Sample records for air source heat

  1. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts offers rebates of up to $3,750 for the installation of high-efficiency, cold-climate air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) in residential buildings of one to four units. Heat pumps must be ...

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  3. air source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  4. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program...

  5. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category.

  6. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  7. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  8. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof42.2Air-Source Heat Pump Basics

  9. air source heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  10. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc] [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  11. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production

  12. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  13. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  14. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out

  15. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a...

  16. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic countries such as Lebanon, electric water heaters are often used to generate hot water. Electric water

  17. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorreLeaksAir-Source

  18. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  19. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartmentDepartment ofBenchmarkControlWaste Heat

  20. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  1. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  2. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Iu, Ipseng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  3. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the COP of this heat pump system is over 2, the compressor discharge temperature under 120, and the heating capacity can meet the heating load needed when the condensing temperature is 50 and outdoor air temperature is over -18....

  4. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mode, the system must remove heat from the cold outdoor air and provide it to the conditioned space. To remove the heat from the outdoor air, the refrigerant entering the outdoor heat exchanger must be colder than the outdoor air. The outdoor air... is pulled across the heat exchanger surface by the outdoor fan Hence, the cold liquid refrigerant passing through the evaporator coil receives heat from the outdoor ambient air passing over the coil, causing the refrigerant to vaporize into a cool gas...

  5. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A. [Purdue University, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  6. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  7. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  8. air-to-air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annum. 12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National...

  9. The effects of expansion devices on the transient response characteristics of the air-source heat pump during the reverse cycle defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kurt T.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION DEVICES ON THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMP DURING THE REVERSE CYCLE DEFROST A Thesis by KURT T. PETERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE EFFECTS OF EXPANSION DEVICES ON THE TRANSIENT RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR-SOURCE HEAT PUMP DURING THE REVERSE CYCLE DEFROST...

  10. The effects of airflow modulation and multi-stage defrost on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William Vance

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This transfer of heat energy from a low temperature ambient to the high temperature conditioned space is accomplished by the input of electrical energy to the compressor. During the heating season, the heat pump transfers heat energy from the low temperature... pump refrigeration circuit includes a compressor, an indoor heat exchanger, an outdoor heat exchanger, an expansion device, and fans to transfer heat energy from a low temperature heat energy source to a higher temperature heat energy sink...

  11. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  12. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  13. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) characterize the reverse cycle defrost of the air-to-air heat pump and (2) examine the effect of different expansion devices on the performance of the heat pump during the defrost cycle....

  14. air-to-water heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  15. Design optimization of residential-sized air-source heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boecker, Curtis Layne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    larger heat exchangers and increased fan motor efficiency. Variable-speed heat pumps offer the greatest potential for efficiency increases as improvements in the variable-speed compressors progress. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Dennis O... for your support throughout. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION THE HEAT PUMP THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE Page Compressor Heat Exchanger Expansion Device Additional Equipment COMPUTER MODEL SELECTION AND VALIDATION . . 13 General Model...

  16. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to tests that utilized coated aluminum outdoor heat exchangers. The overall performance of each test was analyzed. These tests were carried out for cooling and heating mode conditions. The adhesion strength of water droplets to a bare aluminum...

  17. air-source heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    market, the need of the course will cover adult education principles, and program and lesson planning. During the remaining days 328 Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating...

  18. air-source heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    market, the need of the course will cover adult education principles, and program and lesson planning. During the remaining days 328 Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating...

  19. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Description of Test Points 3.9 Fi?. 3.4 Heat Pump System Schematic 3.10 Fig. 3.5 Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe 3.11 for leak testing, equipment replacement, and system break- down. The valves proved to be extremely useful because when a specific section... Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ESL-TR-88/06-04 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air...

  20. The effect of alternate defrost strategies on the reverse-cycle defrost of an air-source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schliesing, John Steven

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with and understanding of my questions and ideas. Thanks also to my family and friends for their support and help svhile I svorked on this project. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the American Society oi' Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers... . . 21 Psychrometric Room Temperature Control Characteristics during a Frosting, 'Defrosting Test 3. 3 4. 3 4. 10 4. 11 Refrigerant Circuit Arrangement of the Outdoor Coil Heat Pump System Schematic Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe . Indoor...

  1. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  2. air heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water...

  3. air heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 1320 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit....

  4. air toxics sources: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arlene Rosenbaum 1998-01-01 10 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING Physics Websites...

  5. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    multiple water-to-air heat pump units, which are connectedeach of the water-to-air heat pump units can run in eitheras other types of air source heat pumps, VRF systems need

  7. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  8. About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    a customer say, `you installed my first air conditioner - yourself!'" Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercialAbout Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercial ­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company

  9. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  10. Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that Deliver Competitive Advantage Al is the fastest growing market with the available capital and need for the benefits of ground source heat pumps Heating ... and Cooling n Comfort & Indoor Air Quality n Homes have domestic hot water - DHW n Less

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M.ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K. DAO, M.

  12. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  13. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  14. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  15. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  16. North Village Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview: Installation of Ground Source Heat Pumps. Replacement of Aging Heat Pumps. Alignment with Furmans Sustainability Goals.

  17. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 SLAC's air emissions are regulated through a federally mandated site-wide permit as well

  18. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating

  19. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the advantages of ground-source heat pumps over their conventional alternatives make these systems a very attractive choice for air conditioning, not only for residential buildings but increasingly also for institutional and commercial...

  20. Ground-source Heat Pumps Applied to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Hadley, Donald L.

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pumps can provide an energy-efficient, cost-effective way to heat and cool commercial facilities. While ground-source heat pumps are well established in the residential sector, their application in larger, commercial-style, facilities is lagging, in part because of a lack of experience with the technology by those in decision-making positions. Through the use of a ground-coupling system, a conventional water-source heat pump design is transformed to a unique means of utilizing thermodynamic properties of earth and groundwater for efficient operation throughout the year in most climates. In essence, the ground (or groundwater) serves as a heat source during winter operation and a heat sink for summer cooling. Many varieties in design are available, so the technology can be adapted to almost any site. Ground-source heat pump systems can be used widely in commercial-building applications and, with proper installation, offer great potential for the commercial sector, where increased efficiency and reduced heating and cooling costs are important. Ground-source heat pump systems require less refrigerant than conventional air-source heat pumps or air-conditioning systems, with the exception of direct-expansion-type ground-source heat pump systems. This chapter provides information and procedures that an energy manager can use to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. Ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits are explained. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application and installation. Two case studies are presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. A list of manufacturers and references for further reading are included for prospective users who have specific or highly technical questions not fully addressed in this chapter. Sample case spreadsheets are provided in Appendix A. Additional appendixes provide other information on the ground-source heat pump technology.

  1. IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS #12;ii IMPLEMENTING GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGER MODELS IN THE ENERGYPLUS............................................................... 2 1.3. Overview of the Parameter Estimation Water-to-Water Heat Pump Model ........... 5 1

  2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  3. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fabricators of heating, ventilation, and air conditioningof Building Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K.Driven Absorption Air-Conditioner", K. Dao, M. Simmons, R.SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K.

  5. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  6. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  7. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  8. Simulation model air-to-air plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple simulation model of an air-to-air plate heat exchanger is presented. The model belongs to a collection of simulation models that allows the eflcient computer simulation of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The main emphasis of the models is to shorten computation time and to use only input data that are known in the design process of an HVAC system. The target of the models is to describe the behavior of HVAC components in the part-load operation mode, which is becoming increasingly important in energy eficient HVAC systems. The models are intended to be used for yearly energy calculations or load calculations with time steps of about 10 minutes or larger. Short- time dynamic effects, which are of interest for different aspects of control theory, are neglected. The part-load behavior is expressed in terms of the nominal condition and the dimensionless variation of the heat transfer with change of mass flow and temperature. The effectiveness- NTU relations are used to parametrize the convective heat transfer at nominal conditions and to compute the part-load condition. If the heat transfer coefficients on the two exchanger sides are not equal (i. e. due to partial bypassing of air), their ratio can be easily calculated and set as a parameter. The model is static and uses explicit equations only. The explicit model formulation ensures short computation time and numerical stability, which allows using the model with sophisticated engineering methods like automatic system optimization. This paper fully outlines the algorithm description and its simplifications. It is not tailored for any particular simulation program to ensure easy implementation in any simulation program.

  9. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    00149 -1- 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan ENERGY EFFICIENT AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP OPERATING WITH R-1234yf Sorina Mortada, Ph.D. student, Center for Energy and Processes Abstract: Significant improvements in energy performance of air-to-air heat pumps are the major reason

  10. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  11. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  12. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  13. air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  14. air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  15. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems.

  16. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  17. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  18. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH the temperature of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat summertime temperatures reduces electricity demand for air conditioning, which lowers air pollution levels

  19. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  20. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  1. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  2. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  3. The citation for this paper is: Spitler, J.D., X. Liu, S.J. Rees, C. Yavuzturk. 2005. Simulation and Optimization of Ground Source Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are potentially more efficient than conventional air-to-air systems. In practice, ground-source heat pump systems and Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. 8th International Energy Agency Heat Pump Conference. Las Vegas. May 30-June 2. 1 #12;SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS J.D. Spitler

  4. A testing and HVAC design methodology for air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Ciepliski, D.L.; Besant, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-to-air heat pipe heat exchangers were tested using ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 as a guide. Some changes are introduced for the test facility and methods of calculating effectiveness. ASME PTC 19.1-1985 is used as a guide for uncertainty analysis. Tests were done for a range of mass flux [1.574 to 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s)], ratios of mass flow rates (0.6 to 1.85), supply air temperatures ({minus}10 C to 40 C), and heat exchanger tilt angles ({minus}8.9{degree} to 11.2{degree}). Because humidity changes in the exhaust and supply air streams were negligible, only the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy was considered. Measured and calculated results show significant variations in the effectiveness of sensible and of total energy, and uncertainties with each independent variable. For balanced exhaust and supply flow rates at {minus}10 C supply air temperature and 1.574 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s) mass flux, the measured effectiveness for sensible and total energy was calculated to be 0.48 and 0.44, respectively, with uncertainties of 0.057 and 0.052. These measurements decreased to 0.42 and 0.37, with uncertainties of 0.016 and 0.018 for a mass flux of 2.912 kg/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}s). Because water vapor condensation effects were small or negligible, the difference between the effectiveness for the sensible and total energy was within the overlapping uncertainty range of each. Based on counterflow heat exchanger theory and convective heat transfer equations, expressions are presented to extrapolate the effectiveness data between and beyond the measured data points. These effectiveness equations, which represent the variation in effectiveness with several independent operating variables, are used for HVAC design that is aimed at achieving minimum life-cycle costs.

  5. air heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  6. air treatment heating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  7. axially heated air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  8. air heating systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  9. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  10. MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS Thesis Approved by: Dr.................................................................................................................... 16 MODELING OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS IN ENERGYPLUS

  11. air cooled heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: was made against the two datasets recently downloaded from the California Energy Commission (CEC) database (CEC 2012) and the 2012 Air- Conditioning, Heating, and...

  12. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte...

  13. air pollution sources: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC Wechsler, Risa H. 2 Air pollution sources apportionment in a French urban site Marie Chavent* Physics Websites...

  14. air pollution source: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC Wechsler, Risa H. 2 Air pollution sources apportionment in a French urban site Marie Chavent* Physics Websites...

  15. Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Comparison of building energy use before and after...

