National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air quality study

  1. PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study , C. Honor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study Menut L.1 , C. Honoré2 , L Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable, Paris, France This platform is proposed by the PREV'AIR about PREV'AIR ? please send an e-mail to cecile.honore@ineris.fr 1. Introduction Since 2002, the PREV'AIR

  2. Investigative Tools and Techniques for Indoor Air Quality Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, S. R.; Quinn, C. B.; Henderson, J. E.; Vickery, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air quality problems are diverse and often complex. Adverse indoor air quality problems can exist which create symptomatic conditions for building occupants. Often, the exact cause, or causes, of the substandard indoor air quality are unknown...

  3. Air Quality Scoping Study for Rachel, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  4. Air Quality Scoping Study for Beatty, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kav, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  5. Studies of urban air quality using electrochemical based sensor instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popoola, Olalekan Abdul Muiz

    2012-07-03

    .............................................................................................. 21 1.6.1. Financial implication of poor air quality in the UK ............................................................ 21 1.6.2. Trends in emission and measurements of CO, NO, O3 and NOX in the UK ....................... 22 1.7. Road transport... emissions of CO and NOX. ................................................................................ 24 1.8. Outline of the thesis .................................................................................................................. 25...

  6. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustin Mihi andAir Leaks inAir

  7. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged bynuevo sistemaAir

  8. New Study Finds Strong Carbon Pollution Standards Improve Air Quality, Environment, and Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Chilukuri K.

    New Study Finds Strong Carbon Pollution Standards Improve Air Quality, Environment, and Health, Co- benefits of Carbon Standards: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for Existing-by-state changes in harmful air pollution, it is the first study to quantify and map the co-benefits of power plant

  9. Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel applicable to investigations of modeling the effect of natural gas interchangeability on urban air quality for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

  10. ECOLOGIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS AND THE STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF AIR QUALITY ON MORTALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selvin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Orcutt, An empirical analysis of air pollution dose-responseIf ecologic regression analysis of air quality and mortality

  11. Indoor Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Focus For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health-from cognitive ability to personal comfort...

  12. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  13. Impact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F. Maupetit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    indoor air quality (IAQ) since they produce secondary pollutants, mainly aldehydes which are known to document the impact on IAQ of outdoor ozone during summer air pollution episodes. For this purpose, a oneImpact of ozone on indoor air quality: a preliminary field study M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F

  14. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  15. Air Quality Scoping Study for Sarcobatus Flat, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  16. Airborne cloud condensation nuclei measurements during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Administration WP3D platform during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition indirectly influence climate through their impact on cloud radiative properties and the hydro- logical cycle and Environmental Engineering, Bourns College of EngineeringCenter for Environmental Research and Techno

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - 1998 Phoenix Air Quality Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012 [DataJulyMarch 27,5 Southern Oxidants Study8

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - 2000 Houston, Texas Air Quality Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012 [DataJulyMarch 27,5 Southern Oxidants Study890

  19. inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir. Among those, air pollution and its effects on health have been researched extensively over past several decades [13]. In particular, the health effects of air pollution cover a wide variety of respiratory

  20. Salt Repository Project site study plan for meteorology/air quality: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Meteorology/Air Quality describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, and pressure neede for later modeling and dose calculations. These measurements will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-m/sup 2/ site area but remote from the ESF. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. Although titled Meteorology/Air Quality, this SSP addresses only meteorology, as there are no air quality data needs in the SCP. A correction to the title will be made in a later revision. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  2. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  3. Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

  4. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  5. INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    for studies of indoor air quality and energy utilization inExt. 6782 Indoor Air Quality in Energy- Buildings Craig D.1, 1979) Indoor Air Quality in Energy~Efficient LBL-8892 EEB

  6. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  7. 66 USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-155. 1996. Quality Assurance, Training, and Certification in Ozone Air Pollution Studies Schilling, Miller, and Takemoto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Certification in Ozone Air Pollution Studies Schilling, Miller, and Takemoto Air Resources Board. 1990 data: summary of 1990 air quality data-- gaseous and particulate pollutants. Annual summary. Technical guidance for new air pollution sources. Natural Resources Report NPS/NRAQD/NPR­93/09. Denver, CO: Air

  8. Indoor air quality: Selected references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This document was compiled in response to an increasing number of requests for information about indoor air quality, including sick-building syndrome. Included in the publication are the NIOSH Congressional testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications; two articles describing the results of NIOSH research and findings on indoor air-quality problems; NIOSH guidance on conducting indoor-air-quality investigations; and a description of the NIOSH health-hazard evaluation program, which can provide NIOSH assistance in evaluating indoor-air-quality problems.

  9. Chapter 21 Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in the PortlandVancouver metro area where there are more industrial sources of air pollution and higher levels of traffic congestion that create more air emissions....

  10. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  11. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  12. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  13. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  14. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  17. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  18. Influence of the public transportation system on the air quality of a major urban center. A case study: Milan, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    , such as power plant combustion, vehicular emis- sions, and industrial usage. Air quality has been studied. Sherwood Rowland a , Donald R. Blake a a Department of Chemistry, University of California, 531 Rowland, Irvine, CA 92697-2025, USA b Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California

  19. Indoor Air Quality of Weatherized Homes in the Northeast A Cornell University study, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    will be placed in the basement. Carbon dioxide CO2 tank and monitors: A CO2 tank will be placed in a first floor closet, and programmed to release CO2 gas four times a day for 15 minutes each time. Two CO2 monitorsIndoor Air Quality of Weatherized Homes in the Northeast A Cornell University study, funded

  20. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  1. Building Air Quality Alliance Program fro Building Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    IAQ increases. EPA studies rank indoor air pollution among the top five risks of environmental threats to public health. Guidance on achieving acceptable air quality and on preventing indoor air pollution is available. The 199 1 EPAMIOSH guide...

  2. Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than adults to the health effects caused by air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air_health.htm #SummerSafety Twitter: Children and teens may be more sensitive than adults to air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety Please help the NWS spread these important safety

  3. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  4. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System...

  5. Georgia Air Quality Control Act (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Air Quality Control Act (AQCA) is a set of environmental regulations, permitting requirements, and air quality standards that control the amount of pollutants emitted and who emits them...

  6. Ambient Air Quality Criteria (Manitoba, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Manitoba Ambient Air Quality Criteria schedule lists maximum time-based pollutant concentration levels for the protection and preservation of ambient air quality within the Province of Manitoba...

  7. Chapter 53 Ambient Air Quality (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation Chapter 53, entitled Ambient Air Quality, is promulgated under the authority of the Division of Air Quality within the Energy and Environment Cabinet’s Department...

  8. TEAMS: Indoor Air Quality (IAR) Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, V.

    2008-01-01

    The Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District (“CFBISD”) found the need to reduce air quality concerns and complaints, and find an effective and efficient method to reduce the rising cost of utilities. An Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) program...

  9. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  10. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  11. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  12. Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy ResourcesAir Quality Jump to: navigation, search

  13. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  14. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    caused by office's thermal Environment, J. Archit. Plann.Standard 55- 2010. Thermal environment conditions for humanindoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and

  15. Indoor Air Quality and Health in FEMA Temporary Housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    within the trailers make air quality concerns worse. Who Is Most At Risk Poor air quality causes problems with asthma · People who have allergies · People who have chronic lung disease such as bronchitis or of asthma may benefit from symptomatic treatment. Health Study CDC will work with parents to study children

  16. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Version of Infiltration Calculation Training Course Study A-Quality Study, the effects of house tightening infiltrationfield studies begin to demonstrate the low infiltration

  17. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for...

  18. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  19. Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air quality dependent ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air online 19 May 2015 Keywords: Ventilation control system Indoor air quality Indoor air pollution control Outdoor air quality Passenger health promotion Ventilation energy a b s t r a c t Indoor air quality (IAQ

  20. Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building: _________________________________________________________ File Number: ________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building in relation to indoor air quality. Page 1 of 14 Needs Attention Not ApplicableOKComponent Comments Outside Air Screen Unobstructed? General condition? Size of mesh? (1 /2" minimum) Outside Air Dampers Operation

  1. Air Quality Impact of Distributed Generation of Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing, Qiguo

    2011-01-01

    of the near source air quality impact of distributedDabdub, D. , 2003. Urban Air quality impacts of distributedDabdub, D. , 2004. Urban Air quality impacts of distributed

  2. 2012 National Tribal Forum on Air Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This forum on improving air quality will take place May 22-24, 2012, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is co-sponsored by the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) and the National Tribal...

  3. Air quality resolution for health impact assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air quality resolution for health impact assessment: influence of regional characterstics* T to: discover new interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess future; and improve methods to model, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts

  4. Operation & Maintenance for Quality Indoor Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, C.; Bayer, C. W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of numerous Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) building investigations conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute have shown that building Operation and Maintenance (O&M) is a very common source of IAQ problems. This paper presents...

  5. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality can cause a stuffy nose, sore throat,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products such as cleaners and bug sprays » Outdoor air pollution from factories, vehicles, wildfires allergies may have severe reactions. Common Indoor Air Pollutants Poor indoor air quality comes from many have asthma triggered by outdoor air pollution or pollen, opening windows might not be a good idea

  6. Air Quality Rules (North Carolina) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air quality rule for North Carolina that includes ambient air quality standards, emission control standards, monitoring and reporting requirements, and permitting procedures....

  7. Opening Remarks, Achieving Air Quality and Climate Change Goals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Quality and Climate Change Goals through Energy and Transportation Transformation Analisa Bevan CARB May 14, 2014 Sacramento California Healthy Air Quality for All...

  8. ENERGY STAR Webinar: Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades ENERGY STAR Webinar: Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School...

  9. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Emissions 7.3 Impacts of LNG on Air Quality 8. References 9.El Paso at Blythe. Chapter 3: Air Quality Impact AssessmentRespect to the South Coast Air Quality Management District

  10. On-Road Air Quality and the Effect of Partial Recirculation on In-Cabin Air Quality for Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grady, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The proposed fractional air recirculation system canThe suggested fractional air recirculation method is away of improving cabin air quality. References [1] U.S. DOT.

  11. Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

  12. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality.natural gas extraction and pipeline transport on air qualitynatural gas-based hydrogen pathways in terms of the resulting changes in urban air quality.

  13. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  14. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  15. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  16. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  17. Analysis of mixing layer heights inferred from radiosonde, wind profiler, airborne lidar, airborne microwave temperature profiler, and in-situ aircraft data during the Texas 2000 air quality study in Houston, TX 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Christina Lynn

    2005-08-29

    The mixing layer (ML) heights inferred from radiosondes, wind profilers, airborne lidar, airborne microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and in-situ aircraft data were compared during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study in the Houston area...

  18. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  19. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on energy use.

  20. A Self-Consistent Method to Assess Air Quality Co-Benefits from US Climate Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, R.

    Air quality co-benefits can potentially reduce the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. However, while many studies of the cost of greenhouse gas mitigation model the full macroeconomic welfare impacts, most studies of air ...

  1. Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacsi, Adam P

    The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

  2. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    and health from people who are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide

  3. Predicting air quality in smart environments Seun Deleawea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    attributable to air pollution, 1.5 million of these from indoor air pollution. Worldwide there are more deathsPredicting air quality in smart environments Seun Deleawea , Jim Kusznirb , Brian Lambb and Diane J that is often overlooked in maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the air quality of the environment. In this paper

  4. Methodological Issues in the Estimation of the Travel, Energy, and Air Quality Impacts of Telecommuting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokhtarian, Patricia; Handy, Susan; Salomon, Ilan

    1995-01-01

    have analyzed the air quality and energy impacts, but mostits travel, air quality, and energy impacts, and illustrateTHE TRAVEL, ENERGY, AND AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF TELECOMMUTING

  5. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  6. Indoor air quality in French dwellings Sverine Kirchner1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on Indoor Air Quality (OQAI) aims at collecting data on population exposure to indoor pollutants in various INTRODUCTION Our lack of understanding of the health risks related to air pollutants exposure in buildingsIndoor air quality in French dwellings Séverine Kirchner1,* , Mickael Derbez1 , Cédric Duboudin2

  7. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation J.M.Logue1,P Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation LBNL-4945E Disclaimer This document.H. Sherman, B.C. Singer, Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

  8. Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-

    The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread ...

  9. Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    air pollution study (CITEPA), France * Corresponding email: Eva.Leoz@ineris.fr SUMMARY Data pollutants in ambient air. Consequently our study aims at describing both emission factors and inerisImpact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2

  10. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  11. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  12. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    Swainson, M. (2009). Indoor air quality in highly energyClayton, R. (2001). Indoor air quality: Residential cookingSacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board. Fugler, D. ,

  13. New Mexico Guidelines for Public Notification for Air Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Mexico Guidelines for Public Notification for Air Quality Permit Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: New Mexico Guidelines...

  14. Improving the Air We Breathe: Prepared by the University of Utah Air Quality Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in levels of short-term (24-hour) particle pollution in the American Lung Association's State of the Air 2014 report. 2 Unhealthy, or "Red" air quality days occur when pollution levels (specifically PM 2 for air quality because of inversions that trap pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter (PM

  15. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01

    to mount the passive samplers in a house. designed describedhouses screened for study List of Figures A.l A.2 A.3 A.4 PassivePassive Sampler Sampler Girman/Allen Girman/Allen Wednesday 16 November Test house (

  16. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  17. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation by Erica Bickford A dissertation rights reserved. #12;Abstract Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation Erica Bickford.S. transportation is the largest source of national nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and the third largest source

  18. Performance and Portability of an Air Quality Model Donald Dabdub

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Rajit

    and planning for the control of air pollution episodes. The California Institute of Technology (CIT) photochemical model is one such air quality model. It is used to predict the pollution dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico

  19. Listening to Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    cities of the developing world, urban air pollution has worsened, which has been detrimental quality with bare human perception as air pollutants are mostly invisible and odorless. We believe in surroundings. INTRODUCTION Urban air pollution is higher in developing countries because they often depend more

  20. Air Pollution - Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ontario Ministry of the Environment The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces...

  1. Air Quality and Road Emission Results for Fort Stewart, Georgia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Randy R.; Driver, Crystal J.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Barfuss, Brad C.

    2004-02-02

    The Directorate of Public Works Environmental & Natural Resources Division (Fort Stewart /Hunter Army Airfield) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to monitor particulate matter (PM) concentrations on Fort Stewart, Georgia. The purpose of this investigation was to establish a PM sampling network using monitoring equipment typically used in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''saturation sampling'', to determine air quality on the installation. In this initial study, the emphasis was on training-generated PM, not receptor PM loading. The majority of PM samples were 24-hr filter-based samples with sampling frequency ranging from every other day, to once every six days synchronized with the EPA 6th day national sampling schedule. Eight measurement sites were established and used to determine spatial variability in PM concentrations and evaluate whether fluctuations in PM appear to result from training activities and forest management practices on the installation. Data collected to date indicate the average installation PM2.5 concentration is lower than that of nearby urban Savannah, Georgia. At three sites near the installation perimeter, analyses to segregate PM concentrations by direction of air flow across the installation boundary indicate that air (below 80 ft) leaving the installation contains less PM2.5 than that entering the installation. This is reinforced by the observation that air near the ground is cleaner on average than the air at the top of the canopy.

