National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air toxic emissions

  1. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  2. ABB`s investigations into air toxic emissions from fossil fuel and MSW combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Since passage of the Clean Air Act, Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has been actively developing a knowledge base on the Title 3 hazardous air pollutants, more commonly called air toxics. As ABB is a multinational company, US operating companies are able to call upon work performed by European counterparts, who have faced similar legislation several years ago. In addition to the design experience and database acquired in Europe, ABB Inc. has been pursuing several other avenues to expand its air toxics knowledge. ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) is presently studying the formation of organic pollutants within the combustion furnace and partitioning of trace metals among the furnace outlet streams. ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) has reviewed available and near-term control technologies and methods. Also, both ABB CE and ABBES have conducted source sampling and analysis at commercial installations for hazardous air pollutants to determine the emission rates and removal performance of various types of equipment. Several different plants hosted these activities, allowing for variation in fuel type and composition, boiler configuration, and air pollution control equipment. This paper discusses the results of these investigations.

  3. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  4. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  5. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  6. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  7. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  8. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Precombustion control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.J.; Harrison, C.; Nowak, M.; Toole-O`Neil, B.

    1996-12-31

    If regulation of hazardous air pollutant emissions from utility boilers occurs in the next few years, the least-cost, lowest-risk control method for many utilities is likely to be some form of coal cleaning. Approximately 75 percent of coal mined east of the Mississippi River is already cleaned before it is used by the electric utility industry. Current methods of coal cleaning reduce ash and sulfur content by removing ash-forming and sulfur-bearing minerals; these same methods have the capability to remove large amounts of most of the 14 elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act.

  10. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  12. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  13. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic ...

  15. Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Emission Samples Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute 2003_deer_mauderly.pdf (71.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Relationship Between

  16. PNNL: About: Air Emissions (Radioactive) Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from unacceptable risks resulting from its operations. These reports document PNNL Campus and Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) radionuclide air emissions that result in the...

  17. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  18. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  1. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  2. Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions The Lab measures air emissions through a comprehensive system of ...

  3. Air Quality/Emissions Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air QualityEmissions Resources Air QualityEmissions Resources Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the ...

  4. Advanced regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology for air toxics control - selected case histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiwert, J.J. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Advanced design regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) systems have been developed and are in commercial scale use for control of process emissions containing air toxics (HAPs) and VOCs. High operating temperatures coupled with high thermal energy recovery efficiencies inherent with RTO technology provide for high destruction efficiencies while minimizing formation of objectionable combustion byproducts. These results are achieved with low system operating costs. This paper covers development of advanced design commercial RTO systems for control of air emissions from several important commercial processes: total reduced sulfur (TRS) and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pulp mill processes. Chlorinated organics and other HAPs/VOC emissions from pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. The data presented represent the first commercial scale application of RTO technology to abate emissions from these processes. Particular design features required for each specific process, in order to provide reliable, safe and effective systems, are reviewed. Emissions abatement performance, as well as operational data, are presented for the systems.

  5. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  6. Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant...

  7. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted ...

  8. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  9. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  11. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx emissions (as much as 70%) with just a 2% nitrogen enrichment of intake air PDF icon air_separation_membranes

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  13. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  14. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  15. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  16. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  17. Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions Los Alamos achieves 20-year low on radioactive air emissions The Lab measures air emissions through a comprehensive system of 40 air monitoring stations located at the Laboratory and in neighboring communities. September 11, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable

  18. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  19. Colorado Air Pollutant Emission Notice (APEN) Form | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Department of Public Health and Environment of the construction of a new source of pollution. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Air Pollutant Emission Notice &...

  20. Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster describes an air path control concept, which minimizes NOx and PM emission variance while having the ability to run reliably with many different sensor configurations.

  1. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 1993 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the 1993 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to commence the preparation of the permit to operate application for the INEL, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL and provides emissions estimates for both mobile and stationary sources.

  2. Attempt to estimate measurement uncertainty in the Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zettlemoyer, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model that predicts plumes, concentrations, and hazard distances of toxic chemical spills. A measurement uncertainty propagation formula derived by Freeman et al. (1986) is used within AFTOX to estimate resulting concentration uncertainties due to the effects of data input uncertainties in wind speed, spill height, emission rate, and the horizontal and vertical Gaussian dispersion parameters, and the results are compared to true uncertainties as estimated by standard deviations computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The measurement uncertainty uncertainty propagation formula was found to overestimate measurement uncertainty in AFTOX-calculated concentrations by at least 350 percent, with overestimates worsening with increasing stability and/or increasing measurement uncertainty.

  3. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles | Department of Energy Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_mauderly.pdf (324.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples

  4. Summary of EPA Final Rules for Air Toxic Standards for Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This summary of EPA Final Rules for Air Toxic Standards for Industrial, Commercial, and ... December 2012 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - ...

  5. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  6. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  7. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

  8. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  9. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  10. Developing an emission factor for hazardous air pollutants for an F-16 using JP-8 fuel. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Schaack, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments drastically changed the legislation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics. Title 3 of the act which specifically addresses HAPs now lists 189 substances which may require regulation as air toxics. Consequently, the reporting of HAP emissions from all Air Force operations will be required in the future. However, the Department of Defense (DoD) does not have methods available to report this information. This thesis develops emission factors for selected HAPs from an F-16 CD aircraft/F110 engine operating on JP-8 fuel. The methodology included: determining which HAPs should be selected, using past aircraft emission studies to estimate HAP concentrations for the F110 engine using JP-8 fuel selecting an emission factor formula to calculate emission factors for each HAP, testing the developed emission factors on an airfield operation. The estimated emission factors for each HAP for the F110 engine are low for all engine modes mainly because the F110 is a newer engine with high combustion efficiency. The resultant emission inventory shows that many HAPs would be classified as major sources under current Title 3 legislation. Thus, it is important to assess airfield operations to ensure they remain in compliance with the upcoming Title 3 legislation.