  16. Analysis of heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, S.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to conduct a postconstruction evaluation of the air-source heat pumps installed in family housing at Hunter Army Air Field (AAF). The objective of this project was to investigate and resolve concerns about an increase in energy costs at Hunter AAF following the installation of heat pumps in November 1992. After completing several analyses and a field inspection of the heat pumps in family housing at Hunter AAF, the following conclusions were made: the installation of air-source heat pumps reduced the annual energy cost in family housing by $46,672 in 1993; the heat pump thermostat controls in Hunter AAF family housing appear to be incorrectly installed; and the Hunter AAF electric utility bill increased 10% during the first 6 months of 1993 compared to the first 6 months of 1992.

  17. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , generally measured by standard coal and electricity. The LCA of standard coal and electricity production and heating with standard coal-burning have been finished in our country. The emission inventories are shown in table1-2[5-6]. 2.2 Categories... of different gases to climate change are commonly compared in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents us- ing Global Warming Potentials (GW). Table3 pro- vides the equivalent factors for common impact categories in this LCA studies. 2.3 Monetary Evaluation...

  18. Characterization and modeling of the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of the input energy source is basic to any numerical modeling formulation designed to predict the outcome of the welding process. The source is fundamental and unique to each joining process. The resultant output of any numerical model will be affected by the initial description of both the magnitude and distribution of the input energy of the heat source. Thus, calculated weld shape, residual stresses, weld distortion, cooling rates, metallurgical structure, material changes due to excessive temperatures and potential weld defects are all influenced by the initial characterization of the heat source. Understandings of both the physics and the mathematical formulation of these sources are essential for describing the input energy distribution. This section provides a brief review of the physical phenomena that influence the input energy distributions and discusses several different models of heat sources that have been used in simulating arc welding, high energy density welding and resistance welding processes. Both simplified and detailed models of the heat source are discussed.

  19. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  20. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  1. Sources for Pu in near surface air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, G.; Thom, C.; Baechmann, K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides evidence that most of the Pu in the near surface air today is due to resuspension. Vertical and particle size distribution in near surface air over a period of three years were measured. The seasonal variations of Pu in air and the influence of meteorological parameters on these variations are shown. Samples were taken before the Chernobyl accident in an area where only Pu fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests of the early sixties occurs. The comparison of the behavior of Pu with other trace elements, which were also measured, showed similar behavior of Pu and elements like Ca, Ti and Fe in near surface air. This confirms that most Pu is resuspended because the main source for these elements in air is the soil surface. Resuspension factors and resuspension rate are estimated for all measured elements. A resuspension factor of 0.8 X 10(-8) m-1 and a resuspension rate of 0.09 X 10(-9) s-1 is calculated for Pu.

  2. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  3. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  4. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  5. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  6. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  8. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  9. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  10. Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

  11. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven Unitary  Air?Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment”.  Air Conditioning &  Air?source Heat Pump Equipment.  Air?apply to the air handlers of heat pumps and electric 

  12. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  13. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  14. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  15. advanced heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  16. advanced heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  17. agency heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  18. automotive heat pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  19. 2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

  20. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy cost of make-up air, without sacrificing in-plant air quality. Source-capture Ventilation employs engineered sys tems that confine airborne contaminants at their point of origin, before they can escape into plant air (Figures 3, 4... the workers' breathing zones or the general plant air, they can achieve virtually 100% elimination of airborne pollutants. But they entail the expense of enclosure and/or hooding and duct systems. General ventilation, though simpler and often less costly...

  1. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Hern, Shawn [ClimateMaster, Inc.] [ClimateMaster, Inc.; McDowell, Tim [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC] [Thermal Energy System Specialists, LLC; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  2. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  3. Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drake, R.L.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

  4. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser scale test data. The short-term behavior of ground-coupled heat pump systems is important for the design

  5. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  6. ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By ANDREW D. CHIASSON Bachelor of Applied 1999 #12;ii ADVANCES IN MODELING OF GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: Thesis Adviser..............................................................................................................1 1.1. Overview of Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems ..............................................1 1

  7. APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATIONS OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS TO BUILDINGS AND BRIDGE DECKS. By MAHADEVAN Chapter Page 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of hybrid ground source heat pump systems 1.2. Literature review 1.3. Thesis objective and scope 2. Optimal sizing of hybrid ground source heat pump system

  8. DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FACILITY FOR HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By SHAWN ALEX HERN.1 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM DESIGN........................................2-3 2.1.1 Design...............................................................................2-5 2.2 HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION................................2-9 3

  9. Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review-Source Heat Pumps in Cold Climates The Current State of the Alaska Industry, a Review of the Literature and contributions from individuals and organizations involved in ground-source heat pump installation around Alaska

  10. Property:HeatSource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDate Jump to:Property Edit withpurpose ofHeatSource

  11. Recirculation of Factory Heat and Air to Reduce Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiel, G. R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ---- -- - ------ RECIRCULATION OF FACTORY HEAT AND AIR TO REDUCE ENERGY CONSUMPTION Gregory R. Thiel Eltron Mfg. Inc. Fort Thomas, KY. ABSTRACT Two methods for achieving substantial energy savings through recirculation techniques are discussed... challenging conditions: Because they are constructed to op erate "dripping wet", Eltron' s pro prietary "Conductive Precipitate" models can resume normal air clean ing operation immediately after each water washing cycle. They are the only...

  12. Heat Source Identification Based on L1 Constrained Minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    problem, which was shown to be very efficient for sparse recovery. For the heat source identificationHeat Source Identification Based on L1 Constrained Minimization Yingying Li Stanley Osher Richard to the heat equation is considered. The initial data is assumed to be a sum of an unknown but finite number

  13. absorption-type heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  14. absorption-sorption heat pumps: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  15. A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Ian

    A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air. Introduction Western Air is a distributor of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  16. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  17. Radioisotopes for heat-source applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoisington, J.E.

    1982-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential DOD requirements for noninterruptable power sources could total 1 MW thermal by FY 1990. Of the three isotopes considered, (/sup 90/Sr, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 238/Pu) /sup 90/Sr is the only one available in sufficient amounts to meet this requirement. To meet the DOD FY 1990 requirements, it would be necessary to undertake /sup 90/Sr recovery operations from spent fuel reprocessing at SRP, Hanford, and the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP). /sup 90/Sr recovery from the existing alkaline high level waste (HLW) at Hanford and SRP is not attractive because the isotopic purity of the /sup 90/Sr is below that required for DOD applications. Without reprocessing LWR spent fuel, SRP and Hanford could not supply the demand of 1 MW thermal until FY 1996. Between FY 1983 and FY 1996, SRP and Hanford could supply approximately 0.70 MW of /sup 90/Sr and 0.15 MW of /sup 147/Pm. SRP could supply an additional 0.15 MW from the production and recovery of /sup 238/Pu. Strontium-90 is the most economical of the three heat source radionuclides considered. The /sup 90/Sr unit recovery cost from SRP fresh acid waste would be $180/watt. The BNFP /sup 90/Sr recovery cost would be $130/watt to $235/watt depending on the age and burnup of the LWR spent fuel. Hanford /sup 90/Sr recovery costs form Purex fresh acid waste are unavailable, but they are expected to be comparable to the SRP costs. /sup 147/Pm and /sup 238/Pu are considerably more expensive heat source materials. /sup 147/Pm recovery costs at SRP are estimated to be $450/watt. As with /sup 90/Sr, the Hanford /sup 147/Pm recovery costs are expected to be comparabl to the SRP costs. Production of high assay (93.5%) /sup 238/Pu at SRP from excess /sup 231/Np would cost about $1160/watt, while recovery of low assay (27%) /sup 238/Pu from the waste stream is estimated at $1850/watt.

  18. Air Permitting for Stationary Sources (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The permitting system implements the permitting requirements of RSA 125-C and 125-I to regulate the operation and modification of new and existing stationary sources, area sources, and devices to...

  19. IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES...

  20. Monitoring SERC Technologies —Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory Project Leader Dave Peterson about Geothermal/Ground Source Heat Pumps and how to properly monitor its installation.

  1. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design May 19, 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program 2010 Peer Review ENVIRON International PI : Metin Ozbek Track : GSHP Demonstration Projects This...

  2. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  3. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationCentral Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. Washington DC:Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation

  4. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EnergyResidential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps.Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy

  5. STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems (Page 1 of 4) Project Name CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC-MECH-3A (Revised 08

  6. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library development is focused on the develop- ment of models for building heating, ventilation and air

  7. Train-the-Trainer As ground source heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Train-the-Trainer As ground source heat pumps capture more of the HVAC market, the need will also receive a copy of the Closed-Loop/ Ground- Source Heat Pump Systems Installation Guide · Soils and Rock Identification · Pump and Fluid Selection Registration information You must be an IGSHPA

  8. SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By XIAOWEI XU Bachelor #12;ii SIMULATION AND OPTIMAL CONTROL OF HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Dissertation Approved as co- advisor of this research project. His many years of building system simulation experience

  9. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  10. IEA HPP Annex 41 Cold Climate Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    of Air-Source Heat Pumps Van D. Baxter Oak Ridge National Laboratory European Heat Pump Summit Nuremberg ­ Cold Climate Heat Pumps Improving low ambient temperature performance of air-source heat pumps as having large number of hours with OD temperature -7 °C (19 °F). Air-source heat pumps (ASHP

  11. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  12. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  13. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a model with prescribed heat input into the medium, i.e. ,heat and towers. The air inlet temperature is obtained from an inputan input signal. There is also a constant effectiveness heat

  14. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, V. D. [ORNL; Rice, K. [ORNL; Murphy, R. [ORNL; Munk, J. [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Craddick, William [ORNL; Hearn, Shawn A. [ClimateMaster, Inc.

    2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test experience, CM developed a 2nd generation (or beta) prototype in 2012. Field test verification units were fabricated and installed at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge in May 2012 and at several sites near CM headquarters in Oklahoma. Field testing of the units continued through February 2013. Annual performance analyses of the beta unit (prototype 2) with vertical well ground heat exchangers (GHX) in 5 U.S. locations predict annual energy savings of 57% to 61%, averaging 59% relative to the minimum efficiency suite and 38% to 56%, averaging 46% relative to the SOA GSHPwDS. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the test units it was projected that the 2nd generation units would achieve ~58% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at the Zebra Alliance site with horizontal GHX. A new product based on the beta unit design was announced by CM in 2012 – the Trilogy 40® Q-mode™ (http://cmdealernet.com/trilogy_40.html). The unit was formally introduced in a March 2012 press release (see Appendix A) and was available for order beginning in December 2012.

  15. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  16. Effect of nonuniform inlet air flow on air-cooled heat-exchanger performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soler, A.I.; Singh, K.P.; Ng, T.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blowers used to propel air across tube bundles generate a non-uniform flow field due to their construction details. A formalism to evaluate heat transfer degradation due to non-uniform airflow has been developed. Certain symmetry relations for cross flowheat exchangers, heretofore unavailable in the open literature, have been derived. The solution presented here was developed to model a 4 tube pass air blast heat exchanger for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project. This case is utilized to show how this method can be used as a design tool to select the most suitable blower construction for a particular application. A numerical example is used to illustrate the salient points of the solution.