  2. Air Quality Regulations (Pennsylvania) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    as pollution control devices, boilers, fuels and paints at 3,650 facilities that produce air pollution in Pennsylvania. The program administers the rules and regulations of the...

  3. PREV'AIR, a platform for air quality monitoring and fore-, Menut, L.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    with trends in emission levels. Forecasts and observation maps of air pollutants - ozone, nitrogen dioxide on the pollutant. The air quality maps published every day are the result of numerical simula- tions performed using chemistry-transport models that allow the calculation of the evolution of air pollutant

  4. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    ITS-RR-08-28 Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts ofEngineering Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts ofa regional lifecycle analysis of air quality impacts is

  5. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    1989). Residential indoor air quality and energy efficiency.book Residential Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency by2009). Indoor air quality in highly energy efficient homes—A

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Rodger A.

    2013-01-01

    UC-95d INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATIONVentilation on Indoor Air Quality and Energy Use in Schoo s,EEB~Vent INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION

  7. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    2011-01-01

    to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The resultsthe indoor air quality and energy use of passive stacks.of the improved air quality is energy consumption increases

  8. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of MechanicalIndoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of MechanicalIndoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical

  9. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vine, Edward

    2002-01-01

    resolved before air quality and energy officials can begin3 2. Air Quality Regulation and Energyinitiate. 2. Air Quality Regulation and Energy Efficiency

  10. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    E. , (2000). Spectral analysis of air pollutants. Part 1:time series and analyses of air quality model outputs will

  11. Modeling VOC sorption of building materials and its impact on indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinsong, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by building materials can have significant effect on the indoor VOC concentration levels and indoor air quality in buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  12. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vine, Edward

    2002-01-01

    LBNL-49750 Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air QualityStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings (www.aceee.org), and

  13. Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

    2006-01-01

    Influence factors on safety of indoor air quality (IAQ) were analyzed in this paper. Some regeneration compositions resulting from potential indoor chemical reactions may be more harmful to habitants. A few building flaws may be key factors...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  15. Regulatory compliance and air quality permitting: Why do firms overcomply?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeHart-Davis, Leisha; Bozeman, Barry

    2001-10-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Regulatory compliance and air quality permitting: Why do firms overcomply? Leisha DeHart-Davis; Barry Bozeman Journal of Public Administration...Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Regulatory compliance and air quality permitting: Why do firms overcomply? Leisha DeHart-Davis; Barry Bozeman Journal of Public Administration...

  16. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  17. Transport Science and the Law Air Quality Applied Sciences Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Contribution" Test 1. Upwind reductions must be "proportional" across all upwind states ­ Cost only used air agencies · Formed in 1967 · Technical and policy support for air quality & climate initiatives #12 satellites detect? 2. Does tighter or different ozone standard mean new strategies? i. Winter VOCs or NOx? ii

  18. Natural Influences of Forestson Local and Regional Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Influences of Forestson Local and Regional Air Quality Emissions and Air Resource smoke from w i l d f i r e and pre- scribed f i r e , emissions associated with concentrated rec- r e s e n t e d a t t h e Symposium on E f f e c t s of Air Effects of smoke on fauna a r e documented

  19. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  20. Indoor Air Quality Observations in Public Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    pressurize the crawl space. Sane of the llnderfloor fans were not opera* (failed) an3 this results in mist ~OQI: air flawing into the building through the apenFngs in the pip* chases anl aperative underfloor fan ducts. Turn off the underfloar fans, sedl...

  1. CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    gasoline markets and raise prices paid by consumers. We provide the first comprehensive empirical estimatesCLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer and Ryan Kellogg* January 2009 Abstract This paper examines the effects of U.S. gasoline content

  2. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model aerosoland its role in regional air quality. Science, 311, 67-70.aerosol in Fresno, CA. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. , 56,

  3. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of natural gas-to-hydrogen pathways on urban air quality ofnatural gas extraction and pipeline transport on air qualityas natural gas extraction and oil refining) on air quality

  4. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

  5. Air Quality 4 4-1 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    at the Central Steam Facility. 4.1 RADIOLOGICAL EMISSIONS Federal air quality laws and DOE regulations monitoring is conducted. Figure 4-1 indicates the locations of the monitored facilities for radiological emis radioactive and nonradioactive emissions at several facilities on site to ensure compliance

  6. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  7. inAir: Measuring and Visualizing Indoor Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    , long-term exposure to such chemicals can cause significant chronic health problems like asthma to the development of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, heart disease, and lung cancer. Complicating quality and are often causes of Figure 1. inAir located in a living room. dizziness, nausea, allergic

  8. Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Pollutant Data for Linking Studies New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services #12;New Jersey Close-up View View from Space #12;Air Pollutant/Health Linking Studies in New Jersey · CDC 03074 pollutants and asthma hospitalization #12;Asthma and Hazardous Air Pollutants · Study A ­ All 566

  9. Air quality resolution for health impact assessment: influence of regional characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, T. M.

    We evaluate how regional characteristics of population and background pollution might impact the selection of optimal air quality model resolution when calculating the human health impacts of changes to air quality. Using ...

  10. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  11. Demo Abstract: Common Sense: Participatory Urban Sensing Using a Network of Handheld Air Quality Monitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aoki, Paul M.

    people die each year from the effects of air pollution [6]. Unfortunately, while variations in airDemo Abstract: Common Sense: Participatory Urban Sensing Using a Network of Handheld Air Quality Abstract Poor air quality is a global health issue, causing serious problems like asthma, cancer, and heart

  12. Project Title: Air Quality Monitoring in the Coastal Environment of Miami Professor's name: Xinrong Ren________________________________________ ______ _

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Project Title: Air Quality Monitoring in the Coastal Environment of Miami Professor's name: Xinrong@rsmas.miami.edu _____________________ _ Description of project: In this project, the air quality in Miami has been monitored continuously and characterized in the laboratory prior to the deployment to monitor the air quality. The student participating

  13. Satellite remote sensing of surface air quality Randall V. Martin a,b,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    Review Satellite remote sensing of surface air quality Randall V. Martin a,b,* a Department 2007 Received in revised form 26 June 2008 Accepted 2 July 2008 Keywords: Remote sensing Air quality Satellite Pollution Emissions a b s t r a c t Satellite remote sensing of air quality has evolved

  14. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    urbanair/ 2. Lewtas, J. Air pollution combustion emissions:Lewtas. Air pollution combustion emissions: Characterization

  15. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  16. Air Quality Modeling in the South Coast Air Basin of California: What Do the Numbers Really Mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    photochemical air quality models are used by regulatory agencies to design emission control strategies that lead models. For instance, it reported statistical errors in the prediction of O3 and NOx concentration and emission controls. Fine et al.2 identified different sources of uncertainty on air quality models

  17. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sîrbu, Alina; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Bossche, Joris Van den

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights int...

  18. Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of indoor air pollution determinant factors Jean-Baptiste Masson1,2 * , Gérard Govaert2 , Corinne Mandin1 representing different types of indoor air pollution. We restrain to the 20 variables corresponding to indoorClassification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification

  19. Texas Air Quality and the Role of Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edlund, C.

    2012-01-01

    old 4 Powerpoint Templates Page 5 SUMMER PEAK DAY LOAD SHAPE WITH FUEL MIX Natural Gas Wind Nuclear Hydro August 3, 2011 Other DC Imports Coal Energy Price 80,000 $3,500 $3001 70,000 $3,000 60,000 $2,500 Natural Gas... Page 1 Carl E. Edlund, P.E. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, Texas October 10, 2012 Powerpoint Templates Page 2 TEXAS AIR QUALITY UPDATE FOCUS: CRITERIA POLLUTANTS , GHG EMISSIONS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OTHER: MATS, CAIR...

  20. MCA 75-2 - Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon:Lowell Point,Massachusetts:Kansas:M1Remains2 - Air Quality

  1. 5 CCR 1001 - Air Quality Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton JumpProgram | Open Energy Information 55 et - Air Quality

  2. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    Health Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution. University ofon-road motor vehicles to urban air pollution using travelurban air pollution, zero emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates

  3. Particulate air quality model predictions using prognostic vs. diagnostic meteorology in central California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    Particulate air quality model predictions using prognostic vs. diagnostic meteorology in central a , Michael J. Kleeman c,* a Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, 1 Prognostic meteorological fields Data assimilation UCD/CIT air quality model California Regional Particulate

  4. Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pullman's Weather and Air Quality Station James O'Malley, Brian Lamb, Tom Jobson Thanks, and to Dr. Shelley N. Pressley. To monitor air quality in Pullman, the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research at Washington State University has operated a combined air monitoring and weather station located on the roof

  5. The effects of wildfire atmospheric emissions on regional air quality using current and future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    . These species either directly affect the air Figure 4. Percentages and the amounts of pollutants emittedThe effects of wildfire atmospheric emissions on regional air quality using current and future of wildfire emissions on air quality is modeled using the WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling framework: Meteorological

  6. An Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    are important for predicting pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). NAAQS pollutants, include CO, NO2, PM2.5, PM10, O3, and SO2, are considered deleterious to public health and airAn Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems 1

  7. Impact of Hydrated Cement Paste Quality and Entrained Air-Void

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of Hydrated Cement Paste Quality and Entrained Air-Void System on the Durability of Concrete the characteristics of the entrained air-void system #12;Objectives · Review the current accepted relationship between is affected by the quality of the hydrated cement paste (HCP) and the presence of a properly entrained air

  8. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  9. Using the Air Void Analyzer for Real-Time Quality Control Adjustments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 2006 Using the Air Void Analyzer for Real-Time Quality Control Adjustments in the Field Tech Brief by Jim Grove, P.E. Bob Steffes Mark Anderson-Wilk Overview of the Air Void Analyzer The air void analyzer (AVA) with its independent isolation base can be used to accurately evaluate the air void system

  10. There's no justice in transit! : transit equity, land use, and air quality in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machala, Laura Beth

    2007-01-01

    As a result of air pollution created by the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), aka "the Big Dig," transit and other air quality mitigation projects were incorporated into the State Implementation Plan (SIP). The SIP is ...

  11. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air qualityas natural gas extraction and oil re?ning) on air quality inquality impacts for three different hydrogen production and delivery pathways, based on steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas,

  12. Verifying the Accuracy of Land Use Models Used in Transportation and Air Quality: A Case Study in the Sacramento, California Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodier, Caroline J.

    2005-01-01

    A Case Study in the Sacramento Region (Ph.D. Dissertation,Analysis using the Sacramento MEPLAN Land Use Transportationin the MEPLAN model of Sacramento. ” Transportation Research

  13. EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications to provide training, and technical and outreach support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program.

  14. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and...

  15. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    as natural gas extraction and oil re?ning) on air quality inemission emission emission emission emission Oil extractionTanker delivery Oil refinery Pipeline Storage Truck

  16. EIS-0127: New Energy-Efficient Homes Programs, Assessing Indoor Air Quality Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bonneville Power Administration developed this EIS to explore whether different building techniques will control indoor air quality and still maintain cost-effective energy savings.

  17. Guo et al., Aerosol and Air Quality, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-16, 2004 An Upwind/Downwind Comparative Study of the Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Study of the Solvent Extractable Organic Compounds in PM2.5 in Hong Kong Zhigang Guo1 , K.L. To, Mei. The solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were separated into four major fractions (n-alkanes, fatty-distance (within Hong Kong) plumes. Keywords: aerosol, PM2.5, solvent-extractable organic compounds, transport

  18. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  19. Air Quality Impacts of Liquefied Natural Gas in the South Coast Air Basin of California Marc Carerras-Sospedra1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Air Quality Impacts of Liquefied Natural Gas in the South Coast Air Basin of California Marc. These volumes contribute to the total natural gas supply to the SoCalGas/SDG&E system of 76 million Nm3 /day for a typical summer demand in 2023, and 91 million Nm3 /day for the estimated maximum demand. b) Natural Gas

  20. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    focused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namelyimpact of combustion-generated indoor air pollution on humanpollution sources exist inside buildings, notably sources associated with combustion (

  1. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (‘source categories’) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm – 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  2. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Katscherian, Dianne; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. • Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated.

  3. Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingsheng

    1992-01-01

    consumption, showed that results from earlier steady-state measurements can be approximately applied to dynamic conditions when solar radiation is not present. However, this study has shown for the first time that IHEE is strongly dependent on air flow...

  4. High Performance Indoor Air Quality Specification for Net Zero Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Performance Indoor Air Quality Specification for Net Zero Energy Homes White + GreenSpec SHEET PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS #12;High Performance Indoor Air Quality Specification for Net Zero Energy Homes NIST GCR 14 Division provides scientific leadership to help the U.S. achieve its vision of net zero energy (NZE

  5. Ecological Modelling 185 (2005) 513529 Air quality prediction in Milan: feed-forward neural networks,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corani, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 185 (2005) 513­529 Air quality prediction in Milan: feed-forward neural December 2004; accepted 3 January 2005 Abstract Ozone and PM10 constitute the major concern for air quality of Milan. This paper addresses the problem of the prediction of such two pollutants, using to this end

  6. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  7. Studies in Power Quality Success 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laan, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is actively supporting research and development to improve power quality. Poor power quality can result in productivity losses and compromise safety. Dealing with power quality problems when they arise can solve...

  8. Real-time Air Quality Monitoring Through Mobile Sensing in Metropolitan Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iftode, Liviu

    . General Terms Measurement, Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords Air Quality, Pollution, Urban levels in the urban and suburban settings. According to the US EPA [3], the six common air pollutants. These are called the criteria pollutants and thus are required to be measured to tell us how healthy the air

  9. On the Challenge of Creating and Communicating Air Quality Information: A Case for Environmental Engineers*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Möbius, Bernd

    , development of air pollutant concentration assessment and interpretation techniques, which must be tailored, with a possible refer- ence to general background information on the nature of the individual air pollutantOn the Challenge of Creating and Communicating Air Quality Information: A Case for Environmental

  10. Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    -city densification may limit air pollution, carbon emissions, and energy use through reduced transportation of the most important environmental problems is air pollution, mostly induced by vehicle traffic1 Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models Claudine Metral Institut

  11. MAQS: A Personalized Mobile Sensing System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dick, Robert

    -Fi fingerprints; (2) an air exchange rate based IAQ sensing method, which measures general IAQ using only CO2MAQS: A Personalized Mobile Sensing System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Yifei Jiang , Kun Li,omkar}@umich.edu, § dickrp@eecs.umich.edu ABSTRACT Most people spend more than 90% of their time in- doors; indoor air

  12. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Quality Measurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Quality ~leasurements in Energy Efficient Buildings Craig D.Gregory W. Traynor Energy Efficient Buildings Program Energy

  13. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    pathways Light duty ?eet Urban air pollution 1. Introductionof light duty gasoline ?eets to urban air pollution usingThe PM 10 pollution is the least accurate in the light duty

  14. Building Efficiency and Indoor Air Quality - You Can Have Both 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    , and run around loops. These methods can be used on some packaged equipment but is normally provided on makeup air units and central air supply systems. These built up units offer opportunities to combine heat recovery, special filtration, humidity control...