  11. Discussion of ``Comparison of air emissions from waste management facilities``

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The analysis of emissions from landfills is questioned. Why are the emissions estimated compared on a peak-year rather that on a life-cycle basis? The authors reply that unlike most traditional air pollutant sources, the annual emissions of landfill gas vary markedly, depending on the pace of MSW decomposition over the years. The peak-year emission rate projected over the landfill`s lifetime is what is compared to regulatory emission thresholds to determine whether Title V permitting, etc. applies.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1998-06-01

    Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants submittal -- 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report focuses on air quality at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for 1994. A general description of the effluent sources are presented. Each potential source of NTS emissions was characterized by one of the following: (1) by monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at NTS; (2) by a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclides are released to the environment; (3) by the measurement of tritiated water concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) by using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. Appendices A through J describe the methods used to determine the emissions from the sources. These National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) emissions are very conservative, are used to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the Maximally Exposed Individual offsite, and exceed, in some cases, those reported in DOE`s Effluent Information System (EIS). The NESHAP`s worst-case emissions that exceed the EIS reported emissions are noted. Offsite environmental surveillance data are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative.

  14. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  15. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District

  16. Air Emission, Liquid Effluent Inventory and Reporting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-08-18

    The IES maintains an inventory of radiological air and liquid effluents released to the atmosphere. The IES utilizes the official stack numbers. Data may be entered by generators for any monitoring time period. Waste volumes released as well as their radiological constituents are tracked. The IES provides data to produce a report for NESHAPS as well as several administrative action/anomaly reports. These reports flag unusual occurences (releases) that are above normal range releases.

  17. WAC 173-460 - Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    73-460 - Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC 173-460 -...

  18. Effect of low emission sources on air quality in Cracow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedoma, J.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents calculation of power engineering low emission and results of stimulation of the effect of this emission on air quality in Cracow, Poland. It has been stated that the segment of low emission in central areas of the town makes up ca. 40% of the observed concentration of sulfur dioxide. Furthermore it has been stated that the capital investment must be concentrated in the central part of the town in order to reach noticeable improvement of air quality in Cracow. Neither the output of a separate power source nor the emission level and its individual harmful effect, but the location of the source and especially packing density of the sources must decide the priority of upgrading actions.

  19. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  20. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  1. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  2. Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-04-01

    This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  3. Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Instiitute

  4. Ultra High Efficiency ESP for Fine Particulate and Air Toxics Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Pease, Benjamin R.; Porle, Kjell; Mauritzson, Christer; Haythornthwaite, Sheila

    1997-07-01

    Nearly ninety percent of U.S. coal-fired utility boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Cost effective retrofittable ESP technologies are the only means to accomplish Department of Energy's (DOE) goal of a major reduction in fine particulate and air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Particles in the size range of 0.1 to 5 {micro}m typically escape ESPs. Metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, molybdenum and antimony, concentrate on these particles. This is the main driver for improved fine particulate control. Vapor phase emissions of mercury, selenium and arsenic are also of major concern. Current dry ESPs, which operate at temperatures greater than 280 F, provide little control for vapor phase toxics. The need for inherent improvement to ESPs has to be considered keeping in perspective the current trend towards the use of low sulfur coals. Switching to low sulfur coals is the dominant approach for SO{sub 2} emission reduction in the utility industry. Low sulfur coals generate high resistivity ash, which can cause an undesirable phenomenon called ''back corona.'' Higher particulate emissions occur if there is back corona in the ESP. Results of the pilot-scale testing identified the ''low temperature ESP'' concept to have the biggest impact for the two low sulfur coals investigated. Lowering the flue gas temperature to 220 F provided the maximum impact in terms of decreased emissions. Intermediate operating temperatures (reduction from 340 to 270 F) also gave significant ESP performance improvement. A significant reduction in particulate emissions was also noted when the flue gas humidity was increased (temperature held constant) from the baseline condition for these moderately high resistivity ash coals. Independent control of flue gas humidity and temperature was an important and a notable element in this project. Mercury emissions were also measured as a function of flue gas temperature. Mercury emissions decreased as the flue

  5. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  6. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  7. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.'' Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL.

  8. Radioactive air effluent emission measurements at two research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Burger, M.J.; Holm, C.

    1996-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates two reactors which fall under US Environmental Protection Agency regulations for emission of radionuclides to the ambient air. These reactors are: (1) the Annular Core Research Reactor, a pool-type reactor and (2) the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III, a Godiva-type reactor. The annual radioactive air emissions from these two reactors had been estimated based on engineering calculations and used in the facility Safety Analysis Report. The calculated release rates had never been confirmed through measurements. The purpose of this work was to obtain confirmatory radioactive gas and aerosol concentration measurements for radionuclides in exhaust stacks of these reactors during normal operation; however, the measured production rate of argon-41 was significantly different from the engineering calculations for both reactors. The resolution of this difference is discussed.

  9. Task 2.3 -- Review and assessment of results from the comprehensive characterization of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1997-08-01

    To help meet the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a project entitled ``Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` The Energy and Environmental Research Center was contracted to review reports discussing air toxic emissions from eight power plants as Phase 1 of the project. Additional field tests were planned as Phase 2 and are under way. The objective of the project is to provide an independent review of reports produced from the air toxic emissions study, evaluate the scientific validity of the conclusions, identify significant correlations between emissions and fuel or process parameters, compare the data with available results from Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies, make recommendations for future studies, and complete a combined report that summarizes Phase 1, Phase 2, and EPRI findings.

  10. MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of low-emission development strategies (LEDS). Key Outputs Greenhouse gas and air toxic emissions. How to Use This Tool Training Available Training available at http:...

  11. Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, Michael; Allen, Shannon P.; Archuleta, Debra C.; Brock, Burgandy; Coronado, Melissa A.; Dewart, Jean M.; Eisele, William F. Jr.; Fuehne, David P.; Gadd, Milan S.; Green, Andrew A.; Lujan, Joan J.; MacDonell, Carolyn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-12

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

  12. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  13. On emissions trading, toxic debt and the Australian power market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simshauser, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Implementation of emissions trading will have profound effects on the financial stability of coal generators. While the impact on equity capital is well understood, the potential fallout in the market for project finance is not. During the current global financial crisis, the form and quantum of transitional assistance to coal generators will be crucial to ensure ongoing participation of domestic and foreign project banks in the power markets. (author)

  14. Federal Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized two regulations, the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR, that would reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants in the United States. Both CAIR and CAMR are included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case. The EPA has received 11 petitions for reconsideration of CAIR and has provided an opportunity for public comment on reconsidering certain aspects of CAIR. Public comments were accepted until January 13, 2006. The EPA has also received 14 petitions for reconsideration of CAMR and is willing to reconsider certain aspects of the rule. Public comments were accepted for 45 days after publication of the reconsideration notice in the Federal Register. Several states and organizations have filed lawsuits against CAMR. The ultimate decision of the courts will have a significant impact on the implementation of CAMR.

