National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air quality impact

  1. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model developmen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air...

  2. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. March 17, 2015 Real-time data monitoring ...

  3. Impacts of Mixing on Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain I.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation reduces occupant exposure to indoor contaminants by diluting or removing them. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, every zone will have different dilution rates and contaminant source strengths. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining occupant exposure to given contaminant sources, but the zone-specific distribution of exhaust and supply air and the mixing of ventilation air can play significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage, air distribution system, and contaminant source and occupant locations. Most U.S. and Canadian homes have central heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, which tend to mix the air; thus, the indoor air in different zones tends to be well mixed for significant fractions of the year. This article reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact of air mixing on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. We summarize existing literature and extend past analyses to determine the parameters than affect air mixing as well as the impacts of mixing on occupant exposure, and to draw conclusions that are relevant for standards development and for practitioners designing and installing home ventilation systems. The primary conclusion is that mixing will not substantially affect the mean indoor air quality across a broad population of occupants, homes, and ventilation systems, but it can reduce the number of occupants who are exposed to extreme pollutant levels. If the policy objective is to minimize the number of people exposed above a given pollutant threshold, some amount of mixing will be of net benefit even though it does not benefit average exposure. If the policy is to minimize exposure on average, then mixing air in homes is detrimental and should not be encouraged. We also conclude that most homes in the US have adequate mixing already, but that new, high-performance homes may require additional mixing. Also our results suggest that some differentiation should be made in policies and standards for systems that provide continuous exhaust, thereby reducing relative dose for occupants overall.

  4. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  5. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  6. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  7. Managing the analysis of air quality impacts under NEPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Y.B.; Leslie, A.C.D.

    1995-12-31

    The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates the analysis and evaluation of potential impacts of major Federal actions having the potential to affect the environment. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify an array of new air quality issues appropriate for analysis in compliance with NEPA. An example is emissions of the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. The utility industry estimates that more than 2.4 billion pounds of toxic pollutants were emitted to the atmosphere in 1988, with the potential for resultant adverse health impacts such as cancer, reproductive effects, birth defects, and respiratory illness. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides Federal funds for projects that utilize coal as the primary fuel, including the approximately 45 projects funded over the past ten years under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Provision of Federal funds brings these projects under NEPA review. While electric steam generating units greater than 25 MW are currently excluded from regulatory review for the 189 air toxics listed in Title III, they are not, due to their potential impacts, excluded from NEPA review when Federally funded, in whole or in part. The authors will discuss their experiences drawn from NEPA evaluations of coal-fired power projects, the differences between regulatory requirements and NEPA requirements, source categories, major and area sources, conformity, maximum achievable control technology, mandatory licensing, radionuclides, visibility, toxics found to be emitted from coal combustion, public involvement, citizen suits, the bounty system, and how NEPA review can result in beneficial changes to proposed projects through mitigation measures to avoid or minimize potentially adverse environmental impacts.

  8. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spickett, Jeffery; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Katscherian, Dianne; Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia ; Harris, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting. Advantages of HIA in the air quality standard setting process are demonstrated.

  9. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  10. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  11. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  12. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  13. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality over China: View from space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Qing; Fu, Rong; Cunnold, Derek; Choi, Yunsoo

    2010-05-04

    Tropospheric O3 columns retrieved from OMI and MLS measurements, CO columns from MOPITT, and tropospheric O3 and CO concentrations from TES from May to August in 2006 are analyzed using the Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model (REAM) to investigate the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon on the air quality over China. The observed and simulated migrations of O3 and CO are in good agreement, demonstrating that the summer monsoon significantly affects the air quality over southeastern China and this influence extends to central East China from June to July. Enhancements of CO and O3 over southeastern China disappear after the onset of the summer monsoon and re-emerge in August after the monsoon wanes. The pre-monsoon high O3 concentrations over southern China are due to photochemical production from pollutant emissions and the O3 transport from the stratosphere. In the summer monsoon season, the O3 concentrations are relatively low over monsoon-affected regions because of the transport of marine air masses and weak photochemical activity. We find that the monsoon system strongly modulates the pollution problem over a large portion of East China in summer, depending on its strength and tempo-spatial extension. Model results also suggest that transport from the stratosphere and long-range transport from East China and South/Central Asia all make significant contributions to O3 enhancements over West China. Satellite observations provide valuable information for investigating the monsoon impact on air quality, particularly for the regions with limited in situ measurements.

  14. Impacts of Future Climate and Emission Changes on U.S. Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penrod, Ashley; Zhang, Yang; Wang, K.; Wu, Shiang Yuh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate and emissions will affect future air quality. In this work, simulations of present (2001-2005) and future (2026-2030) regional air quality are conducted with the newly released CMAQ version 5.0 to examine the individual and combined impacts of simulated future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over the U.S. Current (2001-2005) meteorological and chemical predictions are evaluated against observational data to assess the models capability in reproducing the seasonal differences. Overall, WRF and CMAQ perform reasonably well. Increased temperatures (up to 3.18 C) and decreased ventilation (up to 157 m in planetary boundary layer height) are found in both future winter and summer, with more prominent changes in winter. Increases in future temperatures result in increased isoprene and terpene emissions in winter and summer, driving the increase in maximum 8-h average O3 (up to 5.0 ppb) over the eastern U.S. in winter while decreases in NOx emissions drive the decrease in O3 over most of the U.S. in summer. Future concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and summer and many of its components including organic matter in winter, ammonium and nitrate in summer, and sulfate in winter and summer, decrease due to decreases in primary anthropogenic emissions and the concentrations of secondary anthropogenic pollutants and increased precipitation in winter. Future winter and summer dry and wet deposition fluxes are spatially variable and increase with increasing surface resistance and precipitation (e.g., NH4+ and NO3- dry and wet deposition fluxes increase in winter over much of the U.S.), respectively, and decrease with a decrease in ambient particulate concentrations (e.g., SO42- dry and wet deposition fluxes decrease over the eastern U.S. in summer and winter). Sensitivity simulations show that anthropogenic emission projections dominate over changes in climate in their impacts on the U.S. air quality in the near future. Changes in some regions/species, however, are dominated by climate and/or both climate and anthropogenic emissions, especially in future years that are marked by meteorological conditions conducive to poor air quality.

  15. Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebsch, E.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  17. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  18. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

  19. Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  20. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area. Our si mulations suggest that cool-city strategies can typically reduce local urban air temperature by 0.5-1 degrees C; as more sporadic events, larger decreases (1.5 degrees C, 2.5-2.7 degrees C and 4-6 degrees C) were also simulated. With regard to ozone mixing ratios along the simulated trajectories, the effects of cool-city strategies appear to be on the order of 2 ppb, a typical decrease. The photochemical trajectory model (CIT) also simulates larger decreases (e.g., 4 to 8 ppb), but these are not taken as representative of the potential impacts in this report. A comparison with other simulations suggest very crudely that a decrease of this magnitude corresponds to significant ''equivalent'' decreases in both NOx and VOCs emissions in the region. Our preliminary results suggest that significant UHI control can be achieved with cool-cities strategies in the GTA and is therefore worth further study. We recommend that better input data and more accurate modeling schemes be used to carry out f uture studies in the same direction.

  1. Best Practices in Determining the Impacts of Municipal Programs on Energy Use, Air Quality, and Other Ancillary Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Mosey, G.

    2006-10-03

    This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 held in Boulder, Colorado, discusses best practices for determining the impacts of municipal programs on energy use, air quality, and other costs and benefits.

  2. Application of nonparametric regression and statistical testing to identify the impact of oil and natural gas development on local air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.

    2015-11-05

    Abstract: The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality.

  3. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  4. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  5. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  6. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its potential impact of Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-12-01

    Seventy eight whole air samples were collected at various park locations throughout Mexico City and later assayed for methane, carbon monoxide, 20 halocarbons and 40 C{sub 2}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbons. Propane had the highest median mixing ratio value of all assayed non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) with a concentration as high as 0.1 ppmv. The concentration of n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane were all notably elevated as well. The only significant identified source of propane in Mexico City is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which also has a strong component of C{sub 4} and C{sub 5} alkanes. All of these alkanes were present at concentrations well above those observed in other cities where LPG is not the main domestic fuel. Data strongly suggest that as much as 50% of total Mexico City NMHCs is a result of losses associated with the transfer, storage and delivery of LPG. Additionally, using median concentrations and laboratory determined hydroxyl reaction rate constants, LPG emissions account for about 20% of initial reactivities. This suggests that LPG losses may significantly impact photochemical oxidant levels in Mexico City.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  8. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  9. Air quality committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Committees on air quality, coal, forest resources, and public lands and land use report on legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1979. There was no new significant air quality legislation, but a number of lawsuits raised questions about State Implementation Plans, prevention of significant deterioration, the Clean Air Act Amendments, new source performance standards, and motor vehicle emissions. Efforts to increase coal utilization emphasized implementation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 and the Surface Mining Program. New legislation protects certain forest products from exploitation and exportation. Forest-related lawsuits focused on the RARE II process. Land-use legislation modified credit assistance to coastal zones and the language of interstate land sales, established a new agency to consolidate flood-insurance programs, and added protection to archaeological resources. Land-use-related lawsuits covered coastal zone management, interstate land sales, Indian reservations, and land-use planning in the context of civil rights, antitrust action, exclusionary zoning, comprehensive planning, and regional general welfare. Other suits addressed grants, leasing, claims, grazing rights, surveys, and other matters of public lands concern. Administrative actions centered on implementing the Coastal Zone Management Act, establishing the Council of Energy Resource Tribes, and developing guidelines for energy development. 147 references. (DCK)

  10. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #5 PDF icon Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook

  12. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality Maintaining System Air Quality This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #12 PDF icon Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System Pressure

  13. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  14. Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Interactive Models (SIM-air) AgencyCompany Organization:...

  15. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  16. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  17. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System...

  18. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  19. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  20. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  1. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Tyler, Texas PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Ventilation Effectiveness Location: Tyler, TX Partners: University of Texas, TxAIRE, uttyler.edu/txaire/houses/ Building Science Corporation, buildingscience.com Building Component: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), whole-building dilution ventilation Application: New and retrofit; single-family and multifamily Year Tested: 2012 Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE

  2. 2011 Air Quality Regulations Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Quality Regulations Report 2011 Air Quality Regulations Report PDF icon 2011 Air Quality Regulations Report120111.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011:...

  3. 2011: Air Quality Regulations Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    : Air Quality Regulations Report 2011: Air Quality Regulations Report PDF icon 2011 Air Quality Regulations ReportA120911.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011...

  4. RAPID/Geothermal/Air Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalAir QualityAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Air Quality(Redirected from RAPIDOverviewGeothermalAir QualityAlaska) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID...

  5. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  6. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  7. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  8. Measured Cooling Season Results Relating the Impact of Mechanical Ventilation on Energy, Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality in Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric; Amos, Bryan; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Widder, Sarah H.; Fonorow, Ken

    2014-08-22

    Conference Paper for ACEEE Summer Study in Buildings discussing results to date of a project evaluating the impact of ventialtion on energy use, comfort, durability, and cost in the hot humid climate.

  9. Pilot Implementation of a Field Study Design to Evaluate the Impact of Source Control Measures on Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chamness, Michele A.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Singer, Brett C.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-10-20

    To improve the indoor air quality in new, high performance homes, a variety of standards and rating programs have been introduced to identify building materials that are designed to have lower emission rates of key contaminants of concern and a number of building materials are being introduced that are certified to these standards. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home program requires certification under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS (IaP) label, which requires the use of PS1 or PS2 certified plywood and OSB; low-formaldehyde emitting wood products; low- or no-VOC paints and coatings as certified by Green Seal Standard GS-11, GreenGuard, SCS Indoor Advantage Gold Standard, MPI Green Performance Standard, or another third party rating program; and Green Label-certified carpet and carpet cushions. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of the IAP requirements in measurably reducing contaminant exposures in homes. The goal of this project is to develop a robust experimental approach and collect preliminary data to support the evaluation of indoor air quality (IAQ) measures linked to IAP-approved low-emitting materials and finishes in new residential homes. To this end, the research team of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a detailed experimental plan to measure IAQ constituents and other parameters, over time, in new homes constructed with materials compliant with IAP’s low-emitting material and ventilation requirements (i.e., section 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 7.2) and similar homes constructed to the state building code with conventional materials. The IAQ in IAP and conventional homes of similar age, location, and construction style is quantified as the differences in the speciated VOC and aldehyde concentrations, normalized to dilution rates. The experimental plan consists of methods to evaluate the difference between low-emitting and “conventional” materials as installed in newly constructed residential homes using both (1) highly controlled, short-term active samples to precisely characterize the building-related chemical emissions and building contents and (2) a week-long passive sample designed to capture the impact of occupant behavior and related activities on measured IAQ contaminant levels indoors. The combination of detailed short-term measurements with the home under controlled/consistent conditions during pre- and post-occupancy and the week-long passive sampling data provide the opportunity to begin to separate the different emission sources and help isolate and quantify variability in the monitored homes. Between April and August 2014, the research team performed pre-occupancy and post-occupancy sampling in one conventional home and two homes built with low-emitting materials that were generally consistent with EPA’s Indoor airPLUS guidelines. However, for a number of reasons, the full experimental plan was not implemented. The project was intended to continue for up to three years to asses long-term changes in IAQ but the project was limited to one calendar year. As a result, several of the primary research questions related to seasonal impacts and the long-term trends in IAQ could not be addressed. In addition, there were several unexpected issues related to recruiting, availability of home types, and difficulty coordinating with builders/realtors/homeowners. Several field monitoring issues also came up that provide “lessons learned” that led to improvements to the original monitoring plan. The project produced a good experimental plan that is expected to be be useful for future efforts collecting data to support answering these same or similar research questions.

  10. 2012 National Tribal Forum on Air Quality

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This forum on improving air quality will take place May 22-24, 2012, in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It is co-sponsored by the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) and the National Tribal...

  11. NEPA and the Clean Air Act: Complementary approaches to maintaining air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was established to prevent or eliminate damage to the environmental and biosphere from federal actions and stimulate the public health and welfare. An intertwined focus of NEPA has been to create and maintain conditions under which people and nature can exist in productive harmony. Meanwhile, the Clean Air Act (CAA) and amendments are the basis for regulating emission of air pollutants and otherwise maintaining or enhancing air quality to protect public health and welfare throughout the United States. Because the CAA is to comprehensive, a frequently asked question concerns the usefulness of NEPA from an air quality perspective: What can NEPA accomplish for federal actions that is not already accomplished by the CAA This paper contends that NEPA plays an important role in identifying and informing federal decision-makers of potential air quality impacts of federal actions. NEPA encompasses a broader scope and provides an independent analysis of CAA requirements for federal actions. NEPA ensures that spectrum of potential environmental effects is examined, rather than air quality alone. In some cases, NEPA analyses involve evaluating trade-offs of beneficial and adverse effects among different environmental media, such as air emissions vs solid waste. NEPA air quality analyses sometimes encompass potential concerns that are beyond those required for compliance with the CAA. Also, the environmental consequences of alternative actions are assessed to assist federal decision-makers in selecting a preferred alternative. Finally, proposed federal programs are evaluated under NEPA for their potential effects. 8 refs.

  12. Air Quality/Emissions Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air QualityEmissions Resources Air QualityEmissions Resources Federal agencies and certain state governments are required to acquire alternative fuel vehicles as part of the ...

  13. Property:AirQualityPermitAgency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "AirQualityPermitAgency" Showing 1 page using this property. R RAPIDGeothermalAir QualityAlaska + Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation + Retrieved from...

