimated as functions of the undercooling temperature of molten alloys. Then, the free energy difference {Delta}G{sub L-x}(T) between the liquid and crystalline phases, and the viscosity {eta}(T) of the liquid were experimentally determined while the surface energy {sigma}{sub sL}(T) at the liquid-nucleus interface was estimated by calculation. The d{sub max} of rod BMG's correlated strongly to R{sub c}{sup h} through the relation R{sub c}{sup h} {approx_equal}d{sub max}{sup -3}/10 mm{sup 3} Ks{sup -1}.

Haruyama, O.; Watanabe, T.; Yuki, K.; Horiuchi, M. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Kato, H. [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nishiyama, N. [RIMCOF Tohoku University Laboratory, The Materials Process Technology Center, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

388

InAir: sharing indoor air quality measurements and visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes inAir, a tool for sharing measurements and visualizations of indoor air quality within one's social network. Poor indoor air quality is difficult for humans to detect through sight and smell alone and can contribute to the development ... Keywords: air quality, domestic technology, environment, health, iphone, persuasive technology, sensors, sustainability

Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Hot tips on water heating  

SciTech Connect

Water-heater manufacturers responded to the call for energy conservation with innovations and efficiency standards for the home, business, and plant. Conventional tank-type water heaters offer better design and insulation, but the heat-pump water heater offers the highest efficiency. Available in add-on units and integral units, they now represent up to 40% of manufacturers' sales. Other advances are the desuperheater devices which recapture air-conditioner waste heat, solar-water-heating systems, instantaneous water heaters, and industrial heat-recovery systems for process water. 1 figure. (DCK)

Forker, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Attic Air Sealing Guidelines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Terminology Terminology Air Barrier Material (ABM) --- A does not allow air to pass throu plywood/OSB, foam board, duc lumber. Backing --- Any material that s be sprayed so as to provide an glass batts. Baffle (B) --- Manufactured chu direct ventilation air flow up an foam board or cardboard. Thermal Blocking --- Any rigid heat sources like chimneys or metal and gypsum board. Fasteners --- Staples, screws o

391

Removal of Xenon and Krypton from Air Using Metal Organic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... two gases is cryogenic distillation which is an energy-intensive process. ... Determining Thermal Conductivity of Simulated Feed for High Level Waste Glass.

392

Reactive Air Brazing: Method of Joining Ceramic and Metal ...  

Computers & Electronics; Consumer Products; Energy & Utilities; Manufacturing & Warehousing; Publication(s) Brazing as a means of sealing ...

393

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

395

Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980-June 30, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600/sup 0/C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was possible and the necessary relevant data to accomplish this is presented, as well as insight into the corresponding electrochemical mechanisms associated with the electroactive species. The influence of each atmospheric component was examined separately. At temperatures above 300/sup 0/C, nitrite ions are found to accumulate due to thermal decomposition of the nitrate. Water is highly soluble in the salt mixture, but no hydrolytic reactions were observed. Two methods of in situ analysis for water are described. Pure carbon dioxide is found to attack the melt at all temperatures above 250/sup 0/C producing carbonate. (LEW)

White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide" provides fossil plant personnel with information on the operation and maintenance of the compressed air system. The contents of this guide will assist personnel in improving performance of the compressed air system, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing air system reliability.

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solar Buildings: Transpired Air Collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transpired air collectors preheat building ventilation air by using the building's ventilation fan to draw fresh air through the system. The intake air is heated as it passes through the perforated absorber plate and up the plenum between the absorber and the south wall of the building. Reduced heating costs will pay for the systems in 3--12 years.

NONE

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACM Manual will derate tankless water heater performance by multiplying the rated EF by a 0.92 factor performance of water heaters. These measures include: · Air release valve to prevent pump cavitating · Check to allow air bleeding of the system In addition to the new install

399

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description Many geothermal power plants in the U.S. are air-cooled because of water limitations. NREL has worked with industry to explore various strategies for boosting the performance of air coolers in hot weather. Computer modeling and experimental measurements have been done on the use of evaporative media upstream of the air-cooled condensers at the Mammoth Lakes Power Plant. NREL has also analyzed the use of an air-cooled condenser in series with (i.e., upstream of) a water-cooled condenser and found that this can be beneficial for power cycles requiring desuperheating of the turbine exhaust vapor. Recently, the conventional power industry has developed an interest in operating water- and air-cooled condensers in parallel. This arrangement allows a small water cooler to reduce the heat transfer duty on the air cooler on hot summer days thereby allowing the condensing working fluid to make a much closer approach to the air dry bulb temperature.

