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1

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.

2

Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

Dietz, R.N.

1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

3

Brookhaven air infiltration measurement system (BNL/AIMS) description and application  

SciTech Connect

A unique capability to measure part-per-quadrillion concentrations of a family of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) is presented. Together with our unique PFT source and passive sampler, measurement of average air exchange and infiltration rate can be determined for periods as short as 12 hours. A more expensive programmable sampler can provide information on a frequency of as little as once per minute for each of its 23 sampling tubes. The principal of AIMS is based on the applicable steady-state assumption that the average concentration (e.g., in pL/L) of a tracer vapor in a chamber (i.e., a building or room) is equal to the emission rate of the tracer source (e.g., in pL/min) divided by the air leakage or infiltration rate (e.g., in L/min). Knowing the source rate and measuring the average concentration then provides a means to calculate the air leakage rate. Extending this technique to a multichamber concept, in which a different type of PFT source is deployed in each chamber of a building, allows the calculation of not only the infiltration rates in each chamber but also the air exchange rates between chambers as well. Since both the PFT source and the passive sampler, a miniature Capillary Adsorption Tube Sampler (CATS), are about the size of a cigarette, inexpensive, and reusable, the BNL/AIMS is a very cost-effective means (if not the only means) for determining these air exchange rates.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.; Cote, E.A.; Wieser, R.F.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of heat recovery on the energy impact of air infiltration, and the systematic error due to the steady-state method were studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two methodologies suitable for measurement of the overall heat loss factors in full-size houses have been developed and validated. Dynamic measurements of Infiltration Heat Exchange effectiveness (IHEE), which expresses the air infiltration heat recovery as a fraction of the classical value of air infiltration energy consumption, showed that results from earlier steady-state measurements can be approximately applied to dynamic conditions when solar radiation is not present. However, this study has shown for the first time that IHEE is strongly dependent on air flow direction due to the impacts of air flow on the recovery or rejection of solar radiation energy. IHEE values greater than one and less than zero have been measured. These values are impossible in the absence of solar radiation. The results highlight the necessity of considering the air infiltration heat recovery and improving the current design methods for calculating the heating and cooling loads in buildings. The experimental and theoretical investigation show that steady-state methodology can: *be used without systematic error in the case of constant air flow *result in IHEE prediction error in a range of 1% to 8% when one-way dynamic air f1ow is present *cause significantly larger error when balanced dynamic air flow is present. The SSP (Single input and Single output data Pair) method can identify UAo of an enclosure using short term measurement data, typically a few hours long. It has overcome most of the typical problems in UA0 identification, such as errors due to thermal storage, ground heat transfer, inter-correlated multi-inputs, and solar radiation. The STAM (Short Term Average Method) has also been developed which makes it possible for the first time to determine both the UA and the solar aperture precisely under outdoor conditions from a two-day or a three-day test. These methods were developed and used to measure heat loss factors needed to determine IHEE values in this study.

Liu, Mingsheng

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Effects of air infiltration on the effective thermal conductivity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of air infiltration on the effective thermal conductivity of internal fiberglass insulation and on the delivery of thermal capacity via ducts Title Effects of air...

7

Energy Crossroads: Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Ventilation, Infiltration & Indoor Air Quality Suggest a Listing Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre (AIVC) The AIVC fulfills its objectives by providing a range of services and facilities which include: Information, Technical Analysis, Technical Interchange, and Coordination. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) The ACGIH offers high quality technical publications and learning opportunities. Americlean Services Corp. (ASC) ASC is a certified SBA 8(a) engineering/consulting firm specializing in HVAC contamination detection, abatement, and monitoring. In addition to highly professional ductwork cleaning and HVAC cleaning services, ASC offers a wide range of other engineering/ consulting/ management services

8

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Multizone infiltration monitoring system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive perfluorocarbon tracer technique for determining air infiltration rates into houses

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

FREE AIR PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Indenter gages, Wiancko gages, and interferometer gages were used to measure air overpressure vs time at essentially ground level stations for both the surface (S) and undprground (U) atomic explosions. For the S Burst several instruments were placed on a line extending from an overpressure region of 13 psi to a region of less than one psi. The air measurements for the U Burst ranged from 32 to 2 psi. (D. L.G.)

Howard, W.J.; Jones, R.D.