  14. RAPID/Geothermal/Air Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalAir QualityAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk...

  15. ENERGY STAR Webinar: Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School Building Upgrades ENERGY STAR Webinar: Energy Savings Plus Health: Indoor Air Quality Guidelines for School...

  16. Nevada Air Quality Control Permitting Guidance Webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Air Quality Control Permitting Guidance Webpage Abstract Provides overview of air quality...

  17. US South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD Jump to: navigation, search Name: US South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Place: Diamond Bar, California Zip: CA...

  18. Fact Sheet - Air Quality Permitting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Permitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Fact Sheet - Air Quality...

  19. Nevada Air Quality Permitting Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Air Quality Permitting Webpage Abstract Provides information on air quality permitting....

  20. New Mexico Air Quality Universal Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: New Mexico Air Quality Universal Application Author New Mexico Environment Department - Air Quality...

  1. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality ...

  2. Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit Sealed duct penetrations. ...

  3. Property:AirQualityPermitProcess | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property "AirQualityPermitProcess" Showing 1 page using this property. R RAPIDGeothermalAir QualityAlaska + The Air Permit process in Alaska is divided into two divisions: Title...

  4. MCA 75-2 - Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 - Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 75-2 - Air QualityLegal Abstract Clean Air Act of Montana...

  5. Baseline air quality study at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dave, M.J.; Charboneau, R.

    1980-10-01

    Air quality and meteorological data collected at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented. The data represent baseline values for the pre-construction phase of a proposed coal-gasification test facility. Air quality data were characterized through continuous monitoring of gaseous pollutants, collection of meteorological data, data acquisition and reduction, and collection and analysis of discrete atmospheric samples. Seven air quality parameters were monitored and recorded on a continuous real-time basis: sulfur dioxide, ozone, total hydrocarbons, nonreactive hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. A 20.9-m tower was erected near Argonne's mobile air monitoring laboratory, which was located immediately downwind of the proposed facility. The tower was instrumented at three levels to collect continuous meteorological data. Wind speed was monitored at three levels; wind direction, horizontal and vertical, at the top level; ambient temperature at the top level; and differential temperature between all three levels. All continuously-monitored parameters were digitized and recorded on magnetic tape. Appropriate software was prepared to reduce the data. Statistical summaries, grphical displays, and correlation studies also are presented.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in Minnesota Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air Quality in Minnesota on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Ice Resurfacers Improve Air

  7. WDEQ-Air Quality Division | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality Division Jump to: navigation, search Name: WDEQ-Air Quality Division Abbreviation: WDEQ AQD Address: 122 West 25th Street, Herschler Building Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip:...

  8. 5 CCR 1001 - Air Quality Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Air Quality Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 5 CCR 1001 - Air Quality ControlLegal Abstract...

  9. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5a: Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5a: Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: GIZ Sourcebook Module 5a: Air Quality AgencyCompany Organization: GIZ ComplexityEase of Use: Not...

  10. Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Air Quality Program Laws & Rules Webpage Abstract...

  11. UAC R307 - Air Quality Regulations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    07 - Air Quality Regulations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: UAC R307 - Air Quality RegulationsLegal...

  12. ARM 17-8 - Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 - Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: ARM 17-8 - Air QualityLegal Published NA Year Signed or...

  13. ORS 468A - Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8A - Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 468A - Air QualityLegal Abstract Statutory chapter governing...

  14. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process air, ... Contaminants can enter a compressed air system at the compressor intake, or can be ...

  15. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy; U.S. DOE Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative Fact Sheet Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality with Solar Energy Many states are seeking additional air pollution control strategies. Zero-emission solar technologies, such as solar electricity and solar water heating, can help air quality and energy offcials in cities, states, and federal agencies improve air quality, achieve Clean Air Act goals, and reduce pollution control costs for both industry and taxpayers. Solar technologies provide energy for heating, cooling, and lighting homes and heating water without any direct

  16. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  17. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - 2000 Houston, Texas Air Quality Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Houston, Texas Air Quality Study ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love ... Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 2000 Houston, Texas Air ...

  19. Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 50 Air Quality Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    50 Air Quality Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 50 Air...

  20. Idaho DEQ Air Quality Permits Applicant and DEQ Responsibilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Permits Applicant and DEQ Responsibilities guidebook Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  1. RAPID/Geothermal/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalAir Quality < RAPID | Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal...

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BulkTransmissionAir Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission...

  3. Washington Air Quality Notice of Construction Permit Regulatory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Notice of Construction Permit Regulatory Handbook Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  4. New Mexico Guidelines for Public Notification for Air Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines for Public Notification for Air Quality Permit Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: New Mexico Guidelines for Public...

  5. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - 1998 Phoenix Air Quality Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Phoenix Air Quality Study ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : 1998 Phoenix...

  7. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  8. Impacts of Alternative Fuels on Air Quality

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Air Quality Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardizi, Leslee P.; Smith, Richard

    2009-06-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Air Quality Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Air Quality Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Air Quality Scoping Study for Rachel, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  11. Air Quality Scoping Study for Beatty, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kav, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  12. The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 25, 2014, 9:30am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate Peter DeCarlo, Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering and Chemistry Drexel University Abstract: PDF icon PeterDeCarlo.pdf Can't make it to the lab? Watch it LIVE here! The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality and Climate Contact Information Coordinator(s): Deedee Ortiz dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Ronald Hatcher

  13. Systemic effects of urban form on air pollution and environmental quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, P.C.

    1997-12-31

    The form and design of cities and towns have a direct impact on the quality of the natural environment, particularly air and water quality. This paper illustrates some of the dynamic relationships between the form of urban environments and air and water pollution. Recent research suggests how urban form affects environmental quality in at least three ways: (a) how suburban development and its dependency on the private motor vehicle increases air pollution, (b) how exterior building materials help to generate urban heat islands and ozone precursors, and (c) how conventional stormwater drainage systems transport polluted urban runoff into waterways. Today`s aging urban infrastructure provides an important and timely opportunity to re-examine the design of cities and towns with a goal of enhancing overall environmental quality. Many miles of roads, freeways, bridges, and stormwater culverts and pipes are in poor condition and need to be repaired or replaced, while many cities are now failing to meet air and water quality standards designed to protect human and environmental health. This paper also explores seven urban planning and design concepts that could reduce the magnitude of air and water pollution in urban environments and help to improve the health of both cities and their residents.

  14. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  15. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor ...

  16. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Mullen, Nasim; Singer, Brett; Walker, Iain

    2015-07-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California.

  17. A methodology for evaluating air pollution strategies to improve the air quality in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera-Roldan, A.S.; Guzman, F.; Hardie, R.W.; Thayer, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative has developed a methodology to assist decision makers in determining optimum pollution control strategies for atmospheric pollutants. The methodology introduces both objective and subjective factors in the comparison of various strategies for improving air quality. Strategies or group of options are first selected using linear programming. These strategies are then compared using Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis. The decision tree for the Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis was generated by a panel of experts representing the organizations in Mexico that are responsible for formulating policy on air quality improvement. Three sample strategies were analyzed using the methodology: one to reduce ozone by 33% using the most cost effective group of options, the second to reduce ozone by 43% using the most cost effective group of options and the third to reduce ozone by 43% emphasizing the reduction of emissions from industrial sources. Of the three strategies, the analysis indicated that strategy 2 would be the preferred strategy for improving air quality in Mexico City.

  18. NMAC 20.2.70 Air Quality Operating Permits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Air Quality Operating Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 20.2.70 Air Quality Operating...

  19. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  20. NMAC 20.2.71 Air Quality Operating Permit Emissions Fees | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Air Quality Operating Permit Emissions Fees Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 20.2.71 Air Quality...

  1. NMAC 20.2.72 Air Quality Construction Permits | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Air Quality Construction Permits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 20.2.72 Air Quality Construction...

  2. Uses of upper-air meteorological data for air quality data analysis and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Dye, T.S.; Ray, S.E.; Roberts, P.T.

    1996-12-31

    A series of regional-scale field studies have been conducted in recent years to study meteorological and photochemical processes that lead to ozone episodes (periods of high ozone concentration) and other types of reduced air quality. An important component of these studies has been to increase the temporal and spatial resolution of aloft measurements of winds, temperatures, and related parameters over those provided by the twice-per-day National Weather Service (NWS) balloon sounding network. Supplemental upper-air stations deployed for these studies have been equipped with a variety of observing systems, including rawinsonde sounding systems, Doppler radar wind profilers, radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS, for temperature profiling), Doppler acoustic sounders (sodar), tethersondes, lidar, and aircraft-based measurements, among others. The upper-air data collected during these programs have been used.

  3. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Ted M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2010-05-25

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. Radiological emissions at the PNNL Site result from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site would meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor and estimate offsite air emissions of radioactive materials. The result is a program that monitors the impact to the public from the PNNL Site.

  4. Implications of a stochastic approach to air-quality regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witten, A.J.; Kornegay, F.C.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Long, E.C. Jr.; Sharp, R.D.; Walsh, P.J.; Zeighami, E.A.; Gordon, J.S.; Lin, W.L.

    1982-09-01

    This study explores the viability of a stochastic approach to air quality regulations. The stochastic approach considered here is one which incorporates the variability which exists in sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Emission variability arises from a combination of many factors including variability in the composition of as-received coal such as sulfur content, moisture content, ash content, and heating value, as well as variability which is introduced in power plant operations. The stochastic approach as conceived in this study addresses variability by taking the SO/sub 2/ emission rate to be a random variable with specified statistics. Given the statistical description of the emission rate and known meteorological conditions, it is possible to predict the probability of a facility exceeding a specified emission limit or violating an established air quality standard. This study also investigates the implications of accounting for emissions variability by allowing compliance to be interpreted as an allowable probability of occurrence of given events. For example, compliance with an emission limit could be defined as the probability of exceeding a specified emission value, such as 1.2 lbs SO/sub 2//MMBtu, being less than 1%. In contrast, compliance is currently taken to mean that this limit shall never be exceeded, i.e., no exceedance probability is allowed. The focus of this study is on the economic benefits offered to facilities through the greater flexibility of the stochastic approach as compared with possible changes in air quality and health effects which could result.

  5. Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

    1997-11-01

    To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

  6. Industrial end-use forecasting that incorporates DSM and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutt, T.; Flory, J.

    1995-05-01

    The California Energy Commission (CEC) and major enregy utilities in California have generally depended on simple aggregate intensity or economic models to forecast energy use in the process industry sector (which covers large industries employing basic processes to transform raw materials, such as paper mills, glass plants, and cement plants). Two recent trends suggests that the time has come to develop a more disaggregate process industry forecasting model. First, recent efforts to improve air quality, especially by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), could significantly affect energy use by the process industry by altering the technologies and processes employed in order to reduce emissions. Second, there is a renewed interest in Demand-Side Management (DSM), not only for utility least-cost planning, but also for improving the economic competitiveness and environmental compliance of the pro{minus}cess industries. A disaggregate forecasting model is critical to help the CEC and utilities evaluate both the air quality and DSM impacts on energy use. A crucial obstacle to the development and use of these detailed process industry forecasting models is the lack of good data about disaggregate energy use in the sector. The CEC is nearing completion of a project to begin to overcome this lack of data. The project is testing methds of developing detailed energy use data, collecting an initial database for a large portion of southern California, and providing recommendations and direction for further data collection efforts.

  7. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  8. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program ...

  9. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  10. Developing air quality goals and policies for long-range plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Full, D.J.; Mitchell, D.

    1995-12-01

    Air Quality Guidelines for General Plans (Air Quality Guidelines) is a guidance document and resource for cities and counties to use to address air quality in their long-range planning efforts. It includes goals, policies, and programs that when adopted as part of a long-range plan will reduce vehicle trips and miles traveled and improve air quality. Although this is a voluntary program, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (District) has strongly encouraged cities and counties in the San Joaquin Valley to use their land use and transportation planning authority to help achieve air quality goals by adopting the policies and programs suggested by the Air Quality Guidelines. Implementing the goals and policies will result in a win-win situation where cities, counties, and developers save money through more efficient land use and transportation systems and where the public benefits from a more livable community and better air quality. The purpose of the Air Quality Guidelines is threefold: (1) to provide local planning agencies with a comprehensive set of goals and policies that will improve air quality if adopted as part of a long-range plan; (2) to provide a guide to cities and counties for determining which goals and policies are appropriate in their particular community; and (3) to provide justification and rationale for the goals and policies that will convince decision-makers and the public that they are appropriate and necessary.

  11. EIS-0127: New Energy-Efficient Homes Programs, Assessing Indoor Air Quality Options

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bonneville Power Administration developed this EIS to explore whether different building techniques will control indoor air quality and still maintain cost-effective energy savings.

  12. EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications to provide training, and technical and outreach support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program.

  13. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Climate, ambient air quality, and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Reed, R.M.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate add air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of sulfide. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  14. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Climate, Ambient Air Quality, and Noise (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Blasing, T.J.; Easterly, C.E.; Hamilton, C.B.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive background scientific data and related information on climate, ambient air quality, and ambient noise levels collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The report presents a general description of the climate and air quality for the islands of Hawaii (henceforth referred to as Hawaii), Maui, and Oahu. It also presents a literature review as baseline information on the health effects of hydrogen sulfide. the scientific background data and related information is being made available for use by others in conducting future scientific research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  15. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  16. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations (EPA, 2007) Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations (EPA, 2007) This letter, from the Director ...

  17. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  18. Air-quality survey (TAGA 6000), Bakelite Thermosets Limited, Belleville, May-June, 1989: Survey report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Brou, G.B.; Ng, A.C.W.

    1989-01-01

    From May 23 to June 2, 1989, an air quality survey was performed in Belleville to determine the level of phenol and ammonia in the ambient air downwind of Bakelite Thermosets Ltd. This report presents the analysis of air samples taken.

  19. The ends of uncertainty: Air quality science and planning in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, James

    2003-09-01

    Air quality planning in Central California is complicated and controversial despite millions of dollars invested to improve scientific understanding. This research describes and critiques the use of photochemical air quality simulation modeling studies in planning to attain standards for ground-level ozone in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Joaquin Valley during the 1990's. Data are gathered through documents and interviews with planners, modelers, and policy-makers at public agencies and with representatives from the regulated and environmental communities. Interactions amongst organizations are diagramed to identify significant nodes of interaction. Dominant policy coalitions are described through narratives distinguished by their uses of and responses to uncertainty, their exposures to risks, and their responses to the principles of conservatism, civil duty, and caution. Policy narratives are delineated using aggregated respondent statements to describe and understand advocacy coalitions. I found that models impacted the planning process significantly, but were used not purely for their scientific capabilities. Modeling results provided justification for decisions based on other constraints and political considerations. Uncertainties were utilized opportunistically by stakeholders instead of managed explicitly. Ultimately, the process supported the partisan views of those in control of the modeling. Based on these findings, as well as a review of model uncertainty analysis capabilities, I recommend modifying the planning process to allow for the development and incorporation of uncertainty information, while addressing the need for inclusive and meaningful public participation. By documenting an actual air quality planning process these findings provide insights about the potential for using new scientific information and understanding to achieve environmental goals, most notably the analysis of uncertainties in modeling applications. Concurrently, needed uncertainty information is identified and capabilities to produce it are assessed. Practices to facilitate incorporation of uncertainty information are suggested based on research findings, as well as theory from the literatures of the policy sciences, decision sciences, science and technology studies, consensus-based and communicative planning, and modeling.