  15. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  16. Texas Air Quality Status and the Texas Emission Reduction Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, S.

    2012-01-01

    in eligible areas. With recent legislation, the TERP also supports programs to encourage the use of alternative fuels for transportation in Texas. Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference ? Galveston, Texas ? October 10, 2012 Clean Air... Transportation Triangle (CTT) (new) ? Texas Natural Gas Vehicle Grant Program (TNGVGP) (new) ? Alternative Fueling Facilities Program (AFFP) (new) ? New Technology Implementation Grants (NTIG) Program ? Texas Clean School Bus Program Clean Air Through...

  17. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID for real-time air quality forecasting over the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yang

    States Ming-Tung Chuang a , Yang Zhang a,*, Daiwen Kang b a Air Quality Forecasting Lab, North Carolina on a three-dimensional air quality model provides a powerful tool to forecast air quality and advise, inaccuracies in simulated meteorological variables such as 2-m temperature, 10-m wind speed, and precipitation

  18. Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research Center 1 March 28, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research of California, Irvine (UCI) #12;Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel.......................................................................................................... 37 #12;Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research

  19. H.N. Knudsen, P. Wargocki and J. Vondruskova (2006) "Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    quality of air polluted by building materials ­ a summary of reported data", Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006, Vol. 1, 57-62. #12;#12;Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building

  20. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    in urban air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 5, 2881–deep convective system. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,processes in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical Society Review

  1. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENTS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    ROOF PORT HOLES AIR REGISTERS E8 XBL 7712-11473B Figure 3 - Schematic of Exterior and Interior of Energy Efficient

  2. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) indoor air quality in office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallingford, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 356 indoor-air-quality health-hazard evaluations were completed by NIOSH from 1971 through December of 1985. Most of these studies concerned government and private office buildings where there were worker complaints. Worker complaints resulted from contamination from inside the building (19% of the cases), contamination from outside (11 percent), contamination from the building fabric (4%), biological contamination (5%), inadequate ventilation (50%), and unknown causes (11%). Health complaints addressed by investigative efforts included eye irritation, dry throat, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, skin irritation, shortness of breath, cough, dizziness, and nausea.

  3. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  4. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  5. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Brown, Nancy J.; Harley, Robert A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Michelson, Sara A; Wilczak, James M

    2010-04-16

    This study presents detailed evaluation of the seasonal and episodic performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system applied to simulate air quality at a fine grid spacing (4 km horizontal resolution) in central California, where ozone air pollution problems are severe. A rich aerometric database collected during the summer 2000 Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) is used to prepare model inputs and to evaluate meteorological simulations and chemical outputs. We examine both temporal and spatial behaviors of ozone predictions. We highlight synoptically driven high-ozone events (exemplified by the four intensive operating periods (IOPs)) for evaluating both meteorological inputs and chemical outputs (ozone and its precursors) and compare them to the summer average. For most of the summer days, cross-domain normalized gross errors are less than 25% for modeled hourly ozone, and normalized biases are between {+-}15% for both hourly and peak (1 h and 8 h) ozone. The domain-wide aggregated metrics indicate similar performance between the IOPs and the whole summer with respect to predicted ozone and its precursors. Episode-to-episode differences in ozone predictions are more pronounced at a subregional level. The model performs consistently better in the San Joaquin Valley than other air basins, and episodic ozone predictions there are similar to the summer average. Poorer model performance (normalized peak ozone biases <-15% or >15%) is found in the Sacramento Valley and the Bay Area and is most noticeable in episodes that are subject to the largest uncertainties in meteorological fields (wind directions in the Sacramento Valley and timing and strength of onshore flow in the Bay Area) within the boundary layer.

  6. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed uncertainty information is identified and capabilities to produce it are assessed. Practices to facilitate incorporation of uncertainty information are suggested based on research findings, as well as theory from the literatures of the policy sciences, decision sciences, science and technology studies, consensus-based and communicative planning, and modeling.

  7. A response surface model of the air quality impacts of aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma?ek, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    Aviation demand is expected to double in the coming decades, and there are growing concerns about its impacts on the environment. Governments seek to mitigate the impacts of aviation on climate, air quality, and noise by ...

  8. Quantification of the impact of climate uncertainty on regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, K.-J.

    Uncertainties in calculated impacts of climate forecasts on future regional air quality are investigated using downscaled MM5 meteorological fields from the NASA GISS and MIT IGSM global models and the CMAQ model in 2050 ...

  9. The air quality impact of aviation in future-year emissions scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of aviation is critical to the world and US economy, and it faces several important challenges among which lie the environmental impacts of aviation on noise, climate and air quality. The first objective ...

  10. How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Leon, Alex R.

    · How does renewable energy drive community economic development, improve air quality & contribute to healthy families & communities? · How does renewable energy revitalize agricultural communities, provide energy self-sufficiency & protect the environment? · How do renewable energy & sustainable food create

  11. Environmental assessment of air quality, noise and cooling tower drift from the Jersey City Total Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.T.; Kolb, J.O.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment covers three specific effects from the operation of the Total Energy (TE) demonstration: (1) air quality from combustion emissions of 600 kW diesel engines and auxiliary boilers fueled with No. 2 distillate oil, (2) noise levels from TE equipment operation, (3) cooling tower drift from two, 2220 gpm, forced-draft cooling towers. For the air quality study, measurements were performed to determine both the combustion emission rates and ground-level air quality at the Demonstration site. Stack analysis of NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, CO, particulates, and total hydrocarbons characterized emission rates over a range of operating conditions. Ground-level air quality was monitored during two six-week periods during the summer and winter of 1977. The noise study was performed by measuring sound levels in db(A) in the area within approximately 60 m of the CEB. The noise survey investigated the effects on noise distribution of different wind conditions, time of day or night, and condition of doors - open or closed - near the diesel engines in the CEB. In the cooling tower study, drift emission characteristics were measured to quantify the drift emission before and after cleaning of the tower internals to reduce fallout of large drift droplets in the vicinity of the CEB.

  12. Clean Air and Environmental Quality Volume 40 No.2. May 2006 43 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AEROSOLS ON PRECIPITATION IN AUSTRALIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Clean Air and Environmental Quality Volume 40 No.2. May 2006 43 POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF AIR POLLUTION AEROSOLS ON PRECIPITATION IN AUSTRALIA Potential impacts of air pollution aerosols on precipitation that anthropogenic air pollution downwind of urban and industrial developments affects clouds microphysics

  13. A new method for evaluating regional air quality1 H. F. Dacre3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dacre, Helen

    , to determine the suitability of new pollution10 source sites and to inform decisions on air pollution strategyA new method for evaluating regional air quality1 forecasts2 H. F. Dacre3 Department of Meteorology of the pollutant field. The SAL method is able to quantify errors in the predicted size and shape of the pol

  14. Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System. 1 Ayrton Bryan program under grant number 0754990 Introduction Ammonia (NH3) is an important atmospheric pollutant to retrieve ammonia spectra and derive nadir profiles. AIRPACT (Air Indicator Report for Public Awareness

  15. Improving Indoor Air Quality Improves the Performance of Office Work and School Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wargocki, P.

    2008-01-01

    strong incentive for providing indoor air of a quality that is better than the minimum levels required by present standards. IAQ can be improved by reducing the pollution load on the air by selecting low-polluting building and furnishing materials...

  16. Statistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    are calculated with R, a language for statistical computing. The routine STEP in R is used to remove variablesStatistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS Annemiek Pijnappel De Bilt, 2011 | Stageverslag #12;#12;Statistical post processing of model output from the air

  17. Small Business Air Quality Compliance Assistance Act (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A small business stationary source that is owned or operated by a person that employs 100 or fewer individuals, is not a major stationary source (as defined by the federal Clean Air Act), does not...

  18. Air quality evaluation of London Paddington train station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Uven; Swanson, Jacob J.; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    concentrations in residential houses. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38 (21), 3405-3415. 9. Long, C. M.; Suh, H. H.; Koutrakis, P., Characterization of indoor particle sources using continuous mass and size monitors. Journal of the Air & Waste Management...

  19. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Quality Study Agency, California Energy Commission, the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas

  20. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  1. IAQ in Hospitals - Better Health through Indoor Air Quality Awareness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Rajhi, S.; Ramaswamy, M.; Al-Jahwari, F.

    2010-01-01

    the operator and the work by recirculating some of the air through a HEPA filter to provide a down-flow over the working area. Class 3 safety cabinets are totally enclosed units designed to provide a high degree of user protection. As mentioned above... of filters is 6mm WG.Fine filters can filter down to 5-micron size with efficiency of 99.9%. Pressure drop is 15 mm of W.G. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters down to 0.3-micron size. Pressure drop is in these type of filters is 50 mm...

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  3. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  4. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-04-03

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  5. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-07-22

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  6. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  7. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I: Present Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality­Related Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I on meteorology and air quality conditions in Cal- ifornia by dynamically downscaling Parallel Climate Model (PCM: Present Time Simulation Analysis ZHAN ZHAO Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University

  8. TES Observations duringTES Observations during Texas Air Quality Study IITexas Air Quality Study II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mb ofthe surface to .01 mb of temperature, water, ozone,temperature, water, ozone, carbon monoxide Spectral Radiance)Radiance) 2B1 filter: 700 nW/cm2B1 filter: 700 nW/cm22 /sr/cm/sr/cm--11 1B2 filter: 2001B2 filter: 200 2A1 filter: 1502A1 filter: 150 1A1 filter: 1001A1 filter: 100 Nadir NEDT @290KNadir

  9. Mexico City air quality research initiative: An overview and some statistical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, R.A.; Streit, G.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Guzman, F. (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (Institute Mexicano del Petroleo, IMP) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are in the first year of a three-year jointly funded project to examine the air quality in Mexico City and to provide techniques to evaluate the impact of proposed mitigation options. The technical tasks include modeling and simulation; monitoring and characterization; and strategic evaluation. Extensive measurements of the atmosphere, climate, and meteorology are being made as part of the study. This presentation provides an overview of the total project plan, reports on the current status of the technical tasks, describes the data collection methods, presents examples of the data analysis and graphics, and suggest roles for statistical analysis in this and similar environmental studies. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. RAPID/Geothermal/Air Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/SiteWaterRAPID/Geothermal/Air

  11. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01

    4: Modeling Emissions from Natural Gas-Related Sources 4.1Penetration of Liquefied Natural Gas Table ES2: Impacts ontypical summer demand of natural gas in the South Coast Air

  12. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by generating fewer emissions from electricity production. These benefits, however, are difficult quality planning process. If a model were available to accurately predict the decrease in temperature and detailed manner is important if heat island control strategies are to be viewed as "quantifiable

  13. Washington Air Quality Notice of Construction Permit Regulatory Handbook |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,VillageWarren Park, Indiana:Open Energy Information Air

  14. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration JumpPublic UtilityQuintasNEPA TimelinesBulkTransmission/Air

  15. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vine, Edward

    2002-01-01

    reductions from energy-efficiency building technologies andreductions from energy-efficiency building technologies andLBNL-49750 Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality

  16. New Mexico Air Quality Universal Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures LtdNeville, Ohio: EnergyHavenInformationMarket,Meadows,Quality

  17. WDEQ-Air Quality Division | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company)Idaho)Vossloh Kiepe Jump to: navigation,Quality Division

  18. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 3, p.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 9, p.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 4:117-124.

  19. Subtask 2.12 - Air Quality Assessment and Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Raymond

    2007-07-30

    Past particulate matter (PM) research projects conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center included data on PM size, morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this project was to improve automated analysis capabilities of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The SEM is now able to perform particle-by-particle analysis on the desired number of particles and provide size, morphology, and chemistry information for each particle. A new x-ray and image analysis system was purchased and implemented for improvements to data acquisition and analysis. This new analysis system is equipped with a digital-pulse processor, allowing for the determination of pixel-by-pixel chemistry, which significantly enhances our ability to characterize PM and other materials. In addition, this system is personal computer-based, which allows programming of the SEM to perform the automated image analysis along with detailed chemical information. This permits the incorporation of particle classification algorithms within the same computer system as the analysis is conducted. Additionally, the new Spirit software can now integrate full SEM control with imaging, elemental identification, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) operation. The EBSD system has also allowed for phase identification within the SEM. Reexamination of previous samples collected on a polycarbonate filter for ambient-air PM2.5 analysis has shown that crystalline identification of individual particles can be done without further sample preparation or modification of the sample and/or sampling substrate.

  20. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 56185635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    2007-01-01

    analysis; Spatial sensitivity 1. Introduction Distributed energy resources (DER) have the potential is expected. The use of these distributed generation (DG) resources results in multiple stationary powerAtmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 5618­5635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation

  1. IMPACT OF LOW-EMISSION DIESEL ENGINES ON UNDERGROUND MINE AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 IMPACT OF LOW-EMISSION DIESEL ENGINES ON UNDERGROUND MINE AIR QUALITY Susan T. Bagley1, Winthrop-1295 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Diesel Research, University of Minnesota, 111, however, is providing the report on its Website because it is important for parties interested in diesel

  2. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    species: CO, NO, O3, SO2, NO2 (electrochemical (EC) at 2 s) CO2 and total VOCs (optical at 10 s). · Size stations outside LHR (all CO2, sizeA Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport Olalekan

  3. Air Quality Impacts of Distributed Energy Resources Implemented in the Northeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations reach 3 g/m3 and are located off the coast of New JerseyAir Quality Impacts of Distributed Energy Resources Implemented in the Northeastern United States and Energy Program, National Fuel Cell Research Center, The Henry Samueli School of Engineering, University

  4. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle

  5. Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality Eric M emissions and hence already high levels of PM. US NOx and CO emissions increase annual mean PM in northern in China it is mostly as nitrate. East Asian NOx and CO emissions have a weaker intercontinental influence

  6. Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone Vivien Mallet1 21 September 2006. [1] The potential of ensemble techniques to improve ozone forecasts ozone-monitoring networks. We found that several linear combinations of models have the potential

  7. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts* Tammy M interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

  8. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englemann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  9. Evaluating Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, H. H.; Al-Momani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan Hikmat H. Ali, Ph.D. Hind Al...-Momani Department of Architecture Jordan University of Science and Technology Irbid-Jordan Hikmat_ali@yahoo.com Hikmat@just.edu.jo Phone (962) 2-7201000 Fax (962...

