National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air source heat

  1. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  2. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  3. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps April 23, 2015 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat...

  4. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  5. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable...

  6. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  7. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced variable-speed Air Source...

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR qualified product category.

  9. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of...

  10. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  11. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01

    The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump were investigated. The base case tests used a bare aluminum outdoor heat exchanger in the experimental setup. The base case test results were...

  12. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic

  13. Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Field test system IHP concept - all HVACWH integrated into one...

  14. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  15. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  16. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  17. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a...

  18. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels

  19. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating

  20. Control of outdoor air source water heating using variable-speed heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.; Paige, L.E.; Dunshee, K.B.; Voorhis, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process of controlling an integrated heat pump system of the type. It comprises a variable speed compressor having a discharge port and a suction port; a water heater exchanger coupled to the discharge port of the compressor for heating water by transfer of heat from a compressed heat exchange fluid; an outdoor evaporator heat exchanger having an outdoor fan and a coil receiving the heat exchange fluid from the water heat exchanger and coupled also to the suction port of the compressor, for drawing heat from the outdoor air which heat is transferred to the water in the water heat exchanger; a controller having output channels to control an outdoor fan and the speed of the variable speed compressor and inputs respectively coupled to a water heater setpoint adjustment means, an outdoor air temperature sensor for sensing the outdoor temperature of the outdoor air; and a water temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the water heated by the water heat exchanger; the process comprising the steps of sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub o}.

  1. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  2. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. FossilMethodsDepartment» Air Sealing

  3. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  4. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  5. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Iu, Ipseng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  6. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  7. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  8. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  9. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  10. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  11. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  12. Promising Technology: Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) use the constant temperature of the Earth as the heat exchange medium instead of the outside air temperature. During the winter, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat source to provide heating, and during the summer, a GSHP uses the ground as a heat sink to provide cooling. Although more expensive than air-source heat pumps, GSHP’s are much more efficient, especially in cold temperatures.

  13. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  14. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  15. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) characterize the reverse cycle defrost of the air-to-air heat pump and (2) examine the effect of different expansion devices on the performance of the heat pump during the defrost cycle....

  16. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solutions when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for selecting air conditioning cold/heat sources. The focus of the study is on heating and cooling using conventional...

  17. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  18. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  19. The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

  20. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  1. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  2. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia's Radial Flow ir Bearing Heat Exchanger 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Sandia's TRL 5 Air Bearing Heat exchanger technology (a. k. a. The Sandia Cooler)...

  3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  4. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  5. The effects of airflow modulation and multi-stage defrost on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William Vance

    1992-01-01

    Modeling System Performance Cycling Losses Frosting and Defrosting Losses . Heat Pump Defrost Controls. Effects of Frost on Airflow Summary of Literature Reviewed . 7 12 16 26 34 41 TEST FACILITY. Psychrometric Rooms Test Heat Pump . . Indoor... Test Section. . Outdoor Test Section. Data Acquisition and Reduction. Experimental Procedure. 44 46 49 51 52 53 IV BASE CASE TEST RESULTS . System Performance Parameters. Frosting Period . Defrost Initiation. Melt Period . . Drain Period...

  6. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  7. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  8. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  9. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  10. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-DoseOptions for AccidentalHealth, Safety,FOIAHeatSource

  11. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

  12. Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings at Whidbey Island Naval Air and Mt. Olympus BOQ) presently heated by steam from the central steam plant. Ground source heat pump source heat pumps provide both heating and cooling, there would essentially be no cost increase

  13. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

  14. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  15. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  16. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    outside pump circulating heat transfer fluid air make-up inside exhaust 24 Cogged V Belts A major N.C. Manufacturer Tested 2-17 Months (yr 1985) .052KWH (.13 EP) 2700 Hours...

  17. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    type air-source VRF system and a GSHP system that uses single-stage scroll compressors and vertical ground loop heat exchanger (

  18. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  19. Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

  20. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  1. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  2. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    00149 -1- 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH R-1234yf Sorina Mortada, Ph.D. student, Center for Energy and Processes Abstract: Significant improvements in energy performance of air-to-air heat pumps are the major reason

  3. Multi-Source Hydronic Heat Pump System Performance Test Bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, M.

    1984-01-01

    of peak power and energy savings allowed by the innovative system. The main difference between the MSHHP and a conventional HVAC system is use of a chilled water "diversity" cooling loop interconnecting air to water coils (located at each water source heat...

  4. Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Air N2 CW MAC MHE LP HP CW N2 O2 Recuperative Vapor Recompression Heat Pumps for Cryogenic Air · The compression of O2 in the air feed is avoided by applying recuperative vapor recompression heat pumps) heat pump The compression of B can be avoided 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 -5000 5000 15000 25000 35000

  5. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Heat from Burner Combined Heat Delivered (25 kW) Ambient (10 kW) Paul Schwartz, CEO...

  6. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  7. Buoyancy-driven heat transfer and flow between a wetted heat source and an isothermal cube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, D.J.; Peck, M.K.; White, R.F.; Mahoney, K.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes flow visualization and heat transfer experiments conducted with a heat source inside an isothermal cube filled with a saturated or near-saturated gas/vapor mixture. The mixture was formed by vaporizing liquid from the surface of the heat source, and allowing it to condense on the surfaces of the cube, which was initially filled with a noncondensing gas. Visualization studies showed that for air and ethanol below 35C, and for air and water, the flow patterns were similar with the hot plume rising from the source. For air and ethanol above 35C the flow pattern reversed with the hot plume flowing downward. For temperatures spanning 35C, which is the zero buoyancy temperature for the ethanol/water azeotrope and air, no distinct pattern was observed. Using water, liquid droplets fell like rain throughout the cube. Using ethanol, a fog of droplets moved with the fluid flow. Heat transfer experiments were made with water and air, and conductances between plate and cube of around 580 W{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}K{sup {minus}1} measured. Agreement between the similarity theory developed for saturated gas/vapor mixtures, and correlations for single component fluids only, was very good. Together with qualitative support from the visualization experiments, the theory developed in a earlier paper deriving a similarity relationship between single fluids and gas/vapor mixtures has been validated.

  8. Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump in a Real of an air to water heat pump in relation to outdoor temperatures is proposed and evaluated. This model into account. Real empirical data for usage of a heat pump over a whole heating season have been used to obtain

  9. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  10. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  11. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser pump systems. For detailed analysis and accurate simulation of the transient heat transfer in vertical

  12. MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS Thesis Approved by: Dr.................................................................................................................... 16 MODELING OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS

  13. A testing and HVAC design methodology for air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers were tested using ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 as a guide. Some changes are introduced for the test facility and methods of calculating effectiveness. ASME PTC 19.1-1985 is used as a guide for uncertainty analysis. Tests were done for a range of mass flux [1.574 to 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)], ratios of mass flow rates (0.6 to 1.85), supply air temperatures ({minus}10 C to 40 C), and heat exchanger tilt angles ({minus}8.9{degree} to 11.2{degree}). Because humidity changes in the exhaust and supply air streams were negligible, only the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy was considered. Measured and calculated results show significant variations in the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy, and uncertainties with each independent variable. For balanced exhaust and supply flow rates at {minus}10 C supply air temperature and 1.574 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) mass flux, the measured effectiveness for sensible and total energy was calculated to be 0.48 and 0.44, respectively, with uncertainties of 0.057 and 0.052. These measurements decreased to 0.42 and 0.37, with uncertainties of 0.016 and 0.018 for a mass flux of 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s). Because water vapor condensation effects were small or negligible, the difference between the effectiveness for the sensible and total energy was within the overlapping uncertainty range of each. Based on counterflow heat exchanger theory and convective heat transfer equations, expressions are presented to extrapolate the effectiveness data between and beyond the measured data points. These effectiveness equations, which represent the variation in effectiveness with several independent operating variables, are used for HVAC design that is aimed at achieving minimum life-cycle costs.

  14. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exchanger model is crucial for analysis of hybrid ground source heat pump systems. Ground source heat pumps in a hybrid ground source heat pump application under different climate conditions. An actual office buildingMODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK

  15. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A recent assessment indicates that if 20% of US homes replaced their existing space-conditioning and water-heating systems with properly designed, installed and operated state-of-the-art GSHP systems, it would yield significant benefits each year. These include 0.8 quad British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy savings, 54.3 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} emission reductions, $10.4 billion in energy cost savings and 43.2 gigawatts of reduction in summer peak electrical demand.

  16. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after...

  17. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  18. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2009-05-05

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  19. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  20. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  1. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  2. Prandtl Number Dependent Natural Convection with Internal Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang Hee Lee; Seung Dong Lee; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from debris accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. Recently, attention is being paid to the feasibility of external vessel flooding as a severe accident management strategy and to the phenomena affecting the success path for retaining the molten core material inside the vessel. The heat transfer inside the molten core material can be characterized by the strong buoyancy-induced flows resulting from internal heating due to decay of fission products. The thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of such flow depend strongly on the thermal boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries and the pool superheat are mainly characterized by the natural convection flow inside the molten pool. In general, the natural convection heat transfer phenomena involving the internal heat generation are represented by the modified Rayleigh number (Ra’), which quantifies the internal heat source and hence the strength of the buoyancy force. In this study, tests were conducted in a rectangular section 250 mm high, 500 mm long and 160 mm wide. Twenty-four T-type thermocouples were installed in the test section to measure temperatures. Four T-type thermocouples were used to measure the boundary temperatures. The thermocouples were placed in designated locations after calibration. A direct heating method was adopted in this test to simulate the uniform heat generation. The experiments covered a range of Ra' between 1.5x106 and 7.42x1015 and the Prandtl number (Pr) between 0.7 and 6.5. Tests were conducted with water and air as simulant. The upper and lower boundary conditions were maintained uniform. The results demonstrated feasibility of the direct heating method to simulate uniform volumetric heat generation. Particular attentions were paid to the effect of Pr on natural convection heat transfer within the rectangular pool.

  3. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

  4. Sources for Pu in near surface air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, G.; Thom, C.; Baechmann, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that most of the Pu in the near surface air today is due to resuspension. Vertical and particle size distribution in near surface air over a period of three years were measured. The seasonal variations of Pu in air and the influence of meteorological parameters on these variations are shown. Samples were taken before the Chernobyl accident in an area where only Pu fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests of the early sixties occurs. The comparison of the behavior of Pu with other trace elements, which were also measured, showed similar behavior of Pu and elements like Ca, Ti and Fe in near surface air. This confirms that most Pu is resuspended because the main source for these elements in air is the soil surface. Resuspension factors and resuspension rate are estimated for all measured elements. A resuspension factor of 0.8 X 10(-8) m-1 and a resuspension rate of 0.09 X 10(-9) s-1 is calculated for Pu.