  20. Air-Quality Improvement Tax Incentives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administrator Ohio Department of Development Website http:www.ohioairquality.orgenergyairpollutioncontrol.asp State Ohio Program Type Other Incentive Summary The Ohio Air...

  1. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in ...

  2. Indoor air quality & airborne disease control in healthcare facilities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS; INDOOR AIR POLLUTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS; DISEASES; THERMAL COMFORT; SPACE HVAC SYSTEMS Word ...

  3. Mexico City air quality research initiative: An overview and some statistical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, R.A.; Streit, G.E. ); Guzman, F. )

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican Petroleum Institute (Institute Mexicano del Petroleo, IMP) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are in the first year of a three-year jointly funded project to examine the air quality in Mexico City and to provide techniques to evaluate the impact of proposed mitigation options. The technical tasks include modeling and simulation; monitoring and characterization; and strategic evaluation. Extensive measurements of the atmosphere, climate, and meteorology are being made as part of the study. This presentation provides an overview of the total project plan, reports on the current status of the technical tasks, describes the data collection methods, presents examples of the data analysis and graphics, and suggest roles for statistical analysis in this and similar environmental studies. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the PNNL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.; Antonio, Ernest J.

    2012-11-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of developing a radiological air monitoring program for the PNNL Site that is distinct from that of the nearby Hanford Site. The original DQO (PNNL-19427) considered radiological emissions at the PNNL Site from Physical Sciences Facility (PSF) major emissions units. This first revision considers PNNL Site changes subsequent to the implementation of the original DQO. A team was established to determine how the PNNL Site changes would continue to meet federal regulations and address guidelines developed to monitor air emissions and estimate offsite impacts of radioactive material operations. The result is an updated program to monitor the impact to the public from the PNNL Site. The team used the emission unit operation parameters and local meteorological data as well as information from the PSF Potential-to-Emit documentation and Notices of Construction submitted to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH). The locations where environmental monitoring stations would most successfully characterize the maximum offsite impacts of PNNL Site emissions from the three PSF buildings with major emission units were determined from these data. Three monitoring station locations were determined during the original revision of this document. This first revision considers expanded Department of Energy operations south of the PNNL Site and relocation of the two offsite, northern monitoring stations to sites near the PNNL Site fenceline. Inclusion of the southern facilities resulted in the proposal for a fourth monitoring station in the southern region. The southern expansion added two minor emission unit facilities and one diffuse emission unit facility. Relocation of the two northern stations was possible due to the use of solar power, rather than the previous limitation of the need for access to AC power, at these more remote locations. Addendum A contains all the changes brought about by the revision 1 considerations. This DQO report also updates the discussion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the PNNL Site air samples and how existing Hanford Site monitoring program results could be used. This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006) as well as several other published DQOs.

  5. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). ... The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared ...

  6. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). ... The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared ...

  7. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This letter, from the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Federal Activities, outlines EPA's position as to how the revised National Air Quality Standard should be reflected in NEPA evaluations of proposed actions.

  8. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: U.S. NO trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Title: U.S. NO ...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - 2001 Philadelphia NE-OPS Air Quality Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Philadelphia NE-OPS Air Quality Experiment ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign...

  10. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Emissions of nitrogen oxides

  11. U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Title: U.S. NO₂ trends (2005-2013): EPA air quality system (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and, subsequently, atmospheric levels of nitrogen dioxide

  12. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation "Build tight, ventilate right" is a universal mantra of high performance home designers and scientists. Tight construction is

  13. Harboring Pollution: Air Quality Impacts of Marine Ports | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy case study profiles Harbec Plastics' 750kW combined heat and power (CHP) project in Ontario, New York to improve plant-wide energy performance. PDF icon Harbec Plastics: 750kW CHP Application - Project Profile (February 2006) More Documents & Publications SEP CASE STUDY WEBINAR: HARBEC SLIDES HARBEC, Inc. Case Study for Superior Energy Performance Harbec: A Fifteen Year Journey to the Beginning

    This presentation by HARBEC, Inc. at the 2014 Energy Summit in Niagara Falls,

  14. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model developmen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building...

  15. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  16. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  17. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  18. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.

  19. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  20. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report Supporting Radiological Air Surveillance Monitoring for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site ambient air surveillance program. The development of the DQOs was based on the seven-step process recommended “for systematic planning to generate performance and acceptance criteria for collecting environmental data” (EPA 2006). The process helped to determine the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to meet current regulatory requirements and to follow U.S. Department of Energy guidance for environmental surveillance air monitoring design. It also considered the current air monitoring program that has existed at INL Site since the 1950s. The development of the DQOs involved the application of the atmospheric dispersion model CALPUFF to identify likely contamination dispersion patterns at and around the INL Site using site-specific meteorological data. Model simulations were used to quantitatively assess the probable frequency of detection of airborne radionuclides released by INL Site facilities using existing and proposed air monitors.

  1. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  2. Air Quality Scoping Study for Sarcobatus Flat, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each sites sampling program.

  3. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-10-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.50.2, 1.30.6, and 2.21.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

  4. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  5. Letter from Commonwealth to Mirant Potomac River Concerning Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Docket No. EO-05-01: Letter from Commonwealth of Virginia to Mirant Potomac River concerning Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide.

  6. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  7. Comfort, Indoor Air Quality, and Energy Consumption in Low Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Englemann, P.; Roth, K.; Tiefenbeck, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the results of an in-depth evaluation of energy consumption and thermal comfort for two potential net zero-energy homes (NZEHs) in Massachusetts, as well as an indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluation performed in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  8. Planning for quality stewardship: The sitewide environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, D.

    1995-12-01

    The U.S Department of Energy is responsible for managing many large tracts of Federal land throughout this country. These sites host the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, national laboratories, environmental restoration facilities, and serve other uses. The Department faces unique problems in administering this land. Many have multiple activities taking place at the same time; for example, a site may simultaneously be used for energy research, technology development, waste disposal and wildlife habitat. The sites often use radioactive and other hazardous materials and many are contaminated as a result of past management practices. In 1992 the Department institutes a policy, as stated in its National Environmental Policy Act regulations [10 CFR 1021], to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements for its large, multipurpose sites. For the first time, through the sitewide environmental impact statement process, the Department has an effective tool to plan for quality stewardship of the lands and resources entrusted to its care. The sitewide environmental impact statement is a specialized type of programmatic environmental impact statement which allows the Department to look at the geographically connected actions taking place at a given site. The sitewide statement allows a comprehensive look at the operational baseline for the entire site to determine the total cumulative impact of ongoing operations at the site. The Department can identify areas where a change in management practices would mitigate undesirable impacts; areas not at issue could continue under existing practices. As a result, an environmentally-sound operating envelope can be established. This, in turn, can serve in the future as a threshold to decide if new proposals would result in significant impacts to the site as a whole, to simplify future National Environmental Policy Act reviews.

  9. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  10. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a hazard to human health when the particle size becomes small enough to enter the lungs, e.g., smoke. At LANL, particulate matter concentrations are measured continuously and...

  11. Salt Repository Project site study plan for meteorology/air quality: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Meteorology/Air Quality describes a field program consisting of continuous measurements of wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, dew point, and pressure neede for later modeling and dose calculations. These measurements will include upper level winds, vertical temperature structure, and vertical wind speed. All measurements will be made at a site located within the 9-m/sup 2/ site area but remote from the ESF. The SSP describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities, organization of field personnel and sample management and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. Although titled Meteorology/Air Quality, this SSP addresses only meteorology, as there are no air quality data needs in the SCP. A correction to the title will be made in a later revision. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Indoor air quality in 24 California residences designed as high-performance homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Mullen, Nasim; Singer, Brett; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. In addition, these similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve acceptable and even exceptional IAQ by providing adequate general mechanical ventilation, using low-emitting materials, providing mechanical particle filtration, incorporating well-designed exhaust ventilation for kitchens and bathrooms, and educating occupants to use the kitchen and bath ventilation.

  13. Category:LEDSGP Development Impacts Assessment Toolkits | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Model S SEAGA Intermediate Level Handbook SimCLIM Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Simplified Approach for Estimating Impacts of Electricity Generation...

  14. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  15. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  16. Development and testing of an air quality model for Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.D.; Streit, G. ); Cruz, X.; Ruiz, M.; Sosa, G. ); Russell, A.G.; McNair, L.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-03-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. The intent is to develop a modeling system which can address the behavior of pollutants in the region so that option for improving Mexico City air quality can be properly evaluated. In February of 1991, the project conducted a field program which yielded a variety of data which is being used to evaluate and improve the models. Normally the worst air quality for both primary and photochemical pollutants occurs in the winter Mexico City. During the field program, measurements included: (1) lidar measurements of aerosol transport and dispersion, (2) aircraft measurements of winds, turbulence, and chemical species aloft, (3) aircraft measurements of earth surface skin temperatures, and (4) tethersonde measurements of wind, temperature and ozone vertical profiles. A three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence meteorological model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC is used to drive an Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). HOTMAC also provides winds and mixing heights for the CIT photochemical model which was developed by investigators at the California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  17. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  18. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  19. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  20. Energy Efficiency in Buildings as an Air Quality Compliance Approach: Opportunities for the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, Edward

    2002-05-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of end-use equipment in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors can reduce air pollution emissions and greenhouse gases significantly. Because energy efficiency is an effective means of reducing multi-pollutant emissions, it is important to ensure that energy efficiency is a fully engaged component of emission-reduction programs. However, while energy-efficiency measures are perceived by many stakeholders to be important options for improving air quality, some members in the air quality community are concerned about the ability of these measures to fit in a regulatory framework-in particular, the ability of emissions reductions from energy-efficiency measures to be real, quantifiable, certifiable, and enforceable. Hence, there are few air quality programs that include energy efficiency as a tool for complying with air quality regulations. This paper describes the connection between energy consumption and air quality, the potential role of energy-efficiency measures to meet air quality regulations, the barriers and challenges to the use of these measures in the air quality regulatory environment, and the potential role that the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Building Technology, State and Community Programs (EERE-Buildings) could play in this area. EERE-Buildings can play a very important role in promoting energy efficiency in the air quality community, in ways that are fully consistent with its overall mission. EERE-Buildings will need to work with other stakeholders to aggressively promote energy efficiency via multiple means: publications, analytical tools, pilot programs, demonstrations, and program and policy analysis and evaluation. EERE-Buildings and state energy officials have considerable experience in implementing and monitoring energy-savings projects, as well as in designing documentation and verification requirements of energy-efficiency improvements. The following lists suggest potential EERE-Buildings activities, grouped by whether EERE-Buildings would play a lead or supporting role.

  1. Assess coal quality impacts on your personal computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niksa, S.

    1996-12-31

    In the past, utility companies that operate coal-fired boilers entered into long-term contracts with their coal suppliers to secure a steady supply of similar fuels for smooth, trouble-free, day-to- day operations. In today`s environment long-term contracts might seem unappealing because utility strategists would rather be free to switch to different coals to lower costs or meet emissions regulations. Coal switching is often an important part of compliance strategies that seek an optimal balance among technology upgrades, bubble-based emissions averages across several boilers, and open-market trading allowances. Although switching is now motivated by SO{sub 2} compliance, a new coal can affect many other operating characteristics, including pulverizer performance, heat rate, stagging and fouling, unburned carbon in ash, NO{sub x} emissions, and certainly cost. In light of the push for tighter NO{sub x} regulations before the turn of the century under Title I of the Clear Air Act Amendments, it is prudent for utilities to factor in the impact of a coal switch on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions into their coal selection decisions.

  2. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, Spencer M.; Mendell, Mark J.; Chan, Wanyu R.

    2013-05-13

    Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings are specified in standards, including California?s Title 24 standards. The ASHRAE ventilation standard includes two options for mechanically-ventilated buildings ? a prescriptive ventilation rate procedure (VRP) that specifies minimum VRs that vary among occupancy classes, and a performance-based indoor air quality procedure (IAQP) that may result in lower VRs than the VRP, with associated energy savings, if IAQ meeting specified criteria can be demonstrated. The California Energy Commission has been considering the addition of an IAQP to the Title 24 standards. This paper, based on a review of prior data and new analyses of the IAQP, evaluates four future options for Title 24: no IAQP; adding an alternate VRP, adding an equivalent indoor air quality procedure (EIAQP), and adding an improved ASHRAE-like IAQP. Criteria were established for selecting among options, and feedback was obtained in a workshop of stakeholders. Based on this review, the addition of an alternate VRP is recommended. This procedure would allow lower minimum VRs if a specified set of actions were taken to maintain acceptable IAQ. An alternate VRP could also be a valuable supplement to ASHRAE?s ventilation standard.

  3. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations (EPA, 2007)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This letter, from the Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Federal Activities, outlines EPA's position as to how the revised National Air Quality Standard should be reflected in NEPA evaluations of proposed actions.

  4. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  5. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) indoor air quality in office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallingford, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 356 indoor-air-quality health-hazard evaluations were completed by NIOSH from 1971 through December of 1985. Most of these studies concerned government and private office buildings where there were worker complaints. Worker complaints resulted from contamination from inside the building (19% of the cases), contamination from outside (11 percent), contamination from the building fabric (4%), biological contamination (5%), inadequate ventilation (50%), and unknown causes (11%). Health complaints addressed by investigative efforts included eye irritation, dry throat, headache, fatigue, sinus congestion, skin irritation, shortness of breath, cough, dizziness, and nausea.

  6. Propane-air peakshaving impact on natural gas vehicles. Topical report, August 1993-January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, M.E.; Shikari, Y.; Blazek, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Propane-air peakshaving activities can lead to higher-than-normal propane levels in natural gas. Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling station operation and NGV performance can be affected by the presence of excess propane in natural gas. To assess the impact on NGV markets due to propane-air peakshaving, a comprehensive survey of gas utilities nationwide was undertaken to compile statistics on current practices. The survey revealed that about half of the responders continue to propane-air peakshave and that nearly two-thirds of these companies serve markets that include NGV fueling stations. Based on the survey results, it is estimated that nearly 13,000 NGVs could be affected by propane-air peakshaving activities by the year 2000.

  7. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington States Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  8. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dongxu Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  9. Application of a three-dimensional, prognostic model to Mexico City air quality studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.D.; Porch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo have embarked on a joint study of options for improving air quality in Mexico City. One of the first steps in the process is to develop an understanding of the existing air quality situation. In this context we have begun by modifying a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation (HOTMAC) to threat domains which include an urbanized area. This sophisticated meteorological model is required because of the complexity of the terrain and the relative paucity of meteorological data. The basic model (HOTMAC) was modified to include an urban canopy and urban heat sources. HOTMAC has been used to drive a Monte-Carlo kernel dispersion code (RAPTAD). RAPTAD was used to model the flow of carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and the results have been compared to measurements. In addition the modeled wind fields which are based on upper-level winds from the airport are compared to the measured low-level winds. Also, a four year history of temperature structure obtained from the rawinsode at the airport has been related to mixing parameters and less reactive pollutant measurements (such as carbon monoxide). 10 refs., 15 figs.