  17. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

  18. Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources Use of a Gaussian heat distribution in dimensionless form indicates final weld pool shape can be predicted accurately for many welds information about both the size and the shape of arc weld pools. The results indicate that both welding

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Ground Source Heat Pumps in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by consumers, industry and, government and high first costs. Compared to other states, California also has heat pump's constant lowlevel usage of electricity. · Integrate ground source heat pumps formally. It would increase energy efficiency of buildings, dramatically reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce

  20. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If a heat-pipe is used to transfer heat from the warm fresh air intake to the cold supply, not only is the reheat obtained free, but the fresh air gets substantial pre-cooling effect from the heat-pipe saving on the cooling energy required...

  1. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1985; Mei & Emerson, 1985; Couvillion, 1985; Edwards & Vitta, 1985; Mei & Baxter, 1986; Cane & Forgas, 1991, Deerman, 1991; Dobson, 1991]. Ground coupled heat pumps have the potential to perform more efficiently than air source heat pumps (ASHP... configurations of heat pumps: air source heat pumps (ASHP) and ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP). Air source heat pumps extract energy from the outdoor air in the heating mode and reject excess heat in the cooling mode. One significant drawback to ASHP...

  2. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Hua

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ground-source heat pumps. in ASHRAE Summer Meeting.savings of ground source heat pump systems in Europe: Afor ground-source heat pumps: A literature review,

  3. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  4. Performance of Horizontal Field Earth-Coupled Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbott, C. A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative to traditional methods of residential heating and cooling is the heat pump. However, heat pumps which use the outside air as a heat source/sink become inefficient during the periods of highest demand. Another possible heat source...

  5. Visual Simulation of Heat Shimmering and Mirage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    and the surrounding air. We introduce a heat transfer model between the heat source objects and the ambient flow the heat sources to the ambient flow. Although heat transfer modeling has been used before in computer

  6. Air Quality: New Emissions Source Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: New Emissions Source Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All new sources that involve actual or potential air emissions must be evaluated by the air quality program manager beforehand

  7. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  8. Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power potentially increase exposure to air pollutants. When distributed generation is efficiently deployed to determine accurately the efficiencies and emissions of various applications of distributed generation

  9. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  10. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with...

  11. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes: (1) the performance improvements possible for central air conditioners and heat pumps using conventional design improvements, (2) the development of a methodology for estimating the seasonal performance of variable speed heat...

  12. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  13. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  14. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  15. A heat-driven monochromatic light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefani, F.; Lawless, J.L.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates theoretically the efficiency with which heat may be converted into resonance radiation in a cesium thermionic diode. An analytical model of a thermionic converter is employed which combines the coupled effects of line radiation transport, excited-state kinetics, and plasma diffusion. Operating regimes are established for various degrees of optical density in the plasma. The results indicate that monochromatic radiation can be produced with efficiencies on the order of 30 percent provided there is an adequate voltage drop across the plasma. In this study, a drop of one volt was used since it can be maintained without any electrical power input to the device. It is found that high efficiencies come by virtue of the higher interelectrode distances which the solutions will accommodate, and that radiation can be generated efficiently, even with optically dense gases.

  16. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the specified performance was realized at the heat-pump, e) whether the pipes for fan-coil units are suitably insulated. Output Heat loss from piping Upward and downward heat flow from hot-water mat Heat loss from piping (boiler - header) Heat loss from...Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment S. Hokoi*, H. Miura*, Y. Huang*, N. Nakahara** and A. Iwamae*** * Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan ** Nakahara Laboratory, Environmental Syst...

  17. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT PIPE IMPACT ON DEHUMIDIFICATION, INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY SAVINGS by J. Thomas Cooper Heat Pipe Technology, Inc Alachua, Florida, USA TENTH SYMPOSIUM ON IMPROVING BUILDING SYSTEMS IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES MAY 13-14, 1996 FT....WORTH, TEXAS ABSTRACT Heat pipe impact on our ability to dehumidify, protect, and improve our indoor air quality and save energy in our building systems is tremendous. Projects all over the world in hot and humid climates are using heat pipes in both...

  18. User's manual for steady-state computer simulation for air-to-air heat pumps with selected examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state computer simulation model has been developed for conventional, vapor compression cycle, electrically driven air-to-air heat pumps. Comparison between the heat pump simulation model predictions and available data from three heat pump experiments indicate that the predictions generally are within accepted tolerances. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of possible variations in some of the input parameters on the system's thermal performance. The computer simulation model is briefly described for heating and cooling modes, and simulation model input data and output are given. (LEW)

  19. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  20. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  1. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  2. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  3. Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for New and Existing Homes: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options...

  4. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  5. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  6. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  7. Discussion of an Optimization Scheme for the Ground Source Heat Pump System of HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mu, W.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the implementation of the global sustainable development strategy, people pay more attention to renewable energy resources such as ground source heat pumps. The technology of ground source heat pump is widely applied to heat and cold...

  8. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  9. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  10. Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    11 Heat Transfer in Buildings: Application to Solar Air Collector and Trombe Wall Design H. Boyer applications are finally discussed. One concerns the modeling of a flat plate air collector and the second focuses on the modeling of Trombe solar walls. In each case, detailed modeling of heat transfer allows

  11. Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhdanov, Renat

    Group classification of heat conductivity equations with a nonlinear source R.Z. Zhdanov Institute. It is shown that there are three, seven, twenty eight and twelve inequivalent classes of partial differential to the class under study and admitting symmetry group of the dimension higher than four is locally equivalent

  12. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  13. Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP in a program for hourly load calculations of a single thermal zone. The heat balance model for load and energy to heat balance model load and energy calculations," HVAC&R Research, 10(2), 91-111. #12;2 · Mixed

  14. Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary Date: 22 January 2014 Please cite this article as: L.G. Lauredan, H. Florian, D. Jean, A wall heat;1 A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled- rotary kilns with secondary air flow and recycled

  15. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  16. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  17. Identification of heat source fields from infra-red thermography: Determination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Identification of heat source fields from infra-red thermography: Determination of `self-heating;Identification of heat source fields from infra-red thermography: Determination of `self-heating' in a dual this goal, and its application to an experimental case of self-heating at a single load level is shown

  18. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  19. Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  20. Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  1. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  2. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  3. Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

  4. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room cooling load, room air setpoint, and supply air temper-distribution of room cooling load into the supply plenum orof room cooling load between the underfloor supply plenum

  5. HEATING DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE TARGET OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451DOE/SC0002390dVandHEATING DISTRIBUTIONS IN

  6. adsorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condensator 12;12 Low-temperature heat sources Geothermal source Ambient air Solar adsorption heat pump, but the use of the source for hot water or direct heating can be...

  7. TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelka, Walter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In warmer climates air source heat pumps have gained widestadvantages over air source heat pumps. For example, theair conditioning is required, water is pumped from the cold water well to the heat pump.

  8. Air flow in a high aspect ratio heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing heat output of modern electronics requires concomitant advances in heat sinking technology: reductions in thermal resistance and required pumping power are necessary. This research covers the development of ...

  9. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  10. The Application of Frequency-Conversion Technology in Groundwater Source Heat Pump System Reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, X.; Song, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep well pump power is relatively ubiquitous in the groundwater heat pump air-conditioning system in some hotels in Hunan, and the heat pump usually meets the change of the load by throttling. Therefore, frequency conversion technology is proposed...

  11. Generation of acoustic-gravity waves in ionospheric HF heating experiments : simulating large-scale natural heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradipta, Rezy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we investigate the potential role played by large-scale anomalous heat sources (e.g. prolonged heat wave events) in generating acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) that might trigger widespread plasma turbulence ...

  12. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  13. Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly important in recent years. Proper design of a geothermal system, be it for deep or for shallow

  14. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  15. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

  16. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

  17. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  18. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tool for geothermal water loop heat pump systems, 9thInternational IEA Heat Pump Conference, Zürich, Switzerland,Performance of ground source heat pump system in a near-zero

  19. air-to-air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

  20. air-to-air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

  1. Quality assurance program plan for FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This QAPP implements the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the FRG Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources Project (C-229). The heat source will be relocated from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC).

  2. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  3. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  4. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Because of their remarkable physical and electronic properties, carbon nanotubes are promising nanotubes in air,3,4 in an oxygen stream,5 or under a flow of carbon dioxide gas.6 Thinning of nanotubesScanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air Xuekun Lu

  6. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for All-Electric Homes? Study of Multifamily Energy Retrofit Using Flexible Multizone Building Simulation Model Critical Question 6: What are the Challenges and Solutions for...

  7. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529,Vulnerabilities |AgreementBurden

  8. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  9. HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM SIMULATION USING VISUAL MODELING TOOL FOR HVACSIM+ M.H. Khan, 74078, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a simulation of a hybrid ground source heat pump system, performed using a new graphical user interface for HVACSIM+. Hybrid ground source heat pump systems

  10. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  11. Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    the potential for significant energy savings [1]. The performance of ground-source heat pumps for residential1 Efficiency, Economic and Environmental Assessment of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Central, the efficiency gain for the ground-source heat pump compared to electricity is 43% for cooling and 81

  12. Thermophoretic transport of particles that act as volumetric heat sources in natural convection flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, J.C.; Krane, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural convection boundary layer with suspended heat generating aerosol particles adjacent to a cooled, isothermal, vertical wall was investigated for the following circumstances: laminar and turbulent flow, large temperature differences between the wall and the fluid, stable thermal stratification far from the wall, and fluid participation in thermal radiation heat transfer. The deposition of aerosol particles by thermophoresis was investigated. A scaling analysis showed the negligible effect inside the boundary layer of the particulate heat source strengths of practical interest. Only the temperature of the fluid far from the wall is affected appreciably by the heat sources. The scaled boundary layer differential equations are transformed to a nonsimilarity form for numerical solution using two different methods. An expression for the ratio of mass transfer to heat transfer coefficients was developed to simplify the computation of thermophoretic particle deposition at the wall for the case of constant temperature conditions far from the wall. Variable thermophysical property effect for the three gases of steam, air, and hydrogen were investigated. A dimensionless ratio of transfer coefficients for large temperature differences and turbulent flow was computed as a product of the laminar constant property results and a ratio of the known thermophysical properties at the wall and far from the wall. An approximation of the laminar constant property results for all three gases is developed in terms of the known wall and fluid temperatures, Prandtl number, and a thermophoretic constant. This allows particle deposition to be computed from a known heat transfer coefficient without explicitly solving the particle conservation equation. 120 refs., 29 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Low Temperature Heat Source Utilization Current and Advanced Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, James H. Jr.; Dambly, Benjamin W.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Once a geothermal heat source has been identified as having the potential for development, and its thermal, physical, and chemical characteristics have been determined, a method of utilization must be decided upon. This compendium will touch upon some of these concerns, and hopefully will provide the reader with a better understanding of technologies being developed that will be applicable to geothermal development in East Africa, as well as other parts of the world. The appendices contain detailed reports on Down-the-Well Turbo Pump, The Vapor-Turbine Cycle for Geothermal Power Generation, Heat Exchanger Design for Geothermal Power Plants, and a Feasibility Study of Combined Power and Water Desalting Plant Using Hot Geothermal Water. [DJE-2005

  14. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  15. File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    icon File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File...

  16. An experimental study of heating performance and seasonal modeling of vertical U-tube ground coupled heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margo, Randal E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    configurations of heat pumps: air source heat pumps (ASHP) and ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP). Air source heat pumps extract energy from the outdoor air in the heating mode and reject excess heat in the cooling mode. One significant drawback to ASHP... season. Ground coupled heat pumps use the ground as a heat source or heat sink through The format of this proposal follows that of the Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. the use of a ground...