  5. FORMALDEHYDE AND TRACER GAS TRANSFER BETWEEN AIRSTREAMS IN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    air- by this type of heat exchanger and, thus, returned toIN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS AIRSTRE&~S W.J.IN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TQ-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS William J. Fisk,

  6. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Beginning January 1, 2016, rebates will be reduced to $625 per single-head system and $625 per 12,000 BTU/hr for multi-head systems, with a maximum rebate of $2,500.

  7. Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, E.G.; Bradley, L.C. ); Chant, R.E. ); Fisher, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the energy performance of defrost and frost control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators (HRV) has been carried out by using computer simulations for various climatic conditions. This paper discusses the results and conclusions from the comparisons and their implications for the heat recovery ventilator manufacturers and system designers.

  8. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the construction of a new test home that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a high performance ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low-density spray foam insulation, and glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements.

  10. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  11. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  13. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  14. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  15. SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By XIAOWEI XU Bachelor #12;ii SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Dissertation Approved of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers - Analytical....... 21 2.1.1.2 Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat

  16. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  17. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, Richard L. (Delmar, NY)

    1993-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications.

  18. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

  19. APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO BUILDINGS AND BRIDGE DECKS. By MAHADEVAN Chapter Page 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of hybrid ground source heat pump systems 1.2. Literature review 1.3. Thesis objective and scope 2. Optimal sizing of hybrid ground source heat pump system

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California Geothermal Resources Development Account http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/ grda.html May 2011 The Issue Ground source heat pumps can far made little impact in California. Estimates are that adoption of ground source heat pumps

  1. Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review of the Literature and contributions from individuals and organizations involved in ground-source heat pump installation around Alaska

  2. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  3. Property:HeatSource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to: navigation,PropertyPartner7Website JumpHeatSource Jump to: navigation,

  4. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaForced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems May 2002 Walker, I. ,

  5. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  6. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, R.L.

    1993-12-28

    A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

  7. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    methods for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summergas emission savings of ground source heat pump systems inheat exchangers for ground-source heat pumps: A literature

  8. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zerosimulation tool for ground- source heat pump system designflow systems and ground source heat pump systems Abstract

  9. SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By XIAOWEI XU Bachelor #12;ii SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Dissertation Approved Loop Heat Exchanger Model....................................................... 11 2.1.1.1 Modeling

  10. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating

  11. Radioisotopes for heat-source applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoisington, J.E.

    1982-10-06

    Potential DOD requirements for noninterruptable power sources could total 1 MW thermal by FY 1990. Of the three isotopes considered, (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 238/Pu) /sup 90/Sr is the only one available in sufficient amounts to meet this requirement. To meet the DOD FY 1990 requirements, it would be necessary to undertake /sup 90/Sr recovery operations from spent fuel reprocessing at SRP, Hanford, and the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP). /sup 90/Sr recovery from the existing alkaline high level waste (HLW) at Hanford and SRP is not attractive because the isotopic purity of the /sup 90/Sr is below that required for DOD applications. Without reprocessing LWR spent fuel, SRP and Hanford could not supply the demand of 1 MW thermal until FY 1996. Between FY 1983 and FY 1996, SRP and Hanford could supply approximately 0.70 MW of /sup 90/Sr and 0.15 MW of /sup 147/Pm. SRP could supply an additional 0.15 MW from the production and recovery of /sup 238/Pu. Strontium-90 is the most economical of the three heat source radionuclides considered. The /sup 90/Sr unit recovery cost from SRP fresh acid waste would be $180/watt. The BNFP /sup 90/Sr recovery cost would be $130/watt to $235/watt depending on the age and burnup of the LWR spent fuel. Hanford /sup 90/Sr recovery costs form Purex fresh acid waste are unavailable, but they are expected to be comparable to the SRP costs. /sup 147/Pm and /sup 238/Pu are considerably more expensive heat source materials. /sup 147/Pm recovery costs at SRP are estimated to be $450/watt. As with /sup 90/Sr, the Hanford /sup 147/Pm recovery costs are expected to be comparabl to the SRP costs. Production of high assay (93.5%) /sup 238/Pu at SRP from excess /sup 231/Np would cost about $1160/watt, while recovery of low assay (27%) /sup 238/Pu from the waste stream is estimated at $1850/watt.

  12. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David Scott; Uwechue, Uzo Philip

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  13. Monitoring SERC Technologies —Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Leader Dave Peterson about Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps and how to properly monitor its installation.

  14. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  15. Air Permitting for Stationary Sources (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The permitting system implements the permitting requirements of RSA 125-C and 125-I to regulate the operation and modification of new and existing stationary sources, area sources, and devices to...

  16. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at DISTRICT scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at DISTRICT scale Thesis. The objective of the work is to design new classes of Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at district scale in the context: This proposal is part of a more global research project dedicated to the study of Earth-Air Heat Exchangers

  17. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  18. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

  19. Home Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    separately, many homes use the following approaches: Active Solar Heating Uses the sun to heat either air or liquid and can serve as a supplemental heat source. Electric...

  20. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of ...

  1. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  2. Ground Source Heat Pumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,Solar JumpInformation Crump's Hot Springs Area1978) |Heat

  3. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (DE-FOA-0000823) Project Objective This project aims to develop a regenerative air source heat pump for commercial and industrial heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)...

  4. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain

  5. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock Department important aspect to consider when attempting to improve the energy efficiency of most process heating. Infiltration air enters the system through openings in the system shell. For energy- efficient process heating

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

  7. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  8. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  10. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  11. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  12. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    integrated with an air conditioner unit and air/water heatan air conditioner unit and air/water heat exchanger Source:system and a standard air/water heat exchanger. Figure A-

  13. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  15. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  16. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes: (1) the performance improvements possible for central air conditioners and heat pumps using conventional design improvements, (2) the development of a methodology for estimating the seasonal performance of variable speed heat...

  17. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with...

  18. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  19. Absorption Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 2:11pm Addthis Absorption heat pumps are essentially air-source heat pumps driven not by electricity, but by a heat...

  20. Discussion of an Optimization Scheme for the Ground Source Heat Pump System of HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mu, W.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    With the implementation of the global sustainable development strategy, people pay more attention to renewable energy resources such as ground source heat pumps. The technology of ground source heat pump is widely applied to heat and cold...

  1. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  2. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  3. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    effectiveness of a heat exchanger rates due to the decreasesthrough volumetric flow the rate heat of exchanger. the twothe heat exchanger. The rate of heat transfer "Q" between

  4. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  5. Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhdanov, Renat

    Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source R.Z. Zhdanov Institute. It is shown that there are three, seven, twenty eight and twelve inequivalent classes of partial differential to the class under study and admitting symmetry group of the dimension higher than four is locally equivalent

  6. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  7. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-09-28

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  8. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-08-18

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  9. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  10. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  11. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  12. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Paper O.1.4.2 -1 -A SIMPLE TOOL FOR SIMULATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paper O.1.4.2 - 1 - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR SIMULATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Jeffrey D developed a number of ground heat exchanger models for use in simulation of ground source heat pump systems. Nevertheless, there are many situations where an easy to use hourly simulation of a ground source heat pump

  14. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  15. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  16. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    another. Another type of heat exchanger is a heat wheel (ferent for each type of heat exchanger. exchanger may heatopposite directions. A heat similar type of exchanger 1s the

  17. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  18. Air pollution sources apportionment in a French urban site Marie Chavent*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Air pollution sources apportionment in a French urban site Marie Chavent* , Hervé Guégan preoccupation for human health. In order to achieve this purpose, air pollution sources have to be accurately sources of fine particulate emission. Key-words: air pollution data, Principal Component Analysis (PCA

  19. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  20. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRFGSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRVintended to be as energy efficient as required by current

  1. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generates hot and cold water rather than air, allowing it to be used with radiant floor heating systems in heating mode. Geothermal (ground-source or water-source) heat...

  2. Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly important in recent years. Proper design of a geothermal system, be it for deep or for shallow

  3. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  4. Generation of acoustic-gravity waves in ionospheric HF heating experiments : simulating large-scale natural heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradipta, Rezy

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the potential role played by large-scale anomalous heat sources (e.g. prolonged heat wave events) in generating acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) that might trigger widespread plasma turbulence ...

  5. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  6. An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning for estimation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems using on Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

  7. Air flow in a high aspect ratio heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    The increasing heat output of modern electronics requires concomitant advances in heat sinking technology: reductions in thermal resistance and required pumping power are necessary. This research covers the development of ...

  8. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    radiative heat transfer, since radiation was neglectedradiation striking the floor makes up the majority of the total heat transferheat transfer processes: conduction through the slab and floor panels and into the supply plenum via convection; radiation

  9. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero energy

  11. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

  12. SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By JASON EARL AND VALIDATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE AND WATER-LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D. Spitler

  13. Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy Buildings Advanced Ground Source Heat Pump Technology for Very-Low-Energy Buildings Three newunder-utilized ground loop...

  14. Measuring important parameters for air-sea heat exchange Christoph S. Garbeab, Uwe Schimpfab and Bernd Jhneab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    Measuring important parameters for air-sea heat exchange Christoph S. Garbeab, Uwe Schimpfab Exchange, Heat flux, Digital Image Processing, Surface Renewal 1. INTRODUCTION Thermographic techniques-water heat exchange. A driving force in air sea interactions is the net sea surface heat flux. It is a vital

  15. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  16. ASHRAE $1000 Scholarship Application (02/26/2013) The Utah Chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Jur

    of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is offering multiple $1,000 scholarships automation or controls, heating, ventilating, refrigeration or air conditioning (HVAC) principles are invited

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.

