Sample records for air particles research

  1. An optical investigation of air particle flows. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCluskey, Denise R

    This thesis is a fundamental study of air-particle flow fields where the experimental parameters are characteristics of coal-fired electricity generating stations. The optical flow field measurement technique Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...

  2. RESEARCH IN PARTICLE PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy] [Boston Universiy

    2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.

  3. Research in particle theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The {phi}{sup 4} field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent.

  4. Observing Air Showers from Cosmic Superluminal Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

    1997-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Poincar\\'e relativity principle has been tested at low energy with great accuracy, but its extrapolation to very high-energy phenomena is much less well established. Lorentz symmetry can be broken at Planck scale due to the renormalization of gravity or to some deeper structure of matter: we expect such a breaking to be a very high energy and very short distance phenomenon. If textbook special relativity is only an approximate property of the equations describing a sector of matter above some critical distance scale, an absolute local frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF) can possibly be found and superluminal sectors of matter may exist related to new degrees of freedom not yet discovered experimentally. The new superluminal particles ("superbradyons", i.e. bradyons with superluminal critical speed) would have positive mass and energy, and behave kinematically like "ordinary" particles (those with critical speed in vacuum equal to c, the speed of light) apart from the difference in critical speed (c_i >> c where c_i is the critical speed of a superluminal sector). They may be the ultimate building blocks of matter At speed v > c, they are expected to release "Cherenkov" radiation ("ordinary" particles) in vacuum. Superluminal particles could provide most of the cosmic (dark) matter and produce very high-energy cosmic rays. We discuss: a) the possible relevance of superluminal matter to the composition, sources and spectra of high-energy cosmic rays; b) signatures and experiments allowing to possibly explore such effects. Very large volume and unprecedented background rejection ability are crucial requirements for any detector devoted to the search for cosmic superbradyons. Future cosmic-ray experiments using air-shower detectors (especially from space) naturally fulfil both requirements.

  5. ambient air particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in AQM Carbon monoxide (CO) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen dioxide Weber, Rodney 5 Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse...

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

  7. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  8. Mechanisms and implications of air pollution particle associations with chemokines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seagrave, JeanClare [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Dr. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)], E-mail: jseagrav@LRRI.org

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inflammation induced by inhalation of air pollutant particles has been implicated as a mechanism for the adverse health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. The inflammatory response is associated with upregulation of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a significant constituent of air pollution particulate matter in many urban areas, bind and concentrate IL-8, an important human neutrophil-attracting chemokine, and that the chemokine remains biologically active. In this report, we examine possible mechanisms of this association and the effects on clearance of the chemokine. The binding appears to be the result of ionic interactions between negatively charged particles and positively charged chemokine molecules, possibly combined with intercalation into small pores in the particles. The association is not limited to diesel exhaust particles and IL-8: several other particle types also adsorb the chemokine and several other cytokines are adsorbed onto the diesel particles. However, there are wide ranges in the effectiveness of various particle types and various cytokines. Finally, male Fisher 344 rats were intratracheally instilled with chemokine alone or combined with diesel exhaust or silica particles under isofluorane anesthesia. In contrast to silica particles, which do not bind the chemokine, the presence of diesel exhaust particles, which bind the chemokine, prolonged the retention of the chemokine.

  9. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  10. The role of colloidal particles on the migration of air bubbles in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Ji-seok

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    into account the movement of air bubbles and colloidal particle capture on discrete air-water interface. Generally colloidal particles are treated as suspended particles in the water, so the hypothesis is that the rising air bubble can collect the particles...

  11. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

  12. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cruz, G.E.; Edwards, W.F.

    1987-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum-to-air interface is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve, from which extends a vacuum-tight duct, that terminates in an aperture. Means are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip across the aperture at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band urges foil strip, when stationary, against and into the aperture. Gas pressure means periodically lift off and separate foil strip from aperture, so that it may be readily advanced. 5 figs.

  13. Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has released a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) for over $25 million for Alternative Energy Research & Development.

  14. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cruz, Gilbert E. (Pleasanton, CA); Edwards, William F. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum-to-air interface (10) is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve (18), from which extends a vacuum-tight duct (26), that termintes in an aperture (28). Means (32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip (30) across the aperture (28) at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band (62) urges foil strip (30), when stationary, against and into the aperture (28). Gas pressure means (68, 70) periodically lift off and separate foil strip (30) from aperture (28), so that it may be readily advanced.

  15. PARTICLES OF DIFFERENCE Conference on Air Quality II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research by BNL investigators was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under and their possible influences on climate change. The prospect of new regulations on fine particles, PM-2 and by causing clouds to evaporate through absorptive heating of the atmosphere. Extinction of solar radiation

  16. Research in Theoretical Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, Hume A; Marfatia, Danny

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report on activity supported under DOE Grant Number DE-FG02-13ER42024. The report covers the period July 15, 2013 – March 31, 2014. Faculty supported by the grant during the period were Danny Marfatia (1.0 FTE) and Hume Feldman (1% FTE). The grant partly supported University of Hawaii students, David Yaylali and Keita Fukushima, who are supervised by Jason Kumar. Both students are expected to graduate with Ph.D. degrees in 2014. Yaylali will be joining the University of Arizona theory group in Fall 2014 with a 3-year postdoctoral appointment under Keith Dienes. The group’s research covered topics subsumed under the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Many theoretical results related to the Standard Model and models of new physics were published during the reporting period. The report contains brief project descriptions in Section 1. Sections 2 and 3 lists published and submitted work, respectively. Sections 4 and 5 summarize group activity including conferences, workshops and professional presentations.

  17. Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach for collision risk estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach explore the possibility of using air traffic complexity metrics to accelerate the Interacting Particle to assess the performance and impact of, e.g., possible modifications of the current air traffic management

  18. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the directi...

  19. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

  20. air pollution particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. 48 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

  1. air pollution particle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. 48 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

  2. Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph@mit.edu Phone: +1-617-253-7714, Fax: +1-617-2536152 Abstract Most ventilation and air conditioning systems. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow

  3. (Research in elementary particles and interactions). [1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  4. Ice Nuclei in Marine Air: Biogenic Particles or Dust?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Hoose, C.; Poschl, U.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice nuclei impact clouds, but their sources and distribution in the atmosphere are still not well known. Particularly little attention has been paid to IN sources in marine environments, although evidence from field studies suggests that IN populations in remote marine regions may be dominated by primary biogenic particles associated with sea spray. In this exploratory model study, we aim to bring attention to this long-neglected topic and identify promising target regions for future field campaigns. We assess the likely global distribution of marine biogenic ice nuclei using a combination of historical observations, satellite data and model output. By comparing simulated marine biogenic immersion IN distributions and dust immersion IN distributions, we predict strong regional differences in the importance of marine biogenic IN relative to dust IN. Our analysis suggests that marine biogenic IN are most likely to play a dominant role in determining IN concentrations in near-surface-air over the Southern Ocean, so future field campaigns aimed at investigating marine biogenic IN should target that region. Climate related changes in the abundance and emission of biogenic marine IN could affect marine cloud properties, thereby introducing previously unconsidered feedbacks that influence the hydrological cycle and the Earth’s energy balance. Furthermore, marine biogenic IN may be an important aspect to consider in proposals for marine cloud brightening by artificial sea spray production.

  5. Research Profile Particles are everywhere: from the earth and its mineral min-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    Research Profile Particles are everywhere: from the earth and its mineral min- ing to the air we aiming for new catalysts, sensors, nanocomposites,fuel cells,batteries,phosphors,CO2 sorbents, dental, orthopedic and even nutritional applications. Competences / Infrastructure Mixed ceramic/metal nanoparticle

  6. air shower particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ray spectrum with unprecedented detail, are exerting a severe pressure on extensive air hower modeling. Detailed fast codes are in need in order to extract and understand the...

  7. uge particle accelerators have been at the vanguard of research in particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    under construc- tion at CERN in Geneva,will attempt to find the Higgs boson, a particle associatedH uge particle accelerators have been at the vanguard of research in particle physics for more than half a century; through high-energy collisions of accelera- ted particles, the fundamental building

  8. uge particle accelerators have been at the vanguard of research in particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    H uge particle accelerators have been at the vanguard of research in particle physics for more than counterparts, positrons, can then `surf' the electric field of a wave's wake. Particles have been accelerated accelerator, charged particles such as electrons, protons or their antiparticles are accelerated by an alterna

  9. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics Internal Note performance of the counter for the detection of one MIP 3 #12;(Minimum Ionizing Particle). Their hardness

  10. air pollution research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution research First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Edinburgh Research Explorer...

  11. air particle detectors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way of measuring energetic charged particles involves scintillation detectors. Here. Aerogels are very light, so they can be easily flown on a balloon and offer little scattering...

  12. air bone particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: . Superluminal particles could provide most of the cosmic (dark) matter and produce very high-energy cosmic rays of high-energy cosmic rays; b) signa-...

  13. Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karchin, Paul E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

  14. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

  15. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  16. Time-to-Event Analysis of Fine Particle Air Pollution and Preterm Birth: Results from North Carolina, 2001-2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Brian J.

    1 Time-to-Event Analysis of Fine Particle Air Pollution and Preterm Birth: Results from North.chang@duke.edu #12;3 Abstract Exposures to air pollution during pregnancy have been suggested as risk factors good air quality. Key words: air pollution, particulate matter, preterm birth, survival analysis Word

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Particles for tracing turbulent liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Particles for tracing turbulent liquid helium Gregory P. Bewley Æ K. R of local flow velocities in turbulent liquid helium, using tracer particles. We survey and evaluate, we note that cryogenic helium is attractive for experimental studies because its kinematic viscosity

  18. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  19. Performance of Supply Airflow Entrainment for Particles in an Underfloor Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, C.; Li, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comfort conditions and energy conservation. However, the supply air outlet of UFAD system is set on the floor, such that the supply airflow may entrain the dust particles settled on the floor or suspended near the floor. This creates problems that need...

  20. air pollution particle-induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution particle-induced First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution...

  1. Fermilab | Science | Particle Physics | Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall A ThisFermilab'sSpaceResearch &

  2. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  3. Air Resources Laboratory The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) is a research laboratory within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in West Texas. The data collected and analyzed by ARL will improve forecasts of winds at heights more research and development in the fields of atmospheric dispersion, air quality, climate change, and boundary of hazardous chemicals and materials; developing, evaluating, and applying air quality models; conducting

  4. Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)

  5. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH European Laboratory for Particle Physics THERMAL components linking the cold mass to the vacuum vessel such as support posts and an insulation vacuum barrier aluminium thermal shield. The recent commissioning and operation of two SSS prototypes in the LHC Test

  6. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  7. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective ...

  8. air quality research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 71 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  9. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  10. Edinburgh Research Explorer Global association of air pollution and heart failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Global association of air pollution and heart failure Citation & Mills, NL 2013, 'Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-6736(13)60898-3 1 Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis Anoop

  11. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D. [Unidad de Actividad Fisica, CNEA, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A. J. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Fisica, CNEA, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, (Argentina); Burlon, A. [Escue la de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davidson, M.; Davidson, J. [CONICET (Argentina); Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E. [Unidad de Actividad Fisica, CNEA, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, CNEA, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ulke, A. G. [Depto. de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, UBA, (1428) (Argentina); Solanes, V. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  12. air force research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current status and opportunities MIT - DSpace Summary: There are hundreds of weapons programs, under the management of the United States Air Force worth billions of dollars. These...

  13. The Next Generation Air Particle Detectors for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hayes and Craig Marianno

    2007-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and testing of the United States Navy’s next generation air particle detector (NGAPD) is presently underway. The NGAPD is intended for use in nuclear applications for the United States Navy and is being designed to detect airborne Co-60 with a reduction in false alarms and improved ease of use. Features being developed include gamma compensation, low maintenance, commercial off-the-shelf electronics, and spectrum simulation for quality assurance and functional testing applications. By supplying a spectrum simulator, the radon stripping algorithm can be running when a simulated anthropogenic source spectrum (e.g., from Co-60 or transuranics) is superimposed on the radon progeny spectrum. This will allow alarm levels to be tested when the air flow is running and the radon stripping algorithm is providing the instrument response output. Modern units evaluate source spectra with the air flow off and the radon spectrum absent thereby not testing the true system performance which comes out of the radon stripping algorithm. Testing results of the preliminary prototype show promise along with computer simulations of source spectra. Primary testing results taken to date include gamma compensation, thermal insults, vibration and spectrum simulation.

  14. [Research in elementary particles and interactions]. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  15. 2012-13 Princeton Global Scholar Dr. Tong Zhu is a world leading researcher on the impact of air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of air pollution on public health, the mechanisms of atmospheric chemistry. His research spans the study research projects, he has led large international projects related to air pollution science, health impacts. Zhu led a team that formulated air pollution measures to improve air quality for the 2008 Beijing

  16. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were considered. Fundamental cost driver analysis was also performed. System development plans were drafted in order to determine where the technological and programmatic critical paths lay. As a result of this effort, UAVs were to be able to provide far more surveillance time and intelligence information per mission while reducing the high cost of support activities. This technology was intended to create unmatched global capabilities to observe and preempt terrorist and weapon of mass destruction (WMD) activities. Various DOE laboratory and contractor personnel and facilities could have been used to perform detailed engineering, fabrication, assembly and test operations including follow-on operational support. Unfortunately, none of the results will be used in the near-term or mid-term future. NGIS UMS and SNL felt that the technical goals for the project were accomplished. NGIS UMS was quite pleased with the results of analysis and design although it was disappointing to all that the political realities would not allow use of the results. Technology and system designs evaluated under this CRADA had previously never been applied to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Based upon logistic support cost predictions, because the UAVs would not have had to refuel as often, forward basing support costs could have been reduced due to a decrease in the number and extent of support systems and personnel being required to operate UAVs in remote areas. Basic application of the advanced propulsion and power approach is well understood and industry now understands the technical, safety, and political issues surrounding implementation of these strategies. However, the overall economic impact was not investigated. The results will not be applied/implemented. No near-term benefit to industry or the taxpayer will be encountered as a result of these studies.

  17. Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, Scott J.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  18. Measured concentrations of radioactive particles in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momeni, M H; Kisieleski, W E

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of radioactive particles (U-238, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210) in air were measured in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill, Bluewater, New Mexico. Airborne particles were collected at three stations for about two-thirds of a year using a continuous collection method at a sampling rate of 10 L/min, and also were measured in monthly composites collected periodically at four stations using high volume air samplers at a sampling rate of 1400 L/min. The ratios of concentrations of each radionuclide to the concentrations of U-238 indicate that the concentrations of the radionuclides are influenced principally by the proximity of the major sources of emission and the direction of the wind. In all cases, the concentration of Pb-210 exceeded that of U-238. The ratio of Pb-210/U-238 was 12.3 and 13.3 for stations dominated by the emissions from the tailings and ore pads, but was only 1.6 for the station dominated by the yellowcake stack emission. The ratio of the radionuclide concentrations measured by the two methods of sample collection was between 0.8 and 1.2 for uranium, radium, and lead at station 104, but was 0.28 to 1.7 for thorium, radium, and lead at stations 101 and 102. The average concentrations calculated from the measurements made in this study suggest that releases from the Anaconda mill were made well within the existing limits of the maximum permissible concentrations for inhalation exposure of the general public.

  19. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  20. Particle concentrations in air-conditioned office building with normal and high efficiency filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particle generation or resuspension, for particles largerLayton DW 1995. Deposition, resuspension, and penetration ofindoor generation or resuspension of particles larger than

  1. air research sst: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data (one ship using bucket, one ERI 2 Improved Validation of Satellite SST for Climate Research Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , and resolution)...