  17. PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ......................................................................................................... 4 2.1. Heat Pump and Chiller Models

  18. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF A CROSSFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER. H RMED Rthe same direction. In a crossflow exchanger, (Fig- ure 2)Heat Exchanger (Figure 11) has a crossflow and core, two two

  19. The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from...

  20. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  1. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A RESIDENTIAL GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM WITH ANTIFREEZE SOLUTION M in a ground source heat pump system falls near or below 0o C, an antifreeze mixture must be used to prevent freezing in the heat pump. The antifreeze mixture type and concentration has a number of implications

  2. Interhemispheric Teleconnections from Tropical Heat Sources in Intermediate and Simple Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the prescribed tropical heating in both intensity and geographical extent and by inducing remote precipitation anomalies by interaction with the basic state. 1. Introduction Tropical heat sources can remotely influenceInterhemispheric Teleconnections from Tropical Heat Sources in Intermediate and Simple Models XUAN

  3. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

  4. March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , 6 were identified as significant contributors to national emissions of hazardous air pollutants of cancer per million people · Urban areas ­ >25 cases per million · "Transportation corridors" (areas

  5. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  6. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

  7. Identification of heat source fields from infra-red thermography: Determination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Identification of heat source fields from infra-red thermography: Determination of `self-heating of `self-heating' in a dual-phase steel by using a dog bone sample by C. Doudard, S. Calloch, F. Hild and S-section. A new procedure is introduced to achieve this goal, and its application to an experimental case of self-heating

  8. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  9. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E. (Mentor, OH)

    1983-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  10. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  11. Characterization of Pu-238 heat source granule containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson Ii, P D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thronas, D L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, J P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, F E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Neuman, A D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duncan, W S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. These nuclear batteries convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of {sup 238}Pu, in the form of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules. The granules are contained in 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. The T-111 strength member contains the fuel under impact condition. An outer clad of Hastelloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} containment system. Any compromise in the strength member is something that needs to be characterized. Consequently, the T-111 strength member is characterized upon it's decommissioning through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of photomicrographs. SEM may further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This paper describes the characterization of the metallurgical condition of decommissioned RTG heat sources.

  12. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  13. Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

  14. A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool the proposed Earth Science Systems Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A pre-feasibility study to assess the potential of Open Loop Ground Source Heat to heat and cool............................................................1 1.2. History of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems................................................3 1.3. Components of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems..........................................3 1.4. Types of Ground

  15. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  16. Ground source heat storage and thermo-physical response of soft clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxe, Shoshanna Dawn

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground source heat storage can condition buildings with reduced consumption of fossil fuels, an important issue in modem building design. However, seasonal heat storage can cause soil temperature fluctuations and possibly ...

  17. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  18. PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS: TEST METHODS AND RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature °C for the cold supply air is OF to 40 OF)flow rate. °C to For the cold supply airstream, the humiditytures for the hot and cold supply airstreams are 26.7 °C and

  19. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda: TheAof Energy Air

  20. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (Tex...

  1. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (Tex...

  2. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M. [International Air Technologies, Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Rymkevich, A.A. [St. Petersburg Academy of Refrigeration and Food Technology (Russian Federation). Dept. of Refrigeration Machines and Air-Conditioning Systems

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  3. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on Armed Services U.S.Health, Safety, &ofHeating

  4. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  5. A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a capital cost comparison of commercial ground source heat pump systems. The study includes groundwater systems, ground-coupled systems and hybrid systems.

  6. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Create a new modeling decision? tool that will enable ground source heat pump (GSHP) designers and customers to make better design and purchasing decisions.

  7. Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump Systems and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Ecological and Economical efficient Heating and Cooling by innovative Gas Motor Heat Pump use of buildings Gas Heat Pump Solution #12;Gas Heat Pump - deserves special attention due to its source in addition to the outside air ·A further essential component of Gas Heat Pump air conditioning

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material (PCM) is the controlling...

  10. Numerical Simulation of a Latent Heat Storage System of a Solar-Aided Ground Source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Zheng, M.; Li, Z.; Lei, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the rectangular phase change storage tank (PCST) linked to a solar-aided ground source heat pump (SAGSHP) system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The container of the phase change material (PCM) is the controlling...

  11. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water-source heat pump, coupled with a geothermal water loop and incorporating a forced fresh-air enthalpy exchange system was installed in a typical middle school classroom in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This project is a joint effort among Oak Ridge School...

  12. Optimal Design for a Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Z.; Yuan, X.; Wang, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction from the ground. The paper presented has shown that the heat rejection of the GLHEs and the system energy consumption are approached to discuss the ground heat balance with different design procedures and control strategies though the system...

  13. Tennessee: Ground-Source Heat Pump Receives Innovation Award...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the pump and blower motors when heating or cooling demand is low, the heat pump reduces electricity consumption by 80% or more during much of the year. Based on field tests and...

  14. Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

  15. 5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: 5 CCR 1001-5...

  16. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Major Stationary Sources and Major Modifications (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section of the air quality standards applies to all major sources and major modifications and outlines the required control technology to achieve the most stringent emission rate. Emission...

  17. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  18. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system-an energy efficiency and environment friendly system-is becoming popular in many parts of China. However, an imbalance usually exists between the annual heat extracted from and rejected to the ground due...

  19. Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When using urban untreated sewage as a cool and heat source of heat pump, it is unavoidable to form soft dirt. Based on the method of exergy, an analysis is given of the impact the dirt growth of a tube-shell sewage heat exchanger will have...

  20. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  1. Analysis of Energy and Soft Dirt in an Urban Untreated Sewage Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When using urban untreated sewage as a cool and heat source of heat pump, it is unavoidable to form soft dirt. Based on the method of exergy, an analysis is given of the impact the dirt growth of a tube-shell sewage heat exchanger will have...

  2. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  3. An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. (General Sciences, Inc., Souderton, PA (United States)); Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))

    1991-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalous heat conduction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parallel studies of the upper ocean heat budget have been conducted... of the anomalous heat ... Source: Kelly, Kathryn A. - Air-Sea Interaction and Remote Sensing Department,...

  5. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -resistance water heater and a desuperheater water heater was tested under field conditions at a site near Knoxville. One way : . '-~~ .~ Is to use a desuperheater. or heat recovery water heater, with air conditioners are offering . .. .. · ~'*desuperheaier water heaters (DSWI | as options for their central air conditioners

  6. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

  8. Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to drilling of bore- holes for vertical ground heat exchangers (GHX), or excavation for horizontal GHX heating and cooling loads and their distribution over the year, as well as ground thermal properties, undisturbed ground temperature, and GHX design, as well as other factors. For low energy buildings the greatly

  9. Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On-Road Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Remote Sensing of Mobile Source Air Pollutant Emissions: Variability and Uncertainty in On.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Mobile Source Emissions 2 1.2 Emission Regulations 2 1.3 Emissions Contributions of "Non Estimates 70 6.3 Fuel Economy Data for School Buses Observed at the Rock Quarry Road Site 75 6.4 Diesel

  10. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  11. Block Tensor Decomposition for Source Apportionment of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopke, Philip K; Li, Na; Navasca, Carmeliza

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambient particulate chemical composition data with three particle diameter sizes (2.5mmair sample data. In particular, we use the Block Term Decomposition (BTD) in rank-(L;L;1) form to identify nine pollution sources (Fe+Zn, Sulfur with Dust, Road Dust, two types of Metal Works, Road Salt, Local Sulfate, and Homogeneous and Cloud Sulfate).

  12. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  13. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  14. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities--Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Donald L.

    2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided.

  15. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  16. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulati, P., E-mail: pgulati1512@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India); Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Vyas, V. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, P.O. Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan 304022 (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308?nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  17. SIMULATION OF THE THERMAL INTERACTION BETWEEN A BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTOR AND AN AIR-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    AND AN AIR- SOURCE HEAT PUMP B. Filliard1 ; A. Guiavarch1 ; M. Jabbour1 . 1: MINES ParisTech ­ CEP ­ Centre simultaneously equipped with air-source heat pumps and photovoltaic collectors is constantly increasing of the heat pump is installed in the attic just beneath the PV collector, which preheats the incoming air

  18. White County REMC- Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    White County REMC offers incentives for the purchase and installation of energy efficient heat pumps. Air-source heat pumps are eligible for a rebate of $300, while geothermal heat pumps are...

  19. aging heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  20. alloys heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  1. anisothermal heat treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: The effects of outdoor heat exchanger...

  2. Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    to extract heat from or reject heat to the environment. The majority of heat pumps use ambient air of the air. Ground water is a better heat source/sink for heat pump application (due to its superior thermal exchangers for use in heat-pump applications is described. The experimental apparatus consists

  3. The effect of respiration heat of sorghum grain on the design of conditioned-air storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Danel Gene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Approved as to style and content by: C airman...

  4. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

  5. VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 165 EDITORIAL Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research-- Past, Present, and Future J.D. Spitler, PhD, PE Fellow ASHRAE Ground-source heat pump (GSHP-source heat pumps installed worldwide. These systems may be closed-loop ("ground-coupled") or open

  6. Plasmonic Photothermal Heating of Intraperitoneal Tumors through the Use of an Implanted Near-Infrared Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagley, Alexander F.

    Plasmonic nanomaterials including gold nanorods are effective agents for inducing heating in tumors. Because near-infrared (NIR) light has traditionally been delivered using extracorporeal sources, most applications of ...

  7. Detecting sources of heat loss in residential buildings from infrared imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Emily Chen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared image analysis was conducted to determine the most common sources of heat loss during the winter in residential buildings. 135 houses in the greater Boston and Cambridge area were photographed, stitched, and tallied ...

  8. EA-1211: Relocation and Storage of Isotopic Heat Sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal for relocation and storage of the isotopic heat sources at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Richland, Washington.

  9. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  10. ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption Division Sponsored by EERE Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy #12;Page iii DOCUMENT

  11. ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ORNL/TM-2008/232 Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption Division Sponsored by EERE Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy #12; Page iii

  12. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judgea. Part B 1 Part BFUELPaul26, 2005

  13. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  14. Mass and Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - 1 - MASS AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM SALAH MAHMOUD HINDAWI DIRECTOR HINDAWI FOR ENGINEERING SERVICES & CONTRACTING NEW DAMIETTA , EGYPT ABSTRACT : In the last few years heat recovery was under spot . and in air conditioning fields... ) as a heat recovery . and I use the water as a mass recovery . The source of mass and heat recovery is the condensate water which we were dispose and connect it to the drain lines . THE BENEFIT OF THIS SYSTEM ARE : 1) Using the heat energy from...

  15. 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-39 7-106 A reversible heat pump is considered. The temperature of the source and the rate of heat transfer to the sink are to be determined. Assumptions The heat pump operates steadily. Analysis Combining.5¸ ¹ · ¨ © § ¸ ¸ ¹ · ¨ ¨ © § 1.6 1 1)K300( COP 1 1 maxHP, HL TT Based upon the definition of the heat pump coefficient

  16. Investigating Ground Source Geothermal Heating for Garfield House

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    of historical significance associated with Garfield, as it dates back to 1885, serving as a fraternity house heating oil consumption from January 2004 through December 2009, or 72 monthly values. Formulas were set and revised consumption rates were then assigned a conservative cost estimate based on retail price data from

  17. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  18. A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS...

  19. Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

  20. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F.; Moore, Paul B.