    1992-06-01

    Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

  19. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric and heat pumps. *. . ..-.' thereby making effective use of normally rejected energy. There are numerous and heat pumps. Analytical studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN.) have shown

  20. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system performance, one of the available options is a hybrid ground-source heat pump application. Hybrid systems of Operating and Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems Using a Short Time Step

  1. HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+ M.H. Khan, 74078, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a simulation of a hybrid ground source heat pump system, performed using a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+. Hybrid ground source heat pump systems

  2. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  3. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    effectiveness and low pressure exchanger would drop of thisAluminum Flanges Pressure Tap Heat Exchanger Transition,therefore the pressure in the heat exchanger was slightly

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  6. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment ofvariable speed

  7. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| DepartmentAL/FAL

  8. Scanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Because of their remarkable physical and electronic properties, carbon nanotubes are promising nanotubes in air,3,4 in an oxygen stream,5 or under a flow of carbon dioxide gas.6 Thinning of nanotubesScanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air Xuekun Lu

  9. Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    period before the injected cold water significantly affects the groundwater temperature at the extraction horizontal (steady) flow and (transient) heat-transport model for a warm-water extraction / cold-waterGeothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become

  10. The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from...

  11. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  12. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    air distribution: Thermal stratification. ASHRAE Journalstratification is increased and temperatures near the ceiling rise, this condition aggra- vates the thermalthermal decay can be a problem. Properly controlled UFAD systems produce temperature stratification

  13. Case study for ARRA-funded ground-source heat pump (GSHP) demonstration at Oakland University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-09-01

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects have been competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This paper highlights the findings of a case study of one of the ARRA-funded GSHP demonstration projects, a ground-source variable refrigerant flow (GS-VRF) system installed at the Human Health Building at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. This case study is based on the analysis of measured performance data, maintenance records, construction costs, and simulations of the energy consumption of conventional central heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems providing the same level of space conditioning as the demonstrated GS-VRF system. The evaluated performance metrics include the energy efficiency of the heat pump equipment and the overall GS-VRF system, pumping performance, energy savings, carbon emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of the GS-VRF system compared with conventional HVAC systems. This case study also identified opportunities for reducing uncertainties in the performance evaluation, improving the operational efficiency, and reducing the installed cost of similar GSHP systems in the future.

  14. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    such as wet scrubbers and activated carbon collectors) are fairly well known. So are the cyclone and filter devices which are capable of collecting relatively large parti ESL-IE-83-04-32 Proceedings from the Fifth Industrial Energy Conservation.... To collect such submicron particulates in filter type air cleaners necessi tates selection of media having extremely small air passages. Substantial resistance to airflow, With consequent high static pressure drop across the collector, is therefore...

  15. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    for dehumidification, precooling, reheating and heat recovery. FIGURE 1. A SIMPLE HEAT BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW The use of heat pipes dates back to the turn of the century. Heat pipes, also termed Perkins pipes, are heat transfer devices which work by means... stream_source_info ESL-HH-96-05-44.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 15385 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-HH-96-05-44.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 HEAT PIPE IMPACT...

  16. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    2. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A CROSSFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER. H RMED Rthe same direction. In a crossflow exchanger, (Fig- ure 2)Heat Exchanger (Figure 11) has a crossflow and core, two two

  17. Heat Pump System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pumps can provide up to four times the amount of energy they consume. Air-Source Heat Pump Transfers heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. Ductless...

  18. MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By ZHENG DENG Bachelor December, 2004 #12;ii MODELING OF STANDING COLUMN WELLS IN GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved) ..................................................................... 6 1.3. Basic physical mechanism in SCWs (heat transfer and mass transfer in porous media

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION M in a ground source heat pump system falls near or below 0o C, an antifreeze mixture must be used to prevent freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications

  20. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

  1. Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    1 Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Central pump (GSP) for heating, cooling and hot water in a Central Pennsylvania residence (namely, the author, the efficiency gain for the ground-source heat pump compared to electricity is 43% for cooling and 81

  2. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01

    source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Dr. Na Zhu Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China 2014-09-14 ESL-IC-14-09-18a...-conditioning system: ?Splitting air-conditioner for cooling and coal fired boiler for heating. • Problems: a)Energy efficiency is low b)This system is not environmental friendly 2014/11/11 New energy saving technology ESL-IC-14-09-18a Proceedings of the 14th...

  3. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  4. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Underfloor air distribution: thermal stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, T.; Bauman, Fred; Reese, J.

    2002-01-01

    Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification By Tom Webster, Pthermal bypassing of convective loads that occurs above the stratificationthermal plumes that develop over heat sources in the room. A stratification

  6. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

  7. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by generating fewer emissions from electricity production. These benefits, however, are difficult quality planning process. If a model were available to accurately predict the decrease in temperature and detailed manner is important if heat island control strategies are to be viewed as "quantifiable

  8. Ground source heat storage and thermo-physical response of soft clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxe, Shoshanna Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Ground source heat storage can condition buildings with reduced consumption of fossil fuels, an important issue in modem building design. However, seasonal heat storage can cause soil temperature fluctuations and possibly ...

  9. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  10. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E. (Mentor, OH)

    1983-12-06

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  11. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  12. Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of EnergyofDepartmentProcess DocumentPartner: A.O.Air

  13. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergy Air Barriers

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material ...

  15. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC)- Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of Geothermal/Ground-Source Heat Pumps.

  16. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Create a new modeling decision? tool that will enable ground source heat pump (GSHP) designers and customers to make better design and purchasing decisions.

  17. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(Million Cubicthrough 1996) inNatural Gas Heat Pump and

  18. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space HeatingEmerging

  19. March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , 6 were identified as significant contributors to national emissions of hazardous air pollutants of cancer per million people · Urban areas ­ >25 cases per million · "Transportation corridors" (areas

  20. Tennessee: Ground-Source Heat Pump Receives Innovation Award...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    analysis, the Trilogy 40 Q-Mode heat pump can save about 60% of annual energy use and cost for space conditioning and water heating in residential applications versus minimum...

  1. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  2. Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to drilling of bore- holes for vertical ground heat exchangers (GHX), or excavation for horizontal GHX, USA, spitler@okstate.edu signhilD e.a. gehlin Technical Expert, Swedish Centre for Shallow Geothermal pumps, GSHP, foundation heat exchanger, FHX,vertical ground heat exchanger, VGHX REHVA Journal ­ January

  3. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  4. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01

    water-source heat pump, coupled with a geothermal water loop and incorporating a forced fresh-air enthalpy exchange system was installed in a typical middle school classroom in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This project is a joint effort among Oak Ridge School...

  5. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

  6. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Earth-Air Heat exchangers at BUILDING scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Earth-Air Heat exchangers at BUILDING scale Thesis (Brazil) and continental (France) areas. Subject description: This proposal is part of a more global and Mass Transfer, 55 7832-7837, 2012. Expected collaboration in Brazil: Federal University of Rio Grande

  8. Office Building Uses Ice Storage, Heat Recovery, and Cold-Air Distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackett, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Ice storage offers many opportunities to use other tcchnologies, such as heat recovery and cold-air distribution. In fact, by using them, the designer can improve the efficiency and lower the construction cost of an ice system. This paper presents a...

  9. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  10. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  11. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. Air-Source Heat Pumps...

  12. Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    When using urban untreated sewage as a cool and heat source of heat pump, it is unavoidable to form soft dirt. Based on the method of exergy, an analysis is given of the impact the dirt growth of a tube-shell sewage heat exchanger will have...

  13. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  14. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP SIMULATION PROGRAM WITH ADVANCED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17, United States Code. ProQuest Information and Learning Company 300 North Zeeb Road P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. #12;DEVELOPMENT OF AIR to write the acknowledgments. My family members are supportive all the way. My parents raised all of us

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  17. Chapter 18. The Micro/Macro Connection Heating the air in a hot-air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhamala, Mukesh

    Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. · Thermal Energy and Specific Heat · Thermal energy D. Rotational energy E. Solar energy #12;What additional kind of energy makes CV larger. Rotational energy E. Solar energy #12;The second law of thermodynamics says that A. the entropy

  18. Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    of traf?c-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes.Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term lowexposure to particulate air pollution and term birth weight:

  19. Mixed convection heat transfer from thermal sources mounted on horizontal and vertical surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the fundamental aspects of the conjugate, mixed convective heat transfer from two finite width heat sources, which are of negligible thickness, have a uniform heat flux input at the surface, and are located on a flat plate in a horizontal or the vertical orientation. The heat sources are wide in the transverse direction and, therefore, a two-dimensional flow circumstance is simulated. The mixed convection parameter is varied over a fairly wide range to include the buoyancy-dominated and the mixed convection regimes. The circumstances of pure natural convection are also investigated. The convective mechanisms have been studied in detail by measuring the surface temperatures and determining the heat transfer coefficients for the two heated strips, which represent isolated thermal sources. Experimental results indicate that a stronger upstream heat source causes an increase in the surface temperature of a relatively weaker heat source, located downstream, by reducing it convective heat transfer coefficient. The influence of the upstream source is found to be strongly dependent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent on the surface orientation, especially in the pure natural convection and the buoyancy dominated regimes. The two heat sources are found to be essentially independent of each other, in terms of thermal effects, at a separation distance of more than about three strip widths for both the orientations. The results obtained are relevant to many engineering applications, such as the cooling of electronic systems, positioning of heating elements in furnaces, and safety considerations in enclosure fires.

  20. Research and Development Roadmap. Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kar, Rahul

    2012-10-01

    Roadmap identifying potential activities and technical innovations that may enable substantial improvements in residential and commercial Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) installed cost and/or efficiency.

  1. Robustness analysis of an air heating plant and control law by using polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colón, Diego; Ferreira, Murillo A. S.; Bueno, Átila M.; Balthazar, José M.; Rosa, Suélia S. R. F. de

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a robustness analysis of an air heating plant with a multivariable closed-loop control law by using the polynomial chaos methodology (MPC). The plant consists of a PVC tube with a fan in the air input (that forces the air through the tube) and a mass flux sensor in the output. A heating resistance warms the air as it flows inside the tube, and a thermo-couple sensor measures the air temperature. The plant has thus two inputs (the fan's rotation intensity and heat generated by the resistance, both measured in percent of the maximum value) and two outputs (air temperature and air mass flux, also in percent of the maximal value). The mathematical model is obtained by System Identification techniques. The mass flux sensor, which is nonlinear, is linearized and the delays in the transfer functions are properly approximated by non-minimum phase transfer functions. The resulting model is transformed to a state-space model, which is used for control design purposes. The multivariable robust control design techniques used is the LQG/LTR, and the controllers are validated in simulation software and in the real plant. Finally, the MPC is applied by considering some of the system's parameters as random variables (one at a time, and the system's stochastic differential equations are solved by expanding the solution (a stochastic process) in an orthogonal basis of polynomial functions of the basic random variables. This method transforms the stochastic equations in a set of deterministic differential equations, which can be solved by traditional numerical methods (That is the MPC). Statistical data for the system (like expected values and variances) are then calculated. The effects of randomness in the parameters are evaluated in the open-loop and closed-loop pole's positions.