  10. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-04-03

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  11. 2013 R&D 100 Award: DNATrax could revolutionize air quality detection and tracking

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Farquar, George

    2014-07-22

    A team of LLNL scientists and engineers has developed a safe and versatile material, known as DNA Tagged Reagents for Aerosol Experiments (DNATrax), that can be used to reliably and rapidly diagnose airflow patterns and problems in both indoor and outdoor venues. Until DNATrax particles were developed, no rapid or safe way existed to validate air transport models with realistic particles in the range of 1-10 microns. Successful DNATrax testing was conducted at the Pentagon in November 2012 in conjunction with the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. This study enhanced the team's understanding of indoor ventilation environments created by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. DNATrax are particles comprised of sugar and synthetic DNA that serve as a bar code for the particle. The potential for creating unique bar-coded particles is virtually unlimited, thus allowing for simultaneous and repeated releases, which dramatically reduces the costs associated with conducting tests for contaminants. Among the applications for the new material are indoor air quality detection, for homes, offices, ships and airplanes; urban particulate tracking, for subway stations, train stations, and convention centers; environmental release tracking; and oil and gas uses, including fracking, to better track fluid flow.

  12. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment

  13. Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in five-year intervals through the year 2050. GAINS provides estimates on ambient air quality and the subsequent impacts on human health and ecosystems, as well as...

  14. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  15. An integrated computer modeling environment for regional land use, air quality, and transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanley, C.J.; Marshall, N.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Land Use, Air Quality, and Transportation Integrated Modeling Environment (LATIME) represents an integrated approach to computer modeling and simulation of land use allocation, travel demand, and mobile source emissions for the Albuquerque, New Mexico, area. This environment provides predictive capability combined with a graphical and geographical interface. The graphical interface shows the causal relationships between data and policy scenarios and supports alternative model formulations. Scenarios are launched from within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and data produced by each model component at each time step within a simulation is stored in the GIS. A menu-driven query system is utilized to review link-based results and regional and area-wide results. These results can also be compared across time or between alternative land use scenarios. Using this environment, policies can be developed and implemented based on comparative analysis, rather than on single-step future projections. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Particulate and gaseous organic receptor modeling for the southern California Air Quality Study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.G.; Lu, Z.; Gertler, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    The Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the chemically-speciated diurnal particulate matter samples and volatile organic compound (VOC) acquired during the summer and fall campaigns of the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Source profiles applicable to the Los Angeles area were used to apportion PM[sub (2.5)] and PM[sub (10)] to primary paved road dust, primary construction dust, primary motor vehicle exhaust, primary marine aerosol, secondary ammonium nitrate, and secondary ammonium sulfate. Nonmethane hydrocarbon was apportioned to motor vehicle exhaust, liquid fuel, gasoline vapor, gas leaks, architectural and industrial coatings, and biogenic emissions. Suspended dust was the major contributor to PM(10) during the summer, while secondary ammonium nitrate and primary motor vehicle exhaust contributions were high in the fall. Motor vehicle exhaust was the major contributor to nonmethane hydrocarbons, ranging from 30% to 70% of the total.

  17. Proceedings for air quality management programs: A workshop on lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    The coordinators of this project at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo proposed a workshop to bring together an international group of experts to present both the lessons of history and the current practices in air quality management around the world. The workshop would also serve as a forum for presenting the accomplishments and plans of this project and for receiving comments from the assembled group. The workshop was favored with an outstanding set of speakers who represented a broad spectrum of experience. Their papers are presented in this volume. The total attendance was forty-four (see List of Participants) with representation from numerous interested Mexican institutions. Individual reports are processed separately for the database.

  18. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  19. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  20. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl, D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  1. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  2. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S.Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) (cover page figure) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  3. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  4. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Tonopah Airport, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Tonopah Airport, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and the Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  5. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, D.; Jackson, M.; Shrestha, S.

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  6. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Environmental and Air Quality Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Emissions and air pollution modeling, Vehicle energy and power analysis, Climate change impact studies, Alternative fuel station planning, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  7. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  8. A scoping study on the costs of indoor air quality illnesses:an insurance loss reduction perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allan; Vine, Edward L.

    1998-08-31

    The incidence of commercial buildings with poor indoor air quality (IAQ), and the frequency of litigation over the effects of poor IAQ is increasing. If so, these increases have ramifications for insurance carriers, which pay for many of the costs of health care and general commercial liability. However, little is known about the actual costs to insurance companies from poor IAQ in buildings. This paper reports on the results of a literature search of buildings-related, business and legal databases, and interviews with insurance and risk management representatives aimed at finding information on the direct costs to the insurance industry of poor building IAQ, as well as the costs of litigation. The literature search and discussions with insurance and risk management professionals reported in this paper turned up little specific information about the costs of IAQ-related problems to insurance companies. However, those discussions and certain articles in the insurance industry press indicate that there is a strong awareness and growing concern over the "silent crisis" of IAQ and its potential to cause large industry losses, and that a few companies are taking steps to address this issue. The source of these losses include both direct costs to insurers from paying health insurance and professional liability claims, as weIl as the cost of litigation. In spite of the lack of data on how IAQ-related health problems affect their business, the insurance industry has taken the anecdotal evidence about their reality seriously enough to alter their policies in ways that have lessened their exposure. We conclude by briefly discussing four activities that need to be addressed in the near future: (1) quantifying IAQ-related insurance costs by sector, (2) educating the insurance industry about the importance of IAQ issues, (3) examining IAQ impacts on the insurance industry in the residential sector, and (4) evaluating the relationship between IAQ improvements and their impact on energy use.

  9. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

    2012-06-05

    In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.

  10. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  11. Environmental assessment of air quality, noise and cooling tower drift from the Jersey City Total Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W.T.; Kolb, J.O.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment covers three specific effects from the operation of the Total Energy (TE) demonstration: (1) air quality from combustion emissions of 600 kW diesel engines and auxiliary boilers fueled with No. 2 distillate oil, (2) noise levels from TE equipment operation, (3) cooling tower drift from two, 2220 gpm, forced-draft cooling towers. For the air quality study, measurements were performed to determine both the combustion emission rates and ground-level air quality at the Demonstration site. Stack analysis of NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, CO, particulates, and total hydrocarbons characterized emission rates over a range of operating conditions. Ground-level air quality was monitored during two six-week periods during the summer and winter of 1977. The noise study was performed by measuring sound levels in db(A) in the area within approximately 60 m of the CEB. The noise survey investigated the effects on noise distribution of different wind conditions, time of day or night, and condition of doors - open or closed - near the diesel engines in the CEB. In the cooling tower study, drift emission characteristics were measured to quantify the drift emission before and after cleaning of the tower internals to reduce fallout of large drift droplets in the vicinity of the CEB.

  12. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  13. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured concentrations for O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO at about 100 ground observation stations within the CCOS domain. Comparisons were made both for time series and for statistically aggregated metrics, to assess model performance over the whole modeling domain and for the individual air basins within the domain. The model tends to over-predict ozone levels along the coast where observed levels are generally low. Inland performance in the San Joaquin Valley is generally better. Model-measurement agreement for night-time ozone is improved by evaluating the sum of predicted O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} against observations; this removes from the comparison the effect of any ozone titration that may occur. A variety of diagnostic simulations were conducted to investigate the causes for differences between predictions and observations. These included (1) enhanced deposition of O{sub 3} to the ocean, (2) reduced vertical mixing over the ocean, (3) attenuation of sunlight by coastal stratus, (4) the influence of surface albedo on photochemistry, and (5) the effects of observation nudging on wind fields. Use of advanced model probing tools such as process analysis and sensitivity analysis is demonstrated by diagnosing model sensitivity to boundary conditions and to weekday-weekend emission changes.

  14. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  15. Air quality monitoring for dioxins, furans and PCBs in the Swan Hills area, Summer 1997, July 7 to August 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Summarizes results of air quality monitoring activities carried out in the Swan Hills area of Alberta in summer 1997. At four locations in the area, samples of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyls were analyzed and ambient concentrations determined. Results are presented in terms of toxic equivalents of dioxins and furans, total dioxins, total furans, and total polychlorinated biphenyls, normalized by compounds within each homologue group.

  16. A modeling study of the potential water quality impacts from in-stream tidal energy extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system.more » Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. Furthermore, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.« less

  17. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector’s energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level.

  18. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research reveals the effects of parasitic power losses on the energy consumption of oversized residential air conditioners. Retrofits of existing homes can be substantial invest- ments that reduce home energy use for years; there- fore, knowledge about the energy impacts of building systems is critical. In the case of air conditioners, conven- tional wisdom suggests that oversized cooling equipment leads to higher energy use because equipment cycling is inefficient. It also implies that there

  19. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation "Build tight, ventilate right" is a universal mantra of high performance home designers and scientists. ...

  1. NNA.921218.0092 PARTICULATE MATIER AMEIENT AIR QUALITY DATA REPORT...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... partly due to extended electrical power outages experienced at the site during ... The data recovery rates in 1992 reflect an 3.2 Quality Assurance Results Typical ...

  2. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Quality Assurance Project Plan for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), Subpart H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, L.; Biermann, A

    2000-06-27

    As a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility whose operations involve the use of radionuclides, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 61, the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Subpart H of this Regulation establishes standards for exposure of the public to radionuclides (other than radon) released from DOE Facilities (Federal Register, 1989). These regulations limit the emission of radionuclides to ambient air from DOE facilities (see Section 2.0). Under the NESHAPs Subpart H Regulation (hereafter referred to as NESHAPs), DOE facilities are also required to establish a quality assurance program for radionuclide emission measurements; specific requirements for preparation of a Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) are given in Appendix B, Method 114 of 40 CFR 61. Throughout this QAPP, the specific Quality Assurance Method elements of 40 CFR 61 Subpart H addressed by a given section are identified. In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (US EPA, 1994a) published draft requirements for QAPP's prepared in support of programs that develop environmental data. We have incorporated many of the technical elements specified in that document into this QAPP, specifically those identified as relating to measurement and data acquisition; assessment and oversight; and data validation and usability. This QAPP will be evaluated on an annual basis, and updated as appropriate.

  3. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

  4. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  5. Supplemental Environmental Projects Using Renewable Energy: A New Approach to Addressing Air Quality Violation Penalties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-08-09

    Supplemental environmental projects, or SEPs, are environmentally beneficial projects that offer pollution prevention, energy efficiency, green energy, and community-based programs that may include investment in cost-effective alternative energy technologies, such as wind energy. This fact sheet explains how SEPs can help companies mitigate all or part of penalties imposed as a result of air pollution violations.

  6. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2015-04-30

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  7. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  8. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  9. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews - Geothermal. Supplement to Volume 4, The environment. 3. Impact: air quality data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-12-01

    The results of sampling for SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, mercury, and radon are presented and discussed. The difficulties in differentiating the effects of the well HGP-A from the background of volcanism are described. Soil and water mercury analyses as techniques for geothermal exploration are suggested. (MHR)

  11. Potential Impacts on Air Quality of the Use of Ethanol as as Alternative Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

  12. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts (Revised), Energy Analysis, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Navajo Generating Station Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts David J. Hurlbut, Scott Haase, Gregory Brinkman, Kip Funk, Rachel Gelman, Eric Lantz, Christina Larney, David Peterson, Christopher Worley National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ed Liebsch HDR Engineering, Inc. Prepared under Task No. WFJ5.1000 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-53024 * Revised March 2012 Contract No. DE-AC36-08G028308 Produced under direction of the U.S.

  13. Impact-GMI Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-22

    IMPACT-GMI is an atmospheric chemical transport model designed to run on massively parallel computers. It is designed to model trace pollutants in the atmosphere. It includes models for emission, chemistry and deposition of pollutants. It can be used to assess air quality and its impact on future climate change.

  14. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  16. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO₂ and brine leakage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO₂ storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO₂ and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO₂ leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highlymore » efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO₂ and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO₂ storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO₂ storage projects.« less

  17. Reduced order models for prediction of groundwater quality impacts from CO? and brine leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Carroll, Susan; Bianchi, Marco; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-12-31

    A careful assessment of the risk associated with geologic CO? storage is critical to the deployment of large-scale storage projects. A potential risk is the deterioration of groundwater quality caused by the leakage of CO? and brine leakage from deep subsurface reservoirs. In probabilistic risk assessment studies, numerical modeling is the primary tool employed to assess risk. However, the application of traditional numerical models to fully evaluate the impact of CO? leakage on groundwater can be computationally complex, demanding large processing times and resources, and involving large uncertainties. As an alternative, reduced order models (ROMs) can be used as highly efficient surrogates for the complex process-based numerical models. In this study, we represent the complex hydrogeological and geochemical conditions in a heterogeneous aquifer and subsequent risk by developing and using two separate ROMs. The first ROM is derived from a model that accounts for the heterogeneous flow and transport conditions in the presence of complex leakage functions for CO? and brine. The second ROM is obtained from models that feature similar, but simplified flow and transport conditions, and allow for a more complex representation of all relevant geochemical reactions. To quantify possible impacts to groundwater aquifers, the basic risk metric is taken as the aquifer volume in which the water quality of the aquifer may be affected by an underlying CO? storage project. The integration of the two ROMs provides an estimate of the impacted aquifer volume taking into account uncertainties in flow, transport and chemical conditions. These two ROMs can be linked in a comprehensive system level model for quantitative risk assessment of the deep storage reservoir, wellbore leakage, and shallow aquifer impacts to assess the collective risk of CO? storage projects.

  18. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Turner, William J. N.; Walker, Iain S.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  19. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan quality but can lead to less accurate dose distribution as evidenced by increasing discrepancies between the planned and the delivered doses. For example, the results from our patient-specific quality assurance measurements demonstrated that the average gamma analysis passing rate decreased from 98% to 80% when the allowable leaf motion increased from 3 to 20 mm/deg. Larger leaf motion constraints also led to longer treatment delivery times (2 to 4 folds) due to the additional MLC leaf motion. Conclusions: Leaf motion constraints significantly impact IMAT plans in terms of plan quality, delivery accuracy, and delivery efficiency with the impact magnified for more complex cases. Our studies indicate that a leaf motion constraint of 2 to 3 mm/deg of gantry rotation can provide an optimal balance between plan quality, delivery accuracy, and efficiency.

  20. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  1. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  2. Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G-1 APPENDIX G AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS This appendix presents information on the nonradiological air quality impacts that could result from emissions associated with construction, operations, deactivation, and closure activities under the various alternatives described in this Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The impacts of criteria pollutants and toxic air pollutants were assessed by comparing estimated concentrations with

  3. The quality of Portuguese Environmental Impact Studies: The case of small hydropower projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinho, Paulo . E-mail: pcpinho@fe.up.pt; Maia, Rodrigo . E-mail: rmaia@fe.up.pt; Monterroso, Ana . E-mail: anamonterroso@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    In most Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems environmental authorities can stop an EIA process by refusing the respective EIA Report, on the grounds of technical or methodological insufficiencies identified in the review procedure. However, often times, it cannot be taken for granted that, once an EIA Report is formally accepted, as part of an EIA process, its quality standard is, consistently, of a satisfactory level. This paper summarises the results of a one-year research project aimed at assessing the quality of EIA studies carried out for small hydropower plants in Portugal. An extensive survey was carried out to analyse all EIA Reports that were the basis of successful EIA processes involving this kind of small scale projects, under the old and the new national EIA legislation, that is, over the last two decades. Often times unnoticeable to the general public and the media, located in isolated areas upstream secondary rivers, these projects are likely to generate some significant environmental impacts, in particular on the aesthetics value and character of local landscapes and on pristine ecological habitats. And yet, they are usually regarded as environmental friendly projects designed to produce emission free energy. The design of the evaluation criteria benefited from the literature review on similar research projects carried out in other EU countries. The evaluation exercise revealed a number of technical and methodological weaknesses in a significant percentage of cases. A set of simple and clear cut recommendations is proposed twofold: to improve the current standard of EIA practice and to strengthen the role of the so called EIA Commissions, at the crucial review stage of the EIA process.