    1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  1. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Shaker Heights, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaven, FL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion type refrigeration circuit and a vapor power circuit. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The vapor power circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the indoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger and the other of which is disposed in series air flow relationship with the outdoor refrigeration circuit heat exchanger. Fans powered by electricity generated by a vapor power circuit alternator circulate indoor air through the two indoor heat exchangers and circulate outside air through the two outdoor heat exchangers. The system is assembled as a single roof top unit, with a vapor power generator and turbine and compressor thermally insulated from the heat exchangers, and with the indoor heat exchangers thermally insulated from the outdoor heat exchangers.

  2. Dependence with air density of the response of the PTW SourceCheck ionization chamber for low energy brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tornero-López, Ana M.; Guirado, Damián; Ruiz-Arrebola, Samuel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, E-18012 Granada (Spain)] [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Servicio de Radioterapia, Unidad de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, E-46026 Valencia (Spain)] [Servicio de Radioterapia, Unidad de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, E-46026 Valencia (Spain); Simancas, Fernando; Lallena, Antonio M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)] [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Gazdic-Santic, Maja [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Safety, Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina)] [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Safety, Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Air-communicating well ionization chambers are commonly used to assess air kerma strength of sources used in brachytherapy. The signal produced is supposed to be proportional to the air density within the chamber and, therefore, a density-independent air kerma strength is obtained when the measurement is corrected to standard atmospheric conditions using the usual temperature and pressure correction factor. Nevertheless, when assessing low energy sources, the ionization chambers may not fulfill that condition and a residual density dependence still remains after correction. In this work, the authors examined the behavior of the PTW 34051 SourceCheck ionization chamber when measuring the air kerma strength of {sup 125}I seeds.Methods: Four different SourceCheck chambers were analyzed. With each one of them, two series of measurements of the air kerma strength for {sup 125}I selectSeed{sup TM} brachytherapy sources were performed inside a pressure chamber and varying the pressure in a range from 747 to 1040 hPa (560 to 780 mm Hg). The temperature and relative humidity were kept basically constant. An analogous experiment was performed by taking measurements at different altitudes above sea level.Results: Contrary to other well-known ionization chambers, like the HDR1000 PLUS, in which the temperature-pressure correction factor overcorrects the measurements, in the SourceCheck ionization chamber they are undercorrected. At a typical atmospheric situation of 933 hPa (700 mm Hg) and 20 °C, this undercorrection turns out to be 1.5%. Corrected measurements show a residual linear dependence on the density and, as a consequence, an additional density dependent correction must be applied. The slope of this residual linear density dependence is different for each SourceCheck chamber investigated. The results obtained by taking measurements at different altitudes are compatible with those obtained with the pressure chamber.Conclusions: Variations of the altitude and changes in the weather conditions may produce significant density corrections, and that effect should be taken into account. This effect is chamber-dependent, indicating that a specific calibration is necessary for each particular chamber. To our knowledge, this correction has not been considered so far for SourceCheck ionization chambers, but its magnitude cannot be neglected in clinical practice. The atmospheric pressure and temperature at which the chamber was calibrated need to be taken into account, and they should be reported in the calibration certificate. In addition, each institution should analyze the particular response of its SourceCheck ionization chamber and compute the adequate correction factors. In the absence of a suitable pressure chamber, a possibility for this assessment is to take measurements at different altitudes, spanning a wide enough air density range.

  3. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion (Cut-N-Shoot, TX); Goodwin, Charles R. (League City, TX); Richard, Jr., James (Kingwood, TX)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  4. Optimal Ground-Source Heat Pump System Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Develop a least-cost design tool (OptGSHP) that will enable GSHP developers to analyze system cost and performance in a variety of building applications to support both design, operational and purchase decisions. Integrate groundwater flow and heat transport into OptGSHP. Demonstrate the usefulness of OptGSHP and the significance of a systems approach to the design of GSHP systems.

  5. Building and Environment 44 (2009) 216226 Effect of volumetric heat sources on hysteresis phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phenomena in natural and mixed-mode ventilation M.R. Flynna,1 , C.P. Caulfieldb,Ã a Department of Mechanical this methodology may be extended to the converse problem of winter-time heating wherein hot, buoyant air is purposefully supplied to the interior space using a coupled ventilation scheme. A ``blocked'' flow regime

  6. National Certification Standard for Ground Source Heat Pump Personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, John [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium] [Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Certification Standard for the Geothermal Heat Pump Industry adds to the understanding of the barriers to rapid growth of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) industry by bringing together for the first time an analysis of the roles and responsibilities of each of the individual job tasks involved in the design and installation of GHP systems. The standard addresses applicable qualifications for all primary personnel involved in the design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of GHP systems, including their knowledge, skills and abilities. The resulting standard serves as a foundation for subsequent development of curriculum, training and certification programs, which are not included in the scope of this project, but are briefly addressed in the standard to describe ways in which the standard developed in this project may form a foundation to support further progress in accomplishing those other efforts. Follow-on efforts may use the standard developed in this project to improve the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of curriculum development and training programs for GHP industry personnel, by providing a more complete and objective assessment of the individual job tasks necessary for successful implementation of GHP systems. When incorporated into future certification programs for GHP personnel, the standard will facilitate increased consumer confidence in GHP technology, reduce the potential for improperly installed GHP systems, and assure GHP system quality and performance, all of which benefit the public through improved energy efficiency and mitigated environmental impacts of the heating and cooling of homes and businesses.

  7. Performance Evaluation of a ground source heat pump system based on ANN and ANFIS models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, W.; Hu, P.; Lei, F.; Zhu, N.; Zhang,J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance evaluation of a ground source heat pump system based on ANN and ANFIS models Weijuan SUN a, Pingfang HUa,*, Fei Leia, Na Zhua, Jiangning Zhanga aHuazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, P. R. China Abstract...: The aim of this work is to calculate the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and the system COP of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model and (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model...

  8. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  9. Study of the design Method of an Efficient Ground Source Heat Pump Thermal Source System in a Cold Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.; Zou, Y.; Du, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2005, 6(2):162-165.(In Chinese) [4] Sun Jianping, Wang Jinggang, etc. Operating performance analysis of the ground source heat pump [J]. Journal of North China electric Power University, 2004,31(5):52-55.(In Chinese) [5] Wang...

  10. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Lu [Oklahoma State University; Cullin, James [Oklahoma State University; Spitler, Jeffery [Oklahoma State University; Im, Piljae [ORNL; Fisher, Daniel [Oklahoma State University

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  11. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  12. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  13. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  15. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S. (Cupertino, CA); Riley, David R. (West Newton, PA); Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  16. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.; Riley, D.R.; Murray, C.S.; Geller, C.B.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided, wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  17. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  19. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  20. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-93/09-01 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 i Dr. Mingsheng Liu Dr. David E. Claridge... Method 3 Co-heating Method 4 STAM Method 8 Conclusions 10 Reference 12 Appendix A 14 Appendix B 15 Appendix C 21 Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 1 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Introduction The rate of air...

  1. Milliwatt generator heat source progress report, January--December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saylor, R.W.

    1990-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    All hardware shipments to LANL were made on or ahead of schedule, thus satisfying all War Reserve and other hardware/yttrium requirements for the reporting period January--December 1989. A special investigation was conducted to determine the source of a surface staining'' problem observed on some T-111 components. Although the cause was not positively identified, the actions taken as a result of the investigation dramatically reduced both the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of the problem. Hardware fabrication activates continued in an efficient and timely manner, with production losses at a minimal level. During the reporting period, a 99.4% utilization yield was realized, with a 0.8 dollar percent defectiveness. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  3. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  4. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  7. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  8. Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

  9. Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate. The method for calculating savings from preheating flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion

  10. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  12. Research and design work on heat emission and aerodynamic resistance of tube bundles in air cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntysh, V.B.; Fedotova, L.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies of heat emission using methods of local and global thermal simulation of crossflow small-array bundles of tubes finned with wound aluminum strip, and flared into the load-bearing wall, are reported. Correction factors applicable to the method of simulating convective heat transfer over the range Re = (2.5-25).10/sup 3/ are given, with variation in the number of rows over the air course from one to four.

  13. Model of the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto by UCR have led to the development of a qualitative model for field flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. A two-dimensional model assumes that the heat sources were a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compiling various information on the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1cm thick section across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Next various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculation of heat transfer were considered. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4km wide emplaced at a depth of 5km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system. Numerical modelling is still in progress. Although none of the models so far computed may be a perfect match for the thermal history of the reservoir, they all indicate that the intrusive heat source is young, close and large.

  14. BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. Ground Source Heat Pumps Serve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 1 Ground Source Heat Pumps Serve A Large; BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 7 Loop Func>ons § Seasonal storage (Single output) § Hourly buffering (Dual output) #12; BY SHAWN XU, Ph.D. 8 Ground Loops § Ground

  15. ENHS : the encapsulated nuclear heat source - a nuclear energy concept for emerging worldwide energy markets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, D.C.; Feldman, E.; Sienicki, J.; Sofu, T.; Brown, N.W.; Hossain, Q.; Barak, A.; Greenspan, E.; Saphier, D.; Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.; Dzodzo, M.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A market analysis is presented which delineates client needs and potential market size for small turnkey nuclear power plants with full fuel cycle services. The features of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) which is targeted for this market are listed, and the status of evaluation of technological viability is summarized.

  16. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  17. Payback Analysis for Ground Source Heat Pump Retrofits Using eQuest Modeling Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahlers, Drake

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much research and analysis done on the performance and potential energy savings related to installing a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system. Much of this research has been dedicated to the new construction industry, and focused on a...

  18. Feasibility Study of Using Ground Source Heat Pumps in Two Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    , it was assumed that natural gas-fired water heaters would replace the steam converters that presently provide hot water for the buildings. It would also be possible to use dedicated water-to-water ground source heat pumps to provide hot water. #12; 2 II. BACKGROUND AND BASE CASE A. Background on McCormick Center

  19. activity source material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating andor local methane sources, and at the north (winter) pole, resulting from the subsidence and condensation of ethane-rich air into the colder troposphere. General...

  20. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  1. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  2. An Experimental Study of Waveguide Coupled Microwave Heating with Conventional Multicusp Negative Ion Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komppula, J; Koivisto, H; Laulainen, J; Tarvainen, O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RFdriven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H^- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  3. A HIGH CURRENT DENSITY LI+ ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGET HEATING EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The NDCX-II accelerator for target heating experiments has been designed to use a large diameter ({approx_equal} 10.9 cm) Li{sup +} doped alumino-silicate source with a pulse duration of 0.5 {micro}s, and beam current of {approx_equal} 93 mA. Characterization of a prototype lithium alumino-silicate sources is presented. Using 6.35mm diameter prototype emitters (coated on a {approx_equal} 75% porous tungsten substrate), at a temperature of {approx_equal} 1275 C, a space-charge limited Li{sup +} beam current density of {approx_equal} 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured. At higher extraction voltage, the source is emission limited at around {approx_equal} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, weakly dependent on the applied voltage. The lifetime of the ion source is {approx_equal} 50 hours while pulsing the extraction voltage at 2 to 3 times per minute. Measurements show that the life time of the ion source does not depend only on beam current extraction, and lithium loss may be dominated by neutral loss or by evaporation. The life time of a source is around {ge} 10 hours in a DC mode extraction, and the extracted charge is {approx_equal} 75% of the available Li in the sample. It is inferred that pulsed heating may increase the life time of a source.