1952-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Measured Energy Impact of Infiltration in an Outdoor Test Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption calculation of house envelopes assumes that conduction heat loss is independent on air infiltration heat loss, and that energy consumption is the sum of these losses. Anderlind [1985], Liu [1987], and Claridge et at. [1989] showed this method can overestimate energy consumption substantially under steady-state conditions. Bailly [1987] and Anderson [1987] reported much smaller house energy consumption when the air flow was organized by mechanical systems. However, none of these studies quantified energy loss reduction under a variety of outdoor weather conditions. The energy performance was investigated in an outdoor test cell with different leakage configurations and air flow rates under both infiltration and exfiltration. It was found that the energy consumption was not only dependent on air flow rate, temperature differences, and solar radiation, but also on the air flow direction and the air leakage configuration. Infiltration could lead to a much lower heating energy consumption than that of exfiltration, and exfiltration could lead to a much lower cooling energy consumption than that of infiltration. The air infiltration energy consumption of a leaky house could be 9 times as high as that of a tight house even when the air flow rate was the same for both houses.

Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rate and air leakage tests under reductive sealing for anfor subsequent sealing, the openings of air infiltrationreductive sealing between the reductions in measured air

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

InAir: sharing indoor air quality measurements and visualizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes inAir, a tool for sharing measurements and visualizations of indoor air quality within one's social network. Poor indoor air quality is difficult for humans to detect through sight and smell alone and can contribute to the development ... Keywords: air quality, domestic technology, environment, health, iphone, persuasive technology, sensors, sustainability

Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Measurement of gas transport through fiber preforms and densified composites for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas transport via pressure-driven permeation or via concentration-driven diffusion is a key step in the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process. This paper describes methods for the measurement of these properties for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon-fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel-fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon-fiber three-dimensional (3-D) weave composite. The permeability of Nicalon cloth layup preforms is strongly dependent on the packing density over the range of 29--40 vol% but is only weakly dependent on the orientation of the alternating cloth layers. The permeability of Nextel braid preforms is dependent on the thread count and the weight for cloths with similar construction and packing density. The gas permeability of the finer wave (6.3 tows/cm (16 tows/in.)) is approximately one-half that of the coarser weave (3.5 tows/cm (9 tows/in.)). Results are reported for a small number of infiltrated composites with Nextel fiber reinforcement. Attempts to mount a Nicalon-fiber 3-D weave preform specimen have been unsuccessful. Results for a small number of composite specimens with 3-D weave reinforcement are reported.

Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Indoor air quality measurements in energy efficient buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy Efficient Buildings Program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has designed and fabricated a mobile laboratory for research and development studies of ventilation requirements and energy utilization in residential and commercial buildings. The Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) Mobile Laboratory is used in studies of indoor air quality in buildings before and after energy conservation retrofits and in new buildings incorporating energy efficient designs. Indoor air quality measurements have been conducted in residential buildings and work in progress includes indoor air quality monitoring in schools, hospitals, and energy efficient residential buildings. The monitoring program includes measurement of CO, CO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, NO, NO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, infiltration rate (tracer gas technique), and aerosol size distribution on a continuous basis. Total and respirable-fraction particulate samples are collected on membrane filter media for analysis by x-ray fluorescence (XRFA), photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), proton activation analysis (PAA), combustion, and wet-chemistry techniques for the determination of particulate elemental composition (S, N, C, etc.) and ionic species such as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and NH/sub 4//sup +/. Results of the initial phases of this program indicate that the concentrations of some gaseous and respirable particulate air pollutants in specific indoor environments exceed those levels commonly found in the outdoor urban air environment.

Hollowell, C.D.; Berk, J.V.; Traynor, G.W.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Analysis of air leakage measurements of US houses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buildings 66 (2013) 616-625 Buildings 66 (2013) 616-625 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Energy and Buildings j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / e n b u i l d Analysis of air leakage measurements of US houses Wanyu R. Chan ∗ , Jeffrey Joh, Max H. Sherman Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 90R3058, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 November 2012 Received in revised form 4 March 2013 Accepted 16 July 2013 Keywords: Blower door Fan pressurization test Normalized leakage Air infiltration Building envelope airtightness a b s t r a c t Building envelope airtightness is important for residential energy use, occupant health and comfort. We analyzed the air leakage measurements of 134,000 single-family detached homes in US, using normalized