  2. Abatement of Air Pollution: Source Monitoring, Record Keeping...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment that either combusts coal in any amount, or enough gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels to meet the heat and emissions standards defined in these regulations, must be operated...

  3. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  4. VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 165 EDITORIAL Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research-- Past, Present, and Future J.D. Spitler, PhD, PE Fellow ASHRAE Ground-source heat pump (GSHP to Heinrich Zoelly is the first known reference to ground-source heat pump systems.2 In the US, some ground-source

  5. Heat transfer to air-water two-phase flow in slug/churn region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadekar, V.V. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom). Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Service; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Measured heat transfer data for air-water two-phase flow in the slug/churn flow region are reported. The measurements were obtained from a 1.3 m tall, 15.7 mm diameter vertical tube test-section. It is observed that the data exhibit different heat transfer characteristics to those predicted by the standard correlations for the convective component of flow boiling heat transfer. Comparison with the predictions of a slug flow model for evaporation shows a significant overprediction of the data. The reason for the overprediction is attributed to the sensible heating requirement of the gas phase. The slug flow model is therefore suitably modified for non-evaporating two-phase flow. This specially adapted model is found to give reasonably good predictions of the measured data.

  6. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  7. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Major Stationary Sources and Major Modifications (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section of the air quality standards applies to all major sources and major modifications and outlines the required control technology to achieve the most stringent emission rate. Emission...

  8. 5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Up Search File Edit History File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File...

  10. ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knowledge and experience in several geothermal topics. I also wish to thank to Dr. Simon Rees who served-Coupled Heat Pump Systems........................................................5 1.1.2.1. Vertical Ground

  11. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    Another three homes used point-source heating, relyingsource Heating Fuel Type Electric Location Natural Gas Homehomes in CA are moving away from forced air heating and cooling systems, towards hydronic and point-source

  12. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  13. Effect of residential air-to-air heat and moisture exchangers on indoor humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barringer, C.G.; McGugan, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    A project was undertaken to develop guidelines for the selection of residential heat and moisture recovery ventilation systems (HRVs) in order to maintain an acceptable indoor humidity for various climatic conditions. These guidelines were developed from reviews on ventilation requirements, HRV performance specifications, and from computer modeling. Space conditions within three house/occupancy models for several types of HRV were simulated for three climatic conditions (Lake Charles, LA; Seattle, WA; and Winnipeg, MB) in order to determine the impact of the HRVs on indoor relative humidity and space-conditioning loads. Results show that when reduction of cooling cost is the main consideration, exchangers with moisture recovery are preferable to sensible HRVs. For reduction of heating costs, moisture recovery should be done for ventilation rates greater than about 15 L/s and average winter temperatures less than about (minus) 10{degrees}C if internal moisture generation rates are low. For houses with higher ventilation rates and colder average winter temperatures, exchangers with moisture recovery should be used.

  14. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance costs are assumed to apply to all product types (split or package systems, air conditioners or heat pumps) and

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

  16. ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source. Office of Scientific

  17. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  18. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  19. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application). The experiments and simulations focused on the air-cooled Ballard Nexa fuel cell. The experimental

  20. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  1. Data, exergy, and energy analysis of a vertical-bore, ground-source heat pump to for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is provided to support the view that greater than two-thirds of energy required to produce domestic hot water may be extracted from the ground which serves as renewable energy resource. The case refers to a 345 m2 research house located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 36.01 N 84.26 W in a mixed-humid climate with HDD of 2218 C-days (3993 F-days) and CDD of 723 C-days (1301 F-days). The house is operated under simulated occupancy conditions in which the hot water use protocol is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which captures the water consumption lifestyles of the average family in the United States. The 5.275 (1.5-ton) water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) shared the same vertical bore with a 7.56 KW water-to-air ground source heat pump for space conditioning the same house. Energy and exergy analysis of data collected continuously over a twelve month period provide performance metrics and sources of inherent systemic inefficiencies. Data and analyses are vital to better understand how WW-GSHPs may be further improved to enable the ground to be used as a renewable energy resource.

  2. IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a rich source of information about physical processes associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) experiments and other geothermal operations. With support from the...

  3. A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building at the University of British Columbia Abha Parajulee Kim Smet............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1

  4. Investigating Ground Source Geothermal Heating for Garfield House

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    of historical significance associated with Garfield, as it dates back to 1885, serving as a fraternity house heating oil consumption from January 2004 through December 2009, or 72 monthly values. Formulas were set and revised consumption rates were then assigned a conservative cost estimate based on retail price data from

  5. Plasmonic Photothermal Heating of Intraperitoneal Tumors through the Use of an Implanted Near-Infrared Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagley, Alexander F.

    Plasmonic nanomaterials including gold nanorods are effective agents for inducing heating in tumors. Because near-infrared (NIR) light has traditionally been delivered using extracorporeal sources, most applications of ...

  6. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  7. Evidence for a Crustal Heat Source for Low-Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermalsystems in the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) areheated by a crustal heat source. The overall rate of circulation inCAHSB systems appears to be low, with...

  8. Detecting sources of heat loss in residential buildings from infrared imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Emily Chen

    2011-01-01

    Infrared image analysis was conducted to determine the most common sources of heat loss during the winter in residential buildings. 135 houses in the greater Boston and Cambridge area were photographed, stitched, and tallied ...

  9. 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-39 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. Analysis Combining.5¸ ¹ · ¨ © § ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § 1.6 1 1)K300( COP 1 1 maxHP, HL TT Based upon the definition of the heat pump coefficient

  10. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  11. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  12. Convective heat transfer with buoyancy effects from thermal sources on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1991-06-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the thermal interaction between two finite-size heat sources, located on a flat plate that is well insulated on the back. Both the horizontal and the vertical orientations of the surface are studied by measuring the flow velocities, the temperature field, and the local heat flux. The investigation is directed at the pure natural convection circumstance (no forced flow velocity) and the buoyancy-dominated mixed-convection circumstance (presence of a relatively small forced flow velocity). Large temperature gradients occur in the vicinity of the heat sources, resulting in a substantial diffusion of heat along the plate length. However, the effect of conduction is found to be highly localized. The orientation of the surface has a very strong effect on the interaction of the wakes from the heat sources for the circumstances considered. An upstream source is found to have a very strong influence on the temperature of a downstream source in the vertical surface orientation but has a much weaker influence in the horizontal orientation. In the latter circumstance the presence of a small forced flow velocity may actually increase the temperature of a downstream source by tilting the wake from the upstream source toward the downstream source. 25 refs.

  13. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  14. Application Prospect Analysis of the Surface Water Source Heat-Pump in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Zhuang, Z.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Li, G.; Sun, D.

    2006-01-01

    Surface water resources in China are rather abundant and it can be use as the heat or cool source for heat pump. The winter surface water temperatures of 17 typical cities are investigated in December, and they are all distributed in the interval...

  15. Block Tensor Decomposition for Source Apportionment of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopke, Philip K; Li, Na; Navasca, Carmeliza

    2011-01-01

    The ambient particulate chemical composition data with three particle diameter sizes (2.5mmair sample data. In particular, we use the Block Term Decomposition (BTD) in rank-(L;L;1) form to identify nine pollution sources (Fe+Zn, Sulfur with Dust, Road Dust, two types of Metal Works, Road Salt, Local Sulfate, and Homogeneous and Cloud Sulfate).

  16. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics...

  17. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion (Cut-N-Shoot, TX); Goodwin, Charles R. (League City, TX); Richard, Jr., James (Kingwood, TX)

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  18. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  19. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

  20. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, John

    2013-07-31

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  1. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

  2. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  3. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  4. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  5. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  6. Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ) for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration (A/C­R) applications. Adsorber beds should be specificallyAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Conversion

  7. Heating of the IGM by FRII radio sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian R. Kaiser; Paul Alexander

    1999-02-01

    We present results of a numerical integration of the hydrodynamical equations governing the self-similar, two-dimensional gas flow behind the bow shock of an FRII radio source embedded in an IGM with a power law density profile. The model predicts pressure gradients within the cocoons consistent with modest backflow. For very steep external density profiles sources may well not expand in a self-similar fashion and in this case the model is not self-consistent. The assumption of ram pressure confinement of the cocoons perpendicular to the jet axis is found to overestimate the ratio of the pressure in front of the radio hot spots and that in the cocoons. Based on the properties of the gas between bow shock and cocoon we calculate the X-ray surface brightness of the flow. This emission is found to be a good tracer of the density distribution within the flow and varies significantly with the properties of the unshocked IGM. The cooling-time of the shocked IGM is found to be comparable to, or greater than, the Hubble time. The influence of a radio source on the evolution of its gaseous surroundings therefore extends well beyond the limited life time of the source itself. We compare our results with the X-ray map of Cygnus A and find some evidence for cold, dense gas clumps in the surroundings of this object. The extended X-ray emission observed around 3C 356 may also be caused by the bow shock of this radio source. We also present an empirical model for the X-ray emission of the shocked IGM due to thermal bremsstrahlung.

  8. Use of the phenanthrene to benzo(e)pyrene ambient air ratio as an indicator for the source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germain, A.; Ringuette, S.; Tremblay, J. [Environment Canada, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted by many industrial, domestic and natural sources. In 1990, the principal sources of PAH for the Province of Quebec were primary aluminum smelters (858 t), residential heating with wood (162 t), forest fires (148 t) and transportation (33 t). A sampling program was developed to measure PAH levels in ambient air at different locations influenced by these sources. The highest concentrations of PAH in ambient air (470 ng/m{sup 3} geometric mean) were measured near primary aluminum smelters using Horizontal Stud Soederberg technology. Areas influences by wood heating (157 ng/m{sup 3} winter geometric mean) and transportation (80 ng/m{sup 3} geometric mean) had lower total PAH concentrations. Ratios of ambient air concentration for phenanthrene/benzo(e)pyrene were lower in samples collected in the surroundings of the primary aluminum smelters (7--14), whereas high ratios were observed for residential heating with wood and transportation (20--45). The use of this ratio was found to be a good indicator for PAH originating from primary aluminum smelters.

  9. FORMALDEHYDE AND TRACER GAS TRANSFER BETWEEN AIRSTREAMS IN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    ratios for HCHO, water, and dry air were calculated from thethen given up to the colder air- water vapor from the humidcoefficient in air; listed in table 1 for water vapor,

  10. Advantages of enhanced synchronous motors in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morash, R.T. [Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new synchronous motor is a high-efficiency AC machine that has a low starting current. It may be used for conventional loads and also to start high inertia loads, delivering a constant torque during starting. Acceleration to synchronous speed can be allowed to take several minutes, if necessary, because the low starting current precludes excessive heating in the motor. Some of these motors are constructed with integral high inertia rotors that act as flywheels. These synchronous motors can ride through power sags and interruptions up to 30 seconds or more while still delivering useful load to pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors. The motors also restart instantly and resynchronize when utility power recovers. The motor can be useful in many heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) applications including those where machines and processes might otherwise be forced to shut down during momentary power interruptions.