  15. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  16. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  17. 1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    2000-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  18. 1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Tkachyk

    1999-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  19. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nations site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale background levels or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP

  2. NMAC 20.2.71 Air Quality Operating Permit Emissions Fees | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Air Quality Operating Permit Emissions Fees Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 20.2.71 Air Quality...

  3. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  4. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R.; Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Rokkan, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  5. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P.; Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

  6. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

  7. Air Dispersion Modeling for the INL Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emission Cap Component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondrup, Andrus Jeffrey

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is applying for a synthetic minor, Sitewide, air quality permit to construct (PTC) with a facility emission cap (FEC) component from the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) for Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to limit its potential to emit to less than major facility limits for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) regulated under the Clean Air Act. This document is supplied as an appendix to the application, Idaho National Laboratory Application for a Synthetic Minor Sitewide Air Quality Permit to Construct with a Facility Emissions Cap Component, hereafter referred to as “permit application” (DOE-ID 2015). Air dispersion modeling was performed as part of the permit application process to demonstrate pollutant emissions from the INL will not cause a violation of any ambient air quality standards. This report documents the modeling methodology and results for the air dispersion impact analysis. All CAPs regulated under Section 109 of the Clean Air Act were modeled with the exception of lead (Pb) and ozone, which are not required to be modeled by DEQ. Modeling was not performed for toxic air pollutants (TAPs) as uncontrolled emissions did not exceed screening emission levels for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic TAPs. Modeling for CAPs was performed with the EPA approved AERMOD dispersion modeling system (Version 14134) (EPA 2004a) and five years (2000-2004) of meteorological data. The meteorological data set was produced with the companion AERMET model (Version 14134) (EPA 2004b) using surface data from the Idaho Falls airport, and upper-air data from Boise International Airport supplied by DEQ. Onsite meteorological data from the Grid 3 Mesonet tower located near the center of the INL (north of INTEC) and supplied by the local National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) office was used for surface wind directions and wind speeds. Surface data (i

  8. Analysis of 1994 Air Force toxic release inventory reporting. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, B.A.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the Air Force`s 1994 Toxic Release Inventory data. Statistical tests were used to meet the following research objectives: (1) review the CY 94 data to determine which chemicals were most often reported and which bases and major commands had the most releases in terms of the number of chemicals reported and the amount of chemicals reported and (2) investigate factors which could influence the reporting status of a facility. An analysis of a survey of Air Force facilities indicated that two factors had an influence on the reporting status of Air Force facilities: (1) whether the TRI point of contact had confidence in the completeness of the data used for threshold computations and (2) whether the primary database used for threshold computations was the Standard Base Supply System.

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  10. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciucci, John

    2010-06-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NTS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no

  15. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of arsenic and arsenic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, and primary and secondary lead smelting. Emissions of arsenic from these activities are due to the presence of trace amounts of arsenic in fuels and materials being processed. In such cases, the emissions may be quite variable because the trace presence of arsenic is not constant. Arsenic emissions also occur from agricultural chemical production and application, and also from metal processing due to the use of arsenic in these activities. In addition to the arsenic source information, information is provided that specifies how individual sources of arsenic may be tested to quantify air emissions.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, June 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Grossman

    2005-06-01

    The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS. The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) underground testing between 1951 and 1992, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing (DOE, 1996a). No nuclear tests have been conducted since September 23,1992 (DOE, 2000), however; radionuclides remaining on the soil surface in many NTS areas after several decades of radioactive decay are re-suspended into the atmosphere at concentrations that can be detected by air sampling. Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (formerly called the Hazardous Materials Spill Center), private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses; handling, transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices or radioactive targets for the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun; and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE, 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in calendar year (CY) 2004 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and water pumped from wells used to characterize the aquifers at the sites of past underground nuclear tests, (2) onsite radioanalytical laboratories, (3) the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS facilities, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium (H{sup 3}) and re-suspension of plutonium ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium ({sup 241}Am) at the sites of past nuclear tests. The following

  17. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  18. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2013-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

    2012-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides [2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdoorn, Mark; Haney, Tom

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the calendar year 2013 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, ''Protection of the Environment,'' Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,'' Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 3.02 E-02 mrem per year, 0.30 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

  2. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    began to transition to an inventory data management system that consolidates criteria, toxic and greenhouse gas inventories. The Air Emissions Inventory can be found here. Source...

  3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2013-06-06

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2014-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

  5. Detection and monitoring of air emissions and emergency response planning within three geographic areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report gives the results of air emissions and emergency response planning in the following areas: Baton Rouge/New Orleans; Philadelphia/Wilmington/South Jersey; and Niagara Falls/Buffalo.

  6. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy-Efficien...

  7. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  8. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-26

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

  9. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  11. Observing Emissions of Air Pollutants from Space | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to study the future turnover of vehicle fleets around the world and the likely effects on air pollution and climate. This project has used satellite data to monitor CO, CO2,...

  12. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  13. Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1998-06-17

    This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

  14. Summary of radionuclide air emissions from Department of Energy facilities for CY 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    DOE facilities submit annual reports to their respective EPA regional offices and to EPA headquarters describing their activities during the previous year, including estimates of atmospheric radionuclide emissions and the resulting dose to the maximally exposed member of the public. This report summarizes the information submitted to EPA by DOE facilities in their air emission reports for calendar year 1992. An overview of DOE facility compliance with the NESHAPs Subpart H dose standard is provided. In addition to the required compliance information, supplemental information on air emissions is discussed.