  4. Toronto 1986: Ambient air-quality survey in the South Riverdale area, May-June 1986. Report No. ARB-104-87-AQM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.W.; DeBrou, G.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the general air quality parameters in the area and if possible, identify and quantify any malodorous compounds. Because of these objectives, special emphasis was placed on monitoring the ambient air downwind of the following companies: Lever Brothers, Rothsay concentrates, Canadian Oil, Darling Rendering, Colgate-Palmolive, A.R. Clarke and the Metro Sewage Treatment Plant. The survey period extended from May 27 to June 26. This document contains the results of the study, and discusses the findings.

  5. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  6. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of China’s 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 μg/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 μg/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 μg/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable emission control scenarios suggested significant air quality improvements from emission reduction: 90% of SO2 emission removed from power plant in YRD would be able to reduce more than 85% of SO2 pollution, 85% NOx emission reduction from power plant would reduce more than 60% of NO2 pollution, in terms of reducing the number of days exceeding daily air quality standard. NOx emission reduction from transportation and industry were also found to effectively reduce NO2 pollution but less efficient than emission control from power plants. We also found that multi-pollutants emission control including both NOx and VOC would be a better strategy than independent NOx control over YRD which is China’s 12th Five-Year-Plan (from 2011 to 2015), because O3 pollution would be increased as a side effect of NOx control and counteract NO2 pollution reduction benefit.

  8. Preferential solvation of lithium cations and impacts on oxygen reduction in lithium–air batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-09-16

    The solvation of Li⁺ with eleven non-aqueous solvents commonly used as the electrolytes for Li batteries were studied. The solvation preferences of different solvents were compared by means of electrospray mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation. The relative strength of the solvent for the solvation of Li⁺ was determined. The Lewis acidity of the solvated Li⁺ cations was determined by the preferential solvation of the solvent in the solvation shell. The kinetics of the catalytic disproportionation of the O₂⁻ depends on the relative Lewis acidity of the solvated Li⁺ ion. The impact of the solvated Li⁺ cation on the O₂ redoxmore » reaction was also investigated.« less

  9. Preferential solvation of lithium cations and impacts on oxygen reduction in lithium–air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-09-16

    The solvation of Li⁺ with eleven non-aqueous solvents commonly used as the electrolytes for Li batteries were studied. The solvation preferences of different solvents were compared by means of electrospray mass spectrometry and collision-induced dissociation. The relative strength of the solvent for the solvation of Li⁺ was determined. The Lewis acidity of the solvated Li⁺ cations was determined by the preferential solvation of the solvent in the solvation shell. The kinetics of the catalytic disproportionation of the O₂⁻ depends on the relative Lewis acidity of the solvated Li⁺ ion. The impact of the solvated Li⁺ cation on the O₂ redox reaction was also investigated.

  10. Analyzing Your Compressed Air System; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Training * Fundamentals of Compressed Air ... Compressed air needs are defned by the air quality and ... Plants with a fatter load profle can use simpler control ...

  11. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality. COMPRESSED AIR TIP ...

  12. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  13. Preparing for the clean air act amendments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boomer, B.; Bensinger, D. Midwest Research Inst., Cary, NC )

    1993-09-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state air quality control agencies are in the midst of developing regulations and programs to meet the ambitious goals of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. The CAAA--which call for stricter air quality standards, a greater number of pollutants and sources to be regulated, new operating permits, and more stringent enforcement of air quality violations--are expected to have a significant impact on virtually every facility in the country. An important deadline in the implementation of the CAAA is November 1993. That is when individual states must submit their proposed operating permit programs to the EPA, as mandated by Title 5 of the Amendments. The EPA then has one year after receiving a state program to accept or reject it. Once a state's program is accepted, all major sources of air pollution in that state have one year to apply for an operating air permit. Although the initial deadlines for business and industry are up to two years away, sufficient information is now available to take the first steps toward compliance with the new air quality regulations. Even while the details of the new rules are being hammered out, plant engineering can and should begin laying the groundwork for their own permit applications. Time and effort spent preparing now for the provisions of the CAAA will pay off in the long run.

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  16. U.S. NO2 trends (2005-2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Environment 110 (2015) 130-143 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Atmospheric Environment journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/atmosenv U.S. NO2 trends (2005-2013): EPA Air Quality System (AQS) data versus improved observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) CrossMark Lok N. Lamsal a b *, Bryan N. Duncan b, Yasuko Yoshida c'b, Nickolay A. Krotkov b, Kenneth E. Pickering b, David G. Streets d, Zifeng Lu d a Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research,

  17. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  18. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous-fueled for gasoline-fueled heavy-duty vehicles. Finally, it raises and expands on the relevance of AFVs and their deployment to some other provisions embedded in EPA`s current guidance for implementing 1-hour NAAQS--standards which currently remain in effect--as tools to provide immediate reductions in ozone, without waiting for promised future clean technologies.

  19. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  20. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  1. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  2. Niagara Air Quality Survey Report, 1987: Occidental Chemical Corporation, Niagara Falls, New York, USA, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) incineration test. Report no. ARB-166-87-AR/SP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.W.; DeBrou, G.

    1988-01-01

    An ambient air quality survey was conducted in the Niagara Falls area of Ontario from October 8-12, 1987 to provide on-site real-time screening for selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated organics at times when the Occidental Chemical Corporation was conducting tests at its liquid hazardous waste incineration facility in Niagara Falls, N.Y. During the incineration tests, the winds were such that the gaseous emissions from the Occidental facility were carried into the U.S. Since the monitoring units were restricted to the Canadian side of the Niagara River, only upwind air quality parameters could be measured.

  3. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore » annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  4. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more » and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  5. New Mexico Air Operating Permit List of Trivial Activities |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Operating Permit List of Trivial Activities Author New Mexico Environment Department - Air Quality Bureau Published New Mexico Environment Department - Air Quality Bureau, 2008...

  6. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was ?0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  7. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on S. 656 and S. 657, May 25, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This hearing on pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation includes testimony from individuals and representatives of the following groups: Business Council on Indoor Air; American Lung Association; Consumer Federation of America; Radiation Protection Programs, NJ; School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; AFL-CIO; EPA; National Parent Teacher Association. Additional material includes statements from: American Lung Assoc.; Alliance for Radon Reduction; Alliance to Save Energy; American Industrial Hygiene Assoc.; Bowser Morner, Inc.; Building Owners and Managers Assoc. International; Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Assoc.; Council for American Private Education; National Assoc. of Home Builders; National Assoc. of Realtors; National School Boards Assoc.; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Assoc.

  9. Impending impacts of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerch, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The coal industry has already begun to feel the affects of the acid deposition title, particularly in Illinois. Two challenges to the producers and sellers of coal; i.e., (1) Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants and what is in store for customers, and (2) Title V, Operating Permits, which may affect production facilities are discussed. The utilities are temporarily exempted from Title III. The Great Waters report suggests that mercury will be regulated, and it looks like risk assessments will be based on coal analysis rather than on actual emission measurements. Stack sampling is difficult, expensive and slow. Coal cleaning is important in reducing trace elements. Electrostatic precipitators also remove trace elements. ESPs are less effective for mercury and selenium because they are emitted in the gas phase. FGD can remove hazardous air pollutants, but it is not well documented.

  10. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  11. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  12. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Apte, Mike G.

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These strategies, however, would make it more complex and more prescriptive, and would require substantial research. One practical intermediate strategy to save energy would be an alternate VRP, allowing VRs lower than currently prescribed, as long as indoor VOC concentrations were no higher than with VRs prescribed under the current VRP. This kind of hybrid, with source reduction and use of air cleaning optional but permitted, could eventually evolve, as data, materials, and air-cleaning technology allowed gradual lowering of allowable concentrations, into a fully developed IAQP. Ultimately, it seems that VR standards must evolve to resemble the IAQP, especially in California, where buildings must achieve zero net energy use within 20 years.

  13. Is there something in the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control the Present Is there something in the air? Is there something in the air? LANL implements a conscientious program of sampling to ensure air quality. August 1, 2013 ...

  14. A low thermal impact annealing process for SiO{sub 2}-embedded Si nanocrystals with optimized interface quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiller, Daniel Gutsch, Sebastian; Hartel, Andreas M.; Zacharias, Margit; Lper, Philipp; Gebel, Thoralf

    2014-04-07

    Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) for 3rd generation photovoltaics or optoelectronic applications can be produced by several industrially compatible physical or chemical vapor deposition technologies. A major obstacle for the integration into a fabrication process is the typical annealing to form and crystallize these Si quantum dots (QDs) which involves temperatures ?1100??C for 1?h. This standard annealing procedure allows for interface qualities that correspond to more than 95% dangling bond defect free Si NCs. We study the possibilities to use rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and flash lamp annealing to crystallize the Si QDs within seconds or milliseconds at high temperatures. The Si NC interface of such samples exhibits huge dangling bond defect densities which makes them inapplicable for photovoltaics or optoelectronics. However, if the RTA high temperature annealing is combined with a medium temperature inert gas post-annealing and a H{sub 2} passivation, luminescent Si NC fractions of up to 90% can be achieved with a significantly reduced thermal load. A new figure or merit, the relative dopant diffusion length, is introduced as a measure for the impact of a Si NC annealing procedure on doping profiles of device structures.

  15. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  16. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  17. Impact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Modeling Approach on Flutter Predictions for Very Large Wind Turbine Blade Designs Brian C. Owens bcowens@sandia.gov Graduate Student Intern Wind Energy Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories ∗ Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. D. Todd Griffith dgriffi@sandia.gov Principal Member of Technical Staff Wind Energy Technologies Department Sandia National Laboratories ∗ Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. Brian R. Resor brresor@sandia.gov Senior Member of Technical Staff Wind

  18. Clean Air Act, Section 309

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CLEAN AIR ACT 309* 7609. Policy review (a) The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and ...

  19. Lower Rio Grande Valley transboundary air pollution project (TAPP). Project report 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukerjee, S.; Shadwick, D.S.; Dean, K.E.; Carmichael, L.Y.; Bowser, J.J.

    1999-04-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a US-Mexico Border XXI project to find out if air pollutants were moving across the border from Mexico into the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and to see what levels of air pollutants were present. Ambient measurements and meteorology were collected data for a year (March 1996-March 1997) at three fixed sites in and near Brownsville, Texas very close to the US-Mexico border on a continuous and 24-h internal basis. Overall levels of air pollution were similar to or lower than other areas in Texas and elsewhere. Based on wind sector analyses, transport of air pollution across the border did not appear to adversely impact air quality on the US side of the Valley. Southeasterly winds from the Gulf of Mexico were largely responsible for the clean air conditions.

  20. Why does LANL sample the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does LANL sample the air? Why does LANL sample the air? As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. Diagram of air quality monitors within an exhaust stack. Nuclear facilities have three additional air sampling systems. LANL samples and analyzes air to assess effects on workers, the public, animals, and plants. As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. How we do it

  1. Final Report on the Clean Energy/Air Quality Integration Initiative Pilot Project of the U.S. Department of Energy's Mid-Atlantic Regional Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, D.; O'Connor, P.; High, C.; Brown, J.

    2006-08-01

    The MARO pilot project represents the first effort in the country to seek to obtain credit under a Clean Air Act (CAA) State Implementation Plan (SIP) for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reductions.

  2. Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... (DOE 2008). 4.6.2 Air Quality Air quality laws and regulations have been established to protect the public from harmful effects of air pollution. These rules take several forms. ...

  3. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Web Site: Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage Abstract Provides overview of air quality discharge permit process. Author State of Oregon Published State of Oregon,...

  4. OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge Permits | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge PermitsLegal Abstract Regulations for air contaminant discharge permits issued by the Department of Environmental Quality....

  5. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Citation Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Internet. State of Oregon....

  6. Utah DEQ Air Permitting Branch Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    link for Utah DEQ Air Permitting Branch Webpage Citation Utah Department of Environmental Quality. Utah DEQ Air Permitting Branch Webpage Internet. State of Utah. cited 201411...

  7. Utah Air Guidance Documents Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    link for Utah Air Guidance Documents Webpage Citation Utah Department of Environmental Quality. Utah Air Guidance Documents Webpage Internet. State of Utah. cited 201411...

  8. Microsoft Word - Updated Air Dispersion Modeling Table _sulfur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIVINE STRAKE AIR DISPERSION MODELING RESULTS for SULFUR DIOXIDE The attached table is ... within the Nevada Ambient Air Quality Standards at the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. ...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Quality in New York Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street Sweepers Improve Air Quality in New York on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Street

  10. Clean Air Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Environment » Environmental Policy and Assistance » Clean Air Act Clean Air Act The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local and tribal air programs in protecting and improving the nation's air quality and stratospheric ozone layer by regulating emissions from mobile and stationary sources. The CAA contains titles

  11. Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J

    2008-02-26

    Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.

  12. Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This fact sheet describes ventilation and the importance of sealing air leaks and providing controlled ventilation.

  13. Is there something in the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there something in the air? LANL implements a conscientious program of sampling to ensure air quality. August 1, 2013 Clouds over Los Alamos Clouds over Los Alamos Why does LANL...

  14. Notification to Mirant by the Commonwealth of Virginia of Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    19, 2005 Lisa D. Johnson, President Mirant Potomac River, LLC 8711 Westphalia Road Upper Marlboro, Maryland 20774 Dear Ms. Johnson: DEQ is in receipt of the results of Mirant's "downwash" modeling provided by Mirant to DEQ pursuant to the consent special order between the State Air Pollution Control Board and Mirant Potomac River, LLC. A cursory review of the modeling reveals that emissions from the Potomac River Generating Station result in, cause or substantially contribute to

  15. Quality Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quality Policy It is the policy of the Department of Energy to establish quality requirements to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the facility or activity and its work. The Department implements this policy through the QA Order and the QA rule directives to ensure quality assurance requirements are clearly specified for the broad spectrum of work performed by DOE and its contractors.

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. EA-1331: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-1331: Finding of No Significant Impact Remediation of Subsurface and Groundwater Contamination at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site Based on the analysis and information provided in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed Federal action, to conduct air sparging at the Rock Springs in situ Oil Shale Retort Site in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human

  18. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California. Predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Mendell, Mark J.; Sohn, Michael D.; Dutton, Spencer M.; Berkeley, Pam M.; Spears, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Through mass-balance modeling of various ventilation scenarios that might satisfy the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Procedure, we estimate indoor concentrations of contaminants of concern (COCs) in California big box stores, compare estimates to available thresholds, and for selected scenarios estimate differences in energy consumption. Findings are intended to inform decisions on adding performance-based approaches to ventilation rate (VR) standards for commercial buildings. Using multi-zone mass-balance models and available contaminant source rates, we estimated concentrations of 34 COCs for multiple ventilation scenarios: VRmin (0.04 cfm/ft2 ), VRmax (0.24 cfm/ft2 ), and VRmid (0.14 cfm/ft2 ). We compared COC concentrations with available health, olfactory, and irritant thresholds. We estimated building energy consumption at different VRs using a previously developed EnergyPlus model. VRmax did control all contaminants adequately, but VRmin did not, and VRmid did so only marginally. Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources both showed promise. Higher VRs increased indoor concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. Lowering VRs in big box stores in California from VRmax to VRmid would reduce total energy use by an estimated 6.6% and energy costs by 2.5%. Reducing the required VRs in Californias big box stores could reduce energy use and costs, but poses challenges for health and comfort of occupants. Source removal, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reduced VRs, and even at current recommended VRs. Also, alternative ventilation strategies taking climate and season into account in ventilation schedules may provide greater energy cost savings than constant ventilation rates, while improving IAQ.