  10. Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    , French legislation has been adapted in such a way that the local authorities in charge of air pollution can now inform the public and take emergency decisions re- lated to air pollution control not onlyOLOGICAL SOCIETy | #12;air quality monitoring system. In case of a pollution episode, when concentrations exceed

  11. The CitiSense Air Quality Monitoring Mobile Sensor Node Piero Zappi, Elizabeth Bales, Jing Hong Park, William Griswold and Tajana Simuni Rosing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    conditions than the national ambient air quality standard [1]. Current air pollutant measurement networks. For example, The San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) maintains only five air pollutant samplingThe CitiSense Air Quality Monitoring Mobile Sensor Node Piero Zappi, Elizabeth Bales, Jing Hong

  12. Monitoring indoor air quality in French schools and day-care centres. Results from the first phase of a pilot survey.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . KEYWORDS Air pollution, air stuffiness, formaldehyde, benzene. 1 INTRODUCTION Indoor air quality to determine an air stuffiness index as an indirect mean to assess pollutants accumulation in a closed spaceMonitoring indoor air quality in French schools and day-care centres. Results from the first phase

  13. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  14. Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    1 Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2 3 the effect on China's ozone air quality from 2000-2050 global15 changes in climate and anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors. The climate and16 emission effect in combination will increase afternoon mean

  15. Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a,*, Daniel J. Jacob a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a Accepted 23 May 2011 Keywords: Air quality Ozone Kalman filter Assimilation Remote sensing a b s t r a c satellite measurements of ozone in different spectral regions to constrain surface ozone concentrations

  16. Better Air Quality in Asian and Pacific Rim Cities (BAQ 2002) 16 Dec 2002 18 Dec 2002, Hong Kong SAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Better Air Quality in Asian and Pacific Rim Cities (BAQ 2002) 16 Dec 2002 ­ 18 Dec 2002, Hong Kong Composition of MSW at the beginning of the 21st century in China #12;Better Air Quality in Asian and Pacific Rim Cities (BAQ 2002) 16 Dec 2002 ­ 18 Dec 2002, Hong Kong SAR PS-18- 2 Composition of MSW Composition

  17. Sensitivity of air quality to potential future climate change and emissions in the United1 States and major cities2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    1 Sensitivity of air quality to potential future climate change and emissions in the United1 States and future air quality is compared for the years 2006-2010 and17 2048-2052 over the contiguous United States affected by changes in climate, land use and pollutant38 emissions [Weaver et al., 2009]. Predictions

  18. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Survey of Boston Nail Salons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Barry B.

    of salon activities, and a short questionnaire #12;Study Methods Carbon Dioxide (CO2) can be used's (ppb) 9,519 45 1,409 5,475 16,225 35,711 37,767 CO2 (ppm) 1,085 641 809 1,055 1,257 1,544 2,057 PM2.5 (g/m3) 21 6 14 16 20 49 62 #12;Average Measured CO2 (ppm) Concentrations · CO2 levels in 15 of 21

  20. An engine air-brake integration study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulchandani, Hiten

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of operating an engine air-brake (EAB) integrated with a pylon duct bifurcation in a realistic aircraft engine environment has been analyzed. The EAB uses variable exit guide vanes downstream of a high ...

  1. Air pollution study of Laredo Customs Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welling, Vidyadhar Yeshwant

    1972-01-01

    was found between these results. This gives credence to the results obtained on the proposed ventilation system. The report discusses in length various vent1lation systems and their effects. It proposes the installation of an east-to-west forced air... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. REFERENCES. ' VITA. Page V1 13 21 33 49 77 83 85 LIST OF TABLES Table l Comparative Sampling Results. 2 Fan Effect. 3 Existing Forced Air System Effect Page 39 45 4 Velocity Distribution Outside and Inside...

  2. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  3. Assessment methodology for the air quality impact of residential wood burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Data from surveys of 1977-1979 indicate that firewood usage tends to vary inversely with population density, resulting in an implied limit to the density of usage. Tests of wood stoves indicate that emissions of particulates vary inversely with heat demand, such that nighttime emissions at low combustion rates may be worse than those during maximum heat demand conditions. Finally, atmospheric dispersion rates are coupled to the driving forces of space heating so that nighttime emissions tend to have a disproportionately large impact on ambient air quality. All of these factors must be considered jointly in order to perform a meaningful assessment of the air quality impacts of increased residential wood fuel use; the results indicate that in flat terrain primary ambient standards are not threatened by residential wood combustion.

  4. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  5. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a hazard to human health when the particle size becomes small enough to enter the lungs, e.g., smoke. At LANL, particulate matter concentrations are measured continuously and...

  6. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  7. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  8. Quality-Controlled Upper-Air Sounding Dataset for DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE: Development and Corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciesielski, Paul; Yu, Hungjui; Johnson, Richard; Yoneyama, Kunio; Katsumata, Masaki; Long, Charles N.; Wang, Junhong; Loehrer, Scot; Young, Kate; Williams, S.; Brown, William; Braun, John; Van Hove, Terese

    2014-04-01

    The upper-air sounding network for DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation or MJO) has provided an unprecedented set of observations for studying the MJO over the Indian Ocean (IO) where coupling of this oscillation with deep convection first occurs. With 72 sounding sites and dropsonde data from 13 aircraft mission, the sonde network covers the tropics from Eastern African to the West Pacific. In total nearly 26,000 sondes were collected from this network during the experiment’s 6-month extended observing period (from October 2011 to March 2012). Slightly more than half of the sondes, collected from 33 sites, are at high vertical resolution. Rigorous post-field phase processing of the sonde data included several levels of quality checks and a variety of corrections which address a number of issues (e.g., daytime dry bias, baseline surface data errors, ship deck-heating effects, artificial dry spikes in slow ascent sondes). Because of the importance of an accurate description of the moisture field in meeting the scientific goals of the experiments, particular attention is given to humidity correction and its validation. The humidity corrections, though small relative to some previous field campaigns, produced high fidelity moisture analyses in which sonde precipitable water compared well with independent estimates. An assessment of model operational analyses moisture using corrected sonde data shows an overall good agreement with the exception at upper-levels where model moisture and clouds are more abundant than the sounding data would indicate.

  9. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  10. A Hybrid Sensor System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Yun Xiang, Ricardo Piedrahita, Robert P. Dick, Michael Hannigan, Qin Lv, Li Shang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dick, Robert

    .shang}@colorado.edu Abstract--Indoor air quality is important. It influences human productivity and health. Personal pollution pollutant exposure is important. Currently, stationary and accurate air quality monitoring sen- sors [30A Hybrid Sensor System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Yun Xiang, Ricardo Piedrahita, Robert P

  11. With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air quality implications of a changing climate.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air?" noting that ". . . changing climatic conditions could significantly affect the air quality in some quality implications of a changing climate. D iscussion of the potential sensitivity of air quality

  12. Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, K.; Wu, Shiang Yuh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of present (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) regional air quality are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the individual and combined impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current (2001-2005) meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observational data to assess the model’s capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. Overall, WRF and CMAQ perform reasonably well. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 °C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and summer and many of its components including organic matter in winter, ammonium and nitrate in summer, and sulfate in winter and summer, decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants and increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with increasing surface resistance and precipitation (e.g., NH4+ and NO3- dry and wet deposition fluxes increase in winter over much of the U.S.), respectively, and decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations (e.g., SO42- dry and wet deposition fluxes decrease over the eastern U.S. in summer and winter). Sensitivity simulations show that anthropogenic emission projections dominate over changes in climate in their impacts on the U.S. air quality in the near future. Changes in some regions/species, however, are dominated by climate and/or both climate and anthropogenic emissions, especially in future years that are marked by meteorological conditions conducive to poor air quality.

  13. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, Edward

    2002-05-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of end-use equipment in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can reduce air pollution emissions and greenhouse gases significantly. Because energy efficiency is an effective means of reducing multi-pollutant emissions, it is important to ensure that energy efficiency is a fully engaged component of emission-reduction programs. However, while energy-efficiency measures are perceived by many stakeholders to be important options for improving air quality, some members in the air quality community are concerned about the ability of these measures to fit in a regulatory framework-in particular, the ability of emissions reductions from energy-efficiency measures to be real, quantifiable, certifiable, and enforceable. Hence, there are few air quality programs that include energy efficiency as a tool for complying with air quality regulations. This paper describes the connection between energy consumption and air quality, the potential role of energy-efficiency measures to meet air quality regulations, the barriers and challenges to the use of these measures in the air quality regulatory environment, and the potential role that the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technology, State and Community Programs (EERE-Buildings) could play in this area. EERE-Buildings can play a very important role in promoting energy efficiency in the air quality community, in ways that are fully consistent with its overall mission. EERE-Buildings will need to work with other stakeholders to aggressively promote energy efficiency via multiple means: publications, analytical tools, pilot programs, demonstrations, and program and policy analysis and evaluation. EERE-Buildings and state energy officials have considerable experience in implementing and monitoring energy-savings projects, as well as in designing documentation and verification requirements of energy-efficiency improvements. The following lists suggest potential EERE-Buildings activities, grouped by whether EERE-Buildings would play a lead or supporting role.

  14. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  15. Street-level air quality : exploring the feasibility of a cyclist-led, crowdsourced map in Singapore and Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holub, Amalia R. (Amalia Rae)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the feasibility of creating a street-level air quality map, whereby cyclists gather data through a participatory sensing process as they ride around the city. I explore two primary areas required for ...

  16. Defensive Investments and the Demand for Air Quality: Evidence from the NOx Budget Program and Ozone Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deschênes, Olivier

    Willingness to pay for air quality is a function of health and the costly defensive investments that contribute to health, but there is little research assessing the empirical importance of defensive investments. The setting ...

  17. Preliminary assessment of the impact of commercial aircraft on local air quality in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, Gayle L. (Gayle Lois)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of aircraft emissions on local air quality by performing two analyses: an assessment of U.S. commercial aircraft contribution to county budgets of primary pollutants in nonattainment areas, ...

  18. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Mendell, Mark J.; Chan, Wanyu R.

    2013-05-13

    Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings are specified in standards, including California?s Title 24 standards. The ASHRAE ventilation standard includes two options for mechanically-ventilated buildings ? a prescriptive ventilation rate procedure (VRP) that specifies minimum VRs that vary among occupancy classes, and a performance-based indoor air quality procedure (IAQP) that may result in lower VRs than the VRP, with associated energy savings, if IAQ meeting specified criteria can be demonstrated. The California Energy Commission has been considering the addition of an IAQP to the Title 24 standards. This paper, based on a review of prior data and new analyses of the IAQP, evaluates four future options for Title 24: no IAQP; adding an alternate VRP, adding an equivalent indoor air quality procedure (EIAQP), and adding an improved ASHRAE-like IAQP. Criteria were established for selecting among options, and feedback was obtained in a workshop of stakeholders. Based on this review, the addition of an alternate VRP is recommended. This procedure would allow lower minimum VRs if a specified set of actions were taken to maintain acceptable IAQ. An alternate VRP could also be a valuable supplement to ASHRAE?s ventilation standard.

  19. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  20. Social Engineering Approach to Air Quality Challenge: The Case of Kathmandu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arya, Ramesh C.

    2000-01-01

    come up WIth programmes that have directly or indirectly suppol1ed the activities aimed at promoting better air q.uality in the kingdom. The USAI~ sponsored Global Resources Institute (GRI) for three-wheeler eleclnc vehicle program. The Danish Agency... to the pollution. The number of vehicles surged significantly in the later years. Mr. Ramcsh C. Arya is an Engineer working at Waler and Energy Secretariat (WECS) R. C AlJ'" 113 Unregulated import of old and new vehicles including the camet of the tourists...

  1. NMAC 20.2.72 Air Quality Construction Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver,Minnesota:EnergyNARI| Open Energy2 Air Quality

  2. Opening Remarks, Achieving Air Quality and Climate Change Goals through Energy and Transportation Transformation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEI and Linked OpenAir Quality and

  3. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  4. Quality engineering as a discipline of study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Rachel R.; Hoover, Marcey L.

    2012-12-01

    The current framework for quality scholarship in the United States ranges from the training and education of future quality engineers, managers, and professionals to focused and sustained research initiatives that, through academic institutions and other organizations, aim to improve the knowledge and application of quality across a variety of sectors. Numerous quality journals also provide a forum for professional dissemination of information.

  5. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    by Ozone Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles. University ofHealth Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution. University ofby ozone air pollution from motor vehicles. Journal of

  6. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01

    Traynor, "Combustion-Generated Indoor Air Pollution," LBL-of combustion-generated indoor air pollution concluded thatTraynor, Combustion- Generated Indoor Air Pollution; April,

  7. IMPACT OF REDUCED INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    G.W. , "Combustion-Generated Indoor Air Pollution," LBLfocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namelyimpact of combustion-generated indoor air pollution on human

  8. JV Task 94 - Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO3, and Particulate Matter Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas A. Erickson

    2007-01-31

    This final report summarizes the planning, preparation, facilitation and production, and summary of the conference entitled 'Air Quality V: Mercury, Trace Elements, SO{sub 3}, and Particulate Matter,' held September 18-21, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The goal of the conference was to build on the discussions of the first four Air Quality Conferences, providing further opportunity for leading representatives of industry, government, research institutions, academia, and environmental organizations to discuss the key interrelationships between policy and science shaping near-term regulations and controls and to assist in moving forward on emerging issues that will lead to acceptable programs and policies to protect human health, the environment, and economic growth. The conference was extremely timely, as it was the last large conference prior to publication of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's final regulations for mercury control from coal-fired utilities, and provided a forum to realistically assess the status of mercury controls in relation to the new regulations.

  9. Predictability of European air quality: Assessment of 3 years of operational forecasts and analyses by the PREV'AIR system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    , is proved to improve ozone forecasts, especially when photochemical pollution episodes occur. The PREV'AIR and laws regarding the pollutants of utmost importance in relation to human health, air pollution is still- ments are still needed to manage and control the impacts of air pollution on health. [3] Facing

  10. Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating Air-quality Co-benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications for Policy Design for Integrating, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Impacts of Climate Policy on Urban Air Pollution: Implications climate change and urban air pollution and imply that opportunities exist to simultaneously deal

  11. Aircraft measurements of SO2 and aerosols over northeastern China: Vertical pro les and the in uence of weather on air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    (e.g., Li et al., 2010a), and should be accounted for in remote sensing of air pollution from space and the in uence of weather on air quality Can Li a , Jeffrey W. Stehr a , Lackson T. Marufu a , Zhanqing Li a t s air quality caused by shift in weather pattern.