  15. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  16. Task 2.3 - Review and Assessment of Results from the Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Semi-annual report, July 1-December 31, 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The air toxic emission data from Phase I were summarized and evaluated in the final Phase I summary report, published in September 1996 and available for distribution in October 1996. Data from Phase I were presented at the Center for Air Toxic Metals annual review meeting at the Energy {ampersand} Environmental Research Center in October 1996. The objective of the project was to provide. an independent review of the Phase I data, evaluate the scientific validity of the conclusions, identify significant correlations between emissions and fuel or process parameters, compare the data with available data from EPRI studies, make recommendations for future studies, and complete a combined report that summarizes Phase I, Phase II, and EPRI findings.

  17. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  18. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2012-06-12

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation ProtectionAir Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

  1. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Technical Services

    2007-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically-contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration.

  4. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  6. Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

  7. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W.; Cheng, Robert K.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  10. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  11. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A.; Nguyen, Quang A.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  12. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  13. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  14. Understanding Potential Air Emissions from a Cellulosic Biorefinery Producing Renewable Diesel Blendstock.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimin; Heath, Garvin A.; Renzaglia, Jason; Thomas, Mae

    2015-06-22

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, through the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), mandates increased use of biofuels, including cellulosic biofuels. The RFS is expected to spur the development of advanced biofuel technologies (e.g., new and innovative biofuel conversion pathways) as well as the construction of biorefineries (refineries that produce biofuels) using these technologies. To develop sustainable cellulosic biofuels, one of the goals of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) at the Department of Energy is to minimize air pollutants from the entire biofuel supply chain, as stated in their 2014 Multi-Year Program Plan (2014). Although biofuels in general have been found to have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum fuels on an energy basis, biomass feedstock production, harvesting, transportation, processing and conversion are expected to emit a wide range of other air pollutants (e.g., criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants), which could affect the environmental benefits of biofuels when displacing petroleum fuels. While it is important for policy makers, air quality planners and regulators, biofuel developers, and investors to understand the potential implications on air quality from a growing biofuel industry, there is a general lack of information and knowledge about the type, fate and magnitude of potential air pollutant emissions from the production of cellulosic biofuels due to the nascent stage of this emerging industry. This analysis assesses potential air pollutant emissions from a hypothetical biorefinery, selected by BETO for further research and development, which uses a biological conversion process of sugars to hydrocarbons to produce infrastructural-compatible renewable diesel blendstock from cellulosic biomass.

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a

  16. Summary of radionuclide air emissions from Department of Energy facilities for CY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Facilities owned or operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) handle and process radioactive materials in conjunction with their research, nuclear materials production, remediation, and waste disposal activities. During normal operations, some of these facilities have the potential to release small quantities of radionuclides to the environment. Radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere from DOE facilities are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61 of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) sets standards for public exposure to airborne radioactive materials (other than radon) released by DOE facilities, DOE radon emissions are regulated by NESHAPs in Subparts Q and T. Subparts Q and T apply specifically to DOE storage and disposal facilities for radium-containing material. Airborne radionuclide emissions are also regulated by the Department of Energy under the authority provided by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, as amended. This report summarizes air emissions subject to the EPA requirements and demonstrates that DOE facilities are in compliance with the required dose limits.

  17. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  18. US Department of Energy radionuclide air emissions annual report (under Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61) calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information collected by the Rocky Flats Plant concerning the emission of radionuclides into the air. Topics discussed include: Facility information, source description, air emissions data, dose assessments, point and non-point sources, and supplemental information on decontamination of concrete docks.

  19. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIEDIKER, L.P.

    1999-06-15

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event

  20. 1990 INEL national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants. Annual report, June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency issued on December 15, 1989 final rules governing air emissions of radionuclides. Requirements concerning radionuclide emissions from Department of Energy Facilities are addressed under Title 40, Code Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities.`` Section 61.94 of the regulations require that each DOE facility submit on an annual basis a report documenting compliance with the Subpart H requirements. This report addresses the section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for calendar year 1990. The Idaho Operations Office of the Department of Energy is the primary contact concerning NESHAPs compliance at the INEL.

  1. Penetration and air-emission-reduction benefits of solar technologies in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of four solar energy technologies and the electric utility industry are reported. The purpose of the study was to estimate the penetration by federal region of four solar technologies - wind, biomass, phtovoltaics, and solar thermal - in terms of installed capacity and power generated. The penetration by these technologies occurs at the expense of coal and nuclear power. The displacement of coal plants implies a displacement of their air emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. The main conclusion of this study is that solar thermal, photovoltaics, and biomass fail to penetrate significantly by the end of this century in any federal region. Wind energy penetrates the electric utility industry in several regions during the 1990s. Displaced coal and nuclear generation are also estimated by region, as are the corresponding reductions in air emissions. The small-scale penetration by the solar technologies necessarily limits the amount of conventional fuels displaced and the reduction in air emissions. A moderate displacement of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen is estimated to occur by the end of this century, and significant lowering of these emissions should occur in the early part of the next century.

  2. Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, K.; Wu, Shiang Yuh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of present (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) regional air quality are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the individual and combined impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current (2001-2005) meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observational data to assess the models capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. Overall, WRF and CMAQ perform reasonably well. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and summer and many of its components including organic matter in winter, ammonium and nitrate in summer, and sulfate in winter and summer, decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants and increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with increasing surface resistance and precipitation (e.g., NH4+ and NO3- dry and wet deposition fluxes increase in winter over much of the U.S.), respectively, and decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations (e.g., SO42- dry and wet deposition fluxes decrease over the eastern U.S. in summer and winter). Sensitivity simulations show that anthropogenic emission projections dominate over changes in climate in their impacts on the U.S. air quality in the near future. Changes in

  3. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0{sub 2} emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms.

  4. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating

  5. Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced air plasma by femtosecond double-pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Anmin; Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 ; Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Jiang, Yuanfei; Ding, Dajun; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Tingfeng; Huang, Xuri; Jin, Mingxing; State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033

    2013-10-15

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, a femtosecond double-pulse laser was used to induce air plasma. The plasma spectroscopy was observed to lead to significant increase of the intensity and reproducibility of the optical emission signal compared to femtosecond single-pulse laser. In particular, the optical emission intensity can be optimized by adjusting the delay time of femtosecond double-pulse. An appropriate pulse-to-pulse delay was selected, that was typically about 50 ps. This effect can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, plasma channel, and so on.