20

Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Title Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5887E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hult, Erin L., Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and Phillip N. Price Date Published 09/2012 Keywords infiltration, leakage, residential ventilation Abstract Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage.In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate inter- zone leakage. The best of the measurement and analysis methods was a method that uses two blower doors simultaneously based on the methods of Herrlin and Modera (1988) to determine the inter-zone leakage to within 16% of the inter-zone leakage flow at 4Pa, over the range of expected conditions for a house and attached garage. Methods were also identified that use a single blower door to determine the inter-zone leakage to within 30% of its value. The test configuration selected can have a large impact on the uncertainty of the results and there are testing configurations and methods that should definitely be avoided. The most rigorous calculation method identified assumes a fixed value for the pressure exponent for the interface between the two zones (rather than determining the interface pressure exponent from the measured data) and then uses an optimization routine to fit a single set of air leakage coefficients and pressure exponents for each of three wall interfaces using both pressurization and depressurization data. Multiple pressure station tests have much less uncertainty than single pressure station approaches. Analyses of field data sets confirm a similar level of variation between test methods as was expected from the analysis of synthesized data sets and confirm the selection of specific test methods to reduce experimental uncertainty.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

REVIEW OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

9747 9747 Review of Airflow Measurement Techniques Jennifer McWilliams Energy Performance of Buildings Group Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 December 1, 2002 Abstract Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: "Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?" This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and

22

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

23

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

SciTech Connect

Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Measurements of the Electrical Conductivities of Air over Hot Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the conduction current between two electrodes in air over recently boiled water have been interpreted by Carlon as indicating that the humidified air became highly conductive and that large numbers of ions were produced in the air ...

C. B. Moore; B. Vonnegut

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

inAir: Measuring and Visualizing Indoor Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, air quality, domestic computing, health ACM Classification Keywords H.m. Information interfacesinAir: Measuring and Visualizing Indoor Air Quality Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos Human}@cs.cmu.edu ABSTRACT Good indoor air quality is a vital part of human health. Poor indoor air quality can contribute

Paulos, Eric

26

Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally insulated ducts Title Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally insulated ducts Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2000 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., William W. Delp, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and Mark P. Modera Journal Energy and Buildings Volume 32 Pagination 345-354 Keywords building design, Heat Island Abstract Air flowing through a supply duct infiltrates perviously faced, porous, internal duct insulation, degrading its thermal performance. Encapsulating the insulation's air-facing surface with an impervious barrier prevents infiltration, increasing the capacity of the conditioned supply air to heat or cool the space to which it is delivered. This study determined the air-speed dependence of the thermal conductivity of fiberglass insulation by measuring the inlet-to-outlet temperature drop of heated air flowing through a long, insulated flexible duct. The conductivity of a flexible duct's low-density, internal, fiberglass-blanket insulation increased with the square of the duct air speed, rising by 140% as the duct air speed increased from 0 to 15 m s-1. At air speeds recommended for branch ducts, the conductivity of such insulation would increase by 6% above its still-air value in a residential system and by 16% in a commercial system. Results partially agreed with those reported by an earlier study. Simulations indicate that encapsulating the air-stream surface of internal fiberglass duct insulation with an impervious barrier increases the effectiveness with which a duct delivers the thermal capacity of supply air by 0.15%-0.9% in typical duct systems.

27

Probe measurements of the ionization of air behind strong shocks  

SciTech Connect

Detailed measurements of the ionization of air behind strong shocks over a broad range of shocks velocities are reported. (AIP)

Gorelov, V.A.; Kil' dyushova, L.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

EFFECTS OF ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR HYGIENE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS: FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONSERVATION r1EASURES ON AIR HYGIENE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGSConservation Measures on Air Hygiene in Public Buildings",CONSERVATION MEASURES ON AIR HYGIENE IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS:

Dimmick, R.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measuring UAS pilot responses to common air traffic clearances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a simulated ground control station, this study documents the methods for measuring the verbal response and execution time of unmanned aerial system (UAS) pilots to direct commands from air traffic controllers (ATCos). Although prior research has ... Keywords: air traffic management, measured response, unmanned aerial systems

Jason Ziccardi, Zach Roberts, Ryan O'Connor, Conrad Rorie, Gregory Morales, Vernol Battiste, Thomas Strybel, Dan Chiappe, Kim-Phuong L. Vu, Jay Shively

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before-and-after experiments conducted on three homes over a two year period. A recent EPA study recommends shading of exterior AC condensers, using landscaping or other means, as a method to reduce space cooling energy use (Akbari et al., 1992).

Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

Otis, C.; Maxwell, S.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on the daily maximum temperatureLBNL-5330E Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Josh Bode, Michael J. Sullivan Freeman

33

Pilot workload in the air transport environment : measurement, theory, and the influence of air traffic control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The operating environment of an air transport crew is characterized by multiple interrupting tasks, these tasks being composed of a mixture of purely physical control and purely mental planning processes. Measurement of ...