  12. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Kelly Ph.D., Andrea; Jewell Ph.D., Scott D.; McShane Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark M.D., Douglas P.; Greenspan M.D., Renata; Hayes M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut Ph.D.,, Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield Ph.D., Elizabeth; Potapova Ph.D., Olga; Riegman Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein Ph.D., Yaffa; Seijo M.S., Edward; Somiari Ph.D., Stella; Watson M.B., Peter; Weier Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu Ph.D., Claire; Vaught Ph.D., Jim

    2011-04-26

    Human biospecimens are subject to a number of different collection, processing, and storage factors that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research utilizing human tissues it is critical that information regarding the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications around biospecimen-related research and help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that the contributions are valued and respected.

  13. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, G.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  14. Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebsch, E.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

  16. Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies: Fuel Pricing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Fuel Prices for Selected Feedstocks in NETL Studies Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies November 2012 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

  17. Proceedings for air quality management programs: A workshop on lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    The coordinators of this project at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo proposed a workshop to bring together an international group of experts to present both the lessons of history and the current practices in air quality management around the world. The workshop would also serve as a forum for presenting the accomplishments and plans of this project and for receiving comments from the assembled group. The workshop was favored with an outstanding set of speakers who represented a broad spectrum of experience. Their papers are presented in this volume. The total attendance was forty-four (see List of Participants) with representation from numerous interested Mexican institutions. Individual reports are processed separately for the database.

  18. Development of an air quality model for fugitive dust from mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winges, K.D.

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes a new air quality model, the EMAQ model, and compares it with the standard ISC model. The performance of the EMAQ model is discussed and its accuracy is commented upon. It is not yet determined if the EMAQ model can accurately simulate fugitive dust and a thorough evaluation is yet to be made which would determine if it has the ability to simulate changing wind directions and wind speeds with downwind distance, the ability to simulate pit-retention, the effect of meteorology and other factors on the deposition parameters. The hope is that the tools presented here are a step in the right direction which will eventually lead to reliable fugitive dust impact prediction.

  19. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, D.; Jackson, M.; Shrestha, S.

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  20. Study of building material emissions and indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xudong, 1966-

    1999-01-01

    Building materials and furnishings emit a wide variety of indoor pollutants, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, no accurate models are available to characterize material emissions and sorption under ...

  1. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1 considerations. This DQO report also updates the discussion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the PNNL Site air samples and how existing Hanford Site monitoring program results could be used. This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs.

  2. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

  3. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of light duty vehicles to urban air pollution are estimatedof on-road light duty vehicles to urban air pollution. Theof light duty fleets to urban air pollution using travel

  4. Improve Indoor Air Quality, Energy Consumption and Building Performance: Leveraging Technology to Improve All Three 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, D.

    2011-01-01

    suburban-- locations, outdoor air is actually far more polluted than indoor air. Appropriate application of air cleaning technologies and monitoring can allow many buildings to achieve both improved IAQ and lower operating costs....

  5. Air quality impacts and benefits under U.S. policy for air pollution, climate change, and clean energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saari, R. K. (Rebecca Kaarina)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions can also reduce outdoor levels of air pollutants that harm human health by targeting the same emissions sources. However, the design and scale of these policies can affect the ...

  6. Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01

    The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...

  7. Effects of Siberian forest fires on air quality in East Asia during May 2003 and its climate implication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Rokjin

    Effects of Siberian forest fires on air quality in East Asia during May 2003 and its climate model Biomass burning Forest fire aerosols Radiative forcing Tropospheric ozone a b s t r a c t In May 2003, intense forest fires occurred over Siberia, which were the largest fires in the past decade

  8. Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from ambient VOC observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Regional air quality impacts of hydraulic fracturing and shale natural gas activity: Evidence from/Washington area. Shale natural gas operation emissions appear to be transported downwind. a r t i c l e i n f o to free and extract natural gas trapped within shale layers (USGS, 2014). According to the U.S. Energy

  9. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  10. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  11. Air/water subchannel measurements of the equilibrium quality and mass-flux distribution in a rod bundle. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterner, R.W.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Subchannel measurements were performed in order to determine the equilibrium quality and mass flux distribution in a four rod bundle, using air/water flow. An isokinetic technique was used to sample the flow in the center, side and corner subchannels of this test section. Flow rates of the air and water in each sampled subchannel were measured. Experiments were performed for two test-section-average mass fluxes (0.333x10/sup 6/ and 0.666x10/sup 6/ lb/sub m//h-ft/sup 2/), and the test-section-average quality was varied from 0% to 0.54% for each mass flux. Single-phase liquid, bubbly, slug and churn-turbulent two-phase flow regimes were achieved. The observed data trends agreed with previous diabatic measurements in which the center subchannel had the highest quality and mass flux, while the corner subchannel had the lowest.

  12. Central power generation versus distributed generation e An air quality assessment in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    , central generation concentrates emissions in a small area, whereas DG spreads emissions throughout an urban air basin. In contrast, conventional, centralized power plants tend to be located in remote areas by the year 2020. The intermittent nature of renewable sources like wind and solar power may require

  13. Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of bloodindicates that ambient air pollution is associated withto daily changes in air pollution in Erfurt, Germany. 12

  14. WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION SPECIAL. Suomela, Commissioner WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION Report--Fisheries No. 290 Washington, D. C. March 1959 #12;Library of Congress catalog card for the Fish

  15. WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION iW''^^, ^^c, Commissioner WATER QUALITY STUDY OF WENATCHEE AND MIDDLE COLUMBIA RIVERS BEFORE DAM CONSTRUCTION by Robert 0 No. 290 Washington, D. C. March 1959 #12;Library of Congress catalog card for the Fish and Wildlife

  16. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

  17. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    health effects of motor-vehicle air pollution. University ofof motor vehicle and other sources to ambient air pollution.pollution from adding large numbers of hydrogen vehicles to

  18. The impacts of aviation emissions on human health through changes in air quality and UV irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunelle-Yeung, Elza

    2009-01-01

    World-wide demand for air transportation is rising steadily. The air transportation network may be limited by aviation's growing environmental impacts. These impacts take the form of climate impacts, noise impacts, and ...

  19. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of China’s 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 ?g/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 ?g/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 ?g/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable emission control scenarios suggested significant air quality improvements from emission reduction: 90% of SO2 emission removed from power plant in YRD would be able to reduce more than 85% of SO2 pollution, 85% NOx emission reduction from power plant would reduce more than 60% of NO2 pollution, in terms of reducing the number of days exceeding daily air quality standard. NOx emission reduction from transportation and industry were also found to effectively reduce NO2 pollution but less efficient than emission control from power plants. We also found that multi-pollutants emission control including both NOx and VOC would be a better strategy than independent NOx control over YRD which is China’s 12th Five-Year-Plan (from 2011 to 2015), because O3 pollution would be increased as a side effect of NOx control and counteract NO2 pollution reduction benefit.

  20. AIR QUALITY ENSEMBLE FORECAST COUPLING ARPEGE AND CHIMERE OVER WESTERN EUROPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    modellers' community to test the same methodology to foresee air pollutants concentrations threshold value will happen in order to implement mitigation measures concerning air pollutant emission the concept of air pollution ensemble forecast is not the same than the one for meteorology, we propose here

  1. Proposal for a consulting commission Climate and Air Quality of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drmota, Michael

    and climate strategies and their relation to air pollution issues · Co-benefit consideration of different issues relating to the atmosphere (air pollution, climate change) and aerosol ­ climate interaction · Exposures to ambient and indoor air pollutants (fine and ultrafine particles) · Epidemiology of disease

  2. CHAPTER 5: AIR QUALITY 1998 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT5-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    facility operations and ensure compliance with the federal Clean Air Act, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performs continu- ous air emission sampling at several facilities. In addition to facility emis radiological and regulated, nonradiological air releases for 1998 are tabulated in this chapter. Ambient

  3. Air Quality Monitoring with SensorMap Pter Vlgyesi, Andrs Ndas, Xenofon Koutsoukos, kos Ldeczi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    of Davidson county [1]. The situation is not much different in others cities. Air pollution is highly location different pollutants in the air. The data points are tagged with location and time utilizing an on-board GPS in a large area will be obtained at a low cost. 1. Introduction Air pollution is one of the most important

  4. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  5. Mechanistic modeling of the interrelationships between indoor/outdoor air quality and human exposure in a GIS framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Purushothaman, V.; Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric contaminants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) is often based on measured data from fixed ambient (outdoors) Air Monitoring Stations. This results in an artificial characterization of indoor exposures, as concentrations and physicochemical attributes of indoor pollutants vary significantly and are different from corresponding outdoor values. A mechanistically-based modeling approach is presented here that aims to improve estimates for the outdoor/indoor relationships of photochemical pollutants and of associated fine particles and, subsequently, of human exposure assessments. New approaches for refining the spatial, temporal, and indoor/outdoor patterns of gas phase photochemical contaminants and PM are currently being developed and tested. These approaches are combined with information from either ambient monitoring networks or from ambient air quality models that consider aerosol physics and chemistry coupled with gas phase photochemistry (e.g. UAM-AERO). This process utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Relational Database (RD) methods, to facilitate detailed exposure scenario construction (involving e.g. the geographic location of an individual considered in time) and to aid in the estimation of population exposure over selected geographic areas. The combination of monitor data or air quality modeling with microenvironmental modeling in a GIS framework can potentially provide a useful platform for more accurate assessments of human exposure to co-occurring gas and particulate phase air pollutants.

  6. The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

    1967-01-01

    the grain mass. This air must be supplied with properties which will provide a potential driving force, such as enthalpy and vapor pressure, in order for heat and moisture to be transferred. In actual practice, grain temperature is of primary concern... of the entering air since there is only one specific humidity at which the mpor pressures are equal. To maintain moisture equilibrium, the specific humidity must be considered a( one property of the air condition which is required. The other property...

  7. Impact of Mexico City emissions on regional air quality from MOZART-4 simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    the OH reactivity down- wind of Mexico City and therefore awinds from the west bring fairly clean air from the tropical Pacific over Mexico,

  8. Targeting Agriculture: Air Quality Policy in California’s San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cline, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    J. Bier. 2003. “Davis to Voice Air Bill Support: GovernorDavis, material from the governor’s chap- tered bill files (

  9. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    Air Plus Living Building Challenge Passive House EarthCraftof a passive perfluorocarbon tracer system for buildingof a green building, Energy Star or Passive House program.

  10. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  11. Frey, H.C., and B. Hubbell, "A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework For Multipollutant Air Quality," Paper 2009-A-235-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Frey, H.C., and B. Hubbell, "A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework For Multipollutant Air Quality," Paper 2009-A-235-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Detroit, Michigan, June 16-19, 2009. A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework

  12. QUANTIFYING THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF ATMS ON AIR QUALITY Bruce Hellinga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellinga, Bruce

    pollution. Currently, in the United States, motor vehicles release up to 90% of the carbon monoxide (CO); and more than 50% of the hazardous air pollutants [1]. Many of the air pollutants emitted by motor vehicles spatially and temporally correlated pollutant emissions on the basis of a drive mode elemental emissions sub

  13. Best Practices in Determining the Impacts of Municipal Programs on Energy Use, Air Quality, and Other Ancillary Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Mosey, G.

    2006-10-03

    This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 held in Boulder, Colorado, discusses best practices for determining the impacts of municipal programs on energy use, air quality, and other costs and benefits.

  14. Erste Satzung zur nderung der Studien-und Prfungsordnung der Universitt Stutt-gart fr den auslandsorientierten Studiengang Master of Science in Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    auslandsorientierten Studiengang Master of Science in Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process and Waste Water Process Engineering vom 08. Juli 2008 (Amtliche Bekanntmachung Nr. 23/08) beschlossen. Der

  15. Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheichl, Robert

    Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health Duncan Lee, Gavin://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health. Duncan Lee (1), Gavin to air pollution on respiratory mortality in the elderly (aged 65 and above) in London, England, between

  16. Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    1 Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences S in time-series studies 1 11/11/99 Keywords: measurement error, air pollution, time series, exposure of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting

  17. Investigating the observed sensitivities of air-quality extremes to meteorological drivers via quantile regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, D.

    Air pollution variability is strongly dependent on meteorology. However, quantifying the impacts of changes in regional climatology on pollution extremes can be difficult due to the many non-linear and competing meteorological ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

  19. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    California, which resulted in more air pollution than central power plants [Power-plant type Oil Biomass NG Coal Nuclear Solar Wind Hydro Total Generation mix (%) Central Plant Demand Centers California

  20. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01

    Another three homes used point-source heating, relyingsource Heating Fuel Type Electric Location Natural Gas Homehomes in CA are moving away from forced air heating and cooling systems, towards hydronic and point-source

  1. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China:advanced NO x control in coal- fired power plants and to acontrol of emissions in coal- fired power plants, CO from

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  3. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  4. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  5. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application). The experiments and simulations focused on the air-cooled Ballard Nexa fuel cell. The experimental

  6. Studien-und Prfungsordnung der Universitt Stuttgart fr den auslandsorientierten Studiengang Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering (WASTE) mit Abschluss Master Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) beschlossen. Der Rektor hat Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) überblickt werden, die Fähigkeit

  7. Field quality study in Nb(3)Sn accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Schlabach, P.; Velev, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Four nearly identical Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models of the same design were built and tested at Fermilab. It provided a unique opportunity of systematic study the field quality effects in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. The results of these studies are reported in the paper.

  8. Selected Studies in Mountain Meteorology From Downslope Windstorms to Air Pollution Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    Selected Studies in Mountain Meteorology From Downslope Windstorms to Air Pollution Transport, including downslope windstorms and air pollution transport, they are all linked to mountain meteorology and associated cold fronts, as well as local winds in valleys that cause air pollution transport. High

  9. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  10. Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment Cedex, France Tel: +33 (0)1 45 59 50 12 Fax: +33 (0)1 45 59 51 69 Key words: air pollution, asthma;1 Abstract Background: The associations between exposure to air pollution and asthma control are not well

  11. Aerosol analysis for the regional air pollution study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Gatti, R.C.; Goulding, F.S.; Loo, B.W.; Thompson, A.C.

    1980-05-01

    The design and operation of an aerosol sampling and analysis program implemented during the 1975 to 1977 St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study is described. A network of ten samplers were operated at selected sites in the St. Louis area and the total mass and elemental composition of the collected particulates were determined. Sampling periods of 2 to 24 hours were employed. The samplers were capable of collecting aerosol particles in two distinct size ranges corresponding to fine (< 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) and coarse (> 2.4 ..mu..m diameter) particles. This unique feature allowed the separation of the particulate samples into two distinct fractions with differing chemical origins and health effects. The analysis methods were also newly developed for use in the St. Louis RAPS study. Total particulate mass was measured by a beta-particle attenuation method in which a precision of +- 5 ..mu..m/cm/sup 2/ could be obtained in a one minute measurement time. Elemental compositions of the samples were determined using an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence method in which detectable limits of 5 ng/cm/sup 2/ or less were routinely achieved for elements ranging in atomic number from Al to Pb. The advantages of these analytical methods over more conventional techniques arise from the ability to automate the measurements. During the course of the two year study, a total of more than 35,000 individual samples were processed and a total of 28 concentrations measured for each sample.