  11. Oscillatory instability of three-dimensional natural convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfgat, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Transition from steady to oscillatory buoyancy convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box is studied numerically by straight-forward time integration of Boussinesq equations using a series of gradually refined finite volume grids. Horizontal and spanwise cube boundaries are assumed to be either perfectly thermally conducting or perfectly thermally insulated, which results in four different sets of thermal boundary conditions. Critical Grashof numbers are obtained by interpolation of numerically extracted growth/decay rates of oscillations amplitude to zero. Slightly supercritical flow regimes are described by time-averaged flows, snapshots, and spatial distribution of oscillations amplitude. Possible similarities and dissimilarities with two-dimensional instabilities in laterally heated square cavities are discussed. Arguments for grid and time step independence of the results are given.

  12. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S. (Cupertino, CA); Riley, David R. (West Newton, PA); Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  15. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  16. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  17. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  18. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  19. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section of a multi-section cathode air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saito, Kazuo; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-17

    The multi-section cathode air heat exchanger (102) includes at least a first heat exchanger section (104), and a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section (126) secured adjacent each other in a stack association. Cool cathode inlet air flows through cool air channels (110) of the at least first (104) and oxidation catalyzed sections (126). Hot anode exhaust flows through hot air channels (124) of the oxidation catalyzed section (126) and is combusted therein. The combusted anode exhaust then flows through hot air channels (112) of the first section (104) of the cathode air heat exchanger (102). The cool and hot air channels (110, 112) are secured in direct heat exchange relationship with each other so that temperatures of the heat exchanger (102) do not exceed 800.degree. C. to minimize requirements for using expensive, high-temperature alloys.

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

  5. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  6. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies,”Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,

  7. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    Work continued on life-cycle testing, optimization, and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly as well as the auxiliary subsystems. Emphasis of combustor testing was to determine optimum size and location of air inlets in primary combustion chambers; it was found that using a single air inlet about 70 degrees upsteam from the agglomeration site produces a combustion efficiency of 99.0% while producing no agglomeration. The test of the fouling effect on heat exchanger performance showed a steady decrease in time of the overall heat transfer coefficient. Particle size distribution of fly ash in the baghouse showed 50% of the particles smaller than 11.2 microns.

  8. ENHS : the encapsulated nuclear heat source - a nuclear energy concept for emerging worldwide energy markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, D.C.; Feldman, E.; Sienicki, J.; Sofu, T.; Brown, N.W.; Hossain, Q.; Barak, A.; Greenspan, E.; Saphier, D.; Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.; Dzodzo, M.

    2002-02-26

    A market analysis is presented which delineates client needs and potential market size for small turnkey nuclear power plants with full fuel cycle services. The features of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) which is targeted for this market are listed, and the status of evaluation of technological viability is summarized.

  9. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  10. Payback Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pump Retrofits Using eQuest Modeling Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahlers, Drake

    2011-12-16

    There has been much research and analysis done on the performance and potential energy savings related to installing a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. Much of this research has been dedicated to the new construction industry, and focused on a...

  11. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  12. Mixed convection transport from an isolated heat source module on a horizontal plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, B.H.; Jaluria, Y.; Tewari, S.S. )

    1990-08-01

    An experimental study of the mixed convective heat transfer from an isolated source of finite thickness, located on a horizontal surface in an externally induced forced flow, has been carried out. This problem is of particular interest in the cooling of electronic components and also in the thermal transport associated with various manufacturing systems, such as ovens and furnaces. The temperature distribution in the flow as well as the surface temperature variation are studied in detail. The dependence of the heat transfer rate on the mixed convection parameter and on the thickness of the heated element or source, particularly in the vicinity of the source, is investigated. The results obtained indicate that the heat transfer rate and fluid flow characteristics vary strongly with the mixed convection variables. The transition from a natural convection dominated flow to a forced convection dominated flow is studied experimentally and the basic characteristics of the two regimes determined. This transition has a strong influence on the temperature of the surface and on the heat transfer rate. As expected, the forced convection dominated flow is seen to be significantly more effective in the cooling of a heat dissipating component than a natural convection dominated flow. The location of the maximum temperature on the module surface, which corresponds to the minimum local heat transfer coefficient, is determined and discussed in terms of the underlying physical mechanisms. The results obtained are also compared with these for an element of negligible thickness and the effect of a significant module thickness on the transport is determined. Several other important aspects of fundamental and applied interest are studied in this investigation.

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  14. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  15. An Experimental Study of Waveguide Coupled Microwave Heating with Conventional Multicusp Negative Ion Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komppula, J; Koivisto, H; Laulainen, J; Tarvainen, O

    2015-01-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RFdriven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H^- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  16. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  17. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  18. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4oC and 21.7oC, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  19. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  20. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  1. The citation for this paper is: Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, C. Yavuzturk. 2005. Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heat pump, standing column well, and sev- eral types of supplemental heat rejecters used in hybrid GSHP and Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. 8th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference. Las Vegas. May 30-June 2. 1 #12;SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS J.D. Spitler

  2. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  3. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  4. The citation for this paper is: Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, C. Yavuzturk. 2005. Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the ground source heat pump (GSHP) system are presented - vertical ground loop heat exchanger, water source systems. Second, application of the simula- tion for design of vertical ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE will be discussed. Key words: ground source heat pump systems, geothermal, ground-coupled 1 INTRODUCTION Using

  5. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  6. Preheated Combustion Air (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #1c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  7. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  8. A strongly heated neutron star in the transient z source MAXI J0556-332

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Linares, Manuel

    2014-11-10

    We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ?16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46 ± 15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45 ± 3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 M {sub ?}. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ?500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accretion. The temperatures we obtain for the fits that include a power law (kT{sub eff}{sup ?} = 184-308 eV) are much higher than those seen for any other neutron star heated by accretion, while the inferred cooling (e-folding) timescale (?200 days) is similar to other sources. Fits without a power law yield higher temperatures (kT{sub eff}{sup ?} = 190-336 eV) and a shorter e-folding time (?160 days). Our results suggest that the heating of the neutron-star crust in MAXI J0556-332 was considerably more efficient than for other systems, possibly indicating additional or more efficient shallow heat sources in its crust.

  9. Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

    2005-08-24

    We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

  10. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  11. Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

  12. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Special Issue on Urban Heat Islands and Cool Communities,Energy Effects of Urban Heat Islands and their Mitigation: A

  13. FORMALDEHYDE AND TRACER GAS TRANSFER BETWEEN AIRSTREAMS IN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of dry formaldehyde at ppb to ppm levels byT.G. et al. , 1983. "Formaldehyde release from pressed-woodmethod determination of formaldehyde in air". Analytical

  14. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menart, James A.

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP systems.

  15. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ���¢��������Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.���¢������� The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP system

  16. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  17. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  18. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  19. Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature T = 10o C. The heat transfer coefficient at the wire's surface h equation that includes all heat transfer mechanisms involved in this problem. Write this energy balance

  20. Internal combustion engine system with fog injection and heat exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1987-10-27

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine; a fogging device communicating with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air, an adjustable heat exchanger for exchanging heat from the exhaust of the turbine to the input air to be fogged; and means for adjusting the level of heat exchange of the heat exchanger in accordance with properties of the input air and the level of fog being generated.

  1. Winter Heating or Clean Air? Unintended Impacts of China's Huai River Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almond, Douglas

    Air quality in China is notoriously poor. Ambient concentrations of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) 1981-1993 were more than double China’s National Annual Mean Ambient Air Quality Standard of 200 mg/m-3 (Xiaohui Bi et ...

  2. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new type air heater was developed, and an experimental set-up was built to analyze its characteristics. Within the Reynolds number from 2000 to 15000, the integrated characteristics in air heater channels with and without ...

  3. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  4. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  5. Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

    2006-01-01

    with double heat sources are numerically simulated. The model is verified by experimental data. The results of the study show that thermal stratification characteristics exist in indoor temperature fields. The paper also analyzes the influence of different...

  6. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  7. Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

    2012-01-01

    Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

  8. Analysis of Selection of Single or Double U-bend Pipes in a Ground Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.

    2006-01-01

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is widely used because of its energy-saving and environmental-friendly characteristics. The buried pipes heat exchangers play an important role in the whole GSHP system design. However, in most cases, single...

  9. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  10. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisowski, D. D.; Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Bremer, N.; Aeschlimann, R. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  11. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However...

  12. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  13. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  14. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  15. Preheated Combustion Air; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to improve efficiency and productivity is to preheat the combustion air going to the burners. The source of this heat energy is the exhaust gas stream, which leaves the process...

  16. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  17. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  18. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of prototype tests conducted in preparation for site characterization of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, air-injection tests were...

  19. Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air, water, or ground outside your home and concentrate it for use inside. Geothermal (or ground source) heat pumps have some major advantages. They can reduce energy use by...

  20. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District

  1. Evaluation of a heated-air airship for the environment of Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Richard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships, which have the capability to study the atmosphere as well as the capability to land and study the surface at multiple locations. Several lighter-than-air ...

  2. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    preparation for site characterization of the potential nuclear-waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, air-injection tests were conducted in the welded tuffs in G-Tunnel...

  3. Field air injection tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    part of a series of prototype tests conducted in preparation for site characterization at Yucca Mountain, air-injection tests were conducted in the welded tuffs in G-Tunnel at the...

  4. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  7. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

  8. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  9. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  10. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

  11. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Khizhnyak, V. I.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2008-02-15

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 {mu}s, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  12. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pump systems (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pump or Geo-Exchange systems, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national energy and climate strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE s request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential and other benefits, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in a report along with conclusions and recommendations. This paper summarizes the key information from the report.

  14. On the Response of an OST to a Point-like Heat Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadt, A; Uhrmacher, M; Weingarten, J; Willenberg, B; Vennekate, H

    2011-01-01

    A new technique of superconducting cavity diagnostics has been introduced by D. Hartrill at Cornell University, Ithaca, USA. Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OST) detect the heat transferred from a cavity's quench point via "Second Sound" through the superfluid He bath, needed to cool the superconducting cavity. The observed response of an OST is a complex, but reproducible pattern of oscillations. A small helium evaporation cryostat was built which allows the investigation of the response of an OST in greater detail. The distance between a point-like electrical heater and the OST can be varied. The OST can be mounted either parallel or perpendicular to the plate, housing the heat source. If the artificial quench-point releases an amount of energy compatible to a real quench spot on a cavity's surface, the OST signal starts with a negative pulse, which is usually strong enough to allow automatic detection. Furthermore, the reflection of the Second Sound on the wall is observed. A reflection coefficient R = ...