Katz, Jeffrey G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Air Temperature Measurement Errors in Naturally Ventilated Radiation Shields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two sources of systematic errors are considered for estimating air temperature. The first source is ambiguity of the definition of the standardized measurement height over vegetated surfaces of varying heights. Without such a standardization, ...

Reina Nakamura; L. Mahrt

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Air pollution uncertainty exists in radon measurements  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses radon which is a colorless, odorless gas formed by the decay of radium and uranium that has been shown to cause lung cancer. Progress has been made in ensuring the accuracy of home radon measurements. According to this report, however, radon measurements are uncertain because the ability of the devices that measure radon and the companies analyzing the devices' readings varies and homeowners may not be following EPA's recommended testing procedures. Several possible causes for the uncertainty in radon measurements are cited.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia Partner World Bank Development Grant Facility (DGF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), the German Development Cooperation (GiZ), Energy Foundation, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Institute for Transport Policy Studies (ITPS), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), Veolia Energy Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, -TNA, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs

37

Analysis of Air Leakage Measurements of US Houses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage Measurements of US Houses Air Leakage Measurements of US Houses Title Analysis of Air Leakage Measurements of US Houses Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., Jeffrey Joh, and Max H. Sherman Journal Energy and Buildings Start Page 616 Pagination 616-625 Date Published 08/2013 Abstract Building envelope airtightness is important for residential energy use, occupant health and comfort. Weanalyzed the air leakage measurements of 134,000 single-family detached homes in US, using normalizedleakage (NL) as the metric. Weatherization assistance programs (WAPs) and residential energy efficiencyprograms contributed most of the data. We performed regression analyses to examine the relationshipbetween NL and various house characteristics. Explanatory variables that are correlated with NL includeyear built, climate zone, floor area, house height, and whether homes participated in WAPs or if theyare energy efficiency rated homes. Foundation type and whether ducts are located outside or inside theconditioned space are also found to be useful parameters for predicting NL. We developed a regressionmodel that explains approximately 68% of the observed variability across US homes. Of these variablesconsidered, year built and climate zone are the two that have the largest influence on NL. The regressionmodel can be used to predict air leakage values for individual homes, and distributions for groups ofhomes, based on their characteristics. Using RECS 2009 data, the regression model predicts 90% of UShouses have NL between 0.22 and 1.95, with a median of 0.67.

38

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Title Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3650E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Thomas E. McKone, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Journal Indoor Air Volume 21 Start Page 92 Issue 2 Pagination 92-109 Date Published 04/2011 Keywords resave Abstract Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants were representative of concentrations in residences in the United States. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants are identified as contaminants of concern for chronic health effects in a large fraction of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on robustness of reported concentration data and fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3- butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM2.5. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM2.5, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO2.

40

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

Sherman, Max

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

42

Automatic Continuous Commissioning of Measurement Instruments in Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a robust strategy based on a condition-based adaptive statistical method for automatic commissioning of measurement instruments typically employed in air-handling units (AHU). The multivariate statistic method, principal component analysis (PCA), is adopted and modified to monitor the air handling process. Two PCA models are built corresponding to the heat balance and pressure-flow balance of the air-handling process. Sensor faults can be detected and isolated using the Q-statistic and the Q-contribution plot. The fault isolation ability against typical component faults is improved using knowledge-based analysis. A novel condition-based adaptive scheme is developed to update the PCA models with the operation conditions for continuous online application. A commissioning tool is developed to implement the strategy. Simulation tests and field tests in a building in Hong Kong were conducted to validate the automatic commissioning strategy for typical AHU. The integration of the tool with a building management system (BMS) and its application is demonstrated.

Xiao, F.; Wang, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect

Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Issue and Improvement Measure of Multi-split Air Conditioner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing problems of traditional air source variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system are analyzed. The disadvantages of traditional VRF air-conditioning system are described in detail: 1) its properties are seriously affected by outdoor ... Keywords: energy saving, simulation, variable refrigerant flow air conditioning, water loop

Sun Tingting; Ni Long; Yao Yang; Ma Zuiliang; Yi Lingli

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3  

SciTech Connect

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

47

Resin infiltration transfer technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

Miller, David V. (Pittsburgh, PA); Baranwal, Rita (Glenshaw, PA)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Moisture and Air Infiltration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

90.1-1999 Document type: AEDG Implementation Recommendations Target Audience: ArchitectDesigner Builder Code Official Contractor Engineer Contacts Web Site Policies U.S....