  6. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  7. Maryland's efforts to develop regulations creating an air emissions offset trading program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, D.M.; Zaw-Mon, M.

    1999-07-01

    Under the federal Clean Air Act's New Source Review program, many companies located in or planning to locate in areas that do not meet federal air quality standards or in the Northeast Ozone Transport Region (northern Virginia to Maine) must obtain emission reductions (called offsets) of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides that are greater than the new emissions that will be released. This offset requirement allows growth in industry while protecting air quality against deterioration. Despite the federal offset requirement, a formal banking and trading program is not mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Still, a mechanism is needed to ensure that emission reduction credits (ERCs) are available for sources to use to meet the offset requirement. Currently, Maryland does not have regulations covering the sale or transfer of ERCs from one facility to another. Maryland works with industry on a case-by-case basis to identify potential sources of ERCs and to assist in obtaining them. Then, the offset requirement and the ERCs used to meet the offsets are incorporated into individual permits using various permitting mechanisms. Desiring certainty and stability in the banking and trading process, Maryland's business community has pressed for regulations to formalize Maryland's procedures. Working over several years through a stakeholder process, Maryland has developed concepts for a trading program and a draft regulation. This paper describes Maryland's current case-by-case banking and trading procedure and traces efforts to develop a regulation to formalize the process. The paper discusses complex policy issues related to establishing a banking and trading program, describes the principal elements of Maryland's draft regulation, and summarizes elements of other states' emissions banking and trading programs.

  8. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 241-SY-101 crust growth near term mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-04-12

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health, Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of the information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-110), lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 mrem/year total effective dose equivalent to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual, and commencement is needed within a short time frame. Therefore, this application is also intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of this 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided at a later date.

  9. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1

  10. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  11. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deermauderly.pdf (324.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Relationship Between Composition ...

  12. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Central Waste Complex (CSC) for Storage of Vented Waste Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAMBERG, L.D.

    2000-04-01

    This Notice of Construction (NOC) application is submitted for the storage and management of waste containers at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) stationary source. The CWC stationary source consists of multiple sources of diffuse and fugitive emissions, as described herein. This NOC is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400-110 (criteria pollutants) and 173-460-040 (toxic air pollutants), and pursuant to guidance provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Transuranic (TRU) mixed waste containers at CWC are vented to preclude the build up of hydrogen produced as a result of radionuclide decay, not as safety pressure releases. The following activities are conducted within the CWC stationary source: Storage and inspection; Transfer and staging; Packaging; Treatment; and Sampling. This NOC application is intended to cover all existing storage structures within the current CWC treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) boundary, as well as any storage structures, including waste storage pads and staging areas, that might be constructed in the future within the existing CWC boundary.

  13. Photo of the Week: Air Supply | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Supply Photo of the Week: Air Supply February 6, 2014 - 11:02am Addthis In this 1972 photo, two scientists worked in improved supplied-air suits, which protected workers from toxic environments and protected controlled atmospheric areas from exposure to human emissions. The suits were developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. In this 1972 photo, two scientists worked in improved supplied-air suits, which protected workers from toxic

  14. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  15. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  16. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  18. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  19. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer

  20. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) is to examine assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. WRAP 1 will contain equipment and facilities necessary for non-destructive examination (NDE) of wastes and to perform a non-destructive examination assay (NDA) of the total radionuclide content of the wastes, without opening the outer container (e.g., 55-gal drum). WRAP 1 will also be equipped to open drums which do not meet waste acceptance and shipping criteria, and to perform limited physical treatment of the wastes to ensure that storage, shipping, and disposal criteria are met. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and transuranic and low level mixed wastes (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handler (CH) waste containers. A Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (TBACT) assessment has been completed for the WRAP 1 facility (WHC 1993). Because toxic emissions from the WRAP 1 facility are sufficiently low and do not pose any health or safety concerns to the public, no controls for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and installation of HEPA filters for particulates satisfy TBACT for the facility.

  1. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  5. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) includes: examining, assaying, characterizing, treating, and repackaging solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed wastes, and low-level mixed wastes (LLMW). Airborne releases from the WRAP 1 facility will be primarily in particulate forms (99.999 percent of total unabated emissions). The release of two volatilized radionuclides, tritium and carbon-14 will contribute less than 0.001 percent of the total unabated emissions. Table 2-1 lists the radionuclides which are anticipated to be emitted from WRAP 1 exhaust stack. The Clean Air Assessment Package 1988 (CAP-88) computer code (WHC 1991) was used to calculate effective dose equivalent (EDE) from WRAP 1 to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEI), and thus demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-247. Table 4-1 shows the dose factors derived from the CAP-88 modeling and the EDE for each radionuclide. The source term (i.e., emissions after abatement in curies per year) are multiplied by the dose factors to obtain the EDE. The total projected EDE from controlled airborne radiological emissions to the offsite MEI is 1.31E-03 mrem/year. The dose attributable to radiological emissions from WRAP 1 will, then, constitute 0.013 percent of the WAC 246-247 EDE regulatory limit of 10 mrem/year to the offsite MEI.

  6. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  7. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn K; Lu, Hongyou; Liu, Xu; Tsen, Katherine; Xiangyang, Wei; Yunpeng, Zhang; Jian, Guan; Rui, Hou; Junfeng, Zhang; Yuqun, Zhuo; Shumao, Xia; Yafeng, Han; Manzhi, Liu

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  8. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole

  9. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo

  10. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Progress in the Sixth Quarter (January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002) was slow because of slagging problems in the combustor. These required the combustor to be rebuilt, a job that is not yet complete. A paper describing our results heretofore has been accepted by the Journal Environmental Science and Technology.