  19. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: South Coast Air Quality Management District

  20. Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APPENDIX F DIRECT AND INDIRECT IMPACTS: ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY This appendix briefly describes the methods used to assess the potential direct and indirect effects of the alternatives in this Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Included in this appendix are discussions of general impact assessment methodologies for land resources, infrastructure, noise and vibration, air quality, geology and soils, water resources,

  1. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  2. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  3. Air filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

    1981-03-03

    An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

  4. Real-World Studies of Ambient Ozone Formation as a Function of NOx Reductions … Summary and Implications for Air Quality Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Air-Return Plenum Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers greatly improved indoor air quality and HVAC performance by replacing an old, leaky air handler with a new air handler with an air-sealed return plenum with filter; they also sealed the ducts, and added a fresh air intake.

  6. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  7. air force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases...

  8. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  9. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  10. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on Class I areas: part I. impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-07-01

    Published in two parts, this article describes a new emissions cap-and-trade program to reduce acid deposition and visibility impacts in four Class I areas (e.g. wildernesses and national parks) from the proposed Longview Power coal-fired power plant to be located in Maidsville, WV. Part I discusses the air quality impacts of the proposed project. 5 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Biological Air Emissions Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Air Emissions Control Biological Air Emissions Control Innovative Technology Enables Low-Cost, Energy-Efficient Treatment of Industrial Exhaust Streams Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol, formaldehyde, acetylaldehyde, and acrolein) during production of wood products must be tightly controlled. Conventional VOCs and HAPs emission

  12. Montana Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality is an organization based in Helena, Montana. References "Webpage" Air Quality Permitting Contact Contacts.png Dave Klemp (406) 404.0286 http:...

  13. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Wednesday, 17 February 2016 11:37 Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those

  14. Impact of air-exposure on the chemical and electronic structure ofZnO:Zn3N2 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar, M.; Ahn, K.-S.; Shet, S.; Yan, Y.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Pookpanratana, S.; George, K.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J.D.; Al-Jassim, M.; Heske, C.

    2008-09-08

    The chemical and electronic surface structure of ZnO:Zn3N2 ("ZnO:N") thin films with different N contents was investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. Upon exposure to ambient air (in contrast to storage in vacuum), the chemical and electronic surface structure of the ZnO:N films changes substantially. In particular, we find that the Zn3N2/(Zn3N2+ZnO) ratio decreases with exposure time and that this change depends on the initial N content. We suggest a degradation mechanism based on the reaction of the Zn3N2 content with atmospheric humidity.

  15. Maintaining System Air Quality; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... IOF focuses on the following eight energy and resource intensive industries: * Aluminum * Forest Products * Metal Casting * Petroleum * Chemicals * Glass * Mining * Steel The ...

  16. Air Permit Program Information Page | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Air Permit Program Information Page Author Division of Air Quality Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  17. Alaska Air Permit Program Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Alaska Air Permit Program Webpage Author Division of Air Quality Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  18. Air Permit Program Application Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Air Permit Program Application Forms Author Division of Air Quality Published Publisher Not Provided, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  19. Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia) promotes innovative ways to improve air quality in Asian cities by sharing experiences and building partnerships. CAI-Asia was...

  20. Environmental Impact Statement Explained

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires Federal agencies to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for all major Federal actions that may significantly affect the quality of...

  1. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  2. Impacts of Rising Air Temperatures and Emissions Mitigation on Electricity Demand and Supply in the United States. A Multi-Model Comparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarland, James; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy S.; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit; Eom, Jiyon; Kim, Son H.; et al

    2015-06-10

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. Our present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effectsmore » of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. Moreover, the increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.« less

  3. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-09

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  4. Erratum to: Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on electricity demand and supply in the United States: a multi-model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Jim; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Jaglom, Wendy; Colley, Michelle; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Schultz, Peter; Venkatesh, Boddu; Haydel, Juanita; Mack, Charlotte; Creason, Jared

    2015-10-07

    The electric power sector both affects and is affected by climate change. Numerous studies highlight the potential of the power sector to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Yet fewer studies have explored the physical impacts of climate change on the power sector. The present analysis examines how projected rising temperatures affect the demand for and supply of electricity. We apply a common set of temperature projections to three well-known electric sector models in the United States: the US version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM-USA), the Regional Electricity Deployment System model (ReEDS), and the Integrated Planning Model (IPM®). Incorporating the effects of rising temperatures from a control scenario without emission mitigation into the models raises electricity demand by 1.6 to 6.5 % in 2050 with similar changes in emissions. The increase in system costs in the reference scenario to meet this additional demand is comparable to the change in system costs associated with decreasing power sector emissions by approximately 50 % in 2050. This result underscores the importance of adequately incorporating the effects of long-run temperature change in climate policy analysis.

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  6. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and human health, including food supply, watershed cleanliness, soil quality, and ... by replacement scale to generate an aggregate 'energy crop air quality score' (ECAQS) ...

  7. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Study shows clean diesel programs slashed black carbon, a powerful short-term contributor to global warming June 13, 2013 Jon Weiner 510-486-4014 jrweiner@lbl.gov CA-BC-graphic.jpg Sacramento - Reductions in emissions of black carbon since the late 1980s, mostly from diesel engines as a result of air quality programs, have resulted in a measurable reduction of concentrations of

  8. Investigation of air-entraining admixture dosage in fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ley, M.T.; Harris, N.J.; Folliard, K.J.; Hover, K.C.

    2008-09-15

    The amount of air-entraining admixture (AEA) needed to achieve a target air content in fresh concrete can vary significantly with differences in the fly ash used in the concrete. The work presented in this paper evaluates the ability to predict the AEA dosage on the basis of tests on the fly ash alone. All results were compared with the dosage of AEA required to produce an air content of 6% in fresh concrete. Fly ash was sampled from six separate sources. For four of these sources, samples were obtained both before and after the introduction of 'low-NOx burners'. Lack of definitive data about the coal itself or the specifics of the burning processes prevents the ability to draw specific conclusions about the impact of low-NOx burners on AEA demand. Nevertheless, the data suggest that modification of the burning process to meet environmental quality standards may affect the fly ash-AEA interaction.

  9. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-29

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical andmorechemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) R2 ~ 0.99. Among individual PM2.5 species, the best predictive performance is for primary PM2.5 (MFE: 16 %; MFB: 13 %) and the worst predictive performance is for particulate nitrate (MFE: 119 %; MFB: 106 %). Potential uses of InMAP include studying exposure, health, and environmental justice impacts of potential shifts in emissions for annual-average PM2.5. Features planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.less

  10. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  11. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  12. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and their chemistry has large-scale impacts on climate, pollution, and health. Accurate predictions of these aerosol impacts require a robust microphysical understanding of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and time scales, including those involving highly reactive free-radical molecules. However, detailed modeling is

  13. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1980-11-21

    This document and its several appendices constitute an application for a Kentucky Permit to Construct an Air Contaminant Source as well as a Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD) Permit Application. The information needed to satisfy the application requirements for both permits has been integrated into a complete and logical description of the proposed source, its emissions, control systems, and its expected air quality impacts. The Department of Energy believes that it has made every reasonable effort to be responsive to both the letter and the spirit of the PSD regulations (40 CFR 52.21) and Kentucky Regulation No. 401 KAR 50:035. In this regard, it is important to note that because of the preliminary status of some aspects of the process engineering and engineering design for the Demonstration Plant, it is not yet possible precisely to define some venting operations or their associated control systems. Therefore, it is not possible precisely to quantify some atmospheric emissions or their likely impact on air quality. In these instances, DOE and ICRC have used assumptions that produce impact estimates that are believed to be worst case and are not expected to be exceeded no matter what the outcome of future engineering decisions. As these decisions are made, emission quantities and rates, control system characteristics and efficiencies, and vent stack parameters are more precisely defined; this Permit Application will be supplemented or modified as appropriate. But, all needed modifications are expected to represent either decreases or at worst no changes in the air quality impact of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant.

  14. Total Particulate Matter Air Sampling Data (TEOM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    LANL measures the total particulate mass concentration in the air on a routine basis as well as during incidents that may affect ambient air. The collected data is added to the Air Quality Index (AQI). AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells you how clean or polluted your air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern for you. The AQI focuses on health effects you may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air. EPA calculates the AQI for five major air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act.

  15. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filter Test Facility (FTF) DOE-STD-3020-2015 Specification for HEPA Filters Used by DOE Contractors The purpose of this standard is to establish specifications and quality assurance (QA) requirements for the procurement, packaging, shipping and storage of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. DOE-STD-3025-2007 Quality Assurance Inspection and Testing of HEPA

  16. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  17. Hickam Air Force Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

  18. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    122011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring ...

  19. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Quality Assurance Project Plan for Environmental Monitoring Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, Robert C.

    2005-09-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) applies to the Environmental Monitoring Program at the Sandia National Laboratories/California. This QAPP follows DOE Quality Assurance Management System Guide for Use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE G 414.1-2A June 17, 2005). The Environmental Monitoring Program is located within the Environmental Operations Department. The Environmental Operations Department is responsible for ensuring that SNL/CA operations have minimal impact on the environment. The Department provides guidance to line organizations to help them comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To fulfill its mission, the department has groups responsible for waste management; pollution prevention, air quality; environmental planning; hazardous materials management; and environmental monitoring. The Environmental Monitoring Program is responsible for ensuring that SNL/CA complies with all Federal, State, and local regulations and with DOE orders regarding the quality of wastewater and stormwater discharges. The Program monitors these discharges both visually and through effluent sampling. The Program ensures that activities at the SNL/CA site do not negatively impact the quality of surface waters in the vicinity, or those of the San Francisco Bay. The Program verifies that wastewater and stormwater discharges are in compliance with established standards and requirements. The Program is also responsible for compliance with groundwater monitoring, and underground and above ground storage tanks regulatory compliance. The Program prepares numerous reports, plans, permit applications, and other documents that demonstrate compliance.

  1. Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quality and human health (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted

  2. Texas Commission on Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pollution Contact Contacts.png Yvonne Miramontes 512.239.6922 http:www.tceq.texas.gov Air Quality Permitting Contact - Construction Permitting Contacts.png Michael Wilson...

  3. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    its decision-making. DEQ is responsible for protecting and enhancing Oregon's water and air quality, for cleaning up spills and releases of hazardous materials, for managing the...

  4. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  5. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  6. Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fog Oil Smoke on Availability, Palatability, & Food Quality of Relevant Life Stages of Insects for Threatened and Endangered Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, Crystal J.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Rogers, Lee E.

    2007-04-01

    A methodology for quantifying population dynamics and food source value of insect fauna in areas subjected to fog oil smoke was developed. Our approach employed an environmentally controlled re-circulating wind tunnel outfitted with a high-heat vaporization and re-condensation fog oil generator that has been shown to produce aerosols of comparable chemistry and droplet-size distribution as those of field releases of the smoke. This method provides reproducible exposures of insects under realistic climatic and environmental conditions to fog oil aerosols that duplicate chemical and droplet-size characteristics of field releases of the smoke. The responses measured take into account reduction in food sources due to death and to changes in availability of relevant life stages of insects that form the prey base for the listed Threatened and Endangered Species. The influence of key environmental factors, wind speed and canopy structure on these responses were characterized. Data generated using this method was used to develop response functions related to particle size, concentration, wind speed, and canopy structure that will allow military personnel to assess and manage impacts to endangered species from fog oil smoke used in military training.

  7. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  8. CRS 25-7-100 et seq - Air Pollution and Prevention Control Act...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prevention and Control Act. This statutory section sets forth requirements for Colorado's air quality control program. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1980 Legal Citation...

  9. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  10. Detecting Air Leaks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    You may already know where some air leakage occurs in your home, such as an under-the-door draft, but you'll need to find the less obvious gaps to properly air seal your home.

  11. Quality Assurance Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Quality Control Technician; Quality Assurance Inspector; Quality Assurance Representative

  12. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  13. Quality Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Quality Management, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security develops policies and procedures to ensure the classification and control of information is effective and...

  14. NREL and California Air Agency to Test Clean Diesel Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California Air Agency to Test Clean Diesel Fuels For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Barba Golden, Colo., Oct. 4, 2000 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will test Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel for California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) to determine if using the fuel can help reduce air pollution. Fischer-Tropsch fuels can be produced from natural gas, biomass or coal. They

  15. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  16. Assessment of the Market for Compressed Air Efficiency Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive and balanced view of the market for engineering and consulting services to improve the energy efficiency of plant compressed air systems. The report is intended for use by industrial energy efficiency program operators in developing strategies to encourage the growth of compressed air system efficiency and enhance the quality of the services it offers.

  17. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  18. H. R. 1271: A Bill to authorize appropriations for the Office of Environmental Quality for fiscal years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996; to ensure consideration of the impact of Federal actions on the global environment; and for other purposes, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, March 5, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on March 5, 1991 to amend the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The objective of the bill is to authorize appropriations for the Office of Environmental Quality for fiscal years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1996. In addition, it will ensure consideration of the impact of federal actions on the global environment.

  19. ARM - Data Quality Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality Program DQ Resources Data Quality Assessment and Control Report (PDF, 747KB) Data Quality Office Data Quality Problem Reporting (DQPR) Contact Us Submit Data Quality ...

  20. Coyote Springs Cogeneration Project, Morrow County, Oregon: Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to transfer (wheel) electrical power from a proposed privately-owned, combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Oregon. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate up to 440 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Portland General Electric Company (PGE). The project would be built in eastern Oregon, just east of the City of Boardman in Morrow County. The proposed plant would be built on a site within the Port of Morrow Industrial Park. The proposed use for the site is consistent with the County land use plan. Building the transmission line needed to interconnect the power plant to BPA`s transmission system would require a variance from Morrow County. BPA would transfer power from the plant to its McNary-Slatt 500-kV transmission line. PGE would pay BPA for wheeling services. Key environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and evaluated in the draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) include these potential impacts: (1) air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contributions to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) health and safety impacts, such as effects of electric and magnetic fields, (3) noise impacts, (4) farmland impacts, (5) water vapor impacts to transportation, (6) economic development and employment impacts, (7) visual impacts, (8) consistency with local comprehensive plans, and (9) water quality and supply impacts, such as the amount of wastewater discharged, and the source and amount of water required to operate the plant. These and other issues are discussed in the DEIS. The proposed project includes features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on studies completed for the DEIS, adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial.

  1. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... or any facilities upstream of Kingston, you will ... ammonia or steam methane reforming (SMR) of natural ... For air quality, emissions from the use of natural gas would ...

  2. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  3. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-09-29

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs (QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Cancels DOE O 414.1.

  4. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-04-25

    The Order defines roles and responsibilities for providing quality assurance for DOE products and services.Admin Chg 1, dated 5-8-13, supersedes DOE O 414.1D.

  5. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-06-17

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customers' expectations. Cancels DOE O 414.1B and DOE N 411.1. Canceled by DOE O 414.1D.

  6. The impact of regulation on fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.R.

    1985-02-01

    Governmental actions require significantly increased attention to keep pace with frequently changing requirements. These are dictated by environmental or political factors. The 1973 oil embargo is discussed. Both the EPA and the auto industry pay increased attention to gasoline composition factors which may affect potential for particulate reduction by fuel modification. Sulfur removal is likely to be a far more costeffective means of reducing total particulate mass than reduction of aromatics or volatility. The authors conclude that the technology needed to achieve product changes which may be mandated by government is not insurmountable.