400

Metallic Power Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metallic Power Inc Metallic Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Metallic Power Inc Place Carlsbad, California Zip CA 92009- Product Metallic Power, which closed down in September 2004, was focused on remote and distributed power solutions based on zinc-air fuel cell technology. Coordinates 31.60396°, -100.641609° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.60396,"lon":-100.641609,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Air Charter Services  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

42.2 (April 2012) 42.2 (April 2012) 1 Documentation and Approval of Federally Funded International Travel (Fly America Act-Open Skies Agreement) Overview This section provides guidance to DOE Contracting Officers, Contracting Officer Representatives, and Program Officials on documentation and approval of federally funded international travel by Federal contractors and subcontractors in accordance with FAR 52.247-63 PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003), 49 U.S.C. §40118 (Fly America Act) and the Open Skies Agreements as amended. Background Contracts that include FAR clause 52.247-63, PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003) as prescribed in FAR 47.405 require that, if available, the Contractor (and subcontractors), in performing work under the contract, shall use U.S.-flag air carriers for

403

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor, Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Inverter ...

406

Solar air collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system including a radiant heat collector apparatus made up of an enclosure having glazed panels. The collector provided within the enclosure is upstanding with the enclosure and the collector has heat absorbent flat walls spaced inwardly from the glazed panels. A heat storage core is provided centrally within the collector and spaced from the walls of the collector. The heat storage core includes an insulated housing and a heat retaining member within the insulated housing. Air passageways are formed between the collector walls and the insulated housing for passing input air, and duct members are provided for communicating with a household.

Deschenes, D.; Misrahi, E.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy consumption. Both reset strategies make engineering sense as long as the reset schedules are reasonable. Quite often the decision to use one over the other is made with the assumption that they will all achieve some sorts of energy savings. However, the impact of these two strategies on AHU energy consumption could be very different. A comparison of these two commonly used supply air temperature reset strategies for a single-duct constant air volume system is presented in this paper. It is shown that from either the building energy consumption or building comfort point of view, the reset strategy based on outside air temperature is inherently better than that based on return air temperature. Significant amount of heating energy savings can be achieved by switching from return air temperature based reset to outside air temperature based reset. The reset strategy can also benefit variable air volume (VAV) AHUs. An improved supply air temperature set point reset control strategy is proposed by combining and staging the outside air and return air temperature based resets.

Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 3 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical degradation of aqueous glycol solutions was monitored during stagnant exposure at temperatures of 100 C and 180 C. Changes in corrosivity of the solutions toward alloys of construction in solar collectors were also determined. The solutions consisted of equivolume mixtures of reagent grade ethylene glycol and water, and propylene glycol and water. The water was either distilled/deionized, or a mildy corrosive solution containing 100 ppM each of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions. The solutions were exposed with and without contact with metals, these metals being unalloyed copper (CA 122), 1018 steel, and aluminum alloys 1100, 3003, and 6061. Either air or nitrogen was purged through the solutions at 100 C, whereas for solutions at 180 C the autoclave head space was filled with air or nitrogen prior to sealing the autoclave. Degradation was measured by noting changes in solution pH and accumulation of organic acids during prolonged elevated temperature exposures. Changes in corrosivity were measured in terms of weight loss, polarization resistance, and pit depth on metal coupons suspended in the solutions during exposure.

Beavers, J A; Salmons, L A; Diegle, R B

1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

409

Plasmonic solar water splitting.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of the optoelectronic effects of plasmonic metal nanoparticles on semiconductors has led to compelling evidence for plasmon-enhanced water splitting. We review the relevant physics, device geometries, and research progress in this area. We focus on localized surface plasmons and their effects on semiconductors, particularly in terms of energy transfer, scattering, and hot electron transfer.