  11. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington States Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  12. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  13. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  14. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  15. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  17. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}4, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B and W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  18. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; et al

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research andmore » Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.« less

  19. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  2. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such

  3. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}5 for the period October 1 to December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}6 for the period: January 1 to March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, George A.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls will likely arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF will provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) measure and understand the production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of steam coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems (ESPs, baghouses, scrubbers), (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self- consistent air toxics data library. Development work is currently concentrated on the capture of mercury, fine particulate, and a variety of inorganic species such as the acid gases (hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, etc.).

  6. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATES, J.A.

    2000-05-01

    This NOC application is provided to update the description of amounts of material handled, and to update the calculation of potential for emissions and resultant calculation of offsite TEDE. This NOC also includes an updated description of the various emission units at WSCF, including use of portable tanks to receive and remove liquid waste contaminated with low levels of radioactive contamination. The resultant, adjusted estimate for TEDE to the hypothetical MEI due to all combined unabated emissions from WSCF is 1.4 E-02 millirem per year. The total adjusted estimate for all combined abated emissions is 2.8 E-03 millirem per year. No single emission unit at the WSCF Complex exceeds a potential (unabated) offsite dose of 2.7 E-03 millirem per year.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Report 1998 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith W. Jacobson

    1999-07-01

    Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1998. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. For 1998, the dose was 1.72 mrem. Airborne effluents from a 1 mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed about 80% of the EDE; the majority of the total dose contribution was via the air immersion pathway.

  9. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants petroleum refineries. Background information for final standards. Summary of public comments and responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are promulgated for the petroleum refinery industry under authority of section 112 of the Clean Air Act. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the final NESHAP and Agency reponses to public comments on the proposed rule.

  10. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  11. Top-down estimate of methane emissions in California using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique: The South Coast Air Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Kim, Si -Wan; Frost, Gregory J.; Ahmadov, Ravan; Peischl, Jeff; Bousserez, Nicolas; Liu, Zhen; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Wofsy, Steve C.; Santoni, Gregory W.; Kort, Eric A.; Fischer, Marc L.; Trainer, Michael

    2015-07-28

    Methane (CH4) is the primary component of natural gas and has a larger global warming potential than CO2. Some recent top-down studies based on observations showed CH4 emissions in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) were greater than those expected from population-apportioned bottom-up state inventories. In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions with an advanced mesoscale inverse modeling system at a resolution of 8 km × 8 km, using aircraft measurements in the SoCAB during the 2010 Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change campaign to constrain the inversion. To simulate atmospheric transport, we use the FLEXible PARTicle-Weather Research and Forecasting (FLEXPART-WRF) Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by three configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. We determine surface fluxes of CH4 using a Bayesian least squares method in a four-dimensional inversion. Simulated CH4 concentrations with the posterior emission inventory achieve much better correlations with the measurements (R2 = 0.7) than using the prior inventory (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory 2005, R2 = 0.5). The emission estimates for CH4 in the posterior, 46.3 ± 9.2 Mg CH4/h, are consistent with published observation-based estimates. Changes in the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions in the SoCAB between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed. Missing or underestimated emissions from dairies, the oil/gas system, and landfills in the SoCAB seem to explain the differences between the prior and posterior inventories. Furthermore, we estimate that dairies contributed 5.9 ± 1.7 Mg CH4/h and the two sectors of oil and gas industries (production and downstream) and landfills together contributed 39.6 ± 8.1 Mg CH4/h in the SoCAB.

  12. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  13. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  14. Dual-frequency terahertz emission from splitting filaments induced by lens tilting in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhelin; Chen, Yanping Yang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Xu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Zhengming

    2014-09-08

    Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.

  15. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  16. A sensor management architecture concept for monitoring emissions from open-air demil operations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Michael M.; Robinson, Jerry D.; Stoddard, Mary Clare; Horn, Brent A.; Lipkin, Joel; Foltz, Greg W.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, CA proposed a sensor concept to detect emissions from open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD) events. The system would serve two purposes: (1) Provide data to demilitarization operations about process efficiency, allowing process optimization for cleaner emissions and higher efficiency. (2) Provide data to regulators and neighboring communities about materials dispersing into the environment by OB/OD operations. The proposed sensor system uses instrument control hardware and data visualization software developed at Sandia National Laboratories to link together an array of sensors to monitor emissions from OB/OD events. The suite of sensors would consist of various physical and chemical detectors mounted on stationary or mobile platforms. The individual sensors would be wirelessly linked to one another and controlled through a central command center. Real-time data collection from the sensors, combined with integrated visualization of the data at the command center, would allow for feedback to the sensors to alter operational conditions to adjust for changing needs (i.e., moving plume position, increased spatial resolution, increased sensitivity). This report presents a systems study of the problem of implementing a sensor system for monitoring OB/OD emissions. The goal of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the political, economic, and technical issues for developing and fielding this technology.

  17. Volatile organic compound and particulate emission studies of AF (Air Force) paint-booth facilities. Phase 1. Final report, February-December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayer, J.; Wolbach, D.

    1988-07-01

    This study presents the results of volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate emission surveys performed at three Air Force painting facilities. The three facilities -- one in McClellan AFB buildings 655 and two at Travis AFB in buildings 550 and 1014 -- did not meet local VOC emission standards. The possibility of reducing these emissions with recirculation modifications and various VOC reduction and control strategies is discussed. Although VOC emissions from paint spray booths can be controlled by add-on control systems, control is expensive for present air flow rates. The use of air recirculation within the spray booth can reduce the cost of VOC emission controls by reducing the quantity of air that requires processing. Recirculation systems were designed for two of the painting facilities included in this study. In designing the systems, various criteria such as paint booth VOC concentrations and health and safety standards were considered. Add-on VOC emission-control systems that can be used in conjunction with the recirculation system are evaluated. The devices of interest are a solvent incineration system and an activated-carbon adsorption bed. The VOC removal efficiency, initial capital investment and operating costs for both of these technologies are discussed.

  18. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the 105-KW Basin integrated water treatment system filter vessel sparging vent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamberg, L.D.