  4. Physica E 33 (2006) 134138 Investigation of a new modified source/drain for diminished self-heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physica E 33 (2006) 134­138 Investigation of a new modified source/drain for diminished self-heating to that of a silicon-on-insulator SOI MOSFET while the self-heating effects are highly diminished and are similar regions. r 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. PACS: 85.40.Àe Keywords: Self-heating; Silicon

  5. Sensitivity of the South Asian monsoon to elevated and non-elevated heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    for the South Asian monsoon via a ``sensible-heat-driven air-pump''. In their proposed mech- anism, sensible from cold and dry extratropical air or by providing a source of elevated heating. Here we show heat fluxes from mountain slopes produce rising motion that draws surrounding air toward the mountains

  6. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  7. Red River Valley REA- Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red River Valley Rural Electric Association (RRVREA) offers a loan program to its members for air-source and geothermal heat pumps. Loans are available for geothermal heat pumps at a 5% fixed...

  8. Alabama Power - Residential Heat Pump and Weatherization Loan...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    no money down and can be used to finance an air source, geothermal or dual-fuel heat pump. The loans can also be used to cover associated water heating costs and wiring...

  9. Clark Public Utilities- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers loans of up to $20,000 for air-source heat pumps and $30,000 for geothermal heat pumps. Loans will help customers cover the up-front cost of installing a highly...

  10. Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design of ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage tank in an office building Na Zhu*, Yu Lei, Pingfang Hu, Linghong Xu, Zhangning Jiang Department of Building Environment and Equipment Engineering... heat pump system integrated with phase change cooling storage technology could save energy and shift peak load. This paper studied the optimal design of a ground source heat pump system integrated with phase change thermal storage tank in an office...

  11. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  12. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  13. Application analysis of ground source heat pumps in building space conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Hua; Wang, Yungang

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of geothermal energy in space conditioning of buildings through utilizing ground source heat pump (GSHP, also known as geothermal heat pump) has increased rapidly during the past several decades. However, the impacts of the GSHP utilization on the efficiency of heat pumps and soil temperature distribution remained unclear and needs further investigation. This paper presents a novel model to calculate the soil temperature distribution and the coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP. Different scenarios were simulated to quantify the impact of different factors on the GSHP performance, including heat balance, daily running mode, and spacing between boreholes. Our results show that GSHP is suitable for buildings with balanced cooling and heating loads. It can keep soil temperature at a relatively constant level for more than 10 years. Long boreholes, additional space between boreholes, intermittent running mode will improve the performance of GSHP, but large initial investment is required. The improper design will make the COP of GSHP even lower than traditional heat pumps. Professional design and maintenance technologies are greatly needed in order to promote this promising technology in the developing world.

  14. air-cooled heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 66 Dealing with...

  15. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaOperation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proceedings of the

  16. Evolution of the Loop-Top Source of Solar Flares--Heating and Cooling Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan Wei Jiang; Siming Liu; Wei Liu; Vahe Petrosian

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the spatial and spectral evolution of the loop-top (LT) sources in a sample of 6 flares near the solar limb observed by {\\it RHESSI}. A distinct coronal source, which we identify as the LT source, was seen in each of these flares from the early ``pre-heating'' phase through the late decay phase. Spectral analyses reveal an evident steep power-law component in the pre-heating and impulsive phases, suggesting that the particle acceleration starts upon the onset of the flares. In the late decay phase the LT source has a thermal spectrum and appears to be confined within a small region near the top of the flare loop, and does not spread throughout the loop, as is observed at lower energies. The total energy of this source decreases usually faster than expected from the radiative cooling but much slower than that due to the classical Spitzer conductive cooling along the flare loop. These results indicate the presence of a distinct LT region, where the thermal conductivity is suppressed significantly and/or there is a continuous energy input. We suggest that plasma wave turbulence could play important roles in both heating the plasma and suppressing the conduction during the decay phase of solar flares. With a simple quasi-steady loop model we show that the energy input in the gradual phase can be comparable to that in the impulsive phase and demonstrate how the observed cooling and confinement of the LT source can be used to constrain the wave-particle interaction.

  17. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  18. A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    A surface renewal model to analyze infrared image sequences of the ocean surface for the study of air-sea heat and gas exchange C. S. Garbe Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing renewal, the net heat flux, and the heat transfer velocity during nighttime. The techniques are based

  19. Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature T = 10o C. The heat transfer coefficient at the wire's surface h equation that includes all heat transfer mechanisms involved in this problem. Write this energy balance

  20. Hybrid intelligent control scheme for air heating system using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thyagarajan, T.; Shanmugam, J.; Ponnavaikko, M.; Panda, R.C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuzzy logic provides a means for converting a linguistic control strategy, based on expert knowledge, into an automatic control strategy. Its performance depends on membership function and rule sets. In the traditional Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) approach, the optimal membership is formed by trial-and-error method. In this paper, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied to generate the optimal membership function of FLC. The membership function thus obtained is utilized in the design of the Hybrid Intelligent Control (HIC) scheme. The investigation is carried out for an Air Heat System (AHS), an important component of drying process. The knowledge of the optimum PID controller designed, is used to develop the traditional FLC scheme. The computational difficulties in finding optimal membership function of traditional FLC is alleviated using GA In the design of HIC scheme. The qualitative performance indices are evaluated for the three control strategies, namely, PID, FLC and HIC. The comparison reveals that the HIC scheme designed based on the hybridization of FLC with GA performs better. Moreover, GA is found to be an effective tool for designing the FLC, eliminating the human interface required to generate the membership functions.

  1. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  2. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  3. Design evolution and verification of the general-purpose heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a radioisotope heat source for use in space power systems. It employs a modular design, to make it adaptable to a wide range of energy conversion systems and power levels. Each 250 W module is completely autonomous, with its own passive safety provisions to prevent fuel release under all abort modes, including atmospheric reentry and earth impact. Prior development tests had demonstrated good impact survival as long as the iridium fuel capsules retained their ductility. This requires high impact temperatures, typically above 900/sup 0/C and reasonably fine grain size, which in turn requires avoidance of excessive operating temperatures and reentry temperatures. These three requirements - on operating, reentry, and impact temperatures - are in mutual conflict, since thermal design changes to improve any one of these temperatures tend to worsen one or both of the others. This conflict creates a difficult design problem, which for a time threatened the success of the program. The present paper describes how this problem was overcome by successive design revisions, supplemented by thermal analyses and confirmatory vibration and impact tests; and how this may be achieved while raising the specific power of the GPHS to 83 W/lb, a 50% improvement over previously flown radioisotope heat sources.

  4. Recovery Act: Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A Menart, Professor

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ���¢��������Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.���¢������� The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP system

  5. Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menart, James A. [Wright State University

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of the work that has been done on the grant DE-EE0002805 entitled ?Finite Volume Based Computer Program for Ground Source Heat Pump Systems.? The goal of this project was to develop a detailed computer simulation tool for GSHP (ground source heat pump) heating and cooling systems. Two such tools were developed as part of this DOE (Department of Energy) grant; the first is a two-dimensional computer program called GEO2D and the second is a three-dimensional computer program called GEO3D. Both of these simulation tools provide an extensive array of results to the user. A unique aspect of both these simulation tools is the complete temperature profile information calculated and presented. Complete temperature profiles throughout the ground, casing, tube wall, and fluid are provided as a function of time. The fluid temperatures from and to the heat pump, as a function of time, are also provided. In addition to temperature information, detailed heat rate information at several locations as a function of time is determined. Heat rates between the heat pump and the building indoor environment, between the working fluid and the heat pump, and between the working fluid and the ground are computed. The heat rates between the ground and the working fluid are calculated as a function time and position along the ground loop. The heating and cooling loads of the building being fitted with a GSHP are determined with the computer program developed by DOE called ENERGYPLUS. Lastly COP (coefficient of performance) results as a function of time are provided. Both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer programs developed as part of this work are based upon a detailed finite volume solution of the energy equation for the ground and ground loop. Real heat pump characteristics are entered into the program and used to model the heat pump performance. Thus these computer tools simulate the coupled performance of the ground loop and the heat pump. The price paid for the three-dimensional detail is the large computational times required with GEO3D. The computational times required for GEO2D are reasonable, a few minutes for a 20 year simulation. For a similar simulation, GEO3D takes days of computational time. Because of the small simulation times with GEO2D, a number of attractive features have been added to it. GEO2D has a user friendly interface where inputs and outputs are all handled with GUI (graphical user interface) screens. These GUI screens make the program exceptionally easy to use. To make the program even easier to use a number of standard input options for the most common GSHP situations are provided to the user. For the expert user, the option still exists to enter their own detailed information. To further help designers and GSHP customers make decisions about a GSHP heating and cooling system, cost estimates are made by the program. These cost estimates include a payback period graph to show the user where their GSHP system pays for itself. These GSHP simulation tools should be a benefit to the advancement of GSHP systems.

  6. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  7. Winter Heating or Clean Air? Unintended Impacts of China's Huai River Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almond, Douglas

    Air quality in China is notoriously poor. Ambient concentrations of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) 1981-1993 were more than double China’s National Annual Mean Ambient Air Quality Standard of 200 mg/m-3 (Xiaohui Bi et ...

  8. Combustion Air Preheat on Steam Cracker Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenney, W. F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in 1978, Exxon has started up nine large new steam cracking furnaces with various levels of air preheat, and has seven more under construction. Sources of heat have included process streams, flue gas and gas turbine exhaust. Several...

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  10. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  11. Applied heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer principles are discussed with emphasis on the practical aspects of the problems. Correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop from several worldwide sources for flow inside and outside of tubes, including finned tubes are presented, along with design and performance calculations of heat exchangers economizers, air heaters, condensers, waste-heat boilers, fired heaters, superheaters, and boiler furnaces. Vibration analysis for tube bundles and heat exchangers are also discussed, as are estimating gas-mixture properties at atmospheric and elevated pressures and life-cycle costing techniques. (JMT)

  12. Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Standing Column Wells in Ground Source Heat Pump Systems Zheng Deng O'Neill, Ph.D., P Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, ground source heat pump-surface environment: · Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems (Closed-loop) · Surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems

  13. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  14. Parametric design study of ``mini-generator`` with 6-watt heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T. [Orbital Sciences Corporation, 20301 Century Blvd., Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fairchild study showed that generator designs based on a single 1-watt RHU had very poor thermal efficiencies. At their optimum operating point, more than half of the generated heat was lost through the thermal insulation. This resulted in system efficiency of only 2.2%, compared to 7.2% for current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Moreover, there were serious doubts about the fabricability of the required multicouples, particularly of the series/parallel connections between the large number (900) of thermoelectric legs of very small cross-section (0.21 mm square). All in all, the preceding paper showed that neither JPL`s Power Stick design nor the Fairchild-generated derivatives based on the 1-watt heat source looked promising. The present paper describes a similar parametric study of a mini-generator based on a 6-watt heat source, and compares its performance and fabricability to that of the optimum Power Stick derivative and of the current RTG design for the same mission. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  15. air-side heat transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling... Shami, U. F. 1996-01-01 12 HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF A PULSE DETONATION Engineering Websites Summary: HEAT TRANSFER...

  16. Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

  17. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  18. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M. [Centre Nacional de Microelectrònica IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Altet, J. [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-?m spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  19. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  20. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  1. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

  2. Analysis of Selection of Single or Double U-bend Pipes in a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, H.; Duanmu, L.; Hua, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is widely used because of its energy-saving and environmental-friendly characteristics. The buried pipes heat exchangers play an important role in the whole GSHP system design. However, in most cases, single...