  2. Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research Center 1 March 28, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research.......................................................................................................... 37 #12;Air Quality Impacts of Some Alternative Vehicle Options UC Irvine National Fuel Cell Research-doctoral Researcher Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) University

  3. air pollution particle-exposed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  4. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commentary Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution pollution Santiago Erosion Sedimentation a b s t r a c t Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10

  5. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  6. Air quality model evaluation data for organics. 1. Bulk chemical composition and gas/particle distribution factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Grosjean, D.; Grosjean, E. [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States)] [DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of September 8-9, 1993, the South Coast Air Basin that surrounds Los Angeles experienced the worst photochemical smog episode in recent years; ozone concentrations exceeded 0.29 ppm 1-h average, and NO{sub 2} concentrations peaked at 0.21 ppm 1-h average. Field measurements were conducted at a five-station air monitoring network to obtain comprehensive data on the identity and concentration of the individual organic compounds present in both the gas and particle phases during that episode. The data will also serve to support future tests of air quality models designed to study organic air pollutant transport and reaction. Air samples taken in stainless steel canisters were analyzed for 141 volatile organic compounds by GC/ECD, GC/FID, and GC/MS; PAN and PPN were measured by GC/ECD; particulate organics collected by filtration were analyzed for total organics and elemental carbon by thermal evolution and combustion and for individual organic compounds by GC/ MS; semivolatile organics were analyzed by GC/MS after collection on polyurethane foam cartridges. The present paper describes this experiment and present the concentrations of major organic compound classes and their relationship to the inorganic pollutants present. 104 refs., 9 figs.

  7. ZINC/AIR BATTERY R & D RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIFUNCTIONAL OXYGEN ELECTRODE TASKS I AND II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ED SCI ENCE DIVISION ZINC/AIR BATTERY R&D C-.J(~ur.1":! rfSAC03-76SF00098 LBL-22661 ZINC/AIR BATTERY R&D RESEARCH ANDanalysis of the zinc-air battery system at one of the

  8. Air pollutant interactions with vegetation: research needs in data acquisition and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, S.E.; McLauglin, S.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this discussion is to consider problems involved in the acquisition, interpretation, and application of data collected in studies of air pollutant interactions with the terrestrial environment. Emphasis will be placed on a critical evaluation of current deficiencies and future research needs by addressing the following questions: (1) which pollutants are either sufficiently toxic, pervasive, or persistent to warrant the expense of monitoring and effects research; (2) what are the interactions of multiple pollutants during deposition and how do these influence toxicity; (3) how de we collect, report, and interpret deposition and air quality data to ensure its maximum utility in assessment of potential regional environmental effects; (4) what processes do we study, and how are they measured to most efficiently describe the relationship between air quality dose and ultimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; and (5) how do we integrate site-specific studies into regional estimates of present and potential environmental degradation (or benefit).

  9. NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes. Potential Impact

  10. RADIATIOh RESEARCH 142,61-69 (1995) The Biological Effectiveness of Radon-ProgenyAlpha Particles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    RADIATIOh RESEARCH 142,61-69 (1995) The Biological Effectiveness of Radon-ProgenyAlpha Particles., Huang, Y. and Hall, E. J. The Biological Effectiveness of Radon-Progeny Alpha Particles. 111. Quality estimates of values appropriate for the quality factor for radon progeny are significantly lower than those

  11. Development, characterization, and application of a charged particle microbeam for radiobiological research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkert, Michael R. (Michael Ryan), 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work is to develop a charged-particle microbeam for use in radiobiological research at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). The purpose of this device is to precisely explore the ...

  12. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of 'MicroPorous' Aerosol Particles (Compact and 'Fractal' Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  13. . Liquid or solid particles suspended in the air . Some occur naturally, originating from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    , absorption by particles and surrounding atmosphere causes net warming. . magnitude of cooling depends on size cooling may partially offset global warming due to CO2, etc. #12;. Alter warm, ice and mixed-phase cloud) . Aerosols produce more vivid sunsets . We are not sure whether aerosols are overall warming or cooling

  14. UCLA Intermediate Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Research: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M.K. Nefkens (Principal Investigator, ed.); J. Goetz; A. Lapik; M. Korolija; S. Prakhov; A. Starostin (ed.)

    2011-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This project covers the following research: (a) Investigations into the structure of the proton and neutron. This is done by investigating the different resonance states of nucleons with beams of tagged, polarized photons, linearly as well as circularly, incident on polarized hydrogen/deuterium targets and measuring the production of {pi}{sup #25;0}, 2{pi}{sup #25;}0, 3{pi}{sup #25;0}, {eta}#17;, {eta}', {omega}, etc. The principal detector is the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer which has an acceptance of nearly 4#25;. It has been moved to the MAMI accelerator facility of the University of Mainz, Germany. We investigate the conversion of electromagnetic energy into mesonic matter and conversely. (b) We investigate the consequences of applying the "standard" symmetries of isospin, G�parity, charge conjugation, C, P, T, and chirality using rare and forbidden decays of light mesons such as the {eta}#17;,{eta}' and {omega}. We also investigate the consequences of these symmetries being slightly broken symmetries. We do this by studying selected meson decays using the Crystal Ball detector. (c) We determine the mass, or more precisely the mass difference of the three light quarks (which are inputs to Quantum Chromodynamics) by measuring the decay rate of specially selected {eta}#17; and {eta}' decay modes, again we use the Crystal Ball. (d)We have started a new program to search for the 33 missing cascade baryons using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory. Cascade resonances are very special: they have double strangeness and are quite narrow. This implies that they can be discovered by the missing mass technique in photoproduction reactions such as in {gamma}p{yields}{Xi}{sup #4;�}K{sup +}K{sup +}. The cascade program is of particular importance for the upgrade to 12 GeV of the CLAS detector and for design of the Hall D at JLab. (e) Finally, we are getting more involved in a new program to measure the hadronic matter form factor of complex nuclei, in particular the "neutron skin" of {sup 208}Pb, which is of great interest to astroparticle physics for determining the properties of neutron stars. Processes of study are coherent and non�coherent #25;0 photoproduction. The Crystal Ball is uniquely suited for these studies because of the large acceptance, good direction and energy resolution and it is an inclusive detector for the #25;{pi}{sup 0} final state and exclusive for background such as 2#25;{pi}{sup 0}.

  15. Research Article Effects of Alpine hydropower dams on particle transport and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Research Article Effects of Alpine hydropower dams on particle transport and lacustrine December 2006 Abstract. The effects of high-alpine hydropower damming on lacustrine sedimentation impact, such as by hydropower dam construction that form artifi- cial sediment sinks acting as manmade

  16. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  17. A study of fractionating inlet systems for the dichotomous air sampler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ripps, Gerald Joseph

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Aerosols in Ambient Air", Swedish Water and Air Pollu- tion Research Labs. , S-402 24, Gothenburg, Sweden, (1975). (8) Steen, B. , "The Influence of Different Parameters on the Sampling Efficiency of Some Commonly Used Devices for Measuring Particle... Concentrations in Ambient Air", Ph. D. Thesis, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, (1975). (9) Steen, B. , and Andreasson, K. , "Comparative Measure- ments of Particle Concentrations in Ambient Air Made at a Background Station...

  18. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this third quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have obtained preliminary experimental results on the deposition behavior of submicron and supermicron solid particles (MgO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) on a two-dimensional surface exposed to a high temperature/velocity particle laden'' atmospheric pressure jet. The uniform velocity ( plug flow'') jet, with temperatures up to about 1520 K, derives from a pressurized gaseous fuel microcombustion chamber (110 cc) equipped with a platinum guiding (exit) channel. Particles were generated by several methods (Berglund-Liu type aerosol generator, ultrasonic nebulizer, or syringe feeder with aerodynamic particle off-take) and were introduced into the combustion chamber with a carrier stream of nitrogen or air. Laser light scattering and reflectivity techniques were used for the study of particle deposition, supplemented by post-mortem microscopy on the exposed surface. We observed a linear deposition rate of submicron particles due to the thermophoretic mechanism (until the first layer was developed) under both high and low velocity conditions. On the contrary, supermicron particle deposits reach a steady-state, evidently due to a dynamic equilibrium between particle deposition and dislodging caused by the impacting particles. At several temperatures particle-free subsonic gas jets (up to 120 m/sec) were unable to remove the submicron particle layer.

  19. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  20. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge to the Joint Economic Committee of the US Senate, domestic air traffic delays in 2007 cost airlines over $19

  1. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    is important because of the high costs of delays and pollution today, as well as the projected doubling in airResearch Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem

  2. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization 'tools' for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical 'program' based on the notion of self-regulation'' set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical 'many-body' computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,[hor ellipsis]) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend 'sticking' and 'erosion' laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

  3. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  4. Estimating Air Chemical Emissions from Research Activities Using Stack Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Woodruff, Rodger K.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of estimating air emissions from research and development (R&D) activities use a wide range of release fractions or emission factors with bases ranging from empirical to semi-empirical. Although considered conservative, the uncertainties and confidence levels of the existing methods have not been reported. Chemical emissions were estimated from sampling data taken from four research facilities over ten years. The approach was to use a Monte Carlo technique to create distributions of annual emission estimates for target compounds detected in source test samples. Distributions were created for each year and building sampled for compounds with sufficient detection frequency to qualify for the analysis. The results using the Monte Carlo technique without applying a filter to remove negative emission values showed almost all distributions spanning zero, and forty percent of the distributions having a negative mean. This indicates that emissions are so low as to be indistinguishable from building background. Application of a filter to allow only positive values in the distribution provided a more realistic value for emissions and increased the distribution mean by an average of sixteen percent. Release fractions were calculated by dividing the emission estimates by a building chemical inventory quantity. Two variations were used for this quantity: chemical usage, and chemical usage plus one-half standing inventory. Filters were applied so that only release fraction values from zero to one were included in the resulting distributions. Release fractions had a wide range among chemicals and among data sets for different buildings and/or years for a given chemical. Regressions of release fractions to molecular weight and vapor pressure showed weak correlations. Similarly, regressions of mean emissions to chemical usage, chemical inventory, molecular weight and vapor pressure also gave weak correlations. These results highlight the difficulties in estimating emissions from R&D facilities using chemical inventory data.

  5. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the California Air Resources Board and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, G.H.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The activities were performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) between June 1995 and December 1997. Work under this agreement was concentrated in two task areas as defined in the California Air Resources Board`s contract number 94-908 having an approval date of June 9, 1995: Task 1--EV and HEV Vehicle Testing and Assessment and Task 4--Advanced Battery Testing.

  6. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams -- physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {anti p}p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment -- search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay -- search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory -- theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 -- measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal -- calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.

  7. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  8. Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  9. GE, NASA Work to Relaunch Supersonic Air Travel | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Supporting NASA's efforts to Relaunch Commercial Supersonic Air Travel Awarded 2- year...

  10. A laboratory for instruction and research in air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Ray Allison

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complicated due to the combination of many simple units into elaborate assemblies. The functional relation- ship of condmnsers, compressors, cooling towersp evaporators, air distri- bution systems~ controls, snd other parts of an installation are often...

  11. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ESL-TR-93/09-01 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 i Dr. Mingsheng Liu Dr. David E. Claridge... Method 3 Co-heating Method 4 STAM Method 8 Conclusions 10 Reference 12 Appendix A 14 Appendix B 15 Appendix C 21 Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 1 Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE) Introduction The rate of air...

  12. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3[sub 3]H[sub 8]/air) microcombustor (110 cm[sup 3]). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St[sub m], trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7[mu]m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10[sup [minus]2]) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for pure'' inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to pressure diffusion,'' cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

  13. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization tools'' foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

  14. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  15. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  16. Zuo, W. and Chen, Q. 2010 "Simulations of air distribution in buildings by FFD on GPU," HVAC&R Research, 16(6): 785-798.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Zuo, W. and Chen, Q. 2010 "Simulations of air distribution in buildings by FFD on GPU," HVAC&R Research, 16(6): 785-798. SIMULATIONS OF AIR DISTRIBUTIONS IN BUILDINGS BY FFD ON GPU Wangda Zuo, Ph to perform real-time simulation for a moderate size building with 107 grids and t = 0.1s using the FFD

  17. Advanced emission-speciation methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. 1. Hydrocarbons and ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, T.E.; Siegl, W.O.; Lipari, F.; Loo, J.F.; Sigsby, J.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples for tailpipe, evaporative, and running loss were collected in Tedlar bags. Gas chromatographic analysis of the emissions samples included 140 components (hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols and aldehydes) between C1 and C12 in a single analysis of 54-minutes duration. Standardization, quality control procedures, and inter-laboratory comparisons developed and completed as part of this program are also described. (Copyright (c) 1992 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.).

  18. Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room...

  19. Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is presented to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board as a deliverable under the Energy Research and Applications Program Project #227, which targeted reducing the design size of HVAC systems in houses since the actual air...

  20. The role of charged particles in the positive corona-generated photon count in a rod to plane air gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, X. M.; Wang, Y. J.; MacAlpine, J. M. K.; Chen, L.; Wang, L. M.; Guan, Z. C. [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China)] [Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Wan, S. W. [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China)] [State Grid Chongqing Nan'an Power Supply Company, 401336 Chongqing (China); Liu, L. [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)] [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the calculated charged-particle densities in positive corona, the rate of streamer production, and the photon count from the corona were investigated and found to be closely related. Both the densities of electrons and positive ions peaked at 11.8 kV, near the corona inception voltage; they then fell rapidly before slowly rising again. This behavior was exactly matched by the measured photon count. The calculation of the charged-particle density in a positive corona was achieved by means of a fluid model.

  1. Air pollution and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: A study of PM10 dominated by coarse particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Hurley, S.; Lipsett, M.J.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many epidemiological studies provide evidence of an association between airborne particles, measured as PM10 (particulate matter less than 10{micro}m in diameter), and daily morbidity and mortality. Most of these studies have been conducted in urban areas where PM10 consists primarily of fine particles (<2.5 {micro}m in diameter). Few studies have investigated impacts associated with coarse mode particles (>2.5 {micro}m in diameter). The authors investigated associations between PM10 and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, a desert resort and retirement area east of Los Angeles, where coarse particles of geologic origin typically comprise approximately 50--60% of PM10 and can exceed 90% during wind events. Their analysis utilized daily data on mortality from 1989 through 1992 as well as several pollutant and meteorological variables, including PM10, nitrates, sulfates, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature, and relative humidity. Outcome variables included several measures of daily mortality, including all-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, and counts of deaths for those above age 50. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to explain these health endpoints, controlling for temperature, humidity, day of the week, season, and time, using locally weighted smoothing techniques. The analysis indicated statistically significant associations between PM10 and each measure of mortality.

  2. Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) Diagnostics for Wind Energy and Energy Security Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pol, Suhas Uddhav [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle Image Velocimetery (PIV) is a laser based technique that involves correlation analysis of tracer particle images to estimate the velocity field in a fluid. High resolution velocity measurement capability and non-intrusive nature of PIV make it desirable for understanding complex fluid flow phenomena occurring in various scenarios. This presentation briefly describes the development of novel PIV diagnostics that forward Wind Energy research and advance scaling models to solve expensive maintenance issues of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Two new diagnostic implementations of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to facilitate understanding of wind turbine aerodynamics in unprecedented detail. It has been demonstrated that a Large-Field PIV (LF-PIV) diagnostic capable of measuring large scale flow fields of up to 4.3m x 2.8m per camera has been developed. This diagnostic, which represents a significant leap in the field of view of existing centimeter scale PIV systems, allows the measurement of velocity fields at multiple points with high accuracy for large scale flows, such as, flows around wind turbines. Further, to characterize the near blade boundary layer of wind turbines a rotating PIV system (R-PIV) is also under development at LANL (patent application in progress). Design considerations and results of bench top tests that confirm the reliability of PIV measurements obtained using the above diagnostics will be presented in this talk. PIV along with conductivity and temperature probe data has been useful to develop models that simulate the evolution of the layered structure of crude oil stored in the subterranean caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserves (SPR). Understanding the evolution of stratified layers of crude oil that are subjected to geothermal forcing is crucial in improving the efficiency of maintenance procedures carried out for the SPR and hence ensure Energy Security of the nation. Through analytical and experimental analysis it has been found that the dynamics of crude oil mixing are significantly affected by the presence of heating sidewalls of the storage caverns. Scaling laws that have been advanced for evolution of mixed layers for stratified fluid layers stored in slender containers will also be described in this presentation.

  3. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A dual airflow window for indoor air quality improvement and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372. A Dual Airflow Window for Indoor Air with exhausted indoor air. The energy needed to condition outdoor air is reduced because of the counterflow heat, the dual airflow window has a great potential for conserving energy and improving indoor air quality

  4. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hodis, H.N. Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Loslife style, genetics, and air pollution). An accountabilityH.E. , Peters A. , Air pollution and markers of inflammation

  5. ambient air samples: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient air. A small amount of these nuclei mode particles contain solid ash from lube oil) South Coast Air Quality Management District California Air Resources Board Cummins...