49

Presented at the Low Impact Development Roundtable Conference, Baltimore, MD, July 2001. Infiltration Through Compacted Urban Soils and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Infiltration Through Compacted Urban Soils and Effects on Biofiltration Design Robert Pitt,1 Shen-En Chen,2.................................................................................................................................................4 Soil Modifications to Enhance Infiltration...........................................6 Disturbed Urban Soil Field Infiltration Measurements

Pitt, Robert E.

50

Engineered Trench #3 Infiltration Estimates  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the appropriate ET#3 infiltration rates to utilize as part of the ET#3 Special Analysis (SA).

Phifer, M. A.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

51

CFD Simulation and Measurement Validation of Air Distribution at the Hunan International Exhibition Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hunan International Exhibition Center (HIEC) is a large space building. A stratified air-conditioning system on the second floor of the building has been adopted. Due to some problems with the air supply jet diffuser, CFD simulations were carried out to predict air distribution. Meanwhile, field measurement results were used to validate the CFD simulation results. A good agreement of simulated and test results was obtained. Based on simulation results, some analyses and suggestions are put forward to improve air distribution.

Deng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, G.; Yuan, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Do filters pollute the air? – Part 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Infiltration Glossary-Italian Edition. TechnicalNote AIC 5.3]. Glossary-Italian Edition. Technical Note AIC

Bekö, Gabriel; Schiavon, Stefano

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Air time : another measure of the quality of passenger service  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposal of a new metric called "Air Time" and its various components, show the advantage of having a broader perspective of the travel process of airline passengers. Travel time is basically affected by three different ...

Blake Betancourt, Juan Jamie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Infrared Interferometric Measurements of the Near-Surface Air Temperature over the Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiometric measurement of the marine air temperature using a Fourier transform infrared spectroradiometer is described. The measurements are taken by the Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) that has been deployed on ...

P. J. Minnett; K. A. Maillet; J. A. Hanafin; B. J. Osborne

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

Sherman, Max H.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement  

SciTech Connect

This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-On-Grade Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This measure guideline describes covers two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

Dickson, B.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors  

SciTech Connect

In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Representative Air Temperature of Thermally Heterogeneous Urban Areas Using the Measured Pressure Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to measure an area-averaged ground air temperature based on the hydrostatic equation is shown. The method was devised to overcome the problem of finding the most representative surface air temperature over a wide region, a problem that ...

Hirofumi Sugawara; Ken-ichi Narita; Takehiko Mikami

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Improving Concentration Measures Used for Evaluating Air Quality Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unfortunate difficulty in model evaluation is that the concentration measure that most models predict, namely the ensemble mean concentration under the plume centerline (or at some location relative to the plume centerline), cannot be measured ...

Russell F. Lee; John S. Irwin

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Use of Pressure Fluctuations on the Nose of an Aircraft for Measuring Air Motion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An air-motion sensing technique is described for measurement of attack and sideslip angles and dynamicpressure. The sensing probe consists of an array of five pressure holes in the standard radome of a twin-jetresearch aircraft. Comparisons are ...

E. N. Brown; C. A. Friehe; D. H. Lenschow

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Airborne Measurements of Surface, Layer Turbulence over the Ocean during Cold Air Outbreaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra and cospectra made at the 50 m level above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks have been studied. The data cover nearshore areas of cloud streets or roll vortices. In the ...

Shu-Hsien Chou; Eueng-Nan Yeh

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Surface Air Temperature and Humidity from Intersatellite-Calibrated HIRS Measurements in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-latitude ocean surface air temperature and humidity derived from intersatellite-calibrated High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements are examined. A neural network approach is used to develop retrieval algorithms. HIRS ...

Lei Shi; Ge Peng; John J. Bates

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

An Airborne Laser Air Motion Sensing System. Part II: Design Criteria and Measurement Possibilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conically scanning Doppler lidar technique for measuring air motions from an aircraft is proposed in the companion paper (Keeler et al.). A theoretical analysis of this technique shows that, assuming isotropic turbulence, the technique is ...

Leif Kristensen; Donald H. Lenschow

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The Characterization of an Air Pollution Episode Using Satellite Total Ozone Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented which demonstrates that measurements of total ozone from a space platform can be used to study a widespread air pollution episode over the southeastern United States. In particular the synoptic-scale distribution of ...

Jack Fishman; Fred M. Vukovich; Donald R. Cahoon; Mark C. Shipham

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high quality reference measurements. Here we show an experimental approach ...