Warren, S. C.; Thimsen, E. (Materials Science Division); (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne); (Northwestern Univ.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation-Air Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture and use of Coal Mine Capture and use of Coal Mine Ventilation - air Methane Background Methane emissions from coal mines represent about 10 percent of the U.S. anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. Methane-the second most important non-water greenhouse gas-is 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in its global warming potential. Ventilation-air methane (VAM)-the exhaust air from underground coal mines-is the largest source of coal mine methane, accounting for about half of the methane emitted from coal mines in the United States. Unfortunately, because of the low methane concentration (0.3-1.5 percent) in ventilation air, its beneficial use is difficult. However, oxidizing the methane to CO 2 and water reduces its global warming potential by 87 percent. A thermal

411

Metallic Glass II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 8, 2013 ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: ... of the metallic glasses during heating is dependent on the thermal stability of ...

412

Light Metals 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2010 ... Softcover book: Light Metals 2008 Volume 2: Aluminum Reduction. Hardcover book and CD-ROM: Light Metals 2009 ...

413

Bulk Metallic Glasses IX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of elements to form metallic-glass alloys] have resulted in the required cooling rate ... Bauschinger Effect in Metallic Glass Nanowires under Cyclic Loading.

414

Bulk Metallic Glasses XI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013 ... A Bulk Metallic Glass with Record-breaking Damage Tolerance ... Oxidation on the Surface Characteristics of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses.

415

Principal Metals Online  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic Title: WEB RESOURCE: Principal Metals Online Topic Summary: Principal Metals inventory database. Created On: 2/9/2007 5:41 AM, Topic View:.

416

Refractory Metals Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refractory Metals Committee is part of the Structural Materials Division. Our Mission: Includes all technical aspects of the science of refractory metals and ...

417

PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

°F for removing heat from the condenser and absorber coils.temperature. Air-cooled condensers and absorbers are limitedfor water- cooling the condenser was an overriding concern

Dao, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Hexane Air Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Air-cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

Howard, A.G.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

420

Winter Morning Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of temperature measurements, which may be applied to inference of winter temperatures in data-sparse areas, are presented. The morning air temperatures during three winters were measured at 80 places in a 10 km × 30 km area along the ...

A. Hogan; M. Ferrick

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Air Proportional Counter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

Simpson, J.A. Jr.

1950-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Performance calculations and research direction for a water enhanced regenerative gas turbine cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cycle has been conceived that combines compressor cooling, humidification, and regenerative air heating with the added enhancement of direct injection of water into the air flow. In this cycle it is proposed that a fine mist of water be injected into the compressor air stream and a spray or film of water into the regenerator air stream. Water injection into the compressor air flow realizes several benefits: it cools the air flow, reducing the power required for compression and increasing the potential for exhaust heat recovery; it adds mass to the air stream, increasing the power produced by expansion; and it reduces the amount of cooling bleed air required by increasing the specific heat and decreasing the temperature of the cooling air stream. The greatest benefit would be derived from spraying a fine mist of water directly into the existing air flow into or before the compressor so that cooling and compression would occur simultaneously. This may be accomplished by entraining the water droplets in the inlet air flow or by introducing the water in stages during compression. An alternative and less technically challenging approach is to extract the air stream to a saturation chamber and then reintroduce the air stream into the compressor. This approach is not as desirable because it would increase the equipment cost and add a significant pressure drop penalty. The second use of water in this cycle is in water-assisted regeneration.