  6. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  7. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. Geometand appliances and air pollution levels in the indoorAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  8. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  9. 2013 Annual Research is like the air we breathe. It is critical to every-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    the world. Research partnerships -- with companies, communities, foundations, universities and government. It was also a record year for new startup companies to license OSU technology. Among them were: » CSD Nano of Corvallis, which sells a high-performance coating to increase solar-cell performance » OilEx Tech

  10. The metal content of airborne particles in Edinburgh: application to epidemiological research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbs, L R; Beverland, Iain J; Heal, Mathew R; Agius, Raymond M; Elton, Robert A; Fowler, D; Cape, Neil

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metals are putative causative agents in the association between ill health and exposure to airborne particles. We present preliminary results from an epidemiological study using exposure metrics of metal contained in ...

  11. Research in particle theory. Annual progress report, December 1, 1990--October 10, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to `t Hooft`s results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The {phi}{sup 4} field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent.

  12. Review of research results for the photocatalytic oxidation of hazardous wastes in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M.R.; Wolfrum, E.J.; Gratson, D.A.; Watt, A.S.; Jacoby, W.A.; Turchi, C.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments of gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) at NREL have focused on measurements that can help commercialize this technology for treating gaseous air streams. This effort proceeds earlier NREL work and studies conducted elsewhere which demonstrated the general applicability of PCO. The more recent work has concentrated on: (1) the kinetics of the PCO process; (2) the formation and destruction of intermediates; and (3) possible enhancements to improve the destruction rates. The results from these studies will be used to help design large scale PCO equipment and they will be used to evaluate the economics of the PCO process. For trichloroethylene and ethanol, extensive studies of the rates of destruction have yielded kinetic parameters for the destruction of intermediates as well as the substrate. The kinetics of intermediates is essential for sizing a large scale reactor, as complete conversion to carbon dioxide is often desired. The kinetic data from these laboratory studies has been used for analyzing IT`s pilot PCO reactor and has been used to suggest modifications to this unit. For compounds that are more difficult to destroy (such as the components of BTEX), rate enhancement experiments have been conducted. These compounds represent a very large market for this technology and improvement of the rate of the process should make it competitive. Towards this goal, the enhancement of the destruction of BTEX components have been studied. Experiments have demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the rates of destruction of BTEX with the addition of ozone. Preliminary economic assessments have shown that PCO with ozone may be cost competitive. Future laboratory experiments of PCO will focus on refinements of what has been learned. Rate measurements will also be expanded to include other compounds representing significant markets for the PCO technology.

  13. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  14. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 21, PAGES 3465-3468, NOVEMBER 1, 2000 Increasing background ozone in surface air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    that an important consideration for pollution control strategies is the O3 back- ground present in surface air over background ozone in surface air over the United States C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Daniel J. Jacob, J. William Munger in surface air over the United States from 1980 to 1998 is examined using monthly probability distributions

  15. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  16. Research program in particle physics. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the progress report for DOE funded support of particle physics work at the University of Texas, Austin. Support was divided between theoretical and experimental programs, and each is reviewed separately in the report. Theoretical effort was divided between three general areas: quantum gravity and mathematical physics; phenomenology; and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Experimental effort was primarily directed toward AGS experiments at Brookhaven, to look for rare kaon decays. AGS experiments 791 and 871 are described, along with BNL experiment 888.

  17. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  18. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  19. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  20. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Seventh quarterly technical report, March 6, 1992--June 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of `MicroPorous` Aerosol Particles (Compact and `Fractal` Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  1. Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...

  2. Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...

  3. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes...

  4. Eighth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2009) Application of Reinforcement Learning Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the context of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA and departures during peak hours of operation. A recent article published in Aviation Week [1] indicates

  5. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equation (51), kg m s -2 thermophoretic force on a particle,equation (74) thermophoretic force coefficient, equation (equation (50), m s -1 thermophoretic velocity of a particle,

  6. airliner cabin air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

  7. air force aircraft: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Window Location on a King Air 200 Aircraft:aerosol.atmos.und.edu) Objective A Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 aircraft has been used to obtain Condensation Particle...

  8. Research in experimental elementary particle physics. A proposal to the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew P. White; Kaushik De; Paul A. Draper; Ransom Stephens

    1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the activities of the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington for the period 1994-95. We propose the continuation of the research program for 1996-98 with strong participation in the detector upgrade and physics analysis work for the D0 Experiment at Fermilab, prototyping and pre-production studies for the muon and calorimeter systems for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN, and detector development and simulation studies for the PP2PP Experiment at Brookhaven.

  9. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometNovakov, T. : Formation of Pollution Particulate NitrogenGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.

  10. Tenth USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2013) Assuring Safety of NextGen Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    of these efforts include increased efficiency, lessened environmental impact, and increased safety across the air arising from unsafe interactions among non-failed components, i.e., unplanned system and software behavior a failure prevention problem, allowing not only consideration of the causes of the component failure

  11. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  12. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle deposition in ventilation ducts influences particle exposures of building occupants and may lead to a variety of indoor air quality concerns. Experiments have been performed in a laboratory to study the effects of particle size and air speed on deposition rates of particles from turbulent air flows in galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. The duct systems were constructed of materials typically found in commercial heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle sizes of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition rates of particles with nominal sizes of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m were measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces (floor, wall and ceiling) at two straight duct sections where the turbulent flow profile was fully developed. In steel ducts, deposition rates were higher to the duct floor than to the wall, which were, in turn, greater than to the ceiling. In insulated ducts, deposition was nearly the same to the duct floor, wall and ceiling for a given particle size and air speed. Deposition to duct walls and ceilings was greatly enhanced in insulated ducts compared to steel ducts. Deposition velocities to each of the three duct surface orientations in both systems were found to increase with increasing particle size or air velocity over the ranges studied. Deposition rates measured in the current experiments were in general agreement with the limited observations of similar systems by previous researchers.

  13. Deep-Sea Research I 51 (2004) 865884 A vertical model of particle size distributions and fluxes in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, George

    processes as cell division and fecal pellet production or indirectly by coagulation of other particles. Once 2004 Abstract The downward transport of surface particle production constitutes an important mechanism

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strynadka, Natalie

    UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid NH4OH Acetic Acid 8.6 16.0 Configuration 1 SP 4 - - - SP - 2 SP 3 0.000 Temp (oC) dO2 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do OD CK (mg/50-L) MeOH (ml) dO2 (%)Temp (C) 40 20 60 80 0 100 6 8 4 2 0 10 28

  17. Research and design work on heat emission and aerodynamic resistance of tube bundles in air cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntysh, V.B.; Fedotova, L.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies of heat emission using methods of local and global thermal simulation of crossflow small-array bundles of tubes finned with wound aluminum strip, and flared into the load-bearing wall, are reported. Correction factors applicable to the method of simulating convective heat transfer over the range Re = (2.5-25).10/sup 3/ are given, with variation in the number of rows over the air course from one to four.

  18. Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137 homes and implications for ambient air quality standards and health effects research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spengler, J.D. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA); Duffy, C.P.; Letz, R.; Tibbitts, T.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Week-long integrated nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) measurements were made by using diffusion tube samplers inside and outside 137 homes in Portage, WI, over a 1-year period. The annual mean ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations in this rural community were 10-15 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. NO/sub 2/ levels inside the kitchens of 112 homes with gas stoves averaged about 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ higher, and bedroom levels were about 30 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ higher, than outdoor levels. Ten percent of the gas-cooking homes had annual average kitchen NO/sub 2/ levels higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. NO/sub 2/ levels inside kitchens of 25 homes with electric stoves were about two-thirds outdoor levels, while corresponding bedroom levels were one-half outdoor levels. Distinct seasonal patterns (higher indoor levels in winter, lower in summer) consistent with changes in normal air-exchange rates were evident in gas-cooking homes. The large variation of NO/sub 2/ concentrations among homes, likely due to differences in stove use, emission rates, and air-exchange rates, limits the development of prediction models. In addition, this variation would reduce the power of epidemiological studies of respiratory health, which use ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration levels, a simple dichotomous description of stove type and two categories of home cooking fuel to describe exposure.

  19. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of Cement-Fly Ash Pastes Dale P. Bentz Chiara F. Ferraris Michael A. Galler.galler@nist.gov Phone: (301)975-5865 Andrew S. Hansen John M. Guynn Roman Cement LLC andrew@RomanCement.com Abstract

  20. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus.50331 AcceptedArticle #12;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract

  1. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic particle deposition on coal-fired equipment. Final technical report, 6 September 1990--31 October 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review results of our recent DOE-PETC research program on the deposition dynamics of combustion-generated particles in power production technologies. We outline and illustrate the results of recently developed methods to predict total surface deposition rates and associated convective heat transfer reductions for targets exposed to a distribution of particles suspended in a mainstream. Our methods combine the essential features of recently developed single particle sticking probability laws with correlations of the inertial impaction of particles on targets in high Reynolds number cross-flow, to develop formulae and ``universal`` graphs which provide the dependence of particle deposition rates, and associated reductions in convective heat transfer, on such system parameters as mainstream velocity, mean suspended particle size and target size. The deposition rate/deposit microstructue/properties prediction and correlation procedures illustrated be incorporated into improved ``fouling propensity indices,`` to motivate, evaluate and implement ``ruggedization`` and/or fouling reduction strategies, and/or incorporated (as subroutines) into more ``comprehensive`` CFD models of an entire power plant.

  2. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  3. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our results on photophoresis reveal significant transport effects, mainly for particles which are carbonaceous (char-like, soot-like) rather than ash-like. Figure 2 shows the predicted dimensionless transport coefficient (proportional to the ordinary Stanton number for mass transfer) as a function of radiation/convective flux ratio and carbonaceous particle radius for laminar boundary layer flow past a wall cooled to 70% of the mainstream temperature, subjected to a radiative energy spectrum appropriate to a black-body source at ca. 1800K. One sees that large effects on the particle deposition rate are produced if the radiative flux is comparable to or exceeds the ordinary (Fourier) energy flux. We are now extending this work to include the effects of inevitable particle asymmetries, including agglomerate (shape) effects, and the role that energy transfer (eg. radiative cooling of larger particles in a population) might play in the coagulation dynamics and deposition dynamics of such aerosol populations.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137 homes and implications for ambient air quality standards and health effects research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spengler, J.D.; Duffy, C.P.; Letz, R.; Tibbitts, T.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Week-long integrated nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) measurements made with diffusion tube samplers inside and outside 137 homes in Portage, Wis., over a 1-year period yielded an annual mean ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration of 0.005-0.008 ppm (10-15 micrograms/m/sub 3/). The large variation of NO/sub 2/ concentrations among homes exhibited by this study was likely due to differences in gas stove use, emission rates, and air-exchange rates, limiting the development of prediction models. In addition, this variation reduces the power of epidemiological studies of respiratory health that use ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration levels, a simple dichotomous description of stove type, and two categories of home cooking fuel to describe exposure.

  5. Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137 homes and implications for ambient air quality standards and health effects research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spengler, J.D.; Duffy, C.P.; Letz, R.; Tibbitts, T.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Week-long integrated nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) measurements made with diffusion tube samples inside and outside 137 homes in Portage, Wisconsin, over a 1-year period yielded an annual mean ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration of 0.005-0.008 ppm. The large variation of NO/sub 2/ concentrations among homes exhibited by this study was likely due to differences in gas stove use, emission rates, and air-exchange rates, limiting the development of prediction models. In addition, this variation reduces the power of epidemiological studies of respiratory health that use ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration levels, a simple dichotomous description of stove type, and two categories of home cooking fuel to describe exposure.

  6. Developments to watch/cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite, limestone, clay, and shale while in the dry state to achieve a concentration of 90% purity at a competitive cost, according to West Virginia University Coal Research Bureau. The coal is crushed, screened to size, and placed in a vibrating feeder modified by adding small ridges parallel to the vibrating motion on the plate surface. The plate motion moves lighter coal particles slightly higher than the same size, heavier waste particles. A cross flow of air, which blows perpendicular to the vibratory motion, enhances the separation system.

  7. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 3, March 1, 1987--May 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this third quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have obtained preliminary experimental results on the deposition behavior of submicron and supermicron solid particles (MgO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a two-dimensional surface exposed to a high temperature/velocity particle ``laden`` atmospheric pressure jet. The uniform velocity (``plug flow``) jet, with temperatures up to about 1520 K, derives from a pressurized gaseous fuel microcombustion chamber (110 cc) equipped with a platinum guiding (exit) channel. Particles were generated by several methods (Berglund-Liu type aerosol generator, ultrasonic nebulizer, or syringe feeder with aerodynamic particle off-take) and were introduced into the combustion chamber with a carrier stream of nitrogen or air. Laser light scattering and reflectivity techniques were used for the study of particle deposition, supplemented by post-mortem microscopy on the exposed surface. We observed a linear deposition rate of submicron particles due to the thermophoretic mechanism (until the first layer was developed) under both high and low velocity conditions. On the contrary, supermicron particle deposits reach a steady-state, evidently due to a dynamic equilibrium between particle deposition and dislodging caused by the impacting particles. At several temperatures particle-free subsonic gas jets (up to 120 m/sec) were unable to remove the submicron particle layer.

  8. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is yet known (theoretically or experimentally) about the simultaneous effects of particle inertia, particle thermophoresis and high mass loading on the important engineering problem of predicting deposition rates from flowing dusty'' gases. For this reason, we investigate the motion of particles present at nonnegligible mass loading in a flowing nonisothermal gaseous medium and their deposition on strongly cooled or heated solid objects by examining the instructive case of steady axisymmetric dusty gas'' flow between two infinite disks: an inlet (porous) disk and the impermeable target'' disk -- a flow not unlike that encountered in recent seeded-flame experiments. Since this stagnation flow/geometry admits interesting self-similar solutions at all Reynolds numbers, we are able to predict laminar flow mass-, momentum- and energy-transfer rate coefficients over a wide range of particle mass loadings, dimensionless particle relaxation times (Stokes numbers), dimensionless thermophoretic diffusivities, and gas Reynolds numbers. As a by-product, we illustrate the accuracy and possible improvement of our previous diffusion model'' for tightly coupled dusty gas systems. Moreover, we report new results illustrating the dependence of the important critical'' Stokes number (for incipient particle impaction) on particle mass loading and wall/gas temperature ratio for dust-laden gas motion towards overheated'' solid surfaces. The present formulation and insulating transport coefficients should not only be useful in explaining/predicting recent deposition rate trends in seeded'' flame experiments, but also highly mass-loaded systems of technological interest.

  9. Inorganic hazardous air pollutants before and after a limestone flue gas desulfurization system as a function of <10 micrometer particle sizes and unit load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, D.P.; Williams, W.A.; Flora, H.B. II [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation collected size-fractionated particulate samples from stack gas at a unit burning high sulfur coal with a venturi scrubber FGD system. Independent sample fractions were collected under high-load and low-load operating conditions and subjected to various techniques designed to measure the total composition and surface-extractable concentrations of selected trace elements. The relationships between unit load, particle-size distribution, total composition, and surface-extractable inorganic species are reported and compared to show the availability of trace elements relevant to potential health risks from flue gas particulate emissions.

  10. Heterogeneities in inflammatory and cytotoxic responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to urban air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles from six European sampling campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalava, P.I.; Salonen, R.O.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Halinen, A.I.; Happo, M.S.; Hillamo, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Katsouyanni, K.; Sunyer, J.; Hirvonen, M.R. [National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. for Environmental Health

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activities of size-segregated particulate samples (particulate matter, PM) from contrasting air pollution situations in Europe. Coarse (PM10-2.5), fine (PM2.5-0.2), and ultrafine (PM0.2) particulate samples were collected with a modified Harvard high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the samples for 24 h. Selected inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2)), were measured together with cytotoxicity (MTT test), and analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle (propidium iodide staining). The PM10-2.5 samples had a much higher inflammatory activity than the PM2.5-0.2 and PM0.2 samples, but the PM2.5-0.2 samples showed the largest differences in inflammatory activity, and the PM0.2 samples in cytotoxicity, between the sampling campaigns. The PM2.5-0.2 samples from traffic environments in springtime Barcelona and summertime Athens had the highest inflammatory activities, which may be related to the high photochemical activity in the atmosphere during the sampling campaigns. The PM0.2 sample from wintertime Prague with proven impacts from local coal and biomass combustion had very high cytotoxic and apoptotic activities and caused a distinct cell cycle arrest. Thus, particulate size, sources, and atmospheric transformation processes affect the toxicity profile of urban air particulate matter. These factors may explain some of the heterogeneity observed in particulate exposure-response relationships of human health effects in epidemiological studies.