  3. Heat pump with freeze-up prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

  4. Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

  5. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decreases between cooling coils and supply registers andoutlet of the cooling coils and the supply registers causeddecreased the cooling capacity of the supply air exiting

  6. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data....2 - Performance and hardware data collectedfor this survey. 3.2 References 1. "Directory of Certified Unitary Air Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment", Semi-Annual Issues, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute...

  7. Determine the spacial term of a two-dimensional heat source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trong, Dang Duc; Nam, Phan Thanh

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the problem of determining a pair of functions $(u,f)$ satisfying the heat equation $u_t -\\Delta u =\\varphi(t)f (x,y)$, where $(x,y)\\in \\Omega=(0,1)\\times (0,1)$ and the function $\\varphi$ is given. The problem is ill-posed. Under a slight condition on $\\varphi$, we show that the solution is determined uniquely from some boundary data and the initial temperature. Using the interpolation method and the truncated Fourier series, we construct a regularized solution of the source term $f$ from non-smooth data. The error estimate and numerical experiments are given.

  8. Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J. [Universidad Miguel Hernandez - Edificio Torreblanca, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

  9. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a rib grit roughened surface solar air heater using CFD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karmare, S.V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College Engineering, Karad 415 124, Maharashtra (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India); Tikekar, A.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India); Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a solar air heater by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) which reduces time and cost. Lower side of collector plate is made rough with metal ribs of circular, square and triangular cross-section, having 60 inclinations to the air flow. The grit rib elements are fixed on the surface in staggered manner to form defined grid. The system and operating parameters studied are: e/D{sub h} = 0.044, p/e = 17.5 and l/s = 1.72, for the Reynolds number range 3600-17,000. To validate CFD results, experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory. It is found that experimental and CFD analysis results give the good agreement. The optimization of rib geometry and its angle of attack is also done. The square cross-section ribs with 58 angle of attack give maximum heat transfer. The percentage enhancement in the heat transfer for square plate over smooth surface is 30%. (author)

  10. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  11. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

  12. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  13. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is found that the integrated characteristics of heat transfer and flow friction increase with the hole's diameter at the same hole density (which is equal to the ratio of the hole's total area to the baffle's area), and the heat transfer rate increases...

  14. Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kota, Sri H

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and inventories of CO, NO_(x) and VOCs from on-road vehicles estimated by vehicle emission factor models and biogenic emissions of isoprene estimated by a popular biogenic emission model are evaluated using local and regional scale air quality modeling and source...

  15. Improved efficiency and precise temperature control of low-frequency induction-heating pure iron vapor source on ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Y.; Takenaka, T.; Yano, K.; Kiriyama, R.; Kurisu, Y.; Nozaki, D.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Sato, F.; Iida, T. [Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo Univ., 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiply charged ions to be used prospectively are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Recently a pure iron source is also required for the production of caged iron ions in the fullerene in order to control cells in vivo in bio-nano science and technology. We adopt directly heating iron rod by induction heating (IH) because it has non-contact with insulated materials which are impurity gas sources. We choose molybdenum wire for the IH coils because it doesn't need water cooling. To improve power efficiency and temperature control, we propose to the new circuit without previously using the serial and parallel dummy coils (SPD) for matching and safety. We made the circuit consisted of inductively coupled coils which are thin-flat and helix shape, and which insulates the IH power source from the evaporator. This coupling coils circuit, i.e. insulated induction heating coil transformer (IHCT), can be move mechanically. The secondary current can be adjusted precisely and continuously. Heating efficiency by using the IHCT is much higher than those of previous experiments by using the SPD, because leakage flux is decreased and matching is improved simultaneously. We are able to adjust the temperature in heating the vapor source around melting point. And then the vapor pressure can be controlled precisely by using the IHCT. We can control {+-}10K around 1500 Degree-Sign C by this method, and also recognize to controlling iron vapor flux experimentally in the extreme low pressures. Now we come into next stage of developing induction heating vapor source for materials with furthermore high temperature melting points above 2000K with the IHCT, and then apply it in our ECRIS.

  16. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  17. Evaluation of a heated-air airship for the environment of Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Richard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships, which have the capability to study the atmosphere as well as the capability to land and study the surface at multiple locations. Several lighter-than-air ...

  18. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Increased tube rows 3.1 1C) Increased fin density 3.2 ID) Increased heat transfer coefficient 3.2 IE) Increased parallel circuits 3.2 2) Decreased Compressor Size 3.2 3) Increased Combined Fan and Motor Efficiency 3.2 4) Demand Defrost Control Systems (Heat... Pumps Only) 3.3 5) High Efficiency Compressors 3.3 6) Two Speed Compressors 3.3 References 3.4 iii CHAPTER PAGE 4 CONVENTIONAL DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS: RESULTS 4.1 Heat Pumps 4.1 Baseline Units 4.2 Final Conventional Designs 4.7 3 Ton Split Systems 4.7 3 Ton...

  19. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes ABSTRACT Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important

  20. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shendell, Derek Garth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  1. Jay County REMC- Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jay County Rural Electric Membership Cooperative (REMC) is a member-owned electric distribution organization serving customers in central Indiana. Jay County REMC offers rebates to its customers...

  2. Wabash County REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wabash Rural Electric Membership Cooperative (REMC) is a member-owned electric distribution organization that provides service to customers in north-central Indiana. To encourage energy efficiency,...

  3. Comparison of environmental impact for air source heat pump when using symmetric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Emission Analysis ­ 15y TEWI · CO2 Emissions reduction improvement ­ Asymmetric BPHE -2.3% ­ Infinite BPHE Equivalent 67.3 65.7 64.4 CO2 Emission Reduction - -2.3% -4.3% · S.COP Calculation ­ EN14825 · Average % recuperation at Life-End · BPHE ­ 7 kg CO2 eq/kg · Electricity ­ 0.43 kg CO2 eq/kWh -1.1% -3.6% -2.3% -4.3% #12

  4. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judgea. Part B 1 Part BFUELPaul26, 2005 TheMay

  5. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2Partners in the Spotlight

  6. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2Partners in the SpotlightEnergy Advanced

  7. Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2Partners in the SpotlightEnergyEleanor

  8. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013DepartmentEnterprise ServersHotDepartment

  9. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACT S HEET FACT

  10. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast-Type Air Conditioners and Heat Pump. The correspondingair/air air conditioners and heat pumps. Some improvementsconnected air- conditioner (heat pump) units, household

  11. Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

    1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

  12. Structural testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container is a Type B packaging design currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to the normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this package design. This report documents the test program portion of the design verification, using several prototype packages. Four types of testing were performed: 30-foot hypothetical accident condition drop tests in three orientations, 40-inch hypothetical accident condition puncture tests in five orientations, a 21 psi external overpressure test, and a normal conditions of transport test consisting of a water spray and a 4 foot drop test. 18 refs., 104 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  14. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

  15. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  16. General-Purpose Heat Source Safety Verification Test program: Edge-on flyer plate tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, T.G.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. The GPHS modules provide power by transmitting the heat of STYPu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Each module contains four STYPuO2-fueled clads and generates 250 W(t). Because the possibility of a launch vehicle explosion always exists, and because such an explosion could generate a field of high-energy fragments, the fueled clads within each GPHS module must survive fragment impact. The edge-on flyer plate tests were included in the Safety Verification Test series to provide information on the module/clad response to the impact of high-energy plate fragments. The test results indicate that the edge-on impact of a 3.2-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (2219-T87) plate traveling at 915 m/s causes the complete release of fuel from capsules contained within a bare GPHS module, and that the threshold velocity sufficient to cause the breach of a bare, simulant-fueled clad impacted by a 3.5-mm-thick, aluminum-alloy (5052-T0) plate is approximately 140 m/s.

  17. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  18. Preheated Combustion Air; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Process Heating Tip Sheet #1 (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1DepartmentPreheated Combustion Air Preheated Combustion Air

  19. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building heating, ventilation and air-conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air- Conditioning

  20. Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, M.W.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

  1. Systematic method for the condition assessment of central heating plants in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starmack, G.J.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.

  2. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  3. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  4. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  5. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  6. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  7. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air choice elec forced air choice heat pump choice elecwith ac elecforced air, with ac heat pump elec baseboard,central air conditioning (including heat pumps), and eight

  8. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  9. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  10. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  11. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies is needed to increase the dehumidification abilities of equipment without compromising energy efficiency or the need for fresh ventilation air. To study the effectiveness of integrated heat pump and enthalpy exchange equipment, a nominal 4-ton...

  12. Characterization of LI+ Alumino-Silicate Ion Source for Target Heating Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, P.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF LI + ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGET HEATINGcm) Li + doped alumino-silicate source to pro- duce shortdiameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source is presented.

  13. STAR: The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor System - Encapsulated Fission Heat Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehud Greenspan

    2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a novel 125 MWth fast spectrum reactor concept that was selected by the 1999 DOE NERI program as a candidate ''Generation-IV'' reactor. It uses Pb-Bi or other liquid-metal coolant and is intended to be factory manufactured in large numbers to be economically competitive. It is anticipated to be most useful to developing countries. The US team studying the feasibility of the ENHS reactor concept consisted of the University of California, Berkeley, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Westinghouse. Collaborating with the US team were three Korean organizations: Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (KAIST) and the University of Seoul, as well as the Central Research Institute of the Electrical Power Industry (CRIEPI) of Japan. Unique features of the ENHS include at least 20 years of operation without refueling; no fuel handling in the host country; no pumps and valves; excess reactivity does not exceed 1$; fully passive removal of the decay heat; very small probability of core damaging accidents; autonomous operation and capability of load-following over a wide range; very long plant life. In addition it offers a close match between demand and supply, large tolerance to human errors, is likely to get public acceptance via demonstration of superb safety, lack of need for offsite response, and very good proliferation resistance. The ENHS reactor is designed to meet the requirements of Generation IV reactors including sustainable energy supply, low waste, high level of proliferation resistance, high level of safety and reliability, acceptable risk to capital and, hopefully, also competitive busbar cost of electricity.

  14. Air dispersion modeling of particulate matter from ground-level area sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meister, Michael Todd

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRAs) often use dispersion modeling to predict downwind concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from a facility. As such, a facility may be granted or denied an operating permit ...

  15. In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

  16. Impacts of Soil and Pipe Thermal Conductivity on Performance of Horizontal Pipe in a Ground-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Y.; Yao, Y.; Na, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the composition and thermal property of soil are discussed. The main factors that impact the soil thermal conductivity and several commonly-used pipe materials are studied. A model of heat exchanger with horizontal pipes of ground-source...

  17. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  18. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School... temperatures a cryogenic pump wss necessary. The sire of the pump was computed on the basis of maintaining a one degree Fahrenheit drop of the coolant temperature through the supply systms. The greatest heat load on the supply system being 3718 BTU per hour...

  19. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  20. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  1. Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckley, C. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two thirds of the waste heat sources in the U.S. are in the low temperature range of less than 200 deg F. A primary contributor of this heat is building exhaust. Heat pipe exchangers are ideally suited for recovering this waste. Plant comfort air...