  15. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    LBNL-42339 Duct Systems in Large Commercial Buildings:and conduction heat gains of duct systems. Different methodscompared. ELAs-of supply ducts ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 cm 2

  16. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    2005. “Calculating energy-saving potentials of heat-island1999b. "Cooling energy savings potential of reflective roofsPeak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High-Albedo Roofs,”

  17. SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR AND AN AIR-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    enables to take into account the thermal interaction between each physical object (heat pump, PV collector of the heat pump is installed in the attic just beneath the PV collector, which preheats the incoming air the thermal interaction between a Photovoltaic ­ Thermal (PV-T) collector and an air-source heat pump

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterprise ServersHotDepartment

  19. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 AdvanceEnergyDepartment

  20. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie Pezzullo OfficeDepartment of

  1. A FULL SCALE ROOM FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INTERIOR BUILDING CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heated panel system mounted on the inside of the cells. ASHRAE Standard 51 was employed for volumetric air flow measurement. A water source heat pump provided chilled water to a fan-coil unit which in turn on volumetric air flow measurement and an overall room heat balance. Analysis was directed at results from

  2. Title: Exploring Earth Source Heat (ESH) as a demonstration project at Cornell Hosts: Bert Bland, Todd Cowen, Katherine McComas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    , the Climate Action Plan has proposed Earth Source Heat (previously termed Enhanced Geothermal System), supplemented by bioenergy, as the way to heat the Ithaca campus. ESH is an engineered system to access

  3. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  4. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    important qUe~tion is whether there would be a harmful build up of carbon monoxide within the building as a result of!the products of combustion being released directly into the air stream. The unvented infrared heaterslhave long been proven safe from... this standpoint. By looking at the fundamental chemistry of combustion! of natural gas, the direct gas-fired make-up air heaters can be shown to produce lower concentrationsII of carbon monoxide than do the unvented infrared heaters. This proof forms the basis...

  5. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01

    -Insulated and Air-Tightened Residential House in Kansai District, Japan, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2000, Espoo, Finland, Vol.2, PP.587-592, 2000.8. 4. T. Shimizu and N. Nakahara, Design and Measurements of an Aged-oriented House Aiming at Healthy...

  6. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  7. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  8. Mean and Variability of Air-Sea Heat Fluxes in the Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Lisan

    ;Problems in model humidity Yu-1 Year-to-year variations of zonally averaged latent heat flux from TAO buoys and ERA40 Buoy QLH ERA40 QLH ERA40 variables COARE algorithm Positive (negative) flux anomalies indicate: QLH = Le ce U (qs ­ qa) Replace ERA qa with Buoy qa Replace ERA U with Buoy U Exp#1: Does ERA40 have

  9. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  10. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  11. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  12. Using Bayesian statistics in the estimation of heat source in radiation Jingbo Wang and Nicholas Zabaras1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Using Bayesian statistics in the estimation of heat source in radiation Jingbo Wang and Nicholas distributed (i.i.d.) Gauss random variables. `Maximum A Posteriori' (MAP) and posterior mean estimates of the inverse radiation problem. 1 Introduction Study of thermal radiation has been stimulated by a wide range

  13. Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source...

  14. In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

    2012-04-01

    CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

  15. A source of PCB contamination in modified high-volume air samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, I.; O'Dell, J.M.; Arnold, K.; Hites, R.A.

    2000-02-01

    Modified Anderson High Volume (Hi-Vol) air samplers are widely used for the collection of semi-volatile organic compounds (such as PCBs) from air. The foam gasket near the main air flow path in these samplers can become contaminated with PCBs if the sampler or the gasket is stored at a location with high indoor air PCB levels. Once the gasket is contaminated, it releases PCBs back into the air stream during sampling, and as a result, incorrectly high air PCB concentrations are measured. This paper presents data demonstrating this contamination problem using measurements from two Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network sites: one at Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan and the other at Point Petre on Lake Ontario. The authors recommend that these gaskets be replaced by Teflon tape and that the storage history of each sampler be carefully tracked.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications for the design and performance of the system. These include the required ground loop heat exchanger length, and the first cost of the system. For example, the required ground loop heat exchanger length and first cost

  17. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  18. Update on maintenance and service costs of commercial building ground-source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cane, D.; Garnet, J.M.

    2000-07-01

    An earlier paper showed that commercial ground-source heat pump systems have significantly lower service and maintenance costs than alternative HVAC systems. This paper expands on those results by adding 13 more buildings to the original 25 sites and by comparing the results to the latest ASHRAE survey of HVAC maintenance costs. Data from the 38 sites are presented here including total (scheduled and unscheduled) maintenance costs in cents per square foot per year for base cost, in-house, and contractor-provided maintenance. Because some of the new sites had maintenance costs that were much higher than the industry norm, the resulting data are not normally distributed. Analysis (O'Hara Hines 1998) indicated that a log-normal distribution is a better fit; thus, the data are analyzed and presented here as log-normal. The log-mean annual total maintenance costs for the most recent year of the survey ranged from 6.07 cents per square foot to 8.37 cents per square foot for base cost and contractor-provided maintenance, respectively.

  19. Photoionization Heating of Nova Ejecta by the Post-Outburst Supersoft Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Timothy; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The expanding ejecta from a classical nova remains hot enough ($\\sim10^{4}\\, {\\rm K}$) to be detected in thermal radio emission for up to years after the cessation of mass loss triggered by a thermonuclear instability on the underlying white dwarf (WD). Nebular spectroscopy of nova remnants confirms the hot temperatures observed in radio observations. During this same period, the unstable thermonuclear burning transitions to a prolonged period of stable burning of the remnant hydrogen-rich envelope, causing the WD to become, temporarily, a super-soft X-ray source. We show that photoionization heating of the expanding ejecta by the hot WD maintains the observed nearly constant temperature of $(1-4)\\times10^4\\mathrm{~K}$ for up to a year before an eventual decline in temperature due to either the cessation of the supersoft phase or the onset of a predominantly adiabatic expansion. We simulate the expanding ejecta using a one-zone model as well as the Cloudy spectral synthesis code, both incorporating the time-d...

  20. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School..., AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Approved as to Style and Content: Chairman of Committee Head of Departm t + gkA4; August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The writer...

  1. ELECTRIC CO-HEATING: A METHOD FOR EVALUATING SEASONAL HEATING EFFICIENCIES AND HEAT LOSS RATES IN DWELLINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    the measured values for heat transmission and air leakagethe contribution by heat transmission alone through theheating efficiency, heat transmission coefficient and air

  2. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  3. Outdoor Air, Heat Wheels and JCPenney: A New Approach to Retail Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, C. S.; Bartlett, T. A.

    1998-01-01

    grains/lbat) Winter 70°F Dry Bulb Ventilation Rates 0.3 cWSF for the 1" Floor 0.2 cWSF for the 2"* Floor Design Electrical Loading 2.3 W/SF average over the sales area - Ambient Design Conditions Summer 95°F Design Dry Bulb 77°F Mean... with the heat wheel were significant at approximately $1 1,000, they were limited by the low utility rate of hs location. Neither the energy charge nor the electrical demand charge were significantly high. This lower utility rate lengthened the simple...

  4. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  5. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A primary contributor of this heat is building exhaust. Heat pipe exchangers are ideally suited for recovering this waste. Plant comfort air...

  6. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  7. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    dual compressor available on the market Compared with the selected building, a more energy efficient building will have lower space cooling and heating

  8. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08

    and petrochemical industries to ozone formation in the atmosphere. Source-oriented emissions needed to drive the model were generated using a revised Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model version 2.4. VOC/NOx ratios are found to be a critical factor...

  9. Air dispersion modeling of particulate matter from ground-level area sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meister, Michael Todd

    2000-01-01

    State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRAs) often use dispersion modeling to predict downwind concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from a facility. As such, a facility may be granted or denied an operating permit ...

  10. 1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating in Air-Suspended RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    -line structures using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology provides the effective means to suppress1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating in Air-Suspended RF MEMS Transmission-Line Structures Linda L. W. Chow, Student Member, IEEE, Zhongde

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Source Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Equipment that either combusts coal in any amount, or enough gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels to meet the heat and emissions standards defined in these regulations, must be operated with an Opacity...

  12. Ground?Source Heat Pumps: Overview of Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Options for Overcoming Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navigant Consulting, Inc.

    2011-11-21

    February 2009 final report submitted to DOE by Navigant Consulting, Inc. This report summarizes the status of ground?source heat pump (GSHP) technology and market penetration globally, estimates the energy saving potential of GSHPs in the U.S., identifies key market barriers that are inhibiting wider market adoption of GSHPs, and recommends initiatives that can be implemented or facilitated by the DOE to accelerate market adoption.

  13. An In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth; Shapiro, Carl

    2012-04-01

    Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and lighting, appliance, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs) through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and LAMELs.

  14. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  15. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  17. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01

    accordin g to heat quantity compared charge according to area. 2.3 Government Encouraging Use of New and Re producible Energy In order to save energy in architecture field, government and MINISRY OF CONSTRUCTIO N P.R. CHINA issue a series of laws... has longer life and its life is up to fifty years. 6) Divided calculation heat is easily carried out i n floor radiant heating system. It is helpful to so lve charge question. According to statistic, it can save energy about 20~30% that charge...

  18. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  19. Abatement of Air Pollution: Permit to Construct and Operate Stationary Sources (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permits are required for the construction or major modification of a stationary source or emission unit. Some exemptions apply. These regulations describe permit requirements, authorized activities...

  20. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  1. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  2. Integrated heat pump and heat storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, A.

    1983-09-13

    An integrated heat pump and heat storage system is disclosed comprising a heat pump, a first conduit for supplying return air from an enclosure to the heat pump, a second conduit for supplying heated air from the heat pump to the enclosure, heat storage apparatus. A first damper is operative in a first orientation to permit return air from the enclosure to enter the first conduit and to prevent return air from passing through the heat storage apparatus and operative in a second orientation to cause return air to pass through the heat storage apparatus for being heated thereby before entering the first conduit. A second damper is operative in a first orientation to cause heated air from the second conduit to pass through the heat storage apparatus for giving up a portion of its heat for storage and operative in a second orientation to prevent heated air from the second conduit from passing through the heat storage apparatus and to permit the heated air from the second conduit to reach the enclosure. The heat storage apparatus may comprise phase change materials.