  11. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  12. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations Research Triangle Park, NC October 12-15, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations-1192, Japan. #12;Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations

  13. PhD scholarship on "Particle transport and clustering in stratified turbulent flows" funded by the Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandenburg, Axel

    and raindrop formation in clouds and planet formation in the solar nebula. The research project comprises two is for a new PhD student and is funded by The Research Council of Norway. The PhD grant offered amounts Andersson Dr Nils Erland Haugen Dept. Energy and Process Engineering SINTEF Energy Research NTNU PO Box 4761

  14. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONDRIVEN SHOCKS IN SOLAR FAST-WIND REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reames, Donald V.

    SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION BY CORONAL MASS EJECTION­DRIVEN SHOCKS IN SOLAR FAST-WIND REGIONS S. W. Kahler Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 Received 2002 September 10; accepted 2002 October 25 ABSTRACT Gradual solar

  15. Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Healthasthmatics and air pollution: differences in effects bywith peak particulate air pollution and effect modification

  16. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, June 6, 1992--September 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization `tools` for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical `program` based on the notion of ``self-regulation`` set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical `many-body` computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,{hor_ellipsis}) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend `sticking` and `erosion` laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

  17. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the above mentioned objectives, we are carrying out theoretical studies in the following three interrelated areas: (a) Interaction of inertial- and thermophoretic effects in well-defined laminar dusty-gas'' flows; (b) Self-regulated sticking and deposit erosion in the simultaneous presence of vapor or submicron glue''; (c) Use of packed bed and tube-bank heat transfer and friction correlations to provide the basis for future tube-bank fouling predictions. During this second quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756. we have: (1) done preliminary gas velocity and temperature calibrations of the micro-combustor exit gas flow jet and initiated the development of both a monodispersed droplet feed system and powder feed system to provide monodispersed particle laden jets covering a broad spectrum of particle sizes (ca. 0.5--50 m diameter); and, (2) demonstrated the ability of impacting supermicron particles to remove predeposited submicron particles on a platinum target, using real-time optical reflectivity methods. These preliminary experiments will be extended and discussed in our next Quarterly Technical Report.

  18. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of the ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the above mentioned objectives, we have initiated theoretical studies in the following three interrelated areas : (a) Interaction of inertial- and thermophoretic effects in well-defined laminar dusty-gas'' flows. (b) Self-regulated sticking and deposit erosion in the simultaneous presence of vapor or submicron glue'' (c) Use of packed bed and tube-bank heat transfer and friction correlations to provide the basis for future tube-bank fouling predictions.During the first three months of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have: (1) Designed and initiated construction of the microcombustor particle-laden jet facility described in Section 3.1. (2) Initiated theoretical studies of the interaction of inertial and thermophoretic effects, the role of simultaneous vapor arrival in determining particle sticking and erosion probabilities, and mass transport phenomena in deep tube banks.

  19. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the present reporting period, we have initiated work on (a) the interpretation of our recent data (see QTR5) on deposition rates under the simultaneous influence of inertia and thermophoresis, (b) the possible rate of particle photophoresis in environments characterized by high radiative heat loads. and (c) the influence of particle size distributions on total mass deposition rates. The fruits of these initiatives will be reported in subsequent quarterly technical reports. Here, we focus on our recent theoretical results in the important but previously uncharted area of the relations between particulate deposition mechanisms, deposit microstructure and deposit properties. Experimental verification of some of the most interesting predictions will be the subject of future HTCRE-Lab studies. Recent discussions with fouling engineers have convinced us that despite recent advances in our ability to predict particle deposition rates in convective-diffusion environments, the important connection between resulting deposit properties (effective thermal conductivity permeability, [hor ellipsis]) and deposition mechanism remain poorly understood and only scarcely studied. Accordingly, as part of this DOE-PETC program we have developed a discrete stochastic model to simulate particulate deposition processes resulting from a combination of deposition mechanisms.

  20. Particle Contamination on a Thermal Flying-Height Control Slider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Nan; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the investigation of particle contamination on a TFC slider.on particle ?ows and contamination of air bearing sliders.and Conclusion The particle contamination on a TFC slider is

  1. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1987-November 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-PETC has initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year experimental and theoretical research program directed toward providing engineers with the data, methods, and rational correlations needed to dramatically improve the generality and accuracy of prediction of inorganic particle deposition rates under typical coal combustion conditions (i.e., those leading to the importance of thermophoretically-enhanced diffusion (submicron mode) and the inertially-enhanced ''impaction'' (supermicron mode)), often in the presence of simultaneous alkali salt vapor condensation. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Estimation of Lateral Distribution Function in Extensive Air Showers by Using AIRES Simulation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ahmed Al-Rubaiee; Ahmed Jumaah

    2013-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the estimation of the lateral distribution function in Extensive Air showers was performed by using a system for air shower simulations which is called AIRES version 2.6 for different hadronic models like (QGSJET99, SIBYLL and SIBYLL1.6). The simulation was fulfilled in the high energy range (10^15-10^19 eV) for different primary particles like (gamma, protons and iron nuclei) for vertical showers. This simulation can be used to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated Extensive Air showers for charged particles that registered with different arrays.

  3. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (Broomfield, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

    1989-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  4. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  5. Single particle counting diagnostic system for measuring fine particulates at high number densities in research and industrial applications. Final report summarizing instrument development, validation and operating instructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holve, D.J.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments have achieved feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. The present report describes a mobile electro-optical system which has been designed for general use in a wide range of research and industrial environments. Specific features of this system include a method of providing in situ alignment and incorporation of an extinction measurement for application to optically thick aerosol flows. The instrument has demonstrated capability for measuring individual particles in the size range 0.25 to 100 microns at number densities up to 10/sup 12//m/sup 3/. In addition to demonstration of the system's wide dynamic range, we show the utility of the in situ alignment method in hot (1100 K) turbulent flows where beam steering can be a problem. As an example of the instrument's application, number and mass frequency distribution measurements of flyash and pulverized coal obtained in an atmospheric combustion exhaust simulator show that the raw pulverized coal contains large numbers of submicron particles similar to the flyash formed after combustion.

  6. Subtask 2.12 - Air Quality Assessment and Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Raymond

    2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Past particulate matter (PM) research projects conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center included data on PM size, morphology, and chemistry. The objective of this project was to improve automated analysis capabilities of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The SEM is now able to perform particle-by-particle analysis on the desired number of particles and provide size, morphology, and chemistry information for each particle. A new x-ray and image analysis system was purchased and implemented for improvements to data acquisition and analysis. This new analysis system is equipped with a digital-pulse processor, allowing for the determination of pixel-by-pixel chemistry, which significantly enhances our ability to characterize PM and other materials. In addition, this system is personal computer-based, which allows programming of the SEM to perform the automated image analysis along with detailed chemical information. This permits the incorporation of particle classification algorithms within the same computer system as the analysis is conducted. Additionally, the new Spirit software can now integrate full SEM control with imaging, elemental identification, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) operation. The EBSD system has also allowed for phase identification within the SEM. Reexamination of previous samples collected on a polycarbonate filter for ambient-air PM2.5 analysis has shown that crystalline identification of individual particles can be done without further sample preparation or modification of the sample and/or sampling substrate.

  7. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle: Deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, June 1, 1988--August 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-PETC has initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year experimental and theoretical research program directed toward providing engineers with the data, methods, and rational correlations needed to improve the generality and accuracy of prediction of inorganic particle deposition rates under typical coal combustion conditions i.e., those leading to the importance of thermophoretically-enhanced diffusion (submicron mode) and the inertially-enhanced ''impaction'' (supermicron mode), often in the presence of simultaneous alkali salt vapor condensation. After a brief statement of objectives (Section 2) we outline our experimental and theoretical progress during this quarterly reporting period (Section 3), with our results summarized in the references documented in Section 5. Section 4 gives relevant administrative information (personnel, research plans). 15 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  9. Environmental Aspects of Air Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Innovation Center #12;2 Aviation and Climate #12;3 Combustion Products Commercial jet fuel is essentially FOR AIR TRANSPORTATIONCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHSYSTEMS RESEARCH Metron Aviation GMU, and the process inside real engines is considerably more complex. Typical emission rates for jet aircraft (grams

  10. [Research programs on elementary particle and field theories and superconductivity]. Technical progress report, June 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khuri, N.N.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research of staff members in theoretical physics is presented in the following areas: super string theory, a new approach to path integrals, new ideas on the renormalization group, nonperturbative chiral gauge theories, the standard model, K meson decays, and the CP problem. Work on high-{Tc} superconductivity and protein folding is also related.

  11. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 5. The Next Particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 5. The Next Particle The "sparticle" - a super symmetric partner to all the known particles could be the answer to uniting all the known particles and their interactions under one grand theoretical pattern of activity. But how do researchers know where to look for such phenomena and how do they know if they find them? Simon Singh reviews the next particle that physicists would like to find if the current particle theories are to ring true.

  12. Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Particles and Residuals of Cloud Droplets and Ice Crystals Collected On Board Research Chemical Characterization of Individual Particles and Residuals of Cloud Droplets...

  13. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  14. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly report No. 9, September 1, 1988--November 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time laser light-reflectivity technique is being used to study simultaneous thermophoretic and inertial influences on the deposition behavior of MgO particles produced via ultrasonic nebulization (submicrometer range). The deposition surface (a concave platinum ribbon) is exposed to a high velocity/temperature jet of alkali sulfate-free combustion products exiting from a seeded (C3{sub 3}H{sub 8}/air) microcombustor (110 cm{sup 3}). The reflectivity data were calibrated against deposition rates obtained from SEM pictures of the target, and were normalized with the nominal particle feed rate, in order to obtain the mass transfer Stanton number, St{sub m}, trends depicted in Figure 1. For the submicron (ca. 0.7{mu}m) particles inertial effects appear to set in at Stokes (Stk) numbers of O(10{sup {minus}2}) (an order of magnitude lower than the ones needed for ``pure`` inertial impaction), affecting significantly the dominant thermophoretic deposition mechanism. A first order (in Stk) theoretical analysis of the problem in which particle inertia is treated as equivalent to ``pressure diffusion,`` cannot explain the observed dependence of the deposition rate on Stk. We are presently formulating a Lagrangian approach, valid for all values of Stk, in order to interpret these data. In addition, a Single Particle Counter (SPC) and Transit Time Velocimeter (TTV), are being developed, to allow more precise measurements of particle feed rates and velocities.

  15. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Quarterly technical report, December 6, 1991--March 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization ``tools`` foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R&D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

  16. Effects of air pollution on vascular thrombosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabor, Caroline Mary

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Increases in air pollution, especially the particulate component, are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly through increases in thrombogenic mechanisms. The research presented in this thesis ...

  17. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

  18. Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment S.C. Jain Professor and Research Engineer Dept. Civil, C., "Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment," in Proceedings of the 48th SFSA Technical An analysis is reported of the water modeling experiments of Bates et al. (1994) to study air entrainment

  19. Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop Session 4 Joint Research Policy Needs and Interactions needs and how can we work together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in Scotland. Modelling

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  1. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  2. CATEE: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillman, S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and musts often resort to drugs to alleviate symptoms. • Research shows that people spend over 50% of their time at home indoors. • Consumer awareness of IAQ is growing Why IAQ Matters © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc Sources: EPA, State of the Air... • Household cleaners © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc ESL-KT-14-11-27 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Current Filtration Systems © 2014 CirrusAir Technologies, Inc • The increased need for indoor air quality...

  3. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wiblin, C.M. [Advanced Systems Technology, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  4. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  5. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  6. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a hazard to human health when the particle size becomes small enough to enter the lungs, e.g., smoke. At LANL, particulate matter concentrations are measured continuously and...

  7. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  8. ENVIR 202: AIR ESSAY ASSIGNMENT 2003 Length: about 5 pages plus figures (at 1 line spacing, font-size 12).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are most important? A3 `Bad air': particles in the atmosphere and the lungs: dust, smoke, raindrops Write

  9. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  10. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  11. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakov, T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a) soot particles from propane-benzene combustion in air;tempera­ downstream from a propane Photoelectron spectraand carbon (Is) regions of propane soot particles produced

  12. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  13. inAir: A Longitudinal study of Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    pollutants are colorless and odorless, while many activities are inconspicuous and routine. We implemented inAir. Among those, air pollution and its effects on health have been researched extensively over past several decades [13]. In particular, the health effects of air pollution cover a wide variety of respiratory

  14. Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities: 1987-1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 1 Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U Word Count: 3032 #12;Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 U.S. Cities 2 Abstract Background: Time-series analyses have linked contemporary levels of air pollution, particularly particles, to daily mortality

  15. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH the temperature of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat summertime temperatures reduces electricity demand for air conditioning, which lowers air pollution levels

  16. Research program in particle physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.; Ritchie, J.L.; Lang, K.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: Quantum Gravity and Mathematical Physics; Phenomenology; Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory; Status of BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 791; BNL Expt. 888; and SSC Activities.

  17. Particle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moosmuller, Hans (Reno, NV); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Reno, NV); Arnott, W. Patrick (Reno, NV)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  18. Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliabilityPrincipal Investigators PostdoctoralResearch

  19. Air Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

  20. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  1. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have...

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  3. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Today’s EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  4. Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

  5. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, June 1, 1987-August 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our emphasis in the present program is on experimentally validating and developing rational, theoretical methods of predicting the role of inertia and ash particle thermophoresis in determining net deposition rates. We also wish to quantify how simultaneous vapor deposition (e.g., alkali sulfate) can influence the sticking and erosion associated with impacting particles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  6. 7, 64136457, 2007 Single particle mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to use Mexico City as a case study of air pollution mitigation while major advances continue to improve the regional air quality.5 To help decrease particulate matter (PM) pollution in Mexico City, ACPD 7, 6413­6457, 2007 Single particle mass spectrometry of Mexico City aerosols R. C. Moffet

  7. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  8. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive benchmarks combinations, and conducted modeling and simulation studies to begin populating the matrix of commodities, threats, and detection technologies. (4) Designed and fabricated basic (homogeneous) commodity test pallets and fabricated inert stimulants to support experiments and to validate modeling/simulation results. (5) Developed/expanded the team's capabilities to conduct full-scale imaging (neutron and x-ray) experiments of air cargo commodities and explosive benchmarks. (6) Conducted experiments to improve the collection of trace particles of explosives from a variety of surfaces representative of air cargo materials by means of mechanical (air/vibration/pressure), thermal, and electrostatic methods. Air cargo screening is a difficult challenge that will require significant investment in both research and development to find a suitable solution to ensure the safety of passengers without significantly hindering the flow of commodities. The initiative funded by Battelle has positioned this group to make major contributions in meeting the air cargo challenge by developing collaborations, developing laboratory test systems, improving knowledge of the challenges (both technical and business) for air cargo screening, and increasing the understanding of the capabilities for current inspection methods (x-ray radiography, x-ray backscatter, etc.) and potential future inspection methods (neutron radiography, fusion of detector modalities, advanced trace detection, etc.). Lastly, air cargo screening is still an issue that will benefit from collaboration between Department of Energy Laboratories and Battelle. On January 7, 2010, DHS Secretary Napolitano joined White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs and Assistant to the President for Counterterrorism and Homeland Security John Brennan to announce several recommendations DHS has made to the President for improving the technology and procedures used to protect air travel from acts of terrorism. (This announcement followed the 25 Dec'09 Delta/Northwest Airlines Flight 253 terror attack.) Secretary Napolitano out

  9. The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisham, Phillip Ryan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

  10. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling energy efficiency ratio for split-system air conditioners is not well characterized. This research

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  14. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  15. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air 2008, August 17-perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longeraddressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting

  16. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  17. Development of Improved Models and Designs for Coated-Particle Gas Reactor Fuels -- Final Report under the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; Philippe Martin; Mayeul Phélip; Ronald Ballinger; Petti does not have NT account

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this INERI project was to develop improved fuel behavior models for gas reactor coated-particle fuels and to explore improved coated-particle fuel designs that could be used reliably at very high burnups and potentially in gas-cooled fast reactors. Project participants included the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEEL), Centre Étude Atomique (CEA), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). To accomplish the project objectives, work was organized into five tasks.