    1998-02-23

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Filter Vessel Sparging Vent at 105-KW Basin. Additionally, the following description, and references are provided as the notices of startup, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1) and (2) in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The 105-K West Reactor and its associated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage basin were constructed in the early 1950s and are located on the Hanford Site in the 100-K Area about 1,400 feet from the Columbia River. The 105-KW Basin contains 964 Metric Tons of SNF stored under water in approximately 3,800 closed canisters. This SNF has been stored for varying periods of time ranging from 8 to 17 years. The 105-KW Basin is constructed of concrete with an epoxy coating and contains approximately 1.3 million gallons of water with an asphaltic membrane beneath the pool. The IWTS, which has been described in the Radioactive Air Emissions NOC for Fuel Removal for 105-KW Basin (DOE/RL-97-28 and page changes per US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office letter 97-EAP-814) will be used to remove radionuclides from the basin water during fuel removal operations. The purpose of the modification described herein is to provide operational flexibility for the IWTS at the 105-KW basin. The proposed modification is scheduled to begin in calendar year 1998.

  19. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  20. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  1. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I, Final report, November 1, 1993--February 19, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-29

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. B&W`s Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) and the AECDP equipment combined to form a state-of-the-art facility for integrated evaluation of combustion and post-combustion emissions control options. Phase 1 activities were primarily aimed at providing a reliable, representative test facility for conducting air toxic emissions control development work later in the project. This report summarizes the AECDP Phase I activities which consisted of the design, installation, shakedown, verification, and air toxics benchmarking of the AECDP facility. All verification and air toxic tests were conducted with a high sulfur, bituminous Ohio coal.

  2. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emission compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emission control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  3. Cancer incidence and community exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants in Contra Costa County, California: A critical epidemiological assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto Wong ); Bailey, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    The northern part of Contra Costa County, California is heavily industrialized with a number of petroleum refineries, chemical facilities and other small industrial plants. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the country to assess cancer risk in relation to estimated air pollution levels. In this paper, the air monitoring data, air pollution modeling and the epidemiologic studies are critically reviewed. The association between cancer risk and estimated emissions is critically evaluated. The role of occupational and lifestyle (such as cigarette smoking and diet) confounding exposures is also assessed. The importance of validating exposure data generated by air pollution models in epidemiologic studies is emphasized. Pollutants of major concern are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons.

  4. Development of the Emission Measurement and Information Tracking System (EMITS) for regulatory analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormack, C.E.; Dorenkamp, L.D.

    1994-10-01

    With the constant implementation of complex and restrictive state and federal clean air laws, a facility must have a comprehensive understanding of the types and amount of emissions associated with the facility`s operations. Knowledge of the facility`s emissions is essential to assess the operational impacts of current and upcoming legislation. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), located in California, is regulated by federal, state, and local air quality agencies. Of most concern to the facility is California`s Assembly Bill 2588 (also known as the {open_quotes}Air Toxics Hot Spots{close_quotes} program) and the federal Title III, Title V, and Title VI provisions of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990. Because of the complex regulatory requirements, LLNL needed a system to calculate and classify air emissions by each applicable regulatory program. This paper outlines the development of LLNL`s comprehensive emissions inventory known as the Emissions Measurement and Information Tracking System (EMITS).

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  6. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of China’s 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 μg/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 μg/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 μg/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable

  7. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of ...

  8. A reevaluation of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - 40 CFR 61, Subpart H) program at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, T.A.; Hylko, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    The initial National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - 40 CFR 61, Subpart H) Program at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) required: (1) continuous air monitoring of sources if the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) was > 0.1 mrem/yr; (2) the determination of emissions based on measurements or measured parameters if the EDE to the MEI was < 0.1 mrem/yr; and (3) the calculation of worst case releases when the expected air concentrations were below detection limits using standard monitoring equipment. This conservative interpretation of the regulation guided SNL/NM to model, track, and trend virtually all emission sources with the potential to include any radionuclides. The level of effort required to implement these activities was independent of the EDE contributing from individual sources. A recent programmatic review found the NESHAP program to be in excess of the legal requirements. A further review found that, in summation, 13 of 16 radionuclide sources had a negligible impact on the final calculated EDE to the MEI used to demonstrate compliance at 20 separate on-site receptor locations. A reevaluation was performed to meet the legal requirements of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, and still be reasonable and appropriate under the existing circumstances.

  9. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 7, vehicle emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of exhaust and evaporative emissions from Clean Fleet vans running on M-85, compressed natural gas (CNG), California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), propane gas, and a control gasoline (RF-A) are presented. Three vans from each combination of vehicle manufacturer and fuel were tested at the California Air Resources Board (ARB) as they accumulated mileage in the demonstration. Data are presented on regulated emissions, ozone precursors, air toxics, and greenhouse gases. The emissions tests provide information on in-use emissions. That is, the vans were taken directly from daily commercial service and tested at the ARB. The differences in alternative fuel technology provide the basis for a range of technology options. The emissions data reflect these differences, with classes of vehicle/fuels producing either more or less emissions for various compounds relative to the control gasoline.

  10. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  11. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  12. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  13. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  14. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  15. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program. Quarterly Technical Progress Report {number_sign}7 for the period: April 1 to June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    Babcock {ampersand} Wilcox (B{ampersand}W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost- effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B{ampersand}W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  17. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Construction of Liquid Effluent Transfer System Project W-519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    2000-05-01

    The proposed action is to install a new liquid effluent transfer system (three underground waste transfer pipelines). As such, a potential new source will be created as a result of the construction activities. The anticipated emissions associated with this activity are insignificant.

  18. 242-A Evaporator/plutonium uranium extraction (PUREX) effluent treatment facility (ETF) nonradioactive air emission test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This report shows the methods used to test the stack gas outlet concentration and emission rate of Volatile Organic Compounds as Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in parts per million by volume,grams per dry standard cubic meter, and grams per minute from the PUREX ETF stream number G6 on the Hanford Site. Test results are shown in Appendix B.1.

  19. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  20. Clean Air Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local and tribal air programs in protecting and improving the nation’s air quality and stratospheric ozone layer by regulating emissions from mobile and stationary sources.