Rogers, L.H. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Archer, D.H. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Oxidation, volatilization, and redistribution of molybdenum from TZM alloy in air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, MoO{sub 3}(m), in air and the hydroxide, MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report the authors present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800 C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO{sub 3}(g) over pure solid MoO{sub 3} and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, G.R.; Petti, D.A.; McCarthy, K.A.; Schuetz, S.T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Oxidation, Volatilization, and Redistribution of Molybdenum from TZM Alloy in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The excellent high temperature strength and thermal conductivity of molybdenum-base alloys provide attractive features for components in advanced magnetic and inertial fusion devices. Refractory metal alloys react readily with oxygen and other gases. Oxidized molybdenum in turn is susceptible to losses from volatile molybdenum trioxide species, (MoO3)m, in air and the hydroxide, MoO2(OH)2, formed from water vapor. Transport of radioactivity by the volatilization, migration, and re-deposition of these volatile species during a potential accident involving a loss of vacuum or inert environment represents a safety issue. In this report we present experimental results on the oxidation, volatilization and re-deposition of molybdenum from TZM in flowing air between 400 and 800°C. These results are compared with calculations obtained from a vaporization mass transfer model using chemical thermodynamic data for vapor pressures of MoO3(g) over pure solid MoO3 and an expression for the vapor pressures of MoO2(OH)2 from the literature. Calculations correlate well with experimental data.

Smolik, Galen Richard; Petti, David Andrew; Mccarthy, Kathryn Ann; Schuetz, Stanley Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Inlet Air Chillers for Gas Turbine Capacity Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information and analysis to help power generation engineers assess the cost-effectiveness of using inlet air chillers to increase the net output capacity of combustion turbine and combined cycle generating units. It also provides an analysis of integrating the storage of chilled water or ice with the inlet air cooling system as a means of energy storage. This report provides new and updated information and analysis, building on information from previous Electric Power Research ...

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas) Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas) Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Retail Supplier Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Regulations of the Arkansas Air Operating Program are adopted in accordance with the provisions of Part UU of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act, Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101, and will be referred to in this description as "program", "regulations" and "regulation No. 26". The regulations are intended to meet the requirements of title of

428

Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

Riley, John F. (Menominee, MI); Stauffer, Edgar Eugene (Wallace, MI)

1976-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

429

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

430

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

431

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

432

ARM Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Validation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Validation D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. D. Knuteson, and D. D. Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin B. M. Lesht Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois L. Strow University of Maryland College Park, Maryland C. Barnet Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology Baltimore, Maryland E. Fetzer National Aeronautics Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California Introduction The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is a high spectral resolution infrared sounder on the earth observing plan (EOS) Aqua platform. Temperature and water vapor profile retrievals from AIRS are

433

Process for making silver metal filaments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making silver metal particles from silver salt particles having the same morphology. Precursor silver salt particles selected from the group consisting of silver acetate and silver sulfide having a selected morphology are contained in a reactor vessel having means for supporting the particles in an air suspension to prevent the agglomeration of the particles. Air is flowed through the reactor vessel at a flow rate sufficient to suspend the particles in the reactor vessel. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are heated to a processing temperature and at a heating rate below which the physical deterioration of the suspended precursor silver salt particles takes place. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are maintained at the processing temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the particles into silver metal particles having the same morphology as the precursor silver salt particles.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Condensate Water Collection for an Institutional Building in Doha, Qatar: An Opportunity for Water Sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In almost all modern buildings today, HVAC equipment is used to provide a conditioned indoor environment while using large amounts of energy to cool, filter, and dehumidify the air in these structures. This is especially true for buildings located in hot and humid climates around the world. International engineering organizations, such as ASHRAE, have developed indoor air quality standards which stipulate substantial requirements for fresh outside air to be introduced into a building’s air conditioning system. Internal loads and additional outside ventilation air all generate considerable latent loads on these systems and exacerbate the already difficult moisture control problem. A manifestation of this load is the liquid water condensate that is typically drained away from the air conditioning equipment and routed to the nearest sanitary drain. This project investigated sustainability issues associated with the collection and storage of this condensate water from selected air conditioning equipment for an institutional building located on the Education City Campus in Doha, Qatar. Simplified modeling of the condensation potential from the existing air conditioning systems, means for tapping into existing condensate drainage systems for re-routing to a storage facility, metering of collected condensate water, and potential impact for this water capture and re-use technique were studied. This project demonstrated the potential to capture over 6 million liters (1.6 million gallons) of condensate water each year from the air conditioning systems for this building.