  18. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  19. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  20. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics (NMCPP) -- Task A: Collider Physics; Task A2: Collider Physics; Task B: Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, John; Seidel, Sally; Gold, Michael

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period 2010-­?2012, we conducted particle physics research with the ATLAS and CDF experiments and developed new instrumentation for tracking fundamental particles.

  1. The bipolar charging of submicrometer particles (0.03 [micrometers is less than or equal to] Dp [is less than or equal to] 0.31 [ micrometers]) by bipolar air ions: an experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Gary Jay

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    =3. u N+t = 1. 87x109 statvolts cm IO o ? EXPERIMENT X = IO E 0 I L CONTINUUM Dl FFU SIC N ~ THEORY g o THEORY 4J O m O. l O. OI O. I PARTICLE DIAMETER, D&(porn) 1. 0 Fig. 10: Comparison of experimental data (extrapolated to zero...

  2. Air Pollution Control (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter enumerates primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and the significant deterioration increments. Significant deterioration refers to an increase in ambient air pollution...

  3. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  4. Partitioning Complexity in Air Traffic Management Task

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, M. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cognitive complexity is a term that appears frequently in air traffic control (ATC) research literature, yet there is little principled investigation of the potential sources of cognitive complexity. Three distinctly ...

  5. Free Air C02 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Oak Ridge FACE Site and Experiment on CO2 Enrichment of Sweetgum

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The facility was established with support from the ORNL Director's R&D Fund and the Biological and Environmental Research program of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science. Additional support was provided by the Terrestrial Ecology and Global Change (TECO) program through the National Science Foundation. This project was part of the CO2 research network fostered by the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Results from the experiment contributed to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Response to Atmospheric and Climatic Change (TERACC) project, a 5-year initiative integrating experimental data and global change modeling. Data from the ORNL FACE experiment are being used in an model benchmarking activity at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. [Copied from http://face.ornl.gov/goals.html

  6. air springs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6430 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN AIR QUALITY Spring 2012 Prof. Mike Bergin, Prof. Rodney Weber Scattering and Absorption by 2) Calibration of an Optical Particle Counter Aerosol 6-7...

  7. air agglomeration method: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6430 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN AIR QUALITY Spring 2012 Prof. Mike Bergin, Prof. Rodney Weber Scattering and Absorption by 2) Calibration of an Optical Particle Counter Aerosol 6-7...

  8. Particle size effects in particle-particle triboelectric charging studied with an integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilici, Mihai A.; Toth, Joseph R.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Lacks, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7217 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental studies of triboelectric charging of granular materials via particle-particle contact are challenging to control and interpret because of foreign material surfaces that are difficult to avoid during contacting and measurement. The measurement of particle charge itself can also induce charging, altering results. Here, we introduce a completely integrated fluidized bed and electrostatic separator system that charges particles solely by interparticle interactions and characterizes their charge on line. Particles are contacted in a free-surface fluidized bed (no reactor walls) with a well-controlled fountain-like flow to regulate particle-particle contact. The charged particles in the fountain are transferred by a pulsed jet of air to the top of a vertically-oriented electrostatic separator consisting of two electrodes at oppositely biased high voltage. The free-falling particles migrate towards the electrodes of opposite charge and are collected by an array of cups where their charge and size can be determined. We carried out experiments on a bidisperse size mixture of soda lime glass particles with systematically varying ratios of concentration. Results show that larger particles fall close to the negative electrode and smaller particles fall close to the positive electrode, consistent with theory and prior experiments that larger particles charge positively and smaller particles charge negatively. The segregation of particles by charge for one of the size components is strongest when its collisions are mostly with particles of the other size component; thus, small particles segregate most strongly to the negative sample when their concentration in the mixture is small (and analogous results occur for the large particles). Furthermore, we find additional size segregation due to granular flow, whereby the fountain becomes enriched in larger particles as the smaller particles are preferentially expelled from the fountain.

  9. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  10. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  11. Research in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    & Phenomenology Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology Accelerator Physics Health Physics #12;Experimental Photonuclear cryptography #12;Accelerator Physics Dallin, CLS Staff Particle Accelerator Design · Beam Optics · RF systemsResearch in: Experimental Photonuclear Physics Quantum Entanglement Particle Physics Theory

  12. air support doctrine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Environment Joint Research Center for Advanced Environmental Technology, School of Environment,...

  13. air power insurgency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Environment Joint Research Center for Advanced Environmental Technology, School of Environment, Tsinghua...

  14. air conditioning technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  15. air conditioning technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  16. air force plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 18 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  17. air force technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technical design Texas at Austin, University of 20 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  18. air force surveys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  19. air force petroleum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 16 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  20. air force civil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 18 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  1. air force institute: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  2. air force bench: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  3. air force installations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  4. air force journal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 16 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  5. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 9, NO. 10, PAGES 1207-1210, OCTOBEX 1982 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NITRATE AND SULFATE IN THE MARINE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    of nitrate in the atmosphere have been conducted in continental (primarily urban) areas; data on nitrate polycarbonate sheets were used as impaction surfaces; these sheets had a "frosted" finish which minimizes to collect the smallest particles. The polycarbonate inlpaction sheets were used because of their inertness

  6. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly techical report, December 1, 1986--February 28, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the above mentioned objectives, we are carrying out theoretical studies in the following three interrelated areas: (a) Interaction of inertial- and thermophoretic effects in well-defined laminar ``dusty-gas`` flows; (b) Self-regulated sticking and deposit erosion in the simultaneous presence of vapor or submicron ``glue``; (c) Use of packed bed and tube-bank heat transfer and friction correlations to provide the basis for future tube-bank fouling predictions. During this second quarter of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756. we have: (1) done preliminary gas velocity and temperature calibrations of the micro-combustor exit gas flow jet and initiated the development of both a monodispersed droplet feed system and powder feed system to provide monodispersed particle laden jets covering a broad spectrum of particle sizes (ca. 0.5--50 m diameter); and, (2) demonstrated the ability of impacting supermicron particles to remove predeposited submicron particles on a platinum target, using real-time optical reflectivity methods. These preliminary experiments will be extended and discussed in our next Quarterly Technical Report.

  7. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 13, PAGES 1785-1788, JULY 1, 1999 Current sheet control of recurrent particle increases at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanahuja, Blai

    solar wind far from the Sun along interfaces which are inclined relative to the equator in the same/n alpha particle intensity. The next panel shows the solar wind speed. In the bottom panel we show wind of the streamer belt to the high-speed solar wind flow of the polar coronal hole, and back, every

  8. Air flow characteristics of dry and liquid loaded packed and fluidized systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millsap, George Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acknowledgnent s List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Description of s Fluidised Bed Obgectives Application 1 2 3 Description of Apparatus Test Procedure Preparation of Bed Material Beds With Upward Flow of Air Beds With Upward Flow of Air... obgectives of thi ~ investigation were: (1) to deternine the air flow-pressure drop relationships in a dry bed of unifornly sised spherical particles in both the packed and fluidised regines of air flow; (3) to deternine under the sane air flow conditions...

  9. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  10. Supporting Air Traffic Flow Management with Agents Shawn R. Wolfe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke-Smith, Neil

    Supporting Air Traffic Flow Management with Agents Shawn R. Wolfe Intelligent Systems Division NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 Shawn.R.Wolfe@nasa.gov Abstract Air traffic flow an agent-based system to facilitate mutually beneficial air traffic management decisions, and identify

  11. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

  12. PARTICLES OF DIFFERENCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    It is no longer appropriate, if it ever was, to think of atmospheric aerosols as homogeneous spheres of uniform composition and size. Within the United States, and even more globally, not only the mass loading but also the composition, morphology, and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols are highly variable, as a function of location, and at a given location as a function of time. Particles of a given aerodynamic size may differ from one another, and even within individual particles material may be inhomogeneously distributed, as for example, carbon spherules imbedded in much larger sulfate particles. Some of the particulate matter is primary, that is, introduced into the atmosphere directly as particles, such as carbon particles in diesel exhaust. Some is secondary, that is, formed in the atmosphere by gas-to-particle conversion. Much of the material is inorganic, mainly sulfates and nitrates resulting mainly from energy-related emissions. Some of the material is carbonaceous, in part primary, in part secondary, and of this material some is anthropogenic and some biogenic. While the heterogeneity of atmospheric aerosols complicates the problem of understanding their loading and distribution, it may well be the key to its solution. By detailed examination of the materials comprising aerosols it is possible to infer the sources of these materials. It may be possible as well to identify specific health impairing agents. The heterogeneity of aerosol particles is thus the key to identifying their sources, to understanding the processes that govern their loading and properties, and to devising control strategies that are both effective and efficient. Future research must therefore take cognizance of differences among aerosol particles and use these differences to advantage.

  13. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  14. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  15. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  16. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  17. Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supplies, dry cooling systi Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT INLET AIR SPRAY COOLINGUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation Inlet Air Spray Cooling

  18. Method for sampling sub-micron particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC); McMillan, William G. (Ulmers, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar.RTM. and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis.

  19. Sub-micron particle sampler apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC); McMillan, William G. (Ulmers, SC)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar.RTM. and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis.

  20. Examining How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle Characteristics Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights...

  1. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  2. Healthy Air Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

  3. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  4. Proposal for a consulting commission Climate and Air Quality of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drmota, Michael

    and climate strategies and their relation to air pollution issues · Co-benefit consideration of different issues relating to the atmosphere (air pollution, climate change) and aerosol ­ climate interaction · Exposures to ambient and indoor air pollutants (fine and ultrafine particles) · Epidemiology of disease

  5. Saving Energy and Improving IAQ through Application of Advanced Air Cleaning Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saving Energy and Improving IAQ through Application of Advanced Air Cleaning Technologies Table 1 equipment and people from particles. Criteria for Air Cleaning Reducing ventilation rates to save energy, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates

  6. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  7. MAD-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

  8. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  9. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  10. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  11. The 1984 Theatre Season in Buenos Aires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnarelli, Sharon

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FALL 1985 83 The 1984 Theatre Season in Buenos Aires Sharon Magnarelli Thanks to the financial support of the Fulbright Commission, I was afforded the opportunity to spend July through September of 1984 in Buenos Aires, doing research... on Argentine theatre. In the three months I was there, attending one or more theatrical performances nearly every night, I found a vast array of productions and a world of contrasts—a world of contrasts when one compared Buenos Aires theatre to that of other...

  12. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene...

  13. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, James V. (Piedmont, CA); Savaskan, Gultekin (Albany, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  14. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  15. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  16. Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

  17. Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Trees & Air-continued

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    #12;Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Trees & Air- continued pollutants include ozone, sulfur dioxide of trees on air pollution. The research on trees and air pollution is rather new and still ongoing, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. These are taken out of the air by trees primarily through leaf

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  19. Association between Local Traffic-Generated Air Pollution and Preeclampsia and Preterm Delivery in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jun; Ren, Cizao; Delfino, Ralph J; Chung, Judith; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lutant exposures to PTD at pollution lev- els typical ofbeen associated with air pollution in only two recent U.S.indoor, and community air pollution research. Environ Health

  20. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolb, Gregory J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  1. Comparison of the Coulter Multisizer and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer for obtaining the aerodynamic particle size of irregularly shaped dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Joshua Wayne

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When studying air quality it is often necessary to measure the aerodynamic size distribution of particles. True aerodynamic diameter must be measured using a gravitational settling method, which is impractical. Other methods exist that use other...

  2. Air Products Research Alliance University of California,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Energy Materials Lithium battery electrolyte salts Functional Coatings Nanoparticle Dispersions Electronic Materials Conductive Polymer Hole Injection Layer Lithium battery electrolytes Aqueous, Solvent&D in lieu of in-house R&D Utilizes R&D partners to accelerate commercialization University alliance approach

  3. Sandia Energy - Air Force Research Laboratory Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6 thCONTRACTORS &8/2011,

  4. Sandia Energy - Air Force Research Laboratory Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6 thCONTRACTORS

  5. Air Traffic Operations | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C. bescii CelA, adefault Sign InLeaks inWhyforIn

  6. Evaluation of Alternate Materials for Coated Particle Fuels for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2006 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Karen Wright; Jian Gan; David Petti; Todd Allen; Jake Blanchard

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Candidate ceramic materials were studied to determine their suitability as Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor particle fuel coatings. The ceramics examined in this work were: TiC, TiN, ZrC, ZrN, AlN, and SiC. The studies focused on (i) chemical reactivity of the ceramics with fission products palladium and rhodium, (ii) the thermomechanical stresses that develop in the fuel coatings from a variety of causes during burnup, and (iii) the radiation resiliency of the materials. The chemical reactivity of TiC, TiN, ZrC, and ZrN with Pd and Rh were all found to be much lower than that of SiC. A number of important chemical behaviors were observed at the ceramic-metal interfaces, including the formation of specific intermetallic phases and a variation in reaction rates for the different ceramics investigated. Based on the data collected in this work, the nitride ceramics (TiN and ZrN) exhibit chemical behavior that is characterized by lower reaction rates with Pd and Rh than the carbides TiC and ZrC. The thermomechanical stresses in spherical fuel particle ceramic coatings were modeled using finite element analysis, and included contributions from differential thermal expansion, fission gas pressure, fuel kernel swelling, and thermal creep. In general the tangential stresses in the coatings during full reactor operation are tensile, with ZrC showing the lowest values among TiC, ZrC, and SiC (TiN and ZrN were excluded from the comprehensive calculations due to a lack of available materials data). The work has highlighted the fact that thermal creep plays a critical role in the development of the stress state of the coatings by relaxing many of the stresses at high temperatures. To perform ion irradiations of sample materials, an irradiation beamline and high-temperature sample irradiation stage was constructed at the University of Wisconsin’s 1.7MV Tandem Accelerator Facility. This facility is now capable of irradiating of materials to high dose while controlling sample temperature up to 800ºC.

  7. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  8. Sub-micron particle sampler apparatus and method for sampling sub-micron particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.; McMillan, W.G.

    1984-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method steps for collecting sub-micron sized particles include a collection chamber and cryogenic cooling. The cooling is accomplished by coil tubing carrying nitrogen in liquid form, with the liquid nitrogen changing to the gas phase before exiting from the collection chamber in the tubing. Standard filters are used to filter out particles of diameter greater than or equal to 0.3 microns; however, the present invention is used to trap particles of less than 0.3 micron in diameter. A blower draws air to said collection chamber through a filter which filters particles with diameters greater than or equal to 0.3 micron. The air is then cryogenically cooled so that moisture and sub-micron sized particles in the air condense into ice on the coil. The coil is then heated so that the ice melts, and the liquid is then drawn off and passed through a Buchner funnel where the liquid is passed through a Nuclepore membrane. A vacuum draws the liquid through the Nuclepore membrane, with the Nuclepore membrane trapping sub-micron sized particles therein. The Nuclepore membrane is then covered on its top and bottom surfaces with sheets of Mylar and the assembly is then crushed into a pellet. This effectively traps the sub-micron sized particles for later analysis. 6 figures.

  9. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,

  10. Air Pollution Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The mission of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management's Office of Air Quality implements federal and state regulations to protect human health and the environment while allowing the...

  11. Air Pollution Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

  12. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  13. Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

  14. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Final technical report, September 1, 1986--April 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

  15. Experimental Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the BaBar experiment, which collected data at SLAC until 2008. They continued to analyze the voluminous BaBar data with an emphasis on precision tests of Quantum Chromodynamics and on properties of the "eta_B," a bottom quark paired in a meson with a strange quark. The ATLAS experiment became the principal research focus for Purohit. One of the world's largest pieces of scientific equipment, ATLAS observes particle collisions at the highest-energy particle accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Our efforts on ATLAS included participation in the commissioning, calibration, and installation of components called "CSCs". The unprecedented energy of 14 TeV enabled the ATLAS and CMS collaborations to declare discovery of the famous Higgs particle in 2012.

  16. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  17. Air cooling for Vertex Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arantza Oyanguren

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertex detectors are crucial detectors for future linear e+e- colliders since they must give the most accurate location of any outgoing charged particles originating from the interaction point. The DEPFET collaboration is developing a new type of pixel sensors which provide very low noise and high spatial resolution. In order to precisely determine the track and vertex positions, multiple scattering in the detector has to be reduced by minimizing the material in the sensors, cooling, and support structures. A new method of cooling by blowing air over the sensors has been developed and tested. It is applied in the design and construction of the Belle-II detector and may be used in the new generation of vertex detectors for linear colliders.