  12. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  13. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01

    -Insulated and Air-Tightened Residential House in Kansai District, Japan, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2000, Espoo, Finland, Vol.2, PP.587-592, 2000.8. 4. T. Shimizu and N. Nakahara, Design and Measurements of an Aged-oriented House Aiming at Healthy...

  14. NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) Daniel J. Jacob, Harvard University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    management issues, and determine how AQAST can help ­ to-do list! AQAST4 at California Air Resources Board: OMI observes NOx decrease from implementation of emissions control devices (ECDs) on power plants power plants for 2005-2011. We found that OMI clearly detects the implementation of ECDs, though

  15. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.

  16. Impact of Trash Burning on Air Quality in Mexico City C. Wiedinmyer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    . Air pollution causes serious health effects for Mexico City inhabitants.5 According to ref 6 Mexico less polluted cities. The 2006 MILAGRO field project (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations,7 ) provided detailed chemical characterization of the pollution and sources in Mexico City

  17. CHAPTER 4. Satellite Remote Sensing of Global Air Quality. Sundar A. Christopher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    with asthma and emphysema. In 1952 London experienced one of the worst smog disasters, which killed more than.5) can cause respiratory and lungs disease and even premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4.6 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution

  18. AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE YEAR 2020: AIRSHED EMISSION LIMITS FOR THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AS A NATURAL RESOURCE Management of an airshed is similar to that of natural resources such as forests, fresh by the present report benefited from inputs from the following: Dr. Sverre Vedal % human health effects of air and Petroleum Resources FVRD: Fraser Valley Regional District GVRD: Greater Vancouver Regional District MELP

  19. Earth'sFuture Measurements and analysis of air quality in Islamabad,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    of rapid economic growth due to industrial- ization. Motor vehicles, industrial activities, and coal [International Monetary Fund, 2010]. Reliance on diesel fuel by transport sector is another factor-Asia & Pakistan Clean Air Network, 2006]. These environmental damages cost the country an annual loss of about Rs

  20. Thermal and air quality acceptability in buildings that reduce energy by reducing minimun airflow from overhead diffusers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    for rating the performance of air outlets and inlets. ANSI/comfort with a variable air volume (VAV) system. InternalGuidelines: Advanced Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems.

  1. Pollution atmosphrique et climat / Air Quality and Climate Change A. Colette (1), L. Roul (1), B. Bessagnet (1), S. Schucht (1), S. Szopa (2), R. Vautard (2), L. Menut (3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Pollution atmosphérique et climat / Air Quality and Climate Change A. Colette (1), L. Rouïl (1 greenhouse gases) and air pollutants, we can provide a quantitative view into the possible future air quality Pollution Atmosphérique, numéro spécial « Climat » Mot Clés : Pollution Atmosphérique, Changement Climatique

  2. Airborne Particulate Matter in HVAC Systems and its Influence on Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Z.; Li, N.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    , Brownian diffusion, is always present as a result of the random interactions between particles and air molecules. A net flux of particles generated by Brownian diffusion only exists in the presence of a nonzero particle concentration gradient. Brownian.... In the same way that fluctuating turbulent velocity components contribute to momentum transport in turbulent flows, turbulent fluctuations contribute to the diffusive flux of particles. The instantaneous particle concentration in a turbulent flow can...

  3. Air quality modeling for emergency response applications. [MATHEW; ADPIC; FEM3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Chan, S.T.; Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1985-12-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for real-time assessments of the consequences from accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. For the dispersion of hazardous heavier-than-air gases, a time-dependent, three-dimensional finite element model (FEM3) is used. These models have been evaluated extensively against a wide spectrum of field experiments involving the release of chemically inert tracers or heavier-than-air gases. The results reveal that the MATHEW/ADPIC models are capable of simulating the spatial and temporal distributions of tracer concentration to within a factor of 2 for 50% of the measured tracer concentrations for near surface releases in relatively flat terrain and within a factor of 2 for 20% of the comparisons for elevated releases in complex terrain. The FEM3 model produces quite satisfactory simulations of the spatial and temporal distributions of heavier-than-air gases, typically within a kilometer of the release point. The ARAC consists of a centralized computerized emergency response system that is capable of supporting up to 100 sites and providing real-time predictions of the consequence of transportation accidents that may occur anywhere. It utilizes pertinent accident information, local and regional meteorology, and terrain as input to the MATHEW/ADPIC models for the consequence analysis. It has responded to over 150 incidents and exercises over the past decade.

  4. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Study to Confirm Target Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant wheel operating in conjunction with a typical air conditioning system. Simulations and laboratory prototypes demonstrate that the cycle has the potential for enhanced humidity control with sensible heat ratios...

  5. Concepts studies for future intracity air transportation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint DOT-NASA Civil Aviation Research and Development Policy Study.; United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Flight Transportation Laboratory

    1970-01-01

    Summary: This report is concerned with describing the possible application of future air transportation systems within urban areas of the United States. The planning horizon extends to 1995 and the report focuses on the ...

  6. Data Quality Studies of Enhanced Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica McIver; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; for the Virgo Collaboration

    2012-04-11

    Data quality assessment plays an essential role in the quest to detect gravitational wave signals in data from the LIGO and Virgo interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Interferometer data contains a high rate of noise transients from the environment, the detector hardware, and the detector control systems. These transients severely limit the statistical significance of gravitational wave candidates of short duration and/or poorly modeled waveforms. This paper describes the data quality studies that have been performed in recent LIGO and Virgo observing runs to mitigate the impact of transient detector artifacts on the gravitational wave searches.

  7. DRAFT 11/09/2010 PLEASE DO NOT CITE OR QUOTE Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , industry standard organizations, state and local programs, and the home energy retrofit industry to better new EPA regulatory standards. · Provide guidance for diagnosing occupant health problems or building; help improve the quality of the work performed in this expanding industry; promote occupant health

  8. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A dual airflow window for indoor air quality improvement and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372. A Dual Airflow Window for Indoor Air with exhausted indoor air. The energy needed to condition outdoor air is reduced because of the counterflow heat, the dual airflow window has a great potential for conserving energy and improving indoor air quality

  9. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  11. Passenger Exposures to Ultrafine Particles and In-cabin Air Quality Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eon Song

    2013-01-01

    This study developed passive ventilation and infiltrationquantification of the infiltration, this study proposed in-as leakage or infiltration in this study; instead, it was

  12. Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Statistical Issues in the Study of Air Pollution Involving Airborne Particulate Matter Lawrence H which provides the Center's primary funding. #12;1 STATISTICAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF AIR POLLUTION.S. cities. This and other scientific and policy information formed the basis on which the U.S. Environmental

  13. A study of clear-air turbulence from detailed wind profiles over Cape Kennedy, Florida 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, James Harvey

    1969-01-01

    A STUDY OF CLEAR-AIR TURBULENCE FROM DETAII. ED WIND PROFILES OVER CAPE KENNEDY, FLORIDA A Thesis by James Harvey Blackburn, Jr. Captain United States Air Force Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of ittee) (Head of Dep tment...) (Amber) (Member) May 1969 ABSTRACT A Study of Clear-Air Turbulence from Detailed Wind Profiles Over Cape Kennedy, Florida. James H. Blackburn, Jr. , B. S. , Texas A6N University Directed by: Dr. James R. Scoggins Clear-air turbulence (CAT...

  14. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  15. Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration Solution and Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1. Title Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration of Florida, Gainesville, FL 4. Abstract Measurement of groundwater quality parameters is essential shown that there is some variation in measured groundwater quality parameters when

  16. A study of the housing of United States Air Force married personnel, 1953-1957 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goforth, Robert Gerald

    1958-01-01

    vill be answered in the study are: 1. What are the general housing conditions at maJor air bases7 2. What have personnel of the Army and Air Force done to help solve their housing problems 3. What are the housing requirements, assets... Force Bases. The Association was established to provi4e mutual aid and financial assistance for the purchase, erection, maintenance, opezstion, ani administration of low cost housing. All Strategic Air ~ personnel were urged to become members of ths...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air quality data. Methods: Measurements of 5 pollutants (particulate matter PM10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide NO2

  18. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 9, p.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 4:117-124.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 1, p.

  19. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat IslandMitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 3, p.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 9, p.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 4:117-124.

  20. IMPACT OF REDUCED INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    and Carbon Monoxide Several recent field and laboratory studies at various laboratories have focused on combustion-

  1. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  2. A study of air flow through saturated porous media and its applications to in-situ air sparging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marulanda, Catalina, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of an in situ air sparging system is controlled by the extent of contact between injected air and contaminated soil and pore fluid. Characterizing the mechanisms governing air propagation through saturated ...

  3. Studies of asphalt air blowing and development of a new short-term aging technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliev, Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    In this work asphalt air blowing has been studied from two perspectives. First, the process itself was investigated in terms of the effect of air-blowing conditions on the properties of the asphalt materials obtained. It was found that according...

  4. Scanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION Because of their remarkable physical and electronic properties, carbon nanotubes are promising nanotubes in air,3,4 in an oxygen stream,5 or under a flow of carbon dioxide gas.6 Thinning of nanotubesScanning electron microscopy study of carbon nanotubes heated at high temperatures in air Xuekun Lu

  5. Li et al., Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 418-429, 2006 UV-Absorption-Based Measurements of Ozone and Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Li et al., Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 418-429, 2006 UV-Absorption-Based Measurements of Ozone and Mercury: An Investigation on Their Mutual Interferences Ying Li, Sang-Rin Lee, Chang real-time or near real-time measurement, although they are often vulnerable to measurement

  6. The politics of consensus-building : case study of diesel vehicles and urban air pollution in South Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dong-Young, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Look at the three efforts to resolve public disputes over diesel passenger cars and urban air quality management in South Korea. this dissertation explores the main obstacles in nascent democracies to meeting the necessary ...

  7. Evaluating Air Quality Benefits of Freeway High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boriboonsomsin, K; Barth, M

    2007-01-01

    on Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions: Experimental Study withtheir impacts on vehicle emissions. Four general HOV laneand compared. Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were

  8. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of the intercontinental impacts of aviation emissions on air quality and health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Jamin

    2011-01-01

    Over 10,000 premature mortalities per year globally are attributed to the exposure to particulate matter caused by aircraft emissions. Unlike previous studies that focus on the regional impacts from the aircraft emissions ...

  9. Modeling Air Quality Near Freeways Using a Three Dimensional Eulerian Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kota, Sri Harsha

    2010-10-12

    experiment, conducted at Michigan in 1976. Sensitivity of the model to meteorology and traffic-related parameters are studied in detail. In the second case, the spatial distribution of ozone, carbon monoxide, NOx and 1,3-Butadiene near a simulated 8-lane...

  10. A Self-Consistent Method to Assess Air Quality Co-Benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a clean energy standard (CES) and a cap­and­trade (CAT) program that both reduce CO2 emission by 10: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research reduce the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. However, while many studies of the cost of greenhouse gas

  11. Experimental study of the atomization process for viscous liquids by meniscus perturbation and micro air jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Heejin, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to understand the atomization process in the specialized printing method which consists of the high frequency oscillating motion of a needle and a micro air jet. Highly viscous liquids, ...

  12. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend...

  13. A Study on the Effects of Unwanted Air Infiltration on Thermal Comfort at an Airport Terminal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lander, B.; Wei, G.; Claridge, D.; Caeiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    the comfort levels that people have become accustomed to in public buildings. Airport terminal buildings, such as the one in this study, built before the current energy awareness that is prevalent today have many problems associated with air infiltration...

  14. Experimental study of the microwave emission from electrons in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Conti; G. Collazuol; G. Sartori

    2014-09-26

    We searched for the emission of microwave radiation in the Ku band generated by a 95 keV electron beam in air. We unequivocally detected the radiation, and measured its yield and angular dependence. Both the emitted power and its angular pattern are well described by a model, where microwave photons are generated via bremsstrahlung in the free-electron atomic-nucleus collisions, during the slowdown of the electrons. As a consequence, the radiation is not isotropic but peaked in the forward direction. The emission yield scales proportionally with the number of electrons. This contrasts a previous claim that the yield scales with the number squared, due to coherence. With a Monte Carlo simulation we extrapolate our results to the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray energy range.

  15. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore »(O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  16. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  17. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  18. Study of approaches to quality in the architectural profession 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, Aparna

    2002-01-01

    Quality, as defined by the researcher, is a holistic concept of satisfaction of all the participants in architectural design: clients, users and professionals. This thesis analyzes what quality implies to architects. At the onset, it explores...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  20. Scale model studies of displacement ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okutan, Galip Mehmet

    1995-01-01

    Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

  1. Air Pollution Control Board (Virginia) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality The Air Division in the Department of Environmental Quality and the State Air Pollution Control Board work together to control present and future sources of air...

  2. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  3. A STUDY OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPLIED TO ROOM AIR FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for supplying me a copy of his three-dimensional, laminar, constant density fluid flow computer program, whichi A STUDY OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPLIED TO ROOM AIR FLOW By JAMES W. WEATHERS Bachelor of the requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1992 #12;ii A STUDY OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

  4. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 58 (2003) 333338 Study of air pollutants in Hong Kong using energy dispersive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 58 (2003) 333­338 Study of air pollutants in Hong Kong using energy were located within the area defined by vehicular emissions. As such, the main air pollutant monitoring site also fell into this same identified area, so the main air pollutant could also be vehicular

  5. Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

  6. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  7. EERE Quality Assurance Guidance for General Program Evaluation Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This appendix provides two tables: options for implementing a third party quality assurance review panel; and key evaluation activities that should benefit from a QA review, identifying related QA factors and QA review participants.

  8. CISC 327* Software Quality Assurance! Course Summary and Study Guide!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordy, James R.