R. Philipona; A. Kräuchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

71

A Three-Aircraft Intercomparison of Two Types of Air Motion Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present procedures to evaluate air motion measurements on two or more aircraft by flying them in formation at a known lateral displacement. The analysis is applied to two formation flights involving three aircraft—the NCAR Electra, Sabreliner ...

D. H. Lenschow; E. R. Miller; R. B. Friesen

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high-quality reference measurements. This paper discusses an experimental ...

R. Philipona; A. Kräuchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

frequently without affecting customer comfort. A key issue for grid operations and electricity market settlement is how to accurately measure shorter-term (e.g., ten's of...

75

A triple hot-wire system for indoor air flow measurements  

SciTech Connect

The application of a home made, triple hot-wire system in indoor air flow measurements is presented. Both the anemometer and sensor have been developed at Athens University with the aim to provide a reliable, research tool of reasonable cost, simple construction, and satisfactory performance. All three velocity components above a threshold of 10 cm s{sup {minus}1} can be measured. The system is also equipped with two thermometers for measuring the mean and fluctuating air temperature and for providing a means of temperature compensation of the hot wires` signal. After evaluation of the system in the laboratory, it was used in the measurement of the velocity profile of flows driven by the temperature difference between two internal zones. The implied accuracy of the method allows for its integration with measurements of air volume exchange rates between internal zones, as estimated by tracer gas techniques.

Papadopoulos, K.H.; Soilemes, A.T.; Helmis, C.G.; Santamouris, M.; Dascalaki, E. [Univ. of Athens (Greece); Asimakopoulos, D.N. [Univ. of Athens (Greece)]|[National Observatory of Athens (Greece). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric Environment; Argiriou, A. [National Observatory of Athens (Greece). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics of the Atmospheric Environment

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment - A laboratory measurement of the microwave emission from extensive air showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The AMY experiment aims to measure the microwave bremsstrahlung radiation (MBR) emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed using a beam of 510 MeV electrons at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories. The goal of the AMY experiment is to measure in laboratory conditions the yield and the spectrum of the GHz emission in the frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. The final purpose is to characterise the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A description of the experimental setup and the first results are presented.

K. Louedec; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; M. Blanco; M. Bohácová; B. Buonomo; G. Cataldi; M. R. Coluccia; P. Creti; I. De Mitri; C. Di Giulio; P. Facal San Luis; L. Foggetta; R. Gaïor; D. Garcia-Fernandez; M. Iarlori; S. Le Coz; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. C. Mari?; D. Martello; G. Mazzitelli; M. Monasor; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; S. Petrera; P. Privitera; V. Rizi; G. Rodriguez Fernandez; F. Salamida; G. Salina; M. Settimo; P. Valente; J. R. Vazquez; V. Verzi; C. Williams

2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Title Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5795E Year of...

78

Eddy-Correlation Measurements of Air-Sea Fluxes from a Discus Buoy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates that it is practical to measure turbulent air-sea fluxes from a discus buoy. It proposes a method to correct the measured wind flow, for velocities induced by angular and axial movements of the anemometer, allowing the ...

François Anctil; Mark A. Donelan; William M. Drennan; Hans C. Graber

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of {plus_minus}14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Energy and Buildings, 8 (1985) 105 -122 105 Temperature-and Wind-induced Air Flow Patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and Buildings, 8 (1985) 105 - 122 105 Temperature- and Wind-induced Air Flow Patterns measurements, wind pressure data and air infiltration calculation. INTRODUCTION Studies on the energy,B. DICKINSON,D. GRIMSRUDand R. LIPSCHUTZ Energy Performance of Buildings Group, Energy and Environment Division

82

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Title Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5330E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Bode, Josh, Michael J. Sullivan, and Joseph H. Eto Pagination 120 Date Published 01/2012 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords consortium for electric reliability technology solutions (certs), electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department Abstract Several recent demonstrations and pilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads can be controlled during the summer cooling season to provide ancillary services and improve the stability and reliability of the electricity grid. A key issue for integration of air conditioner load control into grid operations is how to accurately measure shorter-term (e.g., ten's of minutes to a couple of hours) demand reductions from AC load curtailments for operations and settlement. This report presents a framework for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction measurements. It also compares the accuracy of various alternatives for measuring AC reductions - including methods that rely on regression analysis, load matching and control groups - using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. A practical approach is recommended for settlement that relies on set of tables, updated annually, with pre-calculated load reduction estimates. The tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on the daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day and simplify the settlement process.

83