  18. AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

  19. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 SLAC's air emissions are regulated through a federally mandated site-wide permit as well

  20. Growth and poverty in the urban fringe : decentralization, dispersion, and inequality in greater Buenos Aires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libertun de Duren, Nora R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research presents the case of growth in Buenos Aires since the late 1970s, when the decentralization of urban planning powers in the Province of Buenos Aires began, until 2001, when an economic crisis submerged -even ...

  1. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association PARTICLE PHYSICS· DESY has openings for: DESY-Fellowships (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well

  2. Compressed Air System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  3. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  4. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  5. Approved Module Information for CE3013, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Particle Processing Module Code: CE3013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    of measuring particle size and interpreting the results. Removal of particles from air streams ? cyclone design, other methods such as gravity and inertial separators, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators

  6. Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and for monitoring air. Technical status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentine, J.D.

    1999-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati/Argonne National Laboratory (UC/ANL) Team was assembled to complete this detector development project. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term monitoring capability and improved air monitoring capability during remedial activities. Successful development and implementation of the proposed detection systems could significantly improve current capabilities with relatively simple and inexpensive equipment.

  7. Sources for Pu in near surface air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, G.; Thom, C.; Baechmann, K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides evidence that most of the Pu in the near surface air today is due to resuspension. Vertical and particle size distribution in near surface air over a period of three years were measured. The seasonal variations of Pu in air and the influence of meteorological parameters on these variations are shown. Samples were taken before the Chernobyl accident in an area where only Pu fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests of the early sixties occurs. The comparison of the behavior of Pu with other trace elements, which were also measured, showed similar behavior of Pu and elements like Ca, Ti and Fe in near surface air. This confirms that most Pu is resuspended because the main source for these elements in air is the soil surface. Resuspension factors and resuspension rate are estimated for all measured elements. A resuspension factor of 0.8 X 10(-8) m-1 and a resuspension rate of 0.09 X 10(-9) s-1 is calculated for Pu.

  8. National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark Air Quality Research Institute Ministry of the Environment Air Quality Monitoring Programme Annual Summary for 2004 Berkowicz and Jørgen Brandt Department: Department of Atmospheric Environment Serial title and no.: NERI

  9. National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Environmental Research Institute Ministry of the Environment . Denmark Air Quality Research Institute Ministry of the Environment Air Quality Monitoring Programme Annual Summary for 2003: Department of Atmospheric Environment Serial title and no.: NERI Technical Report No. 497 Publisher: National

  10. Laser ignition of aluminum nanoparticles in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, M. M. (Mary M.); Oschwald, D. M. (David M); Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on recent experiments of the ignition of nanoaluminum in air by CO{sub 2} laser heating. Ignition time and temperature were measured as a function of Al particle size and laser power. The ignition time was determined by high-speed digital images and frrst light as determined by a photodiode. The ignition delay increases with increasing particle size, and the decreasing laser power. Two stage burning is observed. The first reaction takes place on the surface of the powder sample and moves from the center to the edges followed by the second reaction, which takes place within the bulk of the sample. As the particles size increases the material is less likely to burn through out, leaving behind unreacted Al powder.

  11. Blodgett Forest Research Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    kilometres away. Then, as the sun reaches its peak in the sky, pollution from California's Central Valley a crucial part in the chemistry of aerosol particles and with pollutants such as ozone. His discoveries may help to fill in con- founding gaps in atmospheric science, such as how VOCs from plants affect air

  12. NOAA Air Resources Laboratory Monthly Activity Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with GSD's Homeland Security Project. The Earth System Research Laboratory's Global Systems Division (GSD's Homeland Security Project 2. Wildfire Smoke Forecasts 3. HYSPLIT Modifications for NOAA's Homeland Security Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) 3.2 10. Air Quality Forecast Model

  13. air volume air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Preheat Economics Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy...

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for hazardous air...

  15. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  16. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  17. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING USING LOCATION SPECIFIC AIR MONITORING IN BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, L.; Hanks, D.; Degange, J.; Brant, H.; Hall, G.; Cable-Dunlap, P.; Anderson, B.

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the introduction of safeguards strengthening measures approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors (1992-1997), international nuclear safeguards inspectors have been able to utilize environmental sampling (ES) (e.g. deposited particulates, air, water, vegetation, sediments, soil and biota) in their safeguarding approaches at bulk uranium/plutonium handling facilities. Enhancements of environmental sampling techniques used by the IAEA in drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear materials or activities will soon be able to take advantage of a recent step change improvement in the gathering and analysis of air samples at these facilities. Location specific air monitoring feasibility tests have been performed with excellent results in determining attribute and isotopic composition of chemical elements present in an actual test-bed sample. Isotopic analysis of collected particles from an Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) collection, was performed with the standard bulk sampling protocol used throughout the IAEA network of analytical laboratories (NWAL). The results yielded bulk isotopic values expected for the operations. Advanced designs of air monitoring instruments such as the ACE may be used in gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) to detect the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or enrichments not declared by a State. Researchers at Savannah River National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing the next generation of ES equipment for air grab and constant samples that could become an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. Location specific air monitoring to be used to establish a baseline environmental signature of a particular facility employed for comparison of consistencies in declared operations will be described in this paper. Implementation of air monitoring will be contrasted against the use of smear ES when used during unannounced inspections, design information verification, limited frequency unannounced access, and complementary access visits at bulk handling facilities. Analysis of technical features required for tamper indication and resistance will demonstrate the viability of successful application of the system in taking ES within a bulk handling location. Further exploration of putting this technology into practice is planned to include mapping uranium enrichment facilities for the identification of optimal for installation of air monitoring devices.

  19. air force materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air force materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Air Force Research Laboratory...

  20. An Emerging Triad: Air Pollution, Beetles, and Wildfire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . The effects of air pollution mimic drought and have the potential to increase fuel loads in forests, exac Southwest Research Station Forest service, U.s. Department oF agricUltUre Biochemical changes in trees stressed by drought and air pollution may attract bark beetles, which overwhelm the trees' defense

  1. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  2. Particle size distribution of indoor aerosol sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, K.B.

    1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As concern about Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has grown in recent years, it has become necessary to determine the nature of particles produced by different indoor aerosol sources and the typical concentration that these sources tend to produce. These data are important in predicting the dose of particles to people exposed to these sources and it will also enable us to take effective mitigation procedures. Further, it will also help in designing appropriate air cleaners. A new state of the art technique, DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer) System is used to determine the particle size distributions of a number of sources. This system employs the electrical mobility characteristics of these particles and is very effective in the 0.01--1.0 {mu}m size range. A modified system that can measure particle sizes in the lower size range down to 3 nm was also used. Experimental results for various aerosol sources is presented in the ensuing chapters. 37 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  4. Air Quality (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nova Scotia Environment is responsible for monitoring the air quality in the province, as well as administering fines and permits relating to air quality. The Air Quality Regulations state...

  5. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE OF STARCH PARTICLES-AIR FLAMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    d'Energetique etde Ditonique, U.RA. 193 CNRS E.N.S.M.A., Poitiers. France & C.Proust I and original experimental results on this problem. Experimental Method Experimental setup The method used

  7. Making Compressed Air System Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    . The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added... specification, selection and installation process will follow. BACKGROUND For more than 100 years compressed air has been used throughout industry as a safe and reliable utility. The generation of this utility is performed by an air compressor. The first...

  8. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  9. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  10. Bifunctional air electrodes containing elemental iron powder charging additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-tsun (Monroeville, PA); Demczyk, Brian G. (Rostrover Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Gongaware, Paul R. (Penn Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bifunctional air electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer essentially comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon; (ii) elemental iron particles having a particle size of between about 25 microns and about 700 microns diameter; (iii) an oxygen evolution material; (iv) a nonwetting agent; and (v) a catalyst, where at least one current collector is formed into said composite.

  11. Air Cooling R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or otherwise restricted information. 2 State of the Art Everything on a vehicle is air cooled, ultimately... Air cooling can be done... When?... How? Honda Insight Power...

  12. Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

  13. Evaluating passenger delays in the US domestic air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umang, Nitish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental component of any National Airspace System (NAS) performance evaluation is the cost impact of air traffic delays, and more generally capacity limitations, on the traveling passengers. In previous research it ...

  14. air force pilots: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  15. air force pilot: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  16. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    does not need to be replaced * Air is a dielectric and can contact the chip directly * No global warming potential Relevance 7 Project Pathway This collaborative research with ORNL...

  17. air particulate exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Research Commuters Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route CiteSeer Summary: Ba...

  18. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  19. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  20. Padding with Compressed Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

  1. Canned Air in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government ...

  2. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  3. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  4. Air pollution meteorology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eagleman, J.R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Pollution Meteorology is divided into three parts: air pollution fundamentals; concentration calculations and distributions; and pollution and meteorological interactions. The first section includes chapters on the following topics: the problem; measurements, sources, and standards; air stagnation and pollutant index; and effects. The second section of the book includes chapters on diffusion theory, the Gaussian plume dispersion model, plume rise, various dispersion models, scale considerations, and concentration trends. The third and final section (on pollution and meteorological interactions) begins with two chapters on radiative and wind effects on dispersion, and then follows with chapters on acid rain, the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect, and nuclear winter. In summary, Air Pollution Meteorology does a good job of covering the field for physics, chemistry, and engineering students who want to obtain an overview of the subject.

  5. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  6. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  7. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre/m) Accelerator Research DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle with universities. The DESY focus is on conventional and plasma-based accele- rators with applications in photon

  8. Ignition of syngas/air and hydrogen/air mixtures at low temperatures and high pressures: Experimental data interpretation and kinetic modeling implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryer, Frederick L.; Chaos, Marcos [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnitude of ignition delay observations and homogeneous kinetic calculations seen elsewhere is a result in large measure of departures of the experimental configurations from behavior dominated solely by homogeneous gas phase kinetics. In the regime of interest (higher pressures, lower temperatures), the hydrogen-oxygen chemical induction processes can be significantly perturbed by several nonhomogeneous effects, which include catalytic aberrations. The multiple perturbations that can significantly affect induction chemistry are very difficult to remove in research experiments and nearly impossible to control in engineering applications. The implications for developing lean premixing schemes for advanced syngas gas turbine applications are that designs must consider the inherent presence of these perturbations on ignition delay as well as those that might occur from potential particle contamination of the air stream exiting the compressor, if stimulated flashback into the mixing region is to be precluded.

  9. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the National Science Foundation of the United States of America concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in Nuclear and Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research and the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the National Science Foundation of the United States of America concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in Nuclear and Particle Physics

  10. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  11. ensl-00167302,version1-18Aug2007 Measurement of particle and bubble accelerations in turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ensl-00167302,version1-18Aug2007 Measurement of particle and bubble accelerations in turbulence R motion are resolved and the particle acceleration is measured. For neutrally buoyant par- ticles, our 1.4) and to air bubbles. We observe that the acceleration variance strongly depends on the particle

  12. Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations) Natural (dust, fires, volcanos) Meteorology: Transport, turbulence Clouds and radiation, precipitations Chemistry-transport model Gas and particles concentrations Use of model outputs: Analysis Direct: model vs

  13. Use of airs and modis thermal infrared channels to retrieve ice cloud properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yost, Christopher Rogers

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we use thermal infrared channels to retrieve the optical thickness and effective particle radius of ice clouds. A physical model is used in conjunction with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature and water vapor profiles...

  14. Use of airs and modis thermal infrared channels to retrieve ice cloud properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yost, Christopher Rogers

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we use thermal infrared channels to retrieve the optical thickness and effective particle radius of ice clouds. A physical model is used in conjunction with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) temperature and water vapor profiles...

  15. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  16. Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18 12 p.m. ­ 1:00 p.m. Human Resources/Tobacco- Free! Join us for an interactive session and learn more about "AIR" (Approach, Inform, Refer, and safe campus environment. Visit Clearing the Air website (http://tobaccofree.ucr.edu/) for more

  17. Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems Kisup Lee* Zheng Jiang, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution systems such as Traditional Displacement Ventilation (TDV) and Under- Floor Air Distribution (UFAD

  18. Research and Application of RCF Technology in Public Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, J.; Pan, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , China, September 14-17, 2014 Research and Application of RCF Technology in Public Buildings 7. REFERENCES ASHRAE, 2013, “2013 Handbook-Fundamental, Thermal Comfort”, American Society of Heating, refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc...Radiant Ceiling plus Fresh Air Research and Application of RCF Technology in Public Buildings ???????????? AirStar Air Conditioning Technology Group (HK) Ltd ?????????? AirStar Environment Technology Group Ltd ?????????????? YanTong Zhu...

  19. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  20. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  2. Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions Advanced Characterization of Particles and Particle-Cell Interactions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  3. Dynamics of Carroll Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Bergshoeff; Joaquim Gomis; Giorgio Longhi

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate particles whose dynamics is invariant under the Carroll group. Although a single free such Carroll particle has no non-trivial dynamics (`the Carroll particle does not move') we show that there exists non-trivial dynamics for a set of interacting Carroll particles. Furthermore, we gauge the Carroll algebra and couple the Carroll particle to these gauge fields. It turns out that for such a coupled system even a single Carroll particle can have non-trivial dynamics.

  4. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 3 COMMAND LINE SCRIPTS......................................................10 3.1 Online.................................................................................................................10 3.3 The bcoll command.......................................................................................................10 3.4 The bfilta command

  5. air-cathode microbial fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Environment Joint Research Center for Advanced Environmental Technology, School of Environment, Tsinghua...

  6. Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation gives an overview of the status and FY09 accomplishments for the NREL thermal management research project 'Air Cooling for Power Electronics'.

  7. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

  8. Hot Particle and Turbulent Transport Effects on Resistive Instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, Dylan P.

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project included two main thrusts; energetic particle effects on resistive MHD modes in tokamaks, and turbulence interactions with tearing modes in simplified geometry.

  9. Biodiesel Effects on Diesel Particle Filter Performance: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R. L.; Hayes, R.; Ireland, J.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research results on the performance of biodiesel and biodiesel blends with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a diesel particle filter (DPF).

  10. Simulation of aerosol dynamics: A comparative review of algorithms used in air quality models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Seinfeld, J.H.; Jacobson, M.Z.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative review of algorithms currently used in air quality models to simulate aerosol dynamics is presented. This review addresses coagulation, condensational growth, nucleation, and gas/particle mass transfer. Two major approaches are used in air quality models to represent the particle size distribution: (1) the sectional approach in which the size distribution is discretized into sections and particle properties are assumed to be constant over particle size sections and (2) the modal approach in which the size distribution is approximated by several modes and particle properties are assumed to be uniform in each mode. The results of this study provide useful information to select algorithms to simulate aerosol dynamics in air quality models and to improve the accuracy of existing algorithms.

  11. Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Jonathan

    Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways IE Research Associate and depletion of air pollution within the first 550 yards downwind of the roadway and look at exposure patterns for sensitive populations within that region. By modeling pollutant dispersion by air movement, scientists can

  12. Lagrangian air-mass tracking with smart balloons during ACE-2 Randy Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    Lagrangian air-mass tracking with smart balloons during ACE-2 Randy Johnson National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory, Field Research Division, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83402 Steven Balloon designed at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory Field

  13. Noxious Weed Survey of the U.S. Air Force Academy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noxious Weed Survey of the U.S. Air Force Academy and Farish Outdoor Recreation Area Colorado 80523 http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu April 15, 2003 Prepared For: U.S. Air Force Academy Department ................................................................................................... 5 OTHER RESEARCH AT THE U.S. AIR FORCE ACADEMY AND FARISH OUTDOOR RECREATION AREA

  14. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  15. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... of thermostat, and the relationship between room temperature set point and return air temperature. The Role Of Thermostat Traditional pneumatic thermostat is a proportional (P) type controller. It senses the space temperature changes and produces...

  16. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... understand how this reset scheme responds to building load change, thus resulting in supply air temperature reset, it is helpful to explain the role of thermostat. In the following section, we explain the way how the thermostat works, the type...

  17. Stable levitation and dynamics of ice particles at low pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Kowalski; Bernard Xie; Colin V. Parker; Cheng Chin

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate stable levitation and trapping of ice particles of 30~200 micon at low background gas pressures in the presence of a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force levitates the particles, which have long lifetimes of over an hour. The equilibrium position depends on the background pressure and temperature gradient, which is consistent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, we investigate interesting launching and merging dynamics of the levitated particles, as well as the development of instability at high background pressures. Our system provides a robust platform to investigate the aggregation of floating ice particles in air, and potentially chemical and biological processes in a microgravity environment.