  3. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  6. Two-stroke scooters are a dominant source of air pollution in many cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platt, S. M.; El Haddad, I.; Pieber, S. M.; Huang, R.-J.; Zardini, A. A.; Clairotte, M.; Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Barmet, P.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Fuller, S. J.; Kalberer, M.; Chirico, R.; Dommen, J.; Astorga, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Marchand, N.; Hellebust, S.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-05-13

    and trucks, particularly diesel vehicles, are thought to be the main vehicular pollution sources. This needs re-thinking, as we show that elevated particulate matter levels can be a consequence of ‘asymmetric pollution’ from two-stroke scooters, vehicles...

  7. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  8. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  9. Study of an integrated appliance, the air conditioner/heat pump-heat recovery unit-water heater. Final report, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Davies, A.; Fischler, S.

    1981-02-01

    Three integrated heat-pump - heat-recovery-unit - water-heater appliances were tested under various environmental conditions to measure the functional parameters and study the operating characteristics of these systems. It was found that the heat recovery, heat-recovery rate, and heat-recovery efficiency were dependent on the heat-recovery-unit's characteristics. The use of the heat-recovery unit in the system resulted in a reduced work load for the heat pump's compressor and slightly improved the heat-pump's performance. A computer simulation model of the integrated system was developed to study the interactions between several of the pertinent system variables on an hourly basis for selected situations and to estimate energy savings. Two alternative estimation methods that utilize five-degree temperature bin data were also developed. The estimate savings determined by using the alternative methods were about the same as those estimated using the hourly data. Conclusions were also reached concerning the use of water heaters with different tank capacities and on methods of increasing potential energy savings.

  10. The Well-Group Distribution of Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Optimized Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Lu, L.; Yoshida, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is the key question that how does the well group arrange for application of GWSHP system. Based on the fact that the water movement is the important factor of heat transfer on aquifer, this paper presents two steps analysis method and analyze...

  11. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Geothermal heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This sheet summarizes information on geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), which extracts heat from the ground in the winter and transfers heat to the ground in the summer. More than 200,000 GHPs are operating in US; they can reduce energy consumption and related emissions by 23 to 44% compared to air-source heat pumps. Opportunities for use of GHPs, requirements, and cost are described. Important terms are defined.

  13. Weather network computer to control deck-heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, A.

    1997-04-07

    A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

  14. Regional Impact of an Elevated Heat Source: The Zagros Plateau of Iran BENJAMIN F. ZAITCHIK, JASON P. EVANS, AND RONALD B. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Regional Impact of an Elevated Heat Source: The Zagros Plateau of Iran BENJAMIN F. ZAITCHIK, JASON in the north, the Taurus Moun- tains of Turkey, and the Zagros Plateau in Iran. Inter- secting atmospheric

  15. Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air concentration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. In Winiarek et al. (2012b source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air

  16. Technical Feasibility Study for Deployment of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems: Portsmouth Naval Shipyard -- Kittery, Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) is a United States Navy facility located on a series of conjoined islands in the Piscataqua River between Kittery, ME and Portsmouth, NH. EPA engaged NREL to conduct a study to determine technical feasibility of deploying ground-source heat pump systems to help PNSY achieve energy reduction goals.

  17. An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Bobby

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1967 Fh)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HORIZONTAL METAL PIATE UNDER FROSTING... Sketch ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 Photographs of Frost Formation e ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ 23 - 26 LIST OF CURVES 13 - 14 Temperature and Concentration Boundary Layer Profile ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 59 15 ? 16 Accumulation of Frost Grosth vs. Time...

  18. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  19. Source- and Age-Resolved Mechanistic Air Quality Models: Model Development and Application in Southeast Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongliang

    2012-07-16

    , road dust, internal combustion engines and industries are the major sources of primary PM2.5. Wildfire dominates primary PM near fire locations. Over 80% of sulfate is produced in upwind areas and coal combustion contributes most. Ammonium ion is mainly...

  20. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  1. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  2. MEASURED SPACE CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE OFA VERTICAL-BORE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) OVER TWELVE MONTHS UNDER SIMULATED OCCUPANCY LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 7.56 kW (2.16 ton) GSHP serving the space conditioning loads of a 251m2 (2700ft2) residential home with a phase change material in its envelope, and a single vertical-bore 94.5m (310 ft) ground loop. The same ground loop also serviced a ground source heat pump water heater. Envelope characteristics are discussed briefly in the context of reducing thermal losses. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, energy delivered/removed, compressor electricity use, COP, GSHP run times (low and high compressor stages), and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Both practical as well as research and development issues are discussed. The findings suggest that GSHPs represent a practical technology option to reduce source energy reduction and greenhouse emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 target of generating over 25% of heat consumed in the EU from renewable energy.

  3. Method for producing H2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, L.E.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a method for producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300{degrees} to 1400{degrees}F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  4. Modeling the heat transfer in geometrically complex media with a volume source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurevich, M. I., E-mail: gur.m@mail.ru; Tel’kovskaya, O. V.; Chukbar, B. K.; Shkarovskiy, D. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Fuel elements produced from spent fuel are porous media with spatially varying characteristics. A hierarchical discrete structure for the numerical modeling of heat-transfer processes in media with an anisotropic geometry that is characterized by both the microscopic voids and macroscopic changes in the parameters is proposed. The basic unit of the structure at its lower level is a cell that represents the local properties of the medium. The cells have a standard interface that allows one to form three-dimensional networks of such cells. Different types of cells in the network represent macroscopic changes. The potential for parallel processing is analyzed.

  5. "Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate6. Total1.6.6. Water-Heating

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  7. A TWO-PHASE HEAT SPREADER FOR COOLING HIGH HEAT FLUX SOURCES Mitsuo Hashimoto, Hiroto Kasai, Yuichi Ishida, Hiroyuki Ryoson, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -power lasers, high-intensity light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and semiconductor power devices. The heat spreader

  8. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  9. Performance Evaluation of a ground source heat pump system based on ANN and ANFIS models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, W.; Hu, P.; Lei, F.; Zhu, N.; Zhang,J.

    2014-01-01

    .H DONG," MATLAB neural network and application," Beijing: National Defense Industry Press, 2005. [10] S. A. Kalogirou, "Applications of artificial neural networks in energy systems," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 40, pp. 1073-1087, 1999. [11... stream_source_info ESL-IC-14-09-38.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28204 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IC-14-09-38.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Performance evaluation of a...

  10. Long Term Thermal Stability In Air Of Ionic Liquid Based Alternative Heat Transfer Fluids For Clean Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Elise B; Kendrick, Sarah E.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term aging on the thermal stability and chemical structure of seven different ILs so as to explore their suitability for use as a heat transfer fluid. This was accomplished by heating the ILs for 15 weeks at 200?C in an oxidizing environment and performing subsequent analyses on the aged chemicals.

  11. Quantum fluctuations of Coulomb Potential as a Source of Flicker Noise. The Influence of Heat Bath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirill A. Kazakov

    2007-05-15

    The power spectrum of finite-temperature quantum electromagnetic fluctuations produced by elementary charge carriers under the influence of external electric field is investigated. It is found that under the combined action of the photon heat bath and the external field, the low-frequency asymptotic of the power spectrum is modified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The new term in the power spectrum is inversely proportional to, but is odd in frequency. It comes from the connected part of the correlation function, and is related to the temperature and external field corrections to the photon and charge carrier propagators. In application to the case of a biased conducting sample, this term gives rise to a contribution to the voltage power spectrum which is proportional to the absolute system temperature, the charge carrier mobility, the bias voltage squared, and a factor describing dependence of the noise intensity on the sample geometry. It is verified that the derived expression is in agreement with the experimental data on 1/f-noise measurements in metal films.

  12. Chapter 21 Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in the PortlandVancouver metro area where there are more industrial sources of air pollution and higher levels of traffic congestion that create more air emissions....

  13. MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition energy and indoor air quality degradation for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  14. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water...

  16. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  17. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  18. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  19. The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the reverse-cycle defrost of an air-source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schliesing, John Steven

    1988-01-01

    frost during the last three minutes of the defrost improved overall cyclic performance. Strategies svhich involved stopping of the indoor fan during defrost or delaying the start of the outdoor fan following detrost termination had a negative impact... (ASHRAE) I' or its financial support of my research. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION II LITERATURE REVIEW A. . Cyclic Studies without Frosting B. Cyclic Frosting and Defrosting Studies C. Modeling and Simulation D. Detailed EVork E...

  20. Sources of air pollution in a region of oil and gas exploration downwind of a large city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    turing (better known as “fracking”) has affected air qualityal. , 2013). Development by fracking is being performed nearwell heads, ?ares, and fracking trucks (Armendariz, 2009).

  1. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  2. Effect of heat recirculation on the self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane/air mixtures in a quartz reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Pirone, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Russo, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli ''Federico II'', P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Vlachos, D.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST), and Center for Composite Materials (CCM), University of Delaware, 150 Academy Street, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The self-sustained catalytic combustion of propane is experimentally studied in a two-pass, quartz heat-recirculation reactor (HRR) and compared to that in a no (heat) recirculation reactor (NRR). Structured monolithic reactors with Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Pt doped perovskite catalysts have been compared in the HRR and NRR configurations. Heat recirculation enhances combustion stability, by widening the operating window of self-sustained operation, and changes the mode of stability loss from blowout to extinction. It is found that thermal shields (upstream and downstream of the monolith) play no role in the stability of a HRR but increase the stability of a NRR. The stability of a HRR follows this trend: Pt/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > doped perovskite > LaMnO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Finally, a higher cell density monolith enlarges the operating window of self-sustained combustion, and allows further increase of the power density of the process. (author)

  3. THE EFFECT OF AIR-COOLING HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF Fe/4Cr/ 0.3C/2Mn ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabe, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    published in Met. Trans. , Heat Treatment Conf. , The Metalstempered in (f). All heat treatments were performed for onefor the 1100 C heat treatment. Several undissolved spherical

  4. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  5. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-24

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  6. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2015-12-08

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  7. Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2013-12-10

    Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

  8. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commonly used as the heat transfer fluid in refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. They generally have a low boiling point and a high heat capacity. This enables a...

  9. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because...

  10. SAVE ENERGY AT HOME INSULATE AND AIR SEAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    ventilator (HRV) to recover heat from exhaust stream to pre-heat incoming air. HRV should only be considered

  11. DOE Webinar ? Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to the heating fluid or air handler Heat is transferred to the room by radiant floor heating or air distribution system Refrigerant expands causing it to cool Heat Pump...