Bryant, J. A.; Ahmed, T.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Plasma torch with liquid metal electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to eliminate the negative effect of erosion processes on electrodes in arc plasma generators, a new scheme of arc discharge was proposed in which the surface of a molten metal acts as electrodes. A plasma reactor was designed on the basis of this concept. The electrophysical characteristics of such a discharge in steam and air as plasma gases were studied. Experiments on destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls and steam coal gasification were performed.

Predtechenskii, M.R.; Tukhto, O.M. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ionizing wet scrubber for air pollution control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air pollution control equipment manufacturers are continually developing sophisticated systems designed to dramatically reduce plant emissions. One such system, the ionizing wet scrubber (IWS), has demonstrated outstanding air pollution control characteristics while meeting the challenge of energy efficiency. The IWS system removes fine solid and liquid particulate down to 0.05 micron at high collection efficiencies and low energy comsumption. It also simultaneously removes noxious, corrosive and odor-bearing gases from flue gas streams as well as coarse particulate matter above 1 micron in diameter. Due to its simplified design and low pressure drop, operating energy costs of the IWS are only a fraction of those for alternative air pollution control equipment. Pressure drop through a single-stage IWS is only 0.5 to 1.5 in. Water (125 to 374 pa) column and is controlled primarily by pressure drop through the wet scrubber section. Total system energy usage is approximately 2.0-2.5 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min (0.7-0.9 kw/m/sup 3//min) for a single-stage IWS and 4.0-5.0 bhp/1,000 actual ft/sup 3//min for a two-stage installation. These energy requirements represent a significant savings as opposed to other air pollution control systems such as Venturi scrubbers.

Sheppard, S.V.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Precious Metals Conversion Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precious Metals Conversion Information. The Office of Weights and Measures (OWM) has prepared a Conversion Factors ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air water metals" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Corrosion of valve metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized. (FS)

Draley, J.E.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

Magel, T.T.

1958-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ceramic to metal seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

Snow, Gary S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcox, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

445

Judging Air Quality Model Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on air quality modeling, a small group of scientists was convened to review and recommend procedures to evaluate the performance of air quality models. Particular ...

Douglas G. Fox

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However, they have a higher manufacturing cost and lower thermal efficiency, especially when high temperature air is needed. For this reason, a direct air heater applicable for or feed and industrial raw products is put forward, which has advantages such as less production cost, smaller dimensions and higher thermal efficiency. Their design, working principles, characteristics, structure and applications are presented in this article, and brief comparisons are made between the indirect and direct air heater. Finally, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium.

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

448

Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

449

Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly ...

Douglas G. Fox

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method of recovery of alkali-metal constituents from coal-conversion residues. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal gasification operation or similar conversion process is carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst producing char particles containing alkali metal residues. Alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by burning the particles to increase their size and density and then leaching the particles of increased size and density with water, to extract the water-soluble alkali metal constituents.

Not Available

1981-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider adoption of the Proposed Airborne Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) to Reduce Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products. The proposed ATCM would reduce the public’s current exposure to formaldehyde by reducing emissions from hardwood plywood (HWPW), particleboard (PB) and medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels. The ATCM would also apply to finished goods made with these materials.

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

454

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

455

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

456

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

457

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Viscous Sublayer Below a Wind-Disturbed Water Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drift currents immediately below the water surface were systematically measured in a circulating wind-wave tank. The results confirmed the existence of a viscous sublayer at the air–water interface, with the current varying linearly with depth ...

Jin Wu

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method of making water gas  

SciTech Connect

The process of manufacturing water gas by alternate air and steam blasting is discussed. The process consists in providing two separate fuel beds of bituminous fuel in two intercommunicating water-gas generators; hot air blasting from the top part of the fuel bed in one generator to the top portion of the other fuel bed in the second generator; and blasting from the bottom part of the fuel bed in the first generator to the bottom part of the fuel bed in the second generator. By evolving volatile matter in the fuel bed in the first generator, and introducing secondary air between the fuel beds to burn the volatile matter and thereby facilitate the carbonization of raw fuel and to store heat in the fuel bed in the second generator, generation of water gas by steam blasting the heated fuel beds will result.

Evans, O.B.

1931-06-02T23:59:59.000Z