  7. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-04-29

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customer's expectations. This Order cancels DOE O 414.1A, Quality Assurance, dated 9-29-99, and Attachment 1, paragraph 8, and Attachment 2, paragraph 22, of DOE O 440.1A, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, dated 3-27-98. Cancels: DOE O 414.1A and DOE O 440.1A, parts as noted.

  8. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy, health, safety, and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  9. Environmental Impact of Smart Grid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) Environmental Impact Statements are detailed written statements that are required by section 102(2)(C) of NEPA for a proposed major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If you have any trouble finding a specific document, please contact AskNEPA@hq.doe.gov for assistance. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 6, 2016 EIS-0525: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  10. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  11. Adsorption air conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Jean L. I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

  12. Trading places - an innovative SO{sub 2} trading program to mitigate potential adverse impacts on class I areas: part II. Mitigation plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis Militana; Cindy Huber; Christopher Colbert; Chris Arrington; Don Shepherd

    2005-08-01

    This is the second of two articles describing a plan that was developed to mitigate the effects of acid deposition and visibility impairment in four Class I areas from the proposed Longview Power Project. Part I (published in July 2005) discussed the air quality impacts of the proposed coal-fired power plant. Part II discusses the mitigation plan. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. LEDSGP/analysis/impacts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impacts of LEDS measures on country development goals. These goals include reducing poverty, improving health and local environmental quality, improving energy and water access,...

  14. Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments S. Bottone and S. Moore Mission Research ... assessment of the quality of incoming data based on internal consistency checks, ...

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions. PDF icon QM Cheklist.pdf More Documents & Publications Version Tracking Document for DOE Challenge Homes, National Program Requirements (Rev. 03) Washington DOE ZERH Program Requirements Indoor airPLUS Version 1 (Rev. 01) Verification Checklist

  16. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  17. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  18. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  19. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  20. Protective air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  1. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  2. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It is the first comprehensive regional assessment of the climate impact of black carbon on California. In conducting the study, scientists used computer models and air pollution ...

  3. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-01-16

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6A, dated 7-21-1981.

  4. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-07-21

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Cancels DOE O 5700.6, dated 1-16-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6B, dated 9-23-1986.

  5. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  6. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  7. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  8. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  9. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS Watch the video or view the presentation slides below The Indoor airPLUS qualification, a prerequisite for Zero Energy Ready Homes, offers an important platform to improve the indoor air quality (IAQ) in high-performance homes. A critical aspect of improving both energy efficiency and IAQ is the proper design and installation of HVAC

  10. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  11. Pollutant transfer through air and water pathways in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.; Burian, S.; McPherson, T.; Streit, G.; Costigan, K.; Greene, B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are attempting to simulate the transport and fate of pollutants through air and water pathways in an urban environment. This cross-disciplinary study involves linking together models of mesoscale meteorology, air pollution chemistry and deposition, urban runoff and stormwater transport, water quality, and wetland chemistry and biology. The authors are focusing on the transport and fate of nitrogen species because (1) they track through both air and water pathways, (2) the physics, chemistry, and biology of the complete cycle is not well understood, and (3) they have important health, local ecosystem, and global climate implications. The authors will apply their linked modeling system to the Los Angeles basin, following the fate of nitrates from their beginning as nitrate-precursors produced by auto emissions and industrial processes, tracking their dispersion and chemistry as they are transported by regional winds and eventually wet or dry deposit on the ground, tracing their path as they are entrained into surface water runoff during rain events and carried into the stormwater system, and then evaluating their impact on receiving water bodies such as wetlands where biologically-mediated chemical reactions take place. In this paper, the authors wish to give an overview of the project and at the conference show preliminary results.

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data D. Cimini University of L'Aquila ...

  14. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  15. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space Waldorf, Maryland PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Ventilation Effectiveness Location: Waldorf, MD Partners: Building ...

  16. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  17. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  18. Guide to Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Air sealing is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. Hire a certified professional contractor for best results.

  19. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  20. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  1. Air Sealing Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-14

    This information sheet addresses windows and may also be applied to doors and other pre-assembled elements installed in building enclosures that also perform an air barrier function.

  2. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  3. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  4. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  5. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air Products is partnering with Denbury Green Pipeline – Texas, LLC to capture and sequester one million tons of carbon dioxide per year from two existing steam-methane reformers at Air Products’ hydrogen-production facility in Port Arthur, Texas. The captured CO2 is transported by pipeline to oil fields in eastern Texas for enhanced oil recovery. The total award value of the project is $431 million, with $284 million comprising DOE’s 66 percent share.

  6. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  7. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-07-12

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs(QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Change 1, dated 7/12/01, facilitates the Department's organizational transition necessitated by establishment of the NNSA. (Attachment 2 of this Order is canceled by DOE O 470.2B.) Cancels: DOE O 414.1

  8. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this ... Important Points to Understand Air has weight and exerts pressure on everything with which ...

  9. Occidental Geothermal, Inc. , Oxy geothermal power plant No. 1. Final environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The project-specific environmental analysis covers the following: geology, soils, water resources, biology, air quality, noise, waste management, health, safety, transportation, energy and material resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, public services, land use, and aesthetics. Other topics covered are: the cumulative envionmental analysis; unavoidable significant adverse environmental effects; irreversible environmental changes and irretrievable commitments of energy and materials; the relationship between local short-term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity; growth-inducing impacts; and alternatives to the proposed action. (MHR)

  10. Cumulative Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cumulative Impacts Cumulative Impacts Selected documents on the topic of Cumulative Impacts and NEPA. June 24, 2005 Guidance on the Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis (CEQ, 2005) In this Memorandum, the Council on Environmental Quality provides guidance on the extent to which agencies of the Federal government are required to analyze the environmental effects of past actions when they describe the cumulative environmental effect of a proposed action. May 1, 1999

  11. esource Adequacy Implications of Forthcoming EPA Air Quality Regulation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................. iii CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 2. ALIGNMENT OF POTENTIAL COMPLIANCE PATHWAYS WITH REGULATORY DEADLINES ......... 5 CHAPTER 3. RESOURCE

  12. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B) Country of...

  13. 2016 National Tribal Forum on Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 17, 2016 8:00AM EDT to May 19, 2016 5:00PM EDT Niagara Falls, New York Seneca Niagara Resort 310 4th St. Niagara Falls, NY 14303 Hosted by the Seneca Nation of Indians, the ...

  14. Air quality studies in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, T.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos investigators participated in SCENES, WHITEX, Winter Intensive Tracer Experiments conducted from January 7 through February 18, 1987, in the area 400 km (east-west) /times/ 250 km (north-south) centered around Page, Arizona. The purpose of the experiment was to quantify the attribution of a local source (Navajo Generating Station) and remote sources (copper smelters in southern Arizona, Mojave generating station, power plants and large urban areas) to the haze occurrences in the Grand Canyon and Canyonlands National Parks, and Glen Canyon National Recreation area. In order to ''tag'' plumes emitted from the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a trace gas was released from the NGS stack during the entire experimental period. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, by using Los Alamos three-dimensional atmospheric flow models, large diurnal and spatial variations of wind, turbulence and plume characteristics over complex topographic areas. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Opening Remarks, Achieving Air Quality and Climate Change Goals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 1990 levels by 2020 Transform and diversify fuel pool Reduce petroleum dependency 9 Renewable Portfolio Standard 10 Building the market pull for zero emission ...

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems...

  17. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS Word Cloud...

  18. Utah Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laws and works with individuals, community groups, and businesses to protect the quality of our air, land and water in the state of Utah. The following Divisions make up...

  19. Clean Air Act Title V: Knocking on your door

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosford, R.B. )

    1993-01-15

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 made several significant changes in the clean air program. One of the key elements of the Amendments was the inclusion of an operating permit program in Title V. The purpose of the program is to establish a central point for tracking all applicable air quality requirements for every source required to obtain a permit. This article provides a brief description of the most significant provisions. In addition, the subject of permit modification is discussed in some detail.

  20. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  1. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

  2. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  3. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  4. Clean Air Act, Section 309 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Air Act, Section 309 Clean Air Act, Section 309 The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and responsibilities granted pursuant to this chapter or other provisions of the authority of Administrator, contained in any (1) legislation proposed by any Federal department or agency, (2) newly authorized Federal projects for construction and any major Federal agency action (other than a project for construction) to which

  5. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted behind-the-scenes without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  6. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  7. Data Driven Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Data Driven Quality Assurance & Quality Control," Patrick Roche, Conservation Services Group. Provides an overview of data QA/QC system design.

  8. Air Combat Command deicing/anti-icing operation: Compliance evaluation and requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fronapfel, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will present information on Air Combat Command`s (ACC) efforts in evaluating its deicing and anti-icing activities at all applicable ACC bases. This effort, led by Ecology and Environment (E and E), of Lancaster NY, will evaluate the operations, infrastructure, and management of deicing and anti-icing programs at ACC bases and will provide recommendations to each base for maintaining compliance with applicable regulations and minimizing the environmental impact of these operations. In addition to evaluating such operations at ACC bases, E and E, along with subcontractor Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., will research activities around the nation and the world to assist in developing the best recommendations for each ACC base. Armstrong Laboratory`s Water Quality Branch of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Division (AL/OEBW) is responsible for technical and contractual oversight of this effort. A summary of information gathered to date will be presented in this paper. Although the disposal of deicing fluids has led a somewhat charmed life until recently, these activities are likely to receive increased regulatory scrutiny in the years to come. Air Combat Command has had more than one instance where NOVs or potential NOVs have arisen due to fish kills associated with deicing/anti-icing chemical laden runoff. In an effort to prevent future compliance problems and to foster proper stewardship of the environment, ACC has taken these proactive measures at its bases. ACC`s efforts will also be used at the Air Staff level to assist in making Air Force wide pollution prevention and best management practice (P2/BMP) recommendations.

  9. Minimize Compressed Air Leaks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Air Leaks Minimize Compressed Air Leaks This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Minimize Compressed Air Leaks (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Eliminate Inappropriate Uses of Compressed Air Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant Analyzing Your Compressed Air System

  10. Activation of Air and Utilities in the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khater, H; Pohl, B; Brererton, S

    2010-04-08

    Detailed 3-D modeling of the NIF facility is developed to accurately simulate the radiation environment within the NIF. Neutrons streaming outside the NIF Target Chamber will activate the air present inside the Target Bay and the Ar gas inside the laser tubes. Smaller levels of activity are also generated in the Switchyard air and in the Ar portion of the SY laser beam path. The impact of neutron activation of utilities located inside the Target Bay is analyzed for variety of shot types. The impact of activating TB utilities on dose received by maintenance personnel post-shot is analyzed. The current NIF facility model includes all important features of the Target Chamber, shielding system, and building configuration. Flow of activated air from the Target Bay is controlled by the HVAC system. The amount of activated Target Bay air released through the stack is very small and does not pose significant hazard to personnel or the environment. Activation of Switchyard air is negligible. Activation of Target Bay utilities result in a manageable dose rate environment post high yield (20 MJ) shots. The levels of activation generated in air and utilities during D-D and THD shots are small and do not impact work planning post shots.

  11. Air Proportional Counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.A. Jr.

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  12. AIR M A IL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MEMORlAL DRIVE AIR M A IL . AtFxb.-zf .7.-i- M r. s. .II. Gown - Gentlemen: Re: A.E.C. Contract No. We assume the weight of the 9-l2" biscuits will:be 107'poutids ...

  13. Clean air amendments put big burden on refinery planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherr, R.C.; Smalley, G.A. Jr.; Norman, M.E. )

    1991-06-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will not only require the production of reformulated gasoline but also have significant impact on other refinery-related construction. This must be considered when developing sound planning strategy. The three titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments that will have the greatest effect on refining are: Title I: Nonattainment; Title III: Air toxics; Title V: Permitting. To understand the ramifications of these amendments, it is necessary to review the interactions of new requirements with the permitting and construction schedule shown.

  14. Energy Savings with Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Through Improved Air Flow Control in Residential Retrofit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Gas Technology Institute—Des Plaines, IL Partners: -- University of Illinois, Urbana IL -- Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Chicago IL

  15. Dynamic and other secondary benefits of compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    Dynamic benefits of compressed air energy storage include load following, voltage regulation, provision for emergency power, and spinning reserve. Other secondary benefits include environmental acceptability and economic feasibility within the spectrum of potential energy storage methods. Geologic reservoir candidates are salt cavities, hard rock caverns and water-bearing permeable formations occurring as structural traps; the compatibility of solution-mined salt cavities with desired dynamic benefits is illustrated by positive results at Huntorf, West Germany. Air injection into and withdrawal from an aquifer has been conducted successfully at Pittsfield, Illinois. Environmental impacts are believed to be less important than corresponding impacts in rival storage technologies.

  16. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  17. United Cool Air

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While our process may start with a "basic model" it is seldom that we fabricate more than a few units that are identical.  Therefore, the definition of "basic model" has a large impact on the...

  18. Variation in Estimated Ozone-Related Health Impacts of Climate Change due to Modeling Choices and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Ellen S.; Grambsch, A.; Weaver, C. P.; Morefield, Philip; Huang, Jin; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Nolte, Christopher G.; Adams, P. J.; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Zhu, J.; Mahoney, Hardee

    2012-11-01

    Future climate change may cause air quality degradation via climate-induced changes in meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and emissions into the air. Few studies have explicitly modeled the potential relationships between climate change, air quality, and human health, and fewer still have investigated the sensitivity of estimates to the underlying modeling choices.

  19. Compressed Air System Project Improves Production at a Candy Making Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    The H.B. Reese Company successfully completed an upgrade of this compressed air system at its facility in Hershey, PA. The plant took two compressors offline while increasing throughput and quality.

  20. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  3. Fuel-air munition and device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Gary A.

    1976-01-01

    An aerially delivered fuel-air munition consisting of an impermeable tank filled with a pressurized liquid fuel and joined at its two opposite ends with a nose section and a tail assembly respectively to complete an aerodynamic shape. On impact the tank is explosively ruptured to permit dispersal of the fuel in the form of a fuel-air cloud which is detonated after a preselected time delay by means of high explosive initiators ejected from the tail assembly. The primary component in the fuel is methylacetylene, propadiene, or mixtures thereof to which is added a small mole fraction of a relatively high vapor pressure liquid diluent or a dissolved gas diluent having a low solubility in the primary component.

  4. Fresh air indoors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kull, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes and compares ventilation systems for the control of indoor air pollution in residential housing. These include: local exhaust fans, whole-house fans, central exhaust with wall ports, and heat-recovery central ventilation (HRV). HRV's have a higher initial cost than the other systems but they are the only ones that save energy. Homeowners are given guidelines for choosing the system best suited for their homes in terms of efficiency and payback period.

  5. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  6. East Germany struggles to clean its air and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherfas, J.

    1990-04-20

    East Germans are working hard on a strategy to improve their polluted environment. Industrial plants are largely responsible for this pollution. A shroud of haze veils the suburbs of East Berlin. Far to the south the giant power plants around Leipzig pour more dust and sulfur dioxide into the air than in any other country in Europe. More than 90% of the country's electricity comes from brown coal, accompanied by prodigious quantities of dust and sulfur dioxide: almost 6 million tones of sulfur dioxide and more than 2 million tones of dust in 1988. East Germany enjoys some of the cheapest energy in the world, and the world's third highest energy consumption per capita, behind the United States, and Canada. Naturally, is also suffers air quality and health problems. The country is trying to cut down on consumption and clean up on generation. Actually, water quality is the number one priority, which unlike air is in very short supply.