    , ! ! ! managed, optimizing. SPR Maturity Assessment.! ! Certification Standards - Baldrige assessment.! ! ISO model.! ! Software process assessments and standards - maturity models, certification standards 9000 - management of quality assurance. Elements of ISO 9000-3. Documentation.! ! Extreme Programming

  9. Investigating the association between birth weight and complementary air pollution metrics: a cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun; Li, Lianfa; Chung, Judith; Bartell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes:Wilhelm M: Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes:for traffic-related air pollution in an adverse pregnancy

  10. Investigating the association between birth weight and complementary air pollution metrics: a cohort study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun; Li, Lianfa; Chung, Judith; Bartell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes:Wilhelm M: Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes:for traffic-related air pollution in an adverse pregnancy

  11. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  12. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  13. Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Study of Ionic Conductivity Profiles of the Air Cathode of a PEMFC by AC Impedance Spectroscopy membrane fuel cell PEMFC cathode by ac impedance measurement at open-circuit potential conditions membrane fuel cell PEMFC .1 The function of a proton-conducting ionomer such as Nafion® is to provide

  14. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  15. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study effects of O2-enriched intake air on performance and NO emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. Parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the O2-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of O2 enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in 13% increase in net engine power when intake air with 28 vol% O2 is used and fuel injection timing retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in only 4% improvement in power. If part of the higher exhaust enthalpies from the O2 enrichment is recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met. O2 enrichment with its higher combustion temperatures reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to 3 times at 26% O2 content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of O2 enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  16. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can improve power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment with its attendant higher combustion temperatures, reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to three times at 26% oxygen content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of oxygen enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  17. Software archeology: a case study in software quality assurance and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lloyd, Jane A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turner, Cameron J [COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES

    2009-01-01

    Ideally, quality is designed into software, just as quality is designed into hardware. However, when dealing with legacy systems, demonstrating that the software meets required quality standards may be difficult to achieve. As the need to demonstrate the quality of existing software was recognized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), an effort was initiated to uncover and demonstrate that legacy software met the required quality standards. This effort led to the development of a reverse engineering approach referred to as software archaeology. This paper documents the software archaeology approaches used at LANL to document legacy software systems. A case study for the Robotic Integrated Packaging System (RIPS) software is included.

  18. The balance between theoretical method and basis set quality: A systematic study of equilibrium geometries, dipole moments,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    The balance between theoretical method and basis set quality: A systematic study of equilibrium the best balance between theoretical method and basis set quality. This "balance" was evident

  19. AN INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDY ON SOA QUALITY EVALUATION Riad Belkhatir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Distinguishing itself from the competition. (iv) Leading to certifications (standards). (v) Preventing any future for the evaluation of software quality, the ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001 [1] (which has recently been updated to the SQuaRE standard ISO/IEC 25010:2011 [2]) serves as a basis for our work. Correlatively, we work with a model

  20. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  1. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  2. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Movement – Good or Bad? Indoor Air 14: 40-45. Toftum, J (Quality Survey. Indoor Air 14 (8): 65–74. Internationalon the Perception of Indoor Air Quality during Immediate and

  3. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  4. 2012-13 Princeton Global Scholar Dr. Tong Zhu is a world leading researcher on the impact of air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of air pollution on public health, the mechanisms of atmospheric chemistry. His research spans the study research projects, he has led large international projects related to air pollution science, health impacts. Zhu led a team that formulated air pollution measures to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing

  5. Study of the Influence of Air Supply Temperature on Air Distribution in the Run-through Large Space Architecture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, M.; He, J.

    2006-01-01

    museum) under winter operating conditions. At the same time, the indoor air flow regulations are summarized according to the simulation results. On the above basis, a new solution for airflow control of the connection in a run-through large space is put...

  6. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  7. Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

  8. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  9. FIELD STUDY COMPARING RUNOFF QUALITY FROM A GREEN ROOF AND A GALVANIZED METAL ROOF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    FIELD STUDY COMPARING RUNOFF QUALITY FROM A GREEN ROOF AND A GALVANIZED METAL ROOF Brett V. Long1 of this research is the impact of green roofs on urban stormwater quality. This research builds on a laboratory with minimal maintenance. The third question raised by the researchers was whether the green roof, at the low

  10. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), particu- late matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and non- combusted fuel vapors (USDI 2000). Combustion quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO), carbon monoxide (CO, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were

  11. Study of Various Slanted Air-gap Structures of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Brushless Field Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    magnet machine, synchronous motors, torque. I. NOMENCLATURE BFE brushless field excitation IPMSM interiorStudy of Various Slanted Air-gap Structures of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the slanted air-gap structure of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with brushless field

  12. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. ACKNOWDGEMENT The study and demonstration is funded in part by the South Coast Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    support of: Winston Chung Global Energy Center (WCGEC), Southern California Research Initiative for Solar Energy (SC-RISE), Riverside Public Utilities (RPU), the City of Riverside, UCR Physical Plant, UCR: · Four Megawatts (MW) of UCR integrated solar photovoltaics (PV); · Two Megawatt-hours of battery energy

  14. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study: Results, interpretation, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    source types in the region for both seasons. Local automotive emissions were the strongest contributor included in the factor analysis. We conclude that longer-range transport and industrial emissions were more

  15. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Summary for the California Rivers and Streams Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Study #12;APPENDIX 1 Page 2 of 15 The data generated for this section were evaluated in the Contaminants #12;APPENDIX 1 Page 3 of 15 when accounting for the QC failures. Data associated with significant QC failures, or which meet the rejection criteria specified in the Rivers QAPP are unusable for the purposes

  16. NIOSH testimony on indoor air quality: Selected references before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean and Water Protection, Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate by J. Donald Millar, May 26, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has compiled the document in response to an increasing number of requests for information about indoor air quality (IAQ), including sick building syndrome. Included in the publication are: NIOSH Congressional testimony that describes the NIOSH IAQ investigations program and summarizes the results of NIOSH research and findings on IAQ problems, NIOSH guidance for conducting indoor air quality investigations, NIOSH journal article on evaluating building ventilation systems, and list of non-NIOSH publications on indoor air quality. As the Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for occupational safety and health standards, NIOSH limits its IAQ activities to the occupational environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also conducts an IAQ program and can be contacted for information regarding both occupational and non-occupational settings.

  17. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    This case study describes how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  19. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  20. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; D'Anna, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  1. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Kyra Naumoff

    Abstract Background While air pollution exposures have been linked to cardiovascular outcomes, the contribution from acute gas and particle traffic-related pollutants remains unclear. Using a panel study design with repeated ...

  2. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  3. Computational Study of the Hydrodynamic Behavior during Air Discharge through a Sparger Submerged in the Condensation Pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, In-Goo; Kim, Hho-Jung; Lee, Byeong-Eun; Kwon, Soon-Bum

    2002-07-01

    The In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) has the function of heat sink when steam is released from the pressurizer. The hydrodynamic behaviors occurring at the sparger are very complex because of the wide variety of operating conditions and the complex geometry. Hydrodynamic behavior when air is discharged through a sparger in a condensation pool is investigated using CFD techniques in the present study. The effect of pressure acting on the sparger header during both water and air discharge through the sparger is studied. In addition, pressure oscillation occurring during air discharge through the sparger is studied for a better understanding of mechanisms of air discharge and a better design of the IRWST, including sparger. (authors)

  4. An electron microscopy study of wear in polysilicon microelectromechanical systems in ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    and one for wear in air. In vacuo, the native oxide layer is presumed to wear off without being, in air the oxide layer regenerates, causing only silicon dioxide, created by surface reaction

  5. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics for a New Type of Air Heater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, H.; Fan, X.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new type air heater was developed, and an experimental set-up was built to analyze its characteristics. Within the Reynolds number from 2000 to 15000, the integrated characteristics in air heater channels with and without ...

  6. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  7. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore »annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  8. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more »and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  9. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  10. A Study Of Texas Youth Livestock Exhibitors Knowledge Within The Constructs Of The Quality Counts Assessment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragland, J. Derrick

    2013-08-09

    A Study Of Texas Youth Livestock Exhibitors Knowledge Within The Constructs Of The Quality Counts Assessment. (August 2013) J. D. Ragland, B.S., M. S. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Steve Fraze. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  11. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  12. Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2002-01-01

    the indoor air quality, This paper presents modeling, optimization procedures and optimal airflow control sequences....

  13. A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system. Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. However, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.

  14. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, Derek John

    2015-05-31

    context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States....

  15. COMPARISON OF AIR AND DEUTERIUM ON PINCH WELD BOND APPEARANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P

    2005-10-11

    The effect that air and deuterium internal atmospheres have on the pinch weld bond quality was evaluated by conducting a scoping study using type 304L stainless steel LF-7 test stems that were fabricated for an associated study. Welds were made under cool, yet nominal conditions to exacerbate the influence of the atmosphere. The bond quality of the welds was directly related to the internal atmosphere with the air atmosphere welds being of lower quality than the deuterium atmosphere welds for nominally identical welding conditions.

  16. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Apte, Mike G.

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These strategies, however, would make it more complex and more prescriptive, and would require substantial research. One practical intermediate strategy to save energy would be an alternate VRP, allowing VRs lower than currently prescribed, as long as indoor VOC concentrations were no higher than with VRs prescribed under the current VRP. This kind of hybrid, with source reduction and use of air cleaning optional but permitted, could eventually evolve, as data, materials, and air-cleaning technology allowed gradual lowering of allowable concentrations, into a fully developed IAQP. Ultimately, it seems that VR standards must evolve to resemble the IAQP, especially in California, where buildings must achieve zero net energy use within 20 years.

  17.  Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) cost study: analysis of first cost tradeoffs in UFAD systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Energy Savings • Air Handling Savings • HVAC Churn • Tenantand Workstation Churn Qualitative Benefits: Benefits thatCarpeting Carpet selection Churn Waste per churn Usable life

  18. Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-02-17

    Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter loadings and shows that smaller particle sizes (under 10 micron) can readily be seen on the more lightly loaded filters. At higher loadings, however, the particle size is harder to differentiate. This study provides data on actual stack emission samples showing a range of mass loading conditions and visual evidence of particle size and distribution and also presents the difficulties in quantifying self-absorption effects using actual samples.

  19. FAPRI-UMC Report #01-07 Estimating Water Quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Carbon Sequestration...................................10 CRP EffectsFAPRI-UMC Report #01-07 Estimating Water Quality, Air Quality, and Soil Carbon Benefits Quality, Air Quality, and Soil Carbon Benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program FAPRI-UMC Report #01

  20. 259USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Air Pollution and Forest Health Studies along a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    259USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Air Pollution and Forest Health Studies of Indus- trial Areas, Kossutha 6, 40-833 Katowice, Poland. Abstract Air pollution, bulk deposition dioxide (SO2 ) air pollution acting directly or indirectly has been one of the major causes for poor

  1. Climatic isotope signals in tree rings masked by air pollution: A case study conducted along the Mont Blanc Tunnel access road (Western Alps, Italy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climatic isotope signals in tree rings masked by air pollution: A case study conducted along, Switzerland h i g h l i g h t s air pollution on the climatic signal recorded in the d13 C chronologies. Air pollution loads strongly influence the photosynthetic process.

  2. Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released emissions from power plants would provide an added bonus--reductions in other air pollutants that can make in power plant emissions of four other harmful air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides

  3. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  4. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  5. COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY IN TEXAS David Dearmont and Resources Portland State University P O Box 751 Portland OR 97207-0751 October, 1997 Draft of paper in Water Resources Research, 34(4), 849-854, 1998. #12;2 CHEMICAL COSTS OF WATER TREATMENT DUE TO DIMINISHED WATER

  6. Indoor-air-quality research. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications and the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, first session, August 2, 3, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Spokesmen for the environmental health sciences, consumer product safety, medical profession, and conservation discussed current research on whether indoor air quality suffers as a result of weatherization to reduce air leakage at a two-day hearing. Critical areas for research were the identification, measurement, characterization, control and health effects of indoor pollutants. Of particular concern to the committee was the administration's phasing out of some research programs despite DOE authorization and Congressional appropriations to continue. The witnesses discussed contaminants from building materials, household products, and other sources as well as the effects of reduced ventilation. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony.

  7. Advanced Air Traffic Automation: A Case Study in Distributed Decentralized Control ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    ,gpappas,janka,lygeros,sastry@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract. In this survey paper, we present some of the issues in de­ signing algorithms for the control of functioning and efficiency. Of specific interest to us in this paper is advanced air traffic management (ATM verification and design for safe conflict resolution strategies between air­ craft. Both cooperative

  8. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part II: Present versus Future Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    results to infer potential air pollution changes in California. Changes in both the meteorological fields of stagnation days (NNSD) integrating all stagnation events, during which most of the air pollution episodes will be stronger in the future for the two main air pollution seasons (i.e., summer and winter). Increases

  9. EXHALE Exploration of Health and Lungs in the Environment Exposure to poor air quality is recognised to have a detrimental effect on children's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    is recognised to have a detrimental effect on children's respiratory health and air pollution is London, the air pollutants which damage lungs and are linked to respiratory problems such as asthma. A Low symptoms, inflammation in the lung, exposure to traffic-related air pollution, and genetic susceptibility

  10. Basly L., Wald L., 2000. Remote sensing and air quality in urban areas. In : Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on telegeoprocessing, TeleGeo'2000,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of atmospheric pollution in cities and the number of personal car is still growing [2]. Furthermore, the air such that heat (or cold) islands which influence the chemical transformation of pollutants. Hence the urban air attributable to air pollution [3]. A survey conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) shown that

  11. Laboratory flammability studies of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Zlochower, I A; Lucci, C E; Green, G M; Thomas, R A

    1992-06-26

    At the request of the Department of Energy and the Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the flammability of mixtures of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and air. This work is relevant to the possible hazards of flammable gas generation from nuclear waste tanks at Hanford, WA. The tests were performed in a 120-L spherical chamber under both quiescent and turbulent conditions using both electric spark and pyrotechnic ignition sources. The data reported here for binary mixtures of hydrogen in air generally confirm the data of previous investigators, but they are more comprehensive than those reported previously. The results clarify to a greater extent the complications associated with buoyancy, turbulence, and selective diffusion. The data reported here for ternary mixtures of hydrogen and nitrous oxide in air indicate that small additions of nitrous oxide (relative to the amount of air) have little effect, but that higher concentrations of nitrous oxide (relative to air) significantly increase the explosion hazard.

  12. Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2013-09-13

    The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

  13. Popularity and Quality in Social News Aggregators: A Study of Reddit and Hacker News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Greg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we seek to understand the relationship between the online popularity of an article and its intrinsic quality. Prior experimental work suggests that the relationship between quality and popularity can be very distorted due to factors like social influence bias and inequality in visibility. We conduct a study of popularity on two different social news aggregators, Reddit and Hacker News. We define quality as the relative number of votes an article would have received if each article was shown, in a bias-free way, to an equal number of users. We propose a simple poisson regression method to estimate this quality metric from time-series voting data. We validate our methods on data from Reddit and Hacker News, as well the experimental data from prior work. This method works well even though the collected data is subject to common social media biases. Using these estimates, we find that popularity on Reddit and Hacker News is a stronger reflection of intrinsic quality than expected.