  18. Indoor air quality: multivariate analyses of the relationship between indoor and outdoor aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, S.M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique multivariate data set incorporating simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of sixteen air contaminants at ten homes has been used to investigate the contribution of outdoor concentrations to indoor aerosol variability, and to characterize indoor source contribution to the indoor concentrations. The data were available from an earlier field study of particle and gas concentrations outside and inside five homes in each of two cities: Portage, Wisconsin, and Steubenville, Ohio. Three distinct multivariate statistical techniques were used sequentially in the research, successively building on the results and interpretations as they developed. Cluster analysis was selected as the initial method for partitioning the variables into subgroups comprised of highly intercorrelated variables. Significant site-to-site variability was evident in both cities, however within sites, indoor clusters had similarities to the outdoor clusters. Principal component analysis was next performed on the Portage data, reduced in dimension to avoid problems of singularity in the data matrix. The principal component analyses results were used to attribute predominant indoor and outdoor sources, including cigarette smoke, wood stove, road dust, and urban combustion sources. Finally, multiple regression analysis was performed to relate outdoor pollutant concentrations to a composite index of the indoor aerosol as represented by the orthogonal rotations of the indoor principal components. The research indicates that this multivariate analysis framework is preferable to single univariate analysis in evaluating the influence of outdoor aerosols and indoor sources on indoor air quality data.

  19. DOE (Department of Energy) funds awarded for scrap tire research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After promising initial results in demonstrating the technical and commercial feasibility of modifying the surface of finely ground scrap tires to produce adhesion properties needed for reuse in polymers such as polyurethanes and epoxies, the US Department of Energy increased its research contract with Air Products and Chemicals to $850,000. The additional monies will be used to evaluate a second approach to surface modification that will extend the use of the rubber to other polymers and rubber formulations. Supplies to the surface-modified rubber particles should be available by late summer for customer evaluation. The initial applications for the new rubber particles are expected to include polyurethane, for the manufacture of carpet underlayment, shoe soles and newly developed polyurethane spare tires, improving the impact resistance of polystyrene, PVC and engineering plastics and automotive belts, gaskets and seals.

  20. Theoretical Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.

  1. Particle transport in plasma reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, D.J.; Geller, A.S.; Choi, Seung J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kushner, M.J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEMATECH and the Department of Energy have established a Contamination Free Manufacturing Research Center (CFMRC) located at Sandia National Laboratories. One of the programs underway at the CFMRC is directed towards defect reduction in semiconductor process reactors by the application of computational modeling. The goal is to use fluid, thermal, plasma, and particle transport models to identify process conditions and tool designs that reduce the deposition rate of particles on wafers. The program is directed toward defect reduction in specific manufacturing tools, although some model development is undertaken when needed. The need to produce quantifiable improvements in tool defect performance requires the close cooperation among Sandia, universities, SEMATECH, SEMATECH member companies, and equipment manufacturers. Currently, both plasma (e.g., etch, PECVD) and nonplasma tools (e.g., LPCVD, rinse tanks) are being worked on under this program. In this paper the authors summarize their recent efforts to reduce particle deposition on wafers during plasma-based semiconductor manufacturing.

  2. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  3. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  4. Volumetric particle modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dingle, Brent Michael

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and the lifetime of each particle is infinite. 2.1.2 Growing Patterns Particle systems can also model static or instantaneous things. They have been used to model plants and fracture patterns [21, 22] as well as lightning, frost, ice or snowflakes [23... mixes with dirt particles to form mud particles................................................... 121 61 Mud drying and cracking............................................................................................... 122 62 Ice melting...

  5. RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN 2012 www.PosterPresentations.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2012 www.PosterPresentations.com Air pollution is currently Inferring Air Pollution by Sniffing Social Media To deal with the air pollution, we first need to monitor it also suffer air pollution 1.Linear regression model on Weibo bag-of-words features. 2.K nearest

  6. 22 Research Activities 2012 Informatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Computer Science Computational Astrophysics Theoretical Particle Physics Cognitive Developmental Robotics Society Human Math. Astronomy Physics Robotics The Hakubi Project: Fostering Young Researchers The Hakubi researchers are employed for five years by Kyoto University as associate or assistant professors, during which

  7. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA's laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  8. Development of an ambient air sampler that satisfies RF plant monitoring requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nininger, R.C.; Pauley, B.J.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is developing a new ambient air particulate sampler to replace units that have been in service for about twenty years. The new sampler is required to operate at a flow rate approximately twice that of the existing samplers and admit particles as large as 70 micrometers aerodynamic diameter. The sampler provides two size fractions with separation at 10 micrometers. using a single stage impactor designed at RFP and carrying a Department of Energy (DOE) patent. The sampler is modular for easy servicing in the field and its operation can be checked via radiotelemetry. The sampler, designed to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for PM-10 sampling, is currently being characterized in EPA`s laboratories at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  9. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for...

  10. Detecting Radio Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers and Neutrinos with a Digital Radio Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heino Falcke; Peter Gorham

    2002-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the possibilities of measuring ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos with radio techniques. We review a few of the properties of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers and show how these properties can be explained by coherent ``geosynchrotron'' emission from electron-positron pairs in the shower as they move through the geomagnetic field. This should allow one to use the radio emission as a useful diagnostic tool for cosmic ray research. A new generation of digital telescopes will make it possible to study this radio emission in greater detail. For example, the planned Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR), operating at 10-200 MHz, will be an instrument uniquely suited to study extensive air showers and even detect neutrino-induced showers on the moon. We discuss sensitivities, count rates and possible detection algorithms for LOFAR and a currently funded prototype station LOPES. This should also be applicable to other future digital radio telescopes such as the Square-Kilometer-Array (SKA). LOFAR will be capable of detecting air-shower radio emission from >2*10^14 eV to ~10^20 eV. The technique could be easily extended to include air shower arrays consisting of particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger), thus providing crucial additional information for obtaining energy and chemical composition of cosmic rays. It also has the potential to extend the cosmic ray search well beyond an energy of 10^21 eV if isotropic radio signatures can be found. Other issues that LOFAR can address are to determine the neutral component of the cosmic ray spectrum, possibly look for neutron bursts, and do actual cosmic ray astronomy.

  11. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 11, March 1, 1989--May 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our results on photophoresis reveal significant transport effects, mainly for particles which are carbonaceous (char-like, soot-like) rather than ash-like. Figure 2 shows the predicted dimensionless transport coefficient (proportional to the ordinary Stanton number for mass transfer) as a function of radiation/convective flux ratio and carbonaceous particle radius for laminar boundary layer flow past a wall cooled to 70% of the mainstream temperature, subjected to a radiative energy spectrum appropriate to a black-body source at ca. 1800K. One sees that large effects on the particle deposition rate are produced if the radiative flux is comparable to or exceeds the ordinary (Fourier) energy flux. We are now extending this work to include the effects of inevitable particle asymmetries, including agglomerate (shape) effects, and the role that energy transfer (eg. radiative cooling of larger particles in a population) might play in the coagulation dynamics and deposition dynamics of such aerosol populations.

  12. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  13. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

  14. Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

  15. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  16. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  17. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  18. DHS Research Experience Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatachalam, V

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    I learned a great deal during my summer internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). I plan to continue a career in research, and I feel that my experience at LLNL has been formative. I was exposed to a new area of research, as part of the Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) group, and I had the opportunity to work on projects that I would not have been able to work on anywhere else. The projects both involved the use of a novel mass spectrometer that was developed at LLNL, so I would not have been able to do this research at any other facility. The first project that Zachary and I worked on involved using SPAMS to detect pesticides. The ability to rapidly detect pesticides in a variety of matrices is applicable to many fields including public health, homeland security, and environmental protection. Real-time, or near real-time, detection of potentially harmful or toxic chemical agents can offer significant advantages in the protection of public health from accidental or intentional releases of harmful pesticides, and can help to monitor the environmental effects of controlled releases of pesticides for pest control purposes. The use of organophosphate neurotoxins by terrorists is a possibility that has been described; this is a legitimate threat, considering the ease of access, toxicity, and relatively low cost of these substances. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) has successfully been used to identify a wide array of chemical compounds, including drugs, high explosives, biological materials, and chemical warfare agent simulants. Much of this groundbreaking work was carried out by our group at LLNL. In our work, we had the chance to show that SPAMS fulfills a demonstrated need for a method of carrying out real-time pesticide detection with minimal sample preparation. We did this by using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer to obtain spectra of five different pesticides. Pesticide samples were chosen to represent four common classes of pesticides that are currently used in the US. Permethrin (a pyrethrin insecticide), dichlorvos and malathion (organophosphates), imidacloprid (a chloronicotinyl pesticide), and carbaryl (a carbamate) were selected for analysis. Samples were aerosolized either in water (using a plastic nebulizer) or in ethanol (using a glass nebulizer), and the particles entered the SPAMS instrument through a focusing lens stack. The particles then passed through a stage with three tracking lasers that were used to determine each particle's velocity. This velocity was used to calculate when to fire a desorption/ionization (D/I) laser in order to fragment the particle for analysis in a dual polarity time of flight mass spectrometer. Signals were digitized, and then analyzed using LLNL-developed software. We obtained chemical mass spectral signatures for each pesticide, and assigned peaks to the mass spectra based on our knowledge of the pesticides chemical structures. We then proved the robustness of our detection method by identifying the presence of pesticides in two real-world matrices: Raid{trademark} Ant Spray and a flea collar. To sample these, we simply needed to direct aerosolized particles into the SPAMS instrument. The minimal sample preparation required makes SPAMS very attractive as a detector. Essentially, we were able to show that SPAMS is a reliable and effective method for detecting pesticides at extremely low concentrations in a variety of matrices and physical states. The other project that I had the opportunity to be a part of did not involve data collection in the lab; it consisted of analyzing a large amount of data that had already been collected. We got to look at data collected over the course of about two months, when the SPAMS instrument was deployed to a public place. The machine sampled the air and collected spectra for over two months, storing all the spectra and associated data; we then looked at an approximately two-month subset of this data to search for patterns in the types of particles being detected. Essentially, we we

  19. Iron oxide aerosol experiments in steam-air atmospheres: NSPP (Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant) tests 501-505 and 511: Data record report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This data record report summarizes the results from five tests involving Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ test aerosol in a steam-air environment and one test in a dry air environment. This research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this project is to provide a data base on the behavior of aerosols in containment under conditions assumed to occur in postulated LWR accident sequences; this data base will provide experimental validation of aerosol behavioral codes under development. In the report a brief description is given of each test together with the results in the form of tables and graphs. Included are data on aerosol mass concentration, aerosol fallout and plateout rates, total mass fallout and plateout, aerosol particle size, vessel atmosphere pressure, vessel atmosphere temperatures, temperature gradients near the vessel wall, and steam condensation rates on the vessel wall.

  20. Limestone concrete aerosol experiments in steam-air atmospheres: NSPP (Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant) Tests 521, 522, and 531: Data record report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobias, M.L.; Adams, R.E.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This data record report summarizes the results from two tests involving limestone concrete test aerosol in a steam-air environment and one test in a dry air environment. This research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was conducted in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this project is to provide a data base on the behavior of aerosols in containment under conditions assumed to occur in postulated LWR accident sequences; this data base will provide experimental validation of aerosol behavioral codes under development. In the report a brief description is given of each test together with the results in the form of tables and graphs. Included are data on aerosol mass concentration, aerosol fallout and plateout rates, total mass fallout and plateout, aerosol particle size, vessel atmosphere pressure, vessel atmosphere temperatures, temperature gradients near the vessel wall, and steam condensation rates on the vessel wall.

  1. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    warmer room air with the cold supply air whenever the supplyroom air diffusion with cold supply air temperatures under

  2. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  3. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 10, December 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is yet known (theoretically or experimentally) about the simultaneous effects of particle inertia, particle thermophoresis and high mass loading on the important engineering problem of predicting deposition rates from flowing ``dusty`` gases. For this reason, we investigate the motion of particles present at nonnegligible mass loading in a flowing nonisothermal gaseous medium and their deposition on strongly cooled or heated solid objects by examining the instructive case of steady axisymmetric ``dusty gas`` flow between two infinite disks: an inlet (porous) disk and the impermeable ``target`` disk -- a flow not unlike that encountered in recent seeded-flame experiments. Since this stagnation flow/geometry admits interesting self-similar solutions at all Reynolds numbers, we are able to predict laminar flow mass-, momentum- and energy-transfer rate coefficients over a wide range of particle mass loadings, dimensionless particle relaxation times (Stokes numbers), dimensionless thermophoretic diffusivities, and gas Reynolds numbers. As a by-product, we illustrate the accuracy and possible improvement of our previous ``diffusion model`` for tightly coupled dusty gas systems. Moreover, we report new results illustrating the dependence of the important ``critical`` Stokes number (for incipient particle impaction) on particle mass loading and wall/gas temperature ratio for dust-laden gas motion towards ``overheated`` solid surfaces. The present formulation and insulating transport coefficients should not only be useful in explaining/predicting recent deposition rate trends in ``seeded`` flame experiments, but also highly mass-loaded systems of technological interest.

  4. NREL Provides Guidance to Improve Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort in Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems will be downsized, and the air flow volumes required to meet heating and cooling loads may be too small to maintain uniform room air mixing-which can affect thermal comfort. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated the performance of high sidewall air supply inlets and confirmed that these systems can achieve good air mixing and provide suitable comfort levels for occupants. Using computational fluid dynamics modeling, NREL scientists tested the performance of high sidewall supply air jets over a wide range of parameters including supply air temperature, air velocity, and inlet size. This technique uses the model output to determine how well the supply air mixes with the room air. Thermal comfort is evaluated by monitoring air temperature and velocity in more than 600,000 control volumes that make up the occupied zone of a single room. The room has an acceptable comfort level when more than 70% of the control volumes meet the comfort criteria on both air temperature and velocity. The study shows that high sidewall supply air jets achieve uniform mixing in a room, which is essential for providing acceptable comfort levels. The study also provides information required to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes.

  5. DEVELOPING VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR THE DESIGN OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    for those human factors researchers and practitioners designing experiments. Designing an experimentDEVELOPING VISUALIZATION TOOLS FOR THE DESIGN OF AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL EXPERIMENTS ABSTRACT While, little attention has been paid to developing visualization tools for human factors researchers designing

  6. Neural networks as nonlinear models in Air Force personnel analysis: a prospectus and exploratory results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiggins, Vince L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research evaluates the potential for applying neural networks to Air Force personnel analysis through a review of relevant literature and empirical testing of neural networks in the domain of personnel research. Neural network technology has...

  7. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  8. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  9. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  10. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  11. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  12. Air Pollution Control Fees (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Facilities with a potential to emit any one regulated air pollutant of a quantity greater than or equal to 100 tons per year, or any one hazardous air pollutant (HAP) greater than or equal to 10...

  13. Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

    Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

  14. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  15. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  16. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle with universities. The DESY focus is on conventional and plasma-based accele- rators with applications in photon

  17. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research CentreD-Students (f/m) DESY DESY is one of the world's leading research centres for photon science, particle and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The Photo Injector Test Facility PITZ in Zeuthen (near

  18. Real-time monitoring of complex industrial processes with particle filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, David

    Real-time monitoring of complex industrial processes with particle filters Rub´en Morales-Men, open air-flow grill and clean temperature sensor (we denote this discrete state ¢¡¤£ ¥ ). We induced 3

  19. Measurements of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of single aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffet, Ryan Christopher

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the 3-km zone of lead/zinc smelters, Environmental Science &in air quality near a copper smelter, Science of the TotalParticles from a Copper Smelter, Environmental Science &

  20. A single-particle characterisation of a mobile Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System for exposure studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freney, Evelyn; Heal, Mathew R; Donovan, Robert J; Mills, Nicholas; Newby, David; Donaldson, Ken; Fokkens, Paul; Cassee, Flemming

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enrichment System (VACES) contained within the Mobile Ambient Particle Concentrator Exposure Laboratory (MAPCEL). The data were collected during a study of human exposure to CAPs, in Edinburgh (UK), in February-March 2004. The air flow prior to, and post...