  1. Compilation of air-pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary-point and area sources, Fourth Edition. Supplement A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyner, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42, new or revised emissions data are presented for Bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion; Anthracite coal combustion; Fuel oil combustion; Natural gas combustion; Wood waste combustion in boilers; Lignite combustion; Sodium carbonate; Primary aluminum production; Coke production; Primary copper smelting; Ferroalloy production; Iron and steel production; Primary lead smelting; Zinc smelting; Secondary aluminum operations; Gray iron foundries; Secondary lead smelting; Asphaltic concrete plants; Bricks and related clay products; Portland cement manufacturing; Concrete batching; Glass manufacturing; Lime manufacturing; Construction aggregate processing; Taconite ore processing; Western surface coal mining; Chemical wood pulping; Appendix C.1, Particle-size distribution data and sized emission factors for selected sources; and Appendix C.2, Generalized particle size distributions.

  2. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  4. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  5. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  6. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions | Department of Energy Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractioins of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute 2002_deer_mauderly.pdf (63 KB) More Documents & Publications Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emission Samples

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  8. Diffuse and fugitive emission dose assessment on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

    1995-01-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. The Compliance Order requires RL to (1) evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission measurement requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H, and (2) continuously measure radionuclide emissions in accordance with 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request requires RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. The RL Compliance Plan included as one of its milestones the requirement to develop a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA). An FFCA was negotiated between RL and the EPA, Region 10, and was entered into on February 7, 1994. One of the milestones was to provide EPA, Region 10, with a copy of the Federal Clean Air Act Title V operating air permit application and Air Emission Inventory (AEI) concurrent with its submission to the Washington State Department of Ecology. The AEI will include an assessment of the diffuse and fugitive emissions from the Hanford Site. This assessment does not identify any diffuse or fugitive emission source that would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  9. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  10. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-11-18

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOMAN, N.A.

    1999-07-14

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on singleshell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists SSTs covered by this NOC. This GOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTs during salt well pumping is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms authorization basis (DESH 1997) that requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit

  12. Protective air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  13. Toxic substances form coal combustion--a co prehemsice assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.

    1997-04-01

    The Clean Coal Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on emission of these pollutants from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling their formation and partition will be needed. A new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) has been developed by a broad consortium to be useful to regulators and utility planners. During the last quarter coal analysis was completed on the final program coal, from the Wyodak Seam of the Powder River Basin, Combustion testing continued, including data collected on the self-sustained combustor. Efforts were directed to identify the governing mechanisms for trace element vaporization from the program coals. Mercury speciation and measurements were continued. Review of the existing trace element and organics emission literature was completed. And, model development was begun.

  14. Toxic remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  15. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Lung Toxicity and ...

  17. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  18. EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower’s Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NOx control technologies.

  19. Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion - Phase I Coal Selection and Chaacterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Kolker; A. Sarofim; C.A. Palmer; C.L. Senior; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; I. Olmez; N. Shah; R. Finkelman; S. Crowley; T. Zeng

    1998-07-16

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. Over the past decade, a large database identifying the partitioning and emitted concentrations of several toxic metals on the list of HAPs has been developed. Laboratory data have also been generated to help define the general behavior of several elements in combustion systems. These data have been used to develop empirical and probabalistic models to predict emissions of trace metals from coal-fired power plants. While useful for providing average emissions of toxic species, these empirically based models fail when extrapolated beyond their supporting database. This represents a critical gap; over the coming decades, new fuels and combustion systems will play an increasing role in our nation's power generation system. For example, new fuels, such as coal blends or beneficiated fuels, new operating conditions, such as low-NO burners or staged combustion, or new power x systems, for example, those being developed under the DoE sponsored Combustion 2000 programs and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, are all expected to play a role in power generation in the next century. The need for new predictive tools is not limited to new combustion systems, however. Existing combustion systems may have to employ controls for HAPs, should regulations be imposed. Testing of new control methods, at pilot and full scale, is expensive. A sound under-standing of the chemical transformations of both organic and inorganic HAPs will promote the development of new control methods in a cost-effective manner. To ensure that coal-fired power generation proceeds in an environmentally benign fashion, methods for the prediction and

  20. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  1. Effect of Title V air permitting on pipeline operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bost, R.C.; Donnan, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Pursuant to the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated what are known as Title V permitting requirements for major sources of air pollutants, including pipeline operations. In contrast to most existing air permitting programs, the new Title V regulations will require periodic certification of compliance with applicable air regulations. In the same way that water dischargers report their own discharge violations to regulatory agencies pursuant to the NPDES permitting system, Title V permittees must implement an acceptable monitoring program and similarly report violations of permit conditions or applicable air regulations. Only those facilities whose potential emissions are less than or can be controlled to be less than certain regulatory limits will be exempt from standard Title V permitting. If a facility`s throughput or the concentration levels of certain volatile toxic levels in a particular crude or natural gas were to exceed corresponding regulatory limits, then the facility could be in violation. If an operator were to expand a field, then the changes in the gathering system and emission levels could constitute a violation. Constraints on operations can be avoided by careful strategizing of an operator`s Title V permit application.

  2. Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

    2010-06-01

    Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 2, Overfire air tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.L.; Hooper, M.P.

    1992-07-13

    This Phase 2 Test Report summarizes the testing activities and results for the second testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The second phase demonstrates the Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) retrofit with existing Foster Wheeler (FWEC) burners. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data supported by short-term characterization data. Ultimately a fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction target using combinations of combustion modifications has been established for this project.

  4. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and...

  5. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne ...

  6. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION: A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; F.E. Huggins; G.P Huffman; N. Yap; M.R. Ames; I.Olmez; T. Zeng; A.F. Sarofim; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; J.J. Helble

    1998-07-16

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (W) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from the submission of the draft Phase 1 Final Report through the end of June, 1998. During this period two of the three Phase 2 coals were procured and pulverized samples were distributed to team members. Analysis of Phase 1 X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) data, particularly of mercury in sorbent samples, continued. An improved method for identifying mercury compounds on sorbents was developed, leading to a clearer understanding of forms of mercury in char and sorbents exposed to flue gas. Additional analysis of Phase 1 large scale combustion data was performed to investigate mechanistic information related to the fate of the radionuclides Cs, Th, and Co. Modeling work for this period was focused on building and testing a sub-model for vaporization

  7. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  8. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  9. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  10. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.