  14. Lateral density and arrival time distributions of Cherenkov photons in extensive air showers: a simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hazarika; U. D. Goswami; V. R. Chitnis; B. S. Acharya; G. S. Das; B. B. Singh; R. J. Britto

    2015-02-20

    We have investigated some features of the density and arrival time distributions of Cherenkov photons in extensive air showers using the CORSIKA simulation package. The main thrust of this study is to see the effect of hadronic interaction models on the production pattern of Cherenkov photons with respect to distance from the shower core. Such studies are very important in ground based $\\gamma$-ray astronomy for an effective rejection of huge cosmic ray background, where the atmospheric Cherenkov technique is being used extensively within the energy range of some hundred GeV to few TeV. We have found that for all primary particles, the density distribution patterns of Cherenkov photons follow the negative exponential function with different coefficients and slopes depending on the type of primary particle, its energy and the type of interaction model combinations. Whereas the arrival time distribution patterns of Cherenkov photons follow the function of the form $t (r) = t_{0}e^{\\Gamma/r^{\\lambda}}$, with different values of the function parameters. There is no significant effect of hadronic interaction model combinations on the density and arrival time distributions for the $\\gamma$-ray primaries. However, for the hadronic showers, the effects of the model combinations are significant under different conditions.

  15. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of coronaryof particulate air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2001,between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among

  16. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  17. Design study of an air-Cherenkov telescope for harsh environments with efficient air-shower detection at 100 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffenberg, Jan; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Rädel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schoenen, Sebastian; Schumacher, Johannes; Wiebusch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Telescopes, designed with semi-conductor based photo sensors, have the potential to detect Cherenkov or fluorescence light emitted by cosmic-rays in the atmosphere. Such telescopes promise a high duty cycle and efficiency in remote harsh environments. Given the relatively low costs and robustness of these instruments, this technology could prove interesting especially if deployed in large numbers with existing and future extended cosmic-ray and gamma ray detectors, including the Pierre Auger observatory, HAWC, IceCube and CTA. They may have the potential to enhance the sensitivity of these instruments for the detection of high-energy gamma rays and cosmic-ray air showers. In addition, for neutrino telescopes such a technology could prove to be an efficient cosmic-ray veto on the surface. In this contribution the current motivation, design, and development of a prototype SiPM based air Cherenkov telescope is described. The results of initial sensitivity studies, and the readiness of the system for first tests,...

  18. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14; Alternate Water Sources (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #14 Case Study: Overview of the air handler condensate recovery program at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division.

  19. Global air quality and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of Chemistry- Climate Models 5, 2010. 320 S. Wu,and R. Van Dorland, in Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalInter- governmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. D. Qin, M.

  20. Air Quality: Toxics and Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Kalmiopsis Wilderness Area Crater Lake N.P. Big Lake Three Sisters Wilderness Area Strawberry Wilderness Area) Wilderness Areas -Three Sisters - Kalmiopsis - Strawberry - Eagle Cap - Hells Canyon National Parks -Crater

  1. Global air quality and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    by altering solar and terrestrial radiation budgets, and10 BC absorbs solar and infrared radiation resulting in a

  2. An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    . Introduction Synthetic gas (syngas) is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in various compositionsAn experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed

  3. Tracing Freshwater Anomalies Through the Air-Land-Ocean System: A Case Study from the Mackenzie River Basin and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Tracing Freshwater Anomalies Through the Air-Land-Ocean System: A Case Study from the Mackenzie, Seattle, WA 98195 USA 3Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, National Snow and Ice-E and precipitation, recycled summer precipitation, and dry sur- face conditions immediately prior to the water year

  4. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). Results (beta distributions for failure probabilities upon demand and gamma distributions for rates) are used as inputs to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission standardized plant analysis risk models of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the AOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified in two areas: AOV operation demands less than or equal to 20 demands per year and greater than 20 demands.

  5. A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over...

  6. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  7. Electrocatalytic Activity Studies of Select Metal Surfaces and Implications in Li-Air Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasteiger, Hubert A.

    Rechargeable lithium-air batteries have the potential to provide ?3 times higher specific energy of fully packaged batteries than conventional lithium rechargeable batteries. However, very little is known about the oxygen ...

  8. Electrochemical studies of lithium-oxygen reactions for lithium-air battery applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwabi, David G. (David Gator)

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentally understanding reaction mechanisms during Li-O? cell operation is critical for implementing Li-air batteries with high reversibility and long cycle life. In this thesis, the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) ...

  9. Nature of conflict in the regulatory process: a study of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments were selected as a vehicle for this analysis because they are currently active within the legislative system; the 97th Congress has again taken up the Clean Air Act, most recently amended in 1977. Whether Congress actually amended the Act was not nearly so important as the issue being active for study: positions being formulated, lobbying being conducted, perspectives being modified, Congressional committees meeting, and testimony being taken. The first purpose of this dissertation was to understand the nature of conflict - agreement and disagreement over the broad range of issues - within the regulatory system. The purpose was not to describe how conflict is resolved, but to determine what variables give rise to conflict. Four variables were selected to describe the dimensions of conflict in the public policy arena: specificity, extent of change, complexity, and benefit/cost. A research study was designed and conducted to measure these variables across the key provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The second purpose of the dissertation was to describe and assess the nature of the feelings of the organizations studied toward each other. These organizations were drawn from four groups representing those with a primary stake in the Clean Air Act Amendments: Congress, government agencies, and two interest groups (environmental and business, including allied trade associations).

  10. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in electrical energy storage system: a criticalcurrent and future energy storage technologies for electricwind- diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote

  11. Integrating Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits in Apartments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental Quality and Energy Education In addition toAPPENDIX A1: Tenant Indoor Environmental Quality and Energyimproving indoor air quality (IAQ), energy efficiency and

  12. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  13. Agricultural burning monitored for air pollutants in Imperial County; exposure reduction recommendations developed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harnly, Martha; Naik-Patel, Kinnery; Wall, Stephen; Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Pon, Diamon; Wagner, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    et al. 1977). Local Air Pollution management and air qualityPollution Control District [APCD]. 2010. Smoke ManagementSmoke management. Currently, CARB County Air Pollution

  14. Wheat Flour Tortilla: Quality Prediction and Study of Physical and Textural Changes during Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro De Barros, Frederico

    2010-07-14

    stream_source_info RIBEIRO-DE-BARROS-THESIS.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 202855 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name RIBEIRO-DE-BARROS-THESIS.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLA: QUALITY PREDICTION AND STUDY OF PHYSICAL AND TEXTURAL CHANGES DURING STORAGE A Thesis by FREDERICO AUGUSTO RIBEIRO DE BARROS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  15. Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its...

  16. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09

    Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20...

  17. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01

    . Historic energy-use data and field-measured performance data are analyzed. The importance of certain design and operating parameters such as indoor airflow quantity, cooling coil apparatus dew-point temperature and the air-handling unit's fan operating...

  18. Air Pollution Control Program (South Dakota) | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Provider South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources South Dakota's Air Pollution Control Program is intended to maintain air quality standards through...

  19. Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Air Emission Regulation for the Prevention, Abatement and Control of Air Contaminants is relevant to all...

  20. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

    2006-01-01

    . The summer period, from October to March is characterized by higher temperatures, lower relative humidity and relatively low wind speeds with southeast predominance, presenting small variations in the direction east - northeast. 2 METHODOLOGY...: METHODOLOGY TO STUDY AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: MOBILE PHONES BASE STATIONS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR FIXED POINTS Angelina Dias Leão Costa (1); Lucila Labaki (2); Virgínia Araújo (3) (1) and (2) School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban...

  2. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  3. Final Report on the Clean Energy/Air Quality Integration Initiative Pilot Project of the U.S. Department of Energy's Mid-Atlantic Regional Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, D.; O'Connor, P.; High, C.; Brown, J.

    2006-08-01

    The MARO pilot project represents the first effort in the country to seek to obtain credit under a Clean Air Act (CAA) State Implementation Plan (SIP) for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reductions.

  4. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, L. H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  5. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners— Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  6. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Stecher and A. Poershke

    2014-02-01

    In this project, IBACOS, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, assessed a strategy for providing conditioned air to bedrooms when the bedroom doors are closed and measured potential thermal discomfort that occupants may experience when this strategy is used. Builders can use this information to discuss space conditioning options for low-load houses with their clients to determine acceptable comfort levels for occupants in these cost-optimized, energy-efficient houses.

  7. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    time integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle oftime integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle ofof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  8. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Calculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thCalculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  9. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels

  10. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating

  11. Study of the Durability of Doped Lanthanum Manganite and Cobaltite Cathode Materials under “Real World” Air Exposure Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Prabhakar; Mahapatra, Manoj; Ramprasad, Rampi; Minh, Nguyen; Misture, Scott

    2014-11-30

    The overall objective of the program is to develop and validate mechanisms responsible for the overall structural and chemical degradation of lanthanum manganite as well as lanthanum ferrite cobaltite based cathode when exposed to “real world” air atmosphere exposure conditions during SOFC systems operation. Of particular interest are the evaluation and analysis of degradation phenomena related to and responsible for (a) products formation and interactions with air contaminants, (b) dopant segregation and oxide exolution at free surfaces, (c) cation interdiffusion and reaction products formation at the buried interfaces, (d) interface morphology changes, lattice transformation and the development of interfacial porosity and (e) micro-cracking and delamination from the stack repeat units. Reaction processes have been studied using electrochemical and high temperature materials compatibility tests followed by structural and chemical characterization. Degradation hypothesis has been proposed and validated through further experimentation and computational simulation.

  12. U.S. NO2 trends (2005–2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO2 levels have decreased by 30-40% in the last decade. We quantify NO2 trends (2005-2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO2 algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore »and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO2 concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO2 standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO2 reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO2 VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model-simulated trends in VCDs strongly correlate with those estimated from surface concentrations (r -- 0.83, N -- 355). We then explore the observed correspondence of trends estimated from OMI and AQS data. We find a significant, but slightly weaker, correspondence (i.e., r -- 0.68, N -- 208) than predicted by the model and discuss some of the important factors affecting the relationship, including known problems (e.g., NOz interferents) associated with the AQS data. This significant correspondence gives confidence in trend and surface concentration estimates from OMI VCDs for locations, such as the majority of the U.S. and globe, that are not covered by surface monitoring networks. Using our improved trend model and our enhanced OMI data product, we find that both OMI and AQS data show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 38% for each over the U.S. The annual reduction rates inferred from OMI and AQS measurements are larger (#3;-4.8 ± 1.9%/yr, #3;-3.7 ± 1.5%/yr) from 2005 to 2008 than 2010 to 2013 (-#3;1.2 ± 1.2%/yr, #3;-2.1 ± 1.4%/yr). We quantify NO2 trends for major U.S. cities and power plants; the latter suggest larger negative trend (#3;-4.0 ± 1.5%/yr) between 2005 and 2008 and smaller or insignificant changes (-#3;0.5 ± 1.2%/yr) during 2010-2013.« less

  13. U.S. NO? trends (2005–2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng

    2015-06-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO?) have decreased over the U.S. due to a combination of environmental policies and technological change. Consequently, NO? levels have decreased by 30–40% in the last decade. We quantify NO? trends (2005–2013) over the U.S. using surface measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) and an improved tropospheric NO? vertical column density (VCD) data product from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite.We demonstrate that the current OMI NO? algorithm is of sufficient maturity to allow a favorable correspondence of trendsmore »and variations in OMI and AQS data. Our trend model accounts for the non-linear dependence of NO? concentration on emissions associated with the seasonal variation of the chemical lifetime, including the change in the amplitude of the seasonal cycle associated with the significant change in NOx emissions that occurred over the last decade. The direct relationship between observations and emissions becomes more robust when one accounts for these non-linear dependencies. We improve the OMI NO? standard retrieval algorithm and, subsequently, the data product by using monthly vertical concentration profiles, a required algorithm input, from a high-resolution chemistry and transport model (CTM) simulation with varying emissions (2005-2013). The impact of neglecting the time-dependence of the profiles leads to errors in trend estimation, particularly in regions where emissions have changed substantially. For example, trends calculated from retrievals based on time-dependent profiles offer 18% more instances of significant trends and up to 15% larger total NO? reduction versus the results based on profiles for 2005. Using a CTM, we explore the theoretical relation of the trends estimated from NO? VCDs to those estimated from ground-level concentrations. The model-simulated trends in VCDs strongly correlate with those estimated from surface concentrations (r = 0.83, N = 355). We then explore the observed correspondence of trends estimated from OMI and AQS data. We find a significant, but slightly weaker, correspondence (i.e., r = 0.68, N = 208) than predicted by the model and discuss some of the important factors affecting the relationship, including known problems (e.g., NOz interferents) associated with the AQS data. This significant correspondence gives confidence in trend and surface concentration estimates from OMI VCDs for locations, such as the majority of the U.S. and globe, that are not covered by surface monitoring networks. Using our improved trend model and our enhanced OMI data product, we find that both OMI and AQS data show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 38% for each over the U.S. The annual reduction rates inferred from OMI and AQS measurements are larger (–4.8 ± 1.9%/yr, –3.7 ± 1.5%/yr) from 2005 to 2008 than 2010 to 2013 (–1.2 ± 1.2%/yr, –2.1 ± 1.4%/yr). We quantify NO? trends for major U.S. cities and power plants; the latter suggest larger negative trend (–4.0 ± 1.5%/yr) between 2005 and 2008 and smaller or insignificant changes (–0.5 ± 1.2%/yr) during 2010-2013.« less

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Connecticut Primary and Secondary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    No person shall operate a source which has a significant impact on air quality in such a manner as to cause or contribute to a violation of ambient air quality standards....

  15. Abatement of Air Pollution: Connecticut Primary and Secondary Standards (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No person shall operate a source which has a significant impact on air quality in such a manner as to cause or contribute to a violation of ambient air quality standards. Connecticut primary and...

  16. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District

  17. General Provisions on Air Pollution Control (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the air pollution rules to secure and maintain levels of air quality that are consistent with the...

  18. Clean Air Act of Montana (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Clean Air Act of Montana is to achieve and maintain levels of air quality to "protect human health and safety and, to the greatest degree practicable, prevent injury to plant and...

  19. How Assessing Plasticity Design Choices Can Improve UI Quality: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recorded in terms of their influence on UI ergonomic quality, using Ergonomic Criteria. The interesting, quality in use. ACM classification H.5.2 User Interfaces: Evaluation/methodology. General terms Design] for example). Regarding ergonomic quality, changing the platform is frequently considered at first sight

  20. Two-dimensional numerical study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen; Liu, Fucheng

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a computational study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in ambient air is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model is applied to investigate the physical processes of the two plasma jets interaction (PJI) driven by equal and unequal voltages, respectively. In all studied cases, the PJI results in a decrease of both plasma bullets propagation velocity. When the two plasma jets are driven by equal voltages, they never merge but rather approach each other around the middle of the gas gap at a minimum approach distance, and the minimal distance decreases with the increase of both the applied voltages and initial electron density, but increases with the increase of the relative permittivity. When the two plasma jets are driven by unequal voltages, we observe the two plasma jets will merge at the position away from the middle of the gas gap. The effect of applied voltage difference on the PJI is also studied.