  1. Review: Integrating Climate, Energy and Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, David E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate, Energy and Air Pollution By Gary Bryner with RobertEnergy, and Air Pollution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MITClimate, Energy, and Air Pollution provides a well-

  2. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  3. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  4. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  5. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  6. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  7. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  8. Air Pollution Socio-Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

  9. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  10. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  11. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  12. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  13. Evaluation of salt particle collection device for preventing SCC on canister - Effect on particle collection rate by electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, H.; Saegusa, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry 1646 Abiko, Abiko-shi, Chiba-ken 270-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Now, in Japan, while metal casks are used for spent nuclear fuel storage, a practical use of concrete casks is under review because of its cost effectiveness and procurement easiness. In reviewing the practical use, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a canister container in the concrete cask becomes an issue and is needed to be resolved soon. A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for the storage facilities, especially in Japan where facilities are built near coasts so that the cooling air includes sea salt particles. Therefore, the occurrence of SCC is concerned when the sea salt particles adhere to welded parts of the canisters. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with low pressure loss which does not interfere with the air flow into the building or the concrete casks. The device is composed of a stack of 10 parallel stainless steel plates, the air is free to circulate in the space between them. Pressure loss tests in a laboratory and salt particle collection tests in the field have been performed. It has been clarified that the pressure loss of the device is one-thirtieth to one-twentieth of that of a commercial filter and 40% of the particles in the air could be collected and the device would not influence the heat removal performance. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of electric field on the particle collection under supposing the particle charge. In the case of electric field over 10{sup 3} kV/m the particle collection rate could be improved dramatically.

  14. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  15. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliabilityPrincipalResearch FindsASingle Particle

  18. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently ApprovedReliabilityPrincipalResearch FindsASingle ParticleThe

  19. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Kyra Naumoff

    Abstract Background While air pollution exposures have been linked to cardiovascular outcomes, the contribution from acute gas and particle traffic-related pollutants remains unclear. Using a panel study design with repeated ...

  20. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

  1. Spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles using nanoscale imaging mass spectrometry: Insighs into particle origin and chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Weber, Peter K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the spatially-resolved composition of atmospheric particles is essential for differentiating between their surface versus bulk chemistry, understanding particle reactivity and the potential environmental impact. We demonstrate the application of nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Cameca NanoSIMS 50 ion probe) for 3D chemical imaging of individual atmospheric particles without any sample pre-treatment, such as the sectioning of particles. Use of NanoSIMS depth profile analysis enables elemental mapping of particles with nanometer spatial resolution over a broad of range of particle sizes. We have used this technique to probe spatially resolved composition of ambient particles collected during a field campaign in Mexico City. Particles collected during this campaign have been extensively characterized in the past using other particle analysis techniques and hence offer a unique opportunity for exploring the utility of depth resolved chemical imaging in ambient particle research. 1 Particles examined in this study include those collected during a pollution episode related to urban waste incineration as well as background particles from the same location prior to the episode. Particles from the pollution episode show substantial intra-particle compositional variability typical of particles resulting from multiple emission sources. In contrast, the background particles have relatively homogeneous compositions with enhanced presence of nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine at the particle surface. The observed surface enhancement of nitrogen and oxygen species is consistent with the presence of surface nitrates resulting from gas-particle heterogeneous interactions and is indicative of atmospheric ageing of the particles. The results presented here illustrate 3D characterization of ambient particles for insights into their chemical history.

  2. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  3. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won [Texas Transportation Institute; Zietsman, Josias [Texas Transportation Institute; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza [Texas Transportation Institute; Li, Wen-Whai [University of Texas, El Paso; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas, El Paso; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Kranendonk, Laura [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  4. Simulation of particle agglomeration using dissipative particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokkapati, Srinivas Praveen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Attachment of particles to one another due to action of certain inter-particle forces is called as particle agglomeration. It has applications ranging from efficient capture of ultra-fine particles generated in coal-burning boilers to effective...

  5. Characteristics of mixing of solid particles in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, B.V.; Rudenko, S.S.; Stepanov, L.V.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of experimental investigations of the horizontal mixing of solid particles in a fluidized bed of fine-grain material fluidized by air are considered. It is found that the intensity of horizontal transport is substantially nonuniform over the height of the bed.

  6. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  7. Grant Reference Grant Holder Research Organisation Project Title NE/I015299/1 Robert Upstill-Goddard Newcastle University Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange in coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant Reference Grant Holder Research Organisation Project Title NE/I015299/1 Robert Upstill NE/I015361/1 Timothy Heaton NERC British Geological Survey The oxygen isotope composition's University of Belfast 14C as a tool to trace terrestrial carbon in a complex lake: implications for food

  8. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  9. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  10. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  11. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF VERSION 3.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brioude, J.; Arnold, D.; Stohl, A.; Cassiani, M.; Morton, Don; Seibert, P.; Angevine, W. M.; Evan, S.; Dingwell, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Pisso, I.; Bukhart, J.; Wotawa, G.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART was originally designed for cal- culating long-range and mesoscale dispersion of air pollutants from point sources, such as after an accident in a nuclear power plant. In the meantime FLEXPART has evolved into a comprehensive tool for atmospheric transport modeling and analysis at different scales. This multiscale need from the modeler community has encouraged new developments in FLEXPART. In this document, we present a version that works with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale meteoro- logical model. Simple procedures on how to run FLEXPART-WRF are presented along with special options and features that differ from its predecessor versions. In addition, test case data, the source code and visualization tools are provided to the reader as supplementary material.

  12. Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources...

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    These regulations contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown,...

  14. air surveillance air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  15. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  16. Trapping and Destruction of Long-Range High-Intensity Optical Filaments by Molecular Quantum Wakes in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    in Air S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied in atmospheric air on the long-range filamentary propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a pump following a pump pulse filamenting in air has a dramatic effect on the propagation of an intense probe pulse

  17. Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear & Particle Physics science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Nuclear & Particle Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology National security depends on science and...

  18. Summary of the particle physics and technology working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephan Lammel et al.

    2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.

  19. Particle size limits for quantitative aerosol analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Temporal considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, David W.

    dissociation, vaporization and linear analyte response of an individual particle suspended in a gas stream individual silica microspheres in an aerosolized air stream was investigated using laser-induced breakdown of analyte signals for the 2.47 and 4.09-micrometer particles was observed to be approximately constant

  20. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  1. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

  2. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Mullen, Nasim; Singer, Brett; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. These similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve acceptable and even exceptional IAQ by providing adequate general mechanical ventilation, using low-emitting materials, providing mechanical particle filtration, incorporating well-designed exhaust ventilation for kitchens and bathrooms, and educating occupants to use the kitchen and bath ventilation.

  3. Performance assessment on continuous air monitors under real operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monsanglant-Louvet, C.; Liatimi, N.; Gensdarmes, F. [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN, Saclay (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the nuclear industry, workers may be exposed to artificial radioactive aerosols. These aerosols are generally composed of particles with a diameter measuring between 0.1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. To protect workers in nuclear facilities, monitors that continuously measure radioactivity in the air are used. The main function of the monitor is to provide real-time measurement of activity concentration. Measurement of aerosol activity concentration can be affected by a number of factors specific to the aerosols and the instrument. The first part of the article will present the general operating principles of continuous air monitors (CAMs) and inherent measurement difficulties, as well as the main standard tests. The second section describes the experimental ICARE facility The ICARE facility generates standard artificial and natural radioactive aerosols for calibrating continuous air monitors under real operating conditions. (authors)

  4. Oklahoma Clean Air Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes the authority for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to administer programs to maintain and monitor air quality across Oklahoma. The Department monitors...

  5. Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

  6. Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C.I.; Lin, S.F.; Osborn, J.F.; Pandey, M.R.; Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollutant concentrations have been measured in residences in the Himalayas of Nepal where biomass fuels are used for cooking and heating. Levels of total suspended particles are in the range 3-42 mg/m/sup 3/, with respirable suspended particles in the range 1-14 mg/m/sup 3/ in the houses sampled. Limited data for gaseous species show appreciable levels of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and several non-methane hydrocarbons. A questionnaire concerning energy use administered in each household suggests that high per capita use of biomass fuels is responsible for excessive pollutant concentrations. Application of a one-compartment mass balance model to these houses shows only rough agreement between calculated and measured values, due to uncertainties in model input parameters as well as difficulties in estimating average pollutant concentrations throughout each house. High outdoor concentrations of potassium and methyl chloride, previously shown to be tracers of biomass combustion, indicate that the indoor biomass combustion also degrades the outdoor environment. Values of crustal enrichment factors for trace elements in the air and snow of the region suggest that the polluted air is generally confined to the populated villages, with more pristine air at higher elevations. 58 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  7. Femtosecond laser ablation of brass in air and liquid media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaheen, M. E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada) [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada) [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser ablation of brass in air, water, and ethanol was investigated using a femtosecond laser system operating at a wavelength of 785 nm and a pulse width less than 130 fs. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were used to study the efficiency and quality of laser ablation in the three ablation media at two different ablation modes. With a liquid layer thickness of 3 mm above the target, ablation rate was found to be higher in water and ethanol than in air. Ablation under water and ethanol showed cleaner surfaces and less debris re-deposition compared to ablation in air. In addition to spherical particles that are normally formed from re-solidified molten material, micro-scale particles with varying morphologies were observed scattered in the ablated structures (craters and grooves) when ablation was conducted under water. The presence of such particles indicates the presence of a non-thermal ablation mechanism that becomes more apparent when ablation is conducted under water.

  8. Review of Particle Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kenzo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for non-accelerator physics . . . . . . . . . 328 ParticleColliders, accelerator physics of Coupling between matterdetectors for non-accelerator physics (Figure 29.5) . . .

  9. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CIEE's second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director's discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  10. Research and Development Conference CIEE Program 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CIEE`s second annual Research and Development Conference will introduce you to some of the results achieved to date through CIEE-sponsored multiyear research performed in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director`s discretionary research, and exploratory research will also be featured in this report.

  11. Movement of outdoor particles to the indoor environment: An analysis of the Arnhem Lead Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thatcher, T.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the role of soil tracking as a source of indoor particles and quantifies key parameters influencing the transport of soil-derived particles (resuspension rates for particulate matter on floors, deposition velocities of suspended particles in indoor and outdoor air). The paper begins with a brief review of studies of particle transport processes and presents a simple model for studying the transport of particles in the indoor environment. The model is used to examine data on Pb distributions in the indoor and outdoor environments of community adjacent to a secondary lead smelter.

  12. An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20C air at a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80°C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20°C air at a pressure of 90kPa. The valve is opened, and air flows into the tank. Determine the final temperature of the air in the tank and the mass of air that enters the tank if the valve is left

  13. THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY 1 The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility for Radiological Research (CRR). Using the mi- crobeam facility, 10% of the cells were irradiated through particle beam as well as the first fo- cused microbeam in the new microbeam facility. · Another significant

  14. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  15. Air gun test evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleton, J.J. II; Fox, L.; Rudy, C.R.

    1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical shock testing apparatus is used for testing the response of components subject to large accelerations in hostile environments. The test acceleration is provided by the impact of a bullet against a plate on which the component to be tested is mounted. This report describes a series of experiments that were performed to determine the dependence of the air gun test apparatus performance on incremental changes in the hardware configurations, changes in the pressure used to drive the bullet, and different accelerometers. The effect of variation of these experimental factors on the measured acceleration was determined using a Taguchi screening experimental design. Experimental settings were determined that can be used to operate the tester with a measured output within acceleration specifications.

  16. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    survey data, and the air-pollution modeling group at Environfor vehicle-related air pollution exposure in minority andtotal health impact of air pollution. Urban planners often

  17. RESEARCH REPORT 2012 ResearchResearchResearch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    research on batteries and energy storage, and are part of a multimillion- dollar investment by Johnson Controls that aims to make Wisconsin a hub for energy-storage technology. #12;Chancellor's Welcome A great powerful UW-MILWAUKEE RESEARCH REPORT 2012 As Wisconsin's premier public urban institution, the University

  18. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  19. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of the ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1986--November 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the above mentioned objectives, we have initiated theoretical studies in the following three interrelated areas : (a) Interaction of inertial- and thermophoretic effects in well-defined laminar ``dusty-gas`` flows. (b) Self-regulated sticking and deposit erosion in the simultaneous presence of vapor or submicron ``glue`` (c) Use of packed bed and tube-bank heat transfer and friction correlations to provide the basis for future tube-bank fouling predictions.During the first three months of Grant DE-FG22-86 PC 90756, we have: (1) Designed and initiated construction of the microcombustor particle-laden jet facility described in Section 3.1. (2) Initiated theoretical studies of the interaction of inertial and thermophoretic effects, the role of simultaneous vapor arrival in determining particle sticking and erosion probabilities, and mass transport phenomena in deep tube banks.

  20. VOLUME 78, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 FEBRUARY 1997 Debye Shielding and Particle Correlations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Niels F.

    in dusty plasma research, while fully aware that the dust particles are strongly coupled, have continued

  1. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Quarterly technical report No. 6, December 1, 1987--February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the present reporting period, we have initiated work on (a) the interpretation of our recent data (see QTR5) on deposition rates under the simultaneous influence of inertia and thermophoresis, (b) the possible rate of particle photophoresis in environments characterized by high radiative heat loads. and (c) the influence of particle size distributions on total mass deposition rates. The fruits of these initiatives will be reported in subsequent quarterly technical reports. Here, we focus on our recent theoretical results in the important but previously uncharted area of the relations between particulate deposition mechanisms, deposit microstructure and deposit properties. Experimental verification of some of the most interesting predictions will be the subject of future HTCRE-Lab studies. Recent discussions with fouling engineers have convinced us that despite recent advances in our ability to predict particle deposition rates in convective-diffusion environments, the important connection between resulting deposit properties (effective thermal conductivity permeability, {hor_ellipsis}) and deposition mechanism remain poorly understood and only scarcely studied. Accordingly, as part of this DOE-PETC program we have developed a discrete stochastic model to simulate particulate deposition processes resulting from a combination of deposition mechanisms.

  2. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  3. Pileup Per Particle Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Bertolini; Philip Harris; Matthew Low; Nhan Tran

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing "pileup per particle identification" (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape $\\alpha$ which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of $\\alpha$ for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet $p_T$ and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

  4. Particle physics in the sky and astrophysics underground : connecting the universe's largest and smallest scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Molly E. C. (Molly Ellen Crosby)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models ...

  5. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  6. D0 Instrument Air System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

  7. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    and refrigeration equipment. To minimise pollution risks by ensuring regular maintenance of equipment containing Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment: 1. Swansea University uses equipment containing ozone-depleting substances

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air quality data. Methods: Measurements of 5 pollutants (particulate matter PM10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide NO2

  9. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  10. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  11. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  12. CENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH Air Travel at the Edge of Chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 ATL JFK PHL MSP ORD MIA EWR DTW DFW IAD CLT FLL LGA MEM BOS MCO DFW EWR PHL MSP DTW DEN BOS JFK LGA IAH IAD CLT MCO DCA PHX MIA LAX LAS BWI SEA FLL CVG CLE MDW SFO

  13. aerosol characteristic researching: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as they have significant impacts both on localregional air pollution and global climate. Recent for Aerosol and Cloud Chemistry, Aerodyne Research, Incorporated, Billerica,...

  14. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  15. Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project Evaluating, Developing, and Delivering Air Quality Characterization Data to Environmental Public Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Network. The EPA is developing routinely available air quality information

  16. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  17. AirUCI Summer 2006 Schedule Monday, June 26th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    ) Noon to 4 pm: Room RH 481 (and RH 350) · Lab safety issues · General tours of the analytical chemistry experiments: 1. HPLC of cigarette smoke 2. GC/MS of gasoline vapor 3. FTIR of ethanol content of vodka - Review of computational chemistry 12 pm to 1 pm: Lunch with AirUCI faculty and researchers (provided) 1

  18. Design of a 50-watt air supplied turbogenerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Stevan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design of a high-pressure-ratio, low-flow turbogenerator with 50 W electrical power output, designed to operate from a 5-bar air supply. The research shows that a MEMS-based silicon turbine in ...

  19. Cold air distribution in office buildings: technology assessment for califonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Borgers, T.; LaBerge, P.; Gadgil, A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room air with the cold supply air whenever the supplyroomair diffusion with cold supply air temperatures space

  20. Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accelerators | Photon Science | Particle Physics Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron A Research Centre and astroparticle physics as well as accelerator physics. The theoretical astroparticle physics group at DESY has processes Requirements · Ph.D. in physics or astronomy · Experience with modeling of particle acceleration