  2. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  3. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  4. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  5. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  6. The Long-Life Core Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) Generation IV Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, E.; Barak, A.; Saphier, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buongiorno, J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Brown, N.W.; Hossain, Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.; Dzodzo, M. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Sci. and Tech., 1344 Beulah Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States); Feldman, E.; Sienicki, J.J.; Sofu, T.; Wade, D.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hong, S.G.; Kim, Y.I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Taejon 305-600, Rep. of Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-life core for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactor has been redesigned so as to provide for fuel rod clad integrity up to the discharge burnup design goal. It was found feasible to design a nearly zero burnup reactivity swing long-life core that will maintain the fuel rod integrity up to the peak discharge burnup while enabling to handle the rated power using natural circulation. The core life is limited by radiation damage to its structural material. The core power shape is exceptionally constant throughout the core life. The new reference core design can deliver 125 MW{sub th} while having very generous margins for maximum acceptable temperatures or temperature differences. Using a cover-gas lift-pump it may be possible to design an ENHS module to deliver {approx}50% more power than the set goal. Briefly reviewed are unique features of the ENHS reactor along with the potential of this reactor to meet the goals set for Generation IV reactors. (authors)

  7. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source for Proliferation-Resistant Low-Waste Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N; Carelli, M; Conway, L; Dzodzo, M; Greenspan, E; Hossain, Q; Saphier, D; Shimada, H; Sienicki, J; Wade, D

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a small innovative reactor suitable for use in developing countries. The reference design is a SOMWe lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor. It is designed so that the fuel is installed and sealed into the reactor module at the factory. The nuclear controls, a major portion of the instrumentation and the Pb-Bi covering the core are also installed at the factory. At the site of operations the reactor module is inserted into a pool of Pb-Bi that contains the steam generators. Major components, such as the pool vessel and steam generators, are permanent and remain in place while the reactor module is replaced every 15 years. At the end of life the sealed reactor module is removed and returned to an internationally controlled recycling center. Thus, the ENHS provides a unique capability for ensuring the security of the nuclear fuel throughout its life. The design also can minimize the user country investment in nuclear technology and staff. Following operation and return of the module to the recycling facility, the useable components, including the fuel, are refurbished and available for reuse. A fuel cycle compatible with this approach has been identified that reduces the amount of nuclear waste.

  8. Photoionization Heating of Nova Ejecta by the Post-Outburst Supersoft Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Timothy; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expanding ejecta from a classical nova remains hot enough ($\\sim10^{4}\\, {\\rm K}$) to be detected in thermal radio emission for up to years after the cessation of mass loss triggered by a thermonuclear instability on the underlying white dwarf (WD). Nebular spectroscopy of nova remnants confirms the hot temperatures observed in radio observations. During this same period, the unstable thermonuclear burning transitions to a prolonged period of stable burning of the remnant hydrogen-rich envelope, causing the WD to become, temporarily, a super-soft X-ray source. We show that photoionization heating of the expanding ejecta by the hot WD maintains the observed nearly constant temperature of $(1-4)\\times10^4\\mathrm{~K}$ for up to a year before an eventual decline in temperature due to either the cessation of the supersoft phase or the onset of a predominantly adiabatic expansion. We simulate the expanding ejecta using a one-zone model as well as the Cloudy spectral synthesis code, both incorporating the time-d...

  9. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are 100 mm (GW 10 K) and 145 mm (85 mm GW and 60 mm styrol-sponge), respectively. Figure 2 shows the structure of the floor. Low-E pair glasses, whose overall heat transfer coefficient is 2.7 W/m2K, glaze all windows and the solar transmittance is 0... of the water temperature is easy while water flow rate is difficult. 5.5 Usage of Resident 1) design intent and commissioned items: solar shading is controlled by suitably operating the electrically driven blind installed on the outside, which also serves...

  10. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    across the hot water control valve is 5 psi and 2 psi for the coil and pipeline. The flow coefficient of the control valves are 9 GPIW~S~~,~ for hot water valve and 13 GPIW~S~~.~ for the chilled water control valve. The designed loop pressure is 7... 14: Using dry coil model will introduce certain error for the cooling coil simulation since the heat transfer coefficient is higher when the coil is wet. Thermostat Model: The thermostat generates a pneumatic pressure signal from 3 to 15 psig...

  11. Abatement of Air Pollution: Source Monitoring, Record Keeping, and Reporting (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Equipment that either combusts coal in any amount, or enough gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels to meet the heat and emissions standards defined in these regulations, must be operated with an Opacity...

  12. A HIGH CURRENT DENSITY LI+ ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGET HEATING EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CURRENT DENSITY LI+ ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGETCURRENT DENSITY LI + ALUMINO-SILICATE ION SOURCE FOR TARGETcm) Li + doped alumino-silicate source with a pulse duration

  13. Problem Set 1 GFD1 Winter 2011 P. Rhines, A.Gray out: Friday 7 Jan 2011 back: Friday 14 Jan 1. Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Suppose we heat a small sample of dry air confined in a cylinder. o Calculate the change in thermal energy the same volume as the rigid cylinder. Calculate the change in thermal energy E if the heat addition smaller for ocean water than for air at the same temperature. o the potential energy is 1/2 mass x g x h

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Permit to Construct and Operate Stationary Sources (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permits are required for the construction or major modification of a stationary source or emission unit. Some exemptions apply. These regulations describe permit requirements, authorized activities...

  15. Short and long term energy source technologies for electrically-heated catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Johnston, R. [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Anderson, IN (United States); Hunt, B. [Emitec, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Rodriguez, G. [Honda R and D North America, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Gottberg, I. [Volvo Research, Goteborg (Sweden); Ishizuka, A. [Nissan Research and Development, Inc., Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Hall, W. [BMW of North America, Inc., Montvale, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium of six companies formed by Southwest Research Institute conducted an investigation into alternative electric power supplies for electrically heated catalysts (EHCs). Previous studies showed that, due to their high power and energy requirements upon engine start, battery-powered EHCs would cause premature failure of common lead-acid batteries. This project identified and characterized several alternative electric energy sources. Production starting, lighting, and ignition (SLI) batteries were evaluated along with lead-acid electric vehicle batteries, nickel-cadmium aircraft batteries, prototype ultracapacitors, and a modified alternator. Battery Council International and US Advanced Battery Consortium test methods were employed where applicable. Evaluations included ambient and low-temperature ({minus}18 C) constant-current discharge characterization, low-temperature peak-power determination, self-discharge, and passenger car Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy. As demonstrated by discharge-energy and peak-power tests, some EV batteries may have potential for the EHC/SLI application. Other appeared to be poorly suited due to low-temperature problems. The best low-temperature performance was observed with ultracapacitors. These units were also the least to be affected by the power versus energy trade-off. The problems with these prototype storage units were high cost and self-discharge rate. Alternator power for EHCs as an alternative to energy storage devices was successfully demonstrated on a vehicle. Power produced was a linear function of engine speed and EHC load. High-voltage switching devices will be necessary for successful use of alternator power on EHCs. A fuel economy penalty was expected, but not observed during the FTP vehicle demonstration.

  16. Source- and Age-Resolved Mechanistic Air Quality Models: Model Development and Application in Southeast Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hongliang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    SOA account for 30-58% of the total SOA, indicating that long range transport is important. PAHs from anthropogenic sources can produce 4% of total anthropogenic SOA. Wild fire, vehicles, solvent and industries are the major sources. EC and OC...

  17. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dual compressor available on the market Compared with the selected building, a more energy efficient building will have lower space cooling and heating

  18. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump, and the energy consumption of the whole GSHP system given the accurate information of the building, GSHP system, weather data,

  19. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas furnace Air-to-air heat pump Gas fireplace (primarywith their air-to-air heat pumps, such as nighttimeSystem Type None Air-to-air heat pump Night ventilative

  20. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  1. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  2. Mass and Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hindawai, S. M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last few years heat recovery was under spot and in air conditioning fields usually we use heat recovery by different types of heat exchangers. The heat exchanging between the exhaust air from the building with the fresh air to the building...

  3. Comparison of General Purpose Heat Source testing with the ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) sealed source standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigsby, C.O.

    1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis provides a comparison of the testing of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and RTG components with the testing requirements of ANSI N43.6-1977 (R1989) ``Sealed Radioactive Sources, Categorization``. The purpose of this comparison is to demonstrate that the RTGs meet or exceed the requirements of the ANSI standard, and thus can be excluded from the radioactive inventory of the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building in Los Alamos per Attachment 1 of DOE STD 1027-92. The approach used in this analysis is as follows: (1) describe the ANSI sealed source classification methodology; (2) develop sealed source performance requirements for the RTG and/or RTG components based on criteria from the accident analysis for CMR; (3) compare the existing RTG or RTG component test data to the CMR requirements; and (4) determine the appropriate ANSI classification for the RTG and/or RTG components based on CMR performance requirements. The CMR requirements for treating RTGs as sealed sources are derived from the radiotoxicity of the isotope ({sup 238}P7) and amount (13 kg) of radioactive material contained in the RTG. The accident analysis for the CMR BIO identifies the bounding accidents as wing-wide fire, explosion and earthquake. These accident scenarios set the requirements for RTGs or RTG components stored within the CMR.

  4. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  5. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  6. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  7. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  8. Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air concentration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. In Winiarek et al. (2012b source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air

  9. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  10. Discussion of an Optimization Scheme for the Ground Source Heat Pump System of HVAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mu, W.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality (BJE10016200511). REFERENCES [1]Rongguang Wang,Yufeng Zhang,Yang,Xiaotong Zheng. Study on Direct Use Of Geothermal Energy For Heating And Its Energy Efficency Effects [J]. ACTA ENERGIAE SOLARIS SINICA, 2002, 23...

  11. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  12. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  13. A new correlation of the convective heat transfer coefficient between an air flow and a phase change material plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of phase change material (PCM). This correlation was built for the simulation of heat storage units: Convective heat transfer coefficient, correlation, phase change material, heat storage system, transient is the use of phase change materials (PCM). The latent heat which is needed for the material melting

  14. Air dispersion modeling of particulate matter from ground-level area sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meister, Michael Todd

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained from a dispersion model. The model currently approved by EPA, the Industrial Source Complex, Version 3 - Short Term (ISC3-ST), over-predicts downwind concentrations of PM by as much two orders of magnitude. As a result, a facility may be denied a...

  15. Hanford Site radionuclide national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants registered stack source assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 3, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the US Environmental Protection Agency,, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires the Richland Operations Office to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site . The evaluation also determined if the effective dose equivalent from any of these stack emissions exceeded 0.1 mrem/yr, which will require the stack to have continuous monitoring. The result of this assessment identified a total of 16 stacks as having potential emissions that,would cause an effective dose equivalent greater than 0.1 mrem/yr.

  16. Combustion Air Preheat and Radiant Heat Transfer in Fired Heaters - A Graphical Method for Design and Operating Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grantom, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installation of combustion air preheat is a widely used technique for improving the fuel efficiency of existing fired heaters and fired tubular reactors. By increasing adiabatic flame temperature, combustion air preheat increases radiant section...

  17. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  18. NiSource Energy Technologies: Optimizing Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  19. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air...

  20. Regional Impact of an Elevated Heat Source: The Zagros Plateau of Iran BENJAMIN F. ZAITCHIK, JASON P. EVANS, AND RONALD B. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Regional Impact of an Elevated Heat Source: The Zagros Plateau of Iran BENJAMIN F. ZAITCHIK, JASON in the north, the Taurus Moun- tains of Turkey, and the Zagros Plateau in Iran. Inter- secting atmospheric