  7. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  8. ARM - Instrument - ccn-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsccn-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "ccn-air" does not exist.

  9. ARM - Instrument - cpc-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentscpc-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "cpc-air" does not exist.

  10. ARM - Instrument - hk-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentshk-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "hk-air" does not exist.

  11. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  12. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  13. Electricity Regulatory Reforms to Encourage Energy Efficiency: What Air Regulators and Energy Officials Need to Know

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Chris James and Doug Hurley of Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  14. EPA-- Amended Environmental Impact Statement Filing System Guidance (2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Amended Environmental Impact Statement Filing System Guidance for Implementing 40 CFR 1506.9 and 1506.10 of the Council on Environmental Qualitys Regulations Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act

  15. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  16. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will identify and analyze advanced air cooling strategies thatallow air-cooled geothermal power plants to maintain a high electric power output during periods of high air dry bulb temperatures while minimizing water consumption.

  17. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel Certification Paul Machiele, Center Director for Fuel Programs, Office of Transportation & Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PDF icon b13_machiele_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels The

  18. BILIWG Meeting: DOE Hydrogen Quality Working Group Update and Recent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress (Presentation) | Department of Energy DOE Hydrogen Quality Working Group Update and Recent Progress (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: DOE Hydrogen Quality Working Group Update and Recent Progress (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 12_anl_h2_quality_working_group_update.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Fuel and Air Impurities on PEM Fuel Cell

  19. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  20. Biodiesel Clears the Air in Underground Mines, Clean Cities, Fact Sheet, June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Mining companies are using biodiesel in their equipment to help clear the air of diesel particulate matter (DPM). This action improves air quality and protects miners' lungs. Though using biodiesel has some challenges in cold weather, tax incentives, and health benefits make it a viable option.

  1. Aire Valley Environmental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aire Valley Environmental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aire Valley Environmental Place: United Kingdom Product: Leeds-based waste-to-energy project developer. References: Aire...

  2. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos. A...

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Validation Sonde Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The AIRS instrument was intended to make highly accurate measurements of air temperature, humidity, clouds, and surface temperature. The data collected by AIRS was...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Validation Sonde Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The AIRS instrument is intended to make highly accurate measurements of air temperature, humidity, clouds, and surface temperature. The data collected by AIRS will be...

  5. California Air Resources Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Resources Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Air Resources Board Name: California Air Resources Board Place: Sacramento, California Website: www.arb.ca.gov...

  6. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Conditioners Tips: Air Conditioners Bigger isn't always better for an air conditioner. Learn effective ways to stay cool while saving energy. | Photo courtesy of ...

  7. EA-1917: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the context of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not...

  8. EIS-0506: Notice of Intent to Prepare Environmental Impact Statement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    environmental impacts of a proposal to improve fish habitat by restoring stream and floodplain functions, restoring instream fish habitat complexity, and improving water quality ...

  9. EIS-0506: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    environmental impacts of a proposal to improve fish habitat by restoring stream and floodplain functions, restoring instream fish habitat complexity, and improving water quality ...

  10. November 18 PSERC Webinar: Quantifying and Mitigating the Impacts...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems impact distribution system operations in a number of ways, spanning voltage and other power quality, resistive losses, requirements ...

  11. EIS-0393: EPA Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Montana Department of Environmental Quality to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed copper and silver underground mine about 18 miles south of Libby, Montana. ...

  12. EIS-0393: Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Quality issued a Final EIS that evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposed copper and silver underground mine about 18 miles south of Libby, Montana. ...

  13. Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, N.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D. M.

    2009-02-02

    The development of effective emissions control policies that are beneficial to both climate and air quality requires a detailed understanding of all the feedbacks in the atmospheric composition and climate system. We perform sensitivity studies with a global atmospheric composition-climate model to assess the impact of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry through their modification on clouds, aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The model includes coupling between both tropospheric gas-phase and aerosol chemistry and aerosols and liquid-phase clouds. We investigate past impacts from preindustrial (PI) to present day (PD) and future impacts from PD to 2050 (for the moderate IPCC A1B scenario) that embrace a wide spectrum of precursor emission changes and consequential ACI. The aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated to be -2.0 Wm{sup -2} for PD-PI and -0.6 Wm{sup -2} for 2050-PD, at the high end of current estimates. Inclusion of ACI substantially impacts changes in global mean methane lifetime across both time periods, enhancing the past and future increases by 10% and 30%, respectively. In regions where pollution emissions increase, inclusion of ACI leads to 20% enhancements in in-cloud sulfate production and {approx}10% enhancements in sulfate wet deposition that is displaced away from the immediate source regions. The enhanced in-cloud sulfate formation leads to larger increases in surface sulfate across polluted regions ({approx}10-30%). Nitric acid wet deposition is dampened by 15-20% across the industrialized regions due to ACI allowing additional re-release of reactive nitrogen that contributes to 1-2 ppbv increases in surface ozone in outflow regions. Our model findings indicate that ACI must be considered in studies of methane trends and projections of future changes to particulate matter air quality.

  14. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

  15. Simplified air change effectiveness modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rock, B.A.; Anderson, R.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing practical air change effectiveness modeling techniques for the design and analysis of air diffusion in occupied rooms. The ultimate goal of this continuing work is to develop a simple and reliable method for determining heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system compliance with ventilation standards. In the current work, simplified two-region models of rooms are used with six occupancy patterns to find the air change effectiveness. A new measure, the apparent ACH effectiveness, yields the relative ventilation performance of an air diffusion system. This measure can be used for the prediction or evaluation of outside air delivery to the occupants. The required outside air can be greater or less than that specified by ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62-89.

  16. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  17. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  18. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  19. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  1. Impacts of rising air temperatures and emissions mitigation on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Colley, Michelle ; Patel, Pralit L. ; Eom, Jiyong ; Kim, Son H. ; Kyle, G. Page ; Schultz, Peter ; Venkatesh, Boddu ; Haydel, Juanita ; Mack, Charlotte ; Creason, Jared ...

  2. Impact Statements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Room / Final Environment Impact Statements Record of Decision on Bonneville Power Administration’s Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project (DOE/EIS-3790, November 2008). February 2009.

  3. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-04-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  4. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  5. Air ingression calculations for selected plant transients using MELCOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of MELCOR calculations have been completed studying the effects of air ingression on the consequences of various severe accident scenarios. One set of calculations analyzed a station blackout with surge line failure prior to vessel breach, starting from nominal operating conditions; the other set of calculations analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions. Both sets of analyses were for the Surry plant, a three-loop Westinghouse PWR. For both accident scenarios, a basecase calculation was done, and then repeated with air ingression from containment into the core region following core degradation and vessel failure. In addition to the two sets of analyses done for this program, a similar air-ingression sensitivity study was done as part of a low-power/shutdown PRA, with results summarized here; that PRA study also analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions, but for the Grand Gulf plant, a BWR/6 with Mark III containment. These studies help quantify the amount of air that would have to enter the core region to have a significant impact on the severe accident scenario, and demonstrate that one effect, of air ingression is substantial enhancement of ruthenium release. These calculations also show that, while the core clad temperatures rise more quickly due to oxidation with air rather than steam, the core also degrades and relocates more quickly, so that no sustained, enhanced core heatup is predicted to occur with air ingression.

  6. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by

  7. HSS Quality Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Colette Broussard, Office of Quality Assurance Policy and Assistance, Office of Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance and Environment Track 9-2

  8. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

  9. Effective use of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) for geothermal development projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, S.J.

    2000-05-28

    Both the developed and developing nations of the world would like to move toward a position of sustainable development while paying attention to the restoration of natural resources, improving the environment, and improving the quality of life. The impacts of geothermal development projects are generally positive. It is important, however, that the environmental issues associated with development be addressed in a systematic fashion. Drafted early in the project planning stage, a well-prepared Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) can significantly add to the quality of the overall project. An EIA customarily ends with the decision to proceed with the project. The environmental analysis process could be more effective if regular monitoring, detailed in the EIA, continues during project implementation. Geothermal development EIAs should be analytic rather than encyclopedic, emphasizing the impacts most closely associated with energy sector development. Air quality, water resources and quality, geologic factors, and socioeconomic issues will invariably be the most important factors. The purpose of an EIA should not be to generate paperwork, but to enable superb response. The EIA should be intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on an understanding of environmental consequences and take proper actions. The EIA process has been defined in different ways throughout the world. In fact, it appears that no two countries have defined it in exactly the same way. Going hand in hand with the different approaches to the process is the wide variety of formats available. It is recommended that the world geothermal community work towards the adoption of a standard. The Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)(OLADE, 1993) prepared a guide that presents a comprehensive discussion of the environmental impacts and suggested mitigation alternatives associated with geothermal development projects. The OLADE guide is a good start for providing the geothermal community a standard EIA format. As decision makers may only read the Executive Summary of the EIA, this summary should be well written and present the significant impacts (in order of importance), clarifying which are unavoidable and which are irreversible; the measures which can be taken to mitigate them; the cumulative effects of impacts; and the requirements for monitoring and supervision. Quality plans and Public Participation plans should also be included as part of the environmental analysis process.

  10. Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) January 28...

  11. Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) Better Buildings Residential Network ...

  12. The Impacts of Cation Stoichiometry and Substrate Surface Quality on Nucleation, Structure, Defect Formation, and Intermixing in Complex Oxide HeteroepitaxyLaCrO3 on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Liang; Zhang, Hongliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, V.; Colby, Robert J.; Du, Yingge; Kabius, Bernd C.; Sushko, P. V.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2013-06-20

    Our ability to design and fabricate electronic devices with reproducible properties using complex oxides is critically dependent on our ability to controllably synthesize these materials in thin-film form. Structure-property relationships are intimately tied to film and interface composition. Here we report on the effects of cation stoichiometry in LaCrO3 heteroepitaxial films prepared using molecular beam epitaxy. We show that LaCrO3 films grow pseudomorphically on SrTiO3(001) over an wide range of La-to-Cr atom ratios. However, the growth mode and structural quality are sensitive to the La-to-Cr ratio, with La-rich films being of considerably lower structural quality than Cr-rich films. Cation mixing occurs at the interface for all La-to-Cr ratios investigated, and is not quenched by deposition at ambient temperature. Indiffused La atoms occupy Sr sites in the substrate. The presence of defects in the SrTiO3 substrate is implicated in promoting La indiffusion by comparing the properties of LaCrO3/SrTiO3 with those of LaCrO3/Si, both prepared at ambient temperature. Additionally, pulsed laser deposition is shown to result in more extensive interfacial mixing than molecular beam epitaxy for deposition at ambient temperature on Si.

  13. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  14. Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

  15. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  16. Air Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a larger footprint than Water Cooling, but when water restrictions are great enough to prevent the...

  17. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  18. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  20. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Quality Procedure- Records Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for identifying and managing records, including quality records, generated by EM Headquarters Office of Standards and Quality Assurance personnel as well as Office of Standards and Quality Assurance representatives located in DOE EM Field Offices in accordance with EM-QA-001, Environmental Management Quality Assurance Program.

  2. Track 9: Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 9: Quality Assurance

  3. The impacts of cation stoichiometry and substrate surface quality on nucleation, structure, defect formation, and intermixing in complex oxide heteroepitaxy LaCrO3 on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Liang; Zhang, K. H. L; Bowden, Mark E; Varga, Tamas; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Colby, Robert; Du, Yingge; Kabius, Bernd; Sushko, Peter V; Biegalski, Michael D; Chambers, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to design and fabricate electronic devices with reproducible properties using complex oxides is critically dependent on our ability to controllably synthesize these materials in thin-film form. Structure-property relationships are intimately tied to film and interface composition Here we report on the effect of cation stoichiometry on structural quality and defect formation in LaCrO3 heteroepitaxial films prepared using molecular beam epitaxy. We calculate from first principles the regions of stability of various candidate defects as a function of Cr and O chemical potential, along with the predicted effects of these defects on structural parameters. We show that epitaxial LaCrO3 films readily nucleate and remain coherently strained on SrTiO3(001) over a wide range of La-to-Cr atom ratios, but that La-rich films are of considerably lower structural quality than stoichiometric and Cr-rich films. Cation imbalances are accompanied by anti-site defect formation, as deduced by comparing experimental trends in the c lattice parameter with those from first-principles calculations. Cation mixing occurs at the interface for all La-to-Cr ratios investigated, and is not quenched by deposition on SrTiO3(001) at ambient temperature. Indiffused La atoms occupy Sr sites, most likely facilitated by Sr vacancy formation in STO resulting from high-temperature oxygen annealing required to prepare the substrate. Intermixing is effectively quenched by using molecular beam epitaxy to deposit LaCrO3 at ambient temperature on defect free Si(001). However, analogous pulsed laser deposition on Si is accompanied by cation mixing.

  4. EA-1912: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of No Significant Impact Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert Aire, Benton County, WA Based on the information in the EA, as summarized here, BPA and...

  5. Impact of Soiling and Pollution on PV Generation Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This 5-page technical letter addresses air pollution effects on PV performance by quantifying, based on a literature search, the average annual loss due to soiling, the impact of cleaning, and a recommended cleaning schedule.

  6. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  7. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  8. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  10. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  11. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  12. ARM - Instrument - co-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsco-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Carbon Monoxide- Airborne (CO-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon Contact(s) Stephen Springston Brookhaven National Laboratory (631) 344-4477 srs@bnl.gov

  13. ARM - Instrument - gustprobe-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgustprobe-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Aircraft Gust Probe (GUSTPROBE-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations Contact(s) Annette Koontz Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Developer (509) 375-3609 annette.koontz@pnnl

  14. AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command

  15. Quality Assurance Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-12-02

    The Quality Assurance (QA) Functional Area Qualification Standard (FAQS) establishes common functional area competency requirements for all DOE QA personnel who provide assistance, direction, guidance, oversight, or evaluation of contractor technical activities that could impact the safe operation of DOE’s defense nuclear facilities.

  16. Analysis of Environmental Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Environmental Impacts Analysis of Environmental Impacts Selected documents on the Analysis of Environmental Impacts under NEPA. March 12, 2012 Final Guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 2012) The Council on Environmental Quality is issuing its final guidance on Improving the Process for Preparing Efficient and Timely Environmental Reviews under the National Environmental Policy

  17. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1992 emissions report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stirrup, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the 1992 Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Originally, this report was in response to the Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Agreement in 1989 between the State of Idaho and the Department of Energy Idaho Field Office, and a request from the Idaho Air Quality Bureau. The current purpose of the Air Emission Inventory is to provide the basis for the preparation of the INEL Permit-to-Operate (PTO) an Air Emission Source Application, as required by the recently promulgated Title V regulations of the Clean Air Act. This report includes emissions calculations from 1989 to 1992. The Air Emission Inventory System, an ORACLE-based database system, maintains the emissions inventory.

  20. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control: Subprogram H, Air canopies for longwalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S.; Ruggieri, S.K.

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the laboratory development and evaluation of an air canopy concept for longwall faces. The objective in an underground application would be to create a clean air zone along the face walkway by equipping the shields with water-powered scrubbers or other devices. Contaminated air would be extracted, cleaned and reinjected into the breathing zone of face personnel. The concept was evaluated in a full scale longwall test facility by equipping alternate shields with simulated air canopies. A variety of canopy configurations and airflow capacities were tested under different face ventilation situations to determine the quality and extent of the clean air zone developed by the canopy. The results revealed that even the most optimum configurations were unable to create a suitable clean air zone. Low effectiveness, coupled with high projected costs for underground application, showed the concept to be unfeasible and further development effort was cancelled. 21 figs.