  12. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  13. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  14. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Combustion -Generated Indoor Air Pollution Craigcontrol of air pollution from indoor combustion sources. Ifocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namely

  15. Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable...

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF AIR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER VIA PDES Fei Cao, Luz Angelica Caudillo-Mata, Natalia Iwanski, Yong Li, Kamran Sadiq,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the air conditioning units (ACUs) with large scale fans into the plenum thereby pressurizing it of the air conditioning units; these are meant to extract (hot) air out of the room. Thus, equipment like

  17. Heat sources within the Greenland Ice Sheet: dissipation, temperate paleo-firn and cryo-hydrologic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Ryser, C.; Andrews, L. C.; Catania, G. A.; Funk, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Hoffman, M. J.; Neumann, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ice temperature profiles from the Greenland Ice Sheet contain information on the deformation history, past climates and recent warming. We present full-depth temperature profiles from two drill sites on a flow line passing through Swiss Camp, West Greenland. Numerical modeling reveals that ice temperatures are considerably higher than would be expected from heat diffusion and dissipation alone. The possible causes for this extra heat are evaluated using a Lagrangian heat flow model. The model results reveal that the observations can be explained with a combination of different processes: enhanced dissipation (strain heating) in ice-age ice, temperate paleo-firn, and cryo-hydrologic warming in deep crevasses.

  18. Heat sources within the Greenland Ice Sheet: dissipation, temperate paleo-firn and cryo-hydrologic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Ryser, C.; Andrews, L. C.; Catania, G. A.; Funk, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Hoffman, M. J.; Neumann, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Ice temperature profiles from the Greenland Ice Sheet contain information on the deformation history, past climates and recent warming. We present full-depth temperature profiles from two drill sites on a flow line passing through Swiss Camp, West Greenland. Numerical modeling reveals that ice temperatures are considerably higher than would be expected from heat diffusion and dissipation alone. The possible causes for this extra heat are evaluated using a Lagrangian heat flow model. The model results reveal that the observations can be explained with a combination of different processes: enhanced dissipation (strain heating) in ice-age ice, temperate paleo-firn, and cryo-hydrologic warmingmore »in deep crevasses.« less

  19. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Heating Coil Versus Propane Furnace, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project involving two homes, the IBACOS team evaluated the performance of the two space conditioning systems and the modeled efficiency of the two tankless domestic hot water systems relative to actual occupant use. Each house was built by Insight Homes and is 1,715-ft2 with a single story, three bedrooms, two bathrooms, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems and ductwork located in conditioned crawlspaces. The standard house, which the builder offers as its standard production house, uses an air source heat pump (ASHP) with supplemental propane furnace heating. The Building America test house uses the same ASHP unit with supplemental heat provided by the DHW heater (a combined DHW and hydronic heating system, where the hydronic heating element is in the air handler).

  20. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    Bengtsson K. , 2002, “Gas Turbines – Sources or Sinks forParticle Emissions from Gas Turbines, Technical reportGrowth from Natural Gas Turbines. ,” Prep. [31] Lobo P. ,

  1. AIR LEAKAGE, SURFACE PRESSURES AND INFILTRATION RATES IN HOUSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    frame construction. floor furnace heating. m floor windows,Gas forced air heating system. 100 m floor area, 230 msolar heating Sealed combustion wood stove. 174 m floor

  2. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  3. Bayonet heat exchangers in heat-assisted Stirling heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagyu, S.; Fukuyama, Y.; Morikawa, T.; Isshiki, N.; Satoh, I.; Corey, J.; Fellows, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Multi-Temperature Heat Supply System is a research project creating a city energy system with lower environmental load. This system consists of a gas-fueled internal combustion engine and a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump utilizing shaft power and thermal power in a combination of several cylinders. The heat pump is mainly driven by engine shaft power and is partially assisted by thermal power from engine exhaust heat source. Since this heat pump is operated by proportioning the two energy sources to match the characteristics of the driving engine, the system is expected to produce cooling and heating water at high COP. This paper describes heat exchanger development in the project to develop a heat-assisted Stirling heat pump. The heat pump employs the Bayonet type heat exchangers (BHX Type I) for supplying cold and hot water and (BHX Type II) for absorbing exhaust heat from the driving engine. The heat exchanger design concepts are presented and their heat transfer and flow loss characteristics in oscillating gas flow are investigated. The main concern in the BHX Type I is an improvement of gas side heat transfer and the spirally finned tubes were applied to gas side of the heat exchanger. For the BHX Type II, internal heat transfer characteristics are the main concern. Shell-and-tube type heat exchangers are widely used in Stirling machines. However, since brazing is applied to the many tubes for their manufacturing processes, it is very difficult to change flow passages to optimize heat transfer and loss characteristics once they have been made. The challenge was to enhance heat transfer on the gas side to make a highly efficient heat exchanger with fewer parts. It is shown that the Bayonet type heat exchanger can have good performance comparable to conventional heat exchangers.

  4. THE EFFECT OF AIR-COOLING HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF Fe/4Cr/ 0.3C/2Mn ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabe, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    transmission electron microscopy were obtained from heat-transmission electron microscopy was limited to 1100°C and 900°C as-cooled heat

  5. Dehumidifying Heat Pipes | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    claims that your thermostat can be set higher with the low humidity air, allowing a net energy savings. Related Information Home Cooling Systems Air Conditioning Heat Pump Systems...

  6. Analysis of resuspension source area impacts at Rocky Flats surveillance air samplers S-7 and S-8, July 25-August 25, 1983 and September 8-October 4, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    An on-going study at the Rocky Flats Plant is being used to evaluate resuspension source area contributions to Pu-239 concentrations at 2 of the samplers in the Plants air sampling network. Early results from the study indicate that Pu-239 concentration levels are being affected primarily by resuspension from a zone 150 meters east and west of the study samplers. Initial results have also shown that net transport of Pu-239 during the sampling period has been from the east toward the west, onto the plant proper. These early findings show that sources immediately east of the 2 samplers are responsible for most of the Pu-239 exposure at the samplers. 2 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  7. A Quantitative Model of Energy Release and Heating by Time-dependent, Localized Reconnection in a Flare with a Thermal Loop-top X-ray Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longcope, D W; Carranza-Fulmer, T; Qiu, J; 10.1007/s11207-010-9635-z

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantitative model of the magnetic energy stored and then released through magnetic reconnection for a flare on 26 Feb 2004. This flare, well observed by RHESSI and TRACE, shows evidence of non-thermal electrons only for a brief, early phase. Throughout the main period of energy release there is a super-hot (T>30 MK) plasma emitting thermal bremsstrahlung atop the flare loops. Our model describes the heating and compression of such a source by localized, transient magnetic reconnection. It is a three-dimensional generalization of the Petschek model whereby Alfven-speed retraction following reconnection drives supersonic inflows parallel to the field lines, which form shocks heating, compressing, and confining a loop-top plasma plug. The confining inflows provide longer life than a freely-expanding or conductively-cooling plasma of similar size and temperature. Superposition of successive transient episodes of localized reconnection across a current sheet produces an apparently persistent, localiz...

  8. Air Sealing Your Home | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Save on heating and cooling costs by checking for air leaks in common trouble spots in your home. Save on heating and cooling costs by checking for air leaks in common trouble...

  9. Exergy Analysis and Operational Efficiency of a Horizontal Ground Source Heat Pump System Operated in a Low-Energy Test House under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents data, analyses, measures of performance, and conclusions for a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) providing space conditioning to a 345m2 house whose envelope is made of structural insulated panels (SIP). The entire thermal load of this SIP house with RSI-3.7 (RUS-21) walls, triple pane windows with a U-factor of 1.64 W/m2 K (0.29 Btu/h ft2 oF) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of 0.25, a roof assembly with overall thermal resistance of about RSI-8.8 (RUS-50) and low leakage rates of 0.74 ACH at 50Pa was satisfied with a 2.16-Ton (7.56 kW) GSHP unit consuming negligible (9.83kWh) auxiliary heat during peak winter season. The highest and lowest heating COP achieved was 4.90 (October) and 3.44 (February), respectively. The highest and lowest cooling COP achieved was 6.09 (April) and 3.88 (August). These COPs are calculated on the basis of the total power input (including duct, ground loop, and control power losses ). The second Law (Exergy) analysis provides deep insight into how systemic inefficiencies are distributed among the various GSHP components. Opportunities for design and further performance improvements are identified. Through Exergy analysis we provide a true measure of how closely actual performance approaches the ideal, and it unequivocally identifies, better than energy analysis does, the sources and causes of lost work, the root cause of system inefficiencies.

  10. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  11. Design and testing of an electron cyclotron resonance heating ion source for use in high field compact superconducting cyclotrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artz, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of axial injection of a high brightness beam from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source into a high magnetic field cyclotron. Axial injection from an ion ...

  12. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  13. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  14. Heat Pump Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air conditioner. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoLordRunar. A heat pump can provide an alternative to using your air...

  15. Ion sources with arc-discharge plasma box driven by directly heated LaB{sub 6} electron emitter or cold cathode (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Alexander A.; Davydenko, Vladimir I.; Deichuli, Petr P.; Shulzhenko, Grigori I.; Stupishin, Nikolay V.

    2008-02-15

    In the Budker Institute, Novosibirsk, an ion source with arc-discharge plasma box has been developed in the recent years for application in thermonuclear devices for plasma diagnostics. Several modifications of the ion source were provided with extracted current ranging from 1 to 7 A and pulse duration of up to 4 s. Initially, the arc-discharge plasma box with cold cathode was used, with which pulse duration is limited to 2 s by the cathode overheating and sputtering in local arc spots. Recently, a directly heated LaB{sub 6} electron emitter was employed instead, which has extended lifetime compared to the cold cathode. In the paper, characteristics of the beam produced with both arrangements of the plasma box are presented.

  16. Open-loop heat-recovery dryer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward Evan

    2013-11-05

    A drying apparatus is disclosed that includes a drum and an open-loop airflow pathway originating at an ambient air inlet, passing through the drum, and terminating at an exhaust outlet. A passive heat exchanger is included for passively transferring heat from air flowing from the drum toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the ambient air inlet toward the drum. A heat pump is also included for actively transferring heat from air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the exhaust outlet to air flowing from the passive heat exchanger toward the drum. A heating element is also included for further heating air flowing from the heat pump toward the drum.

  17. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  18. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  19. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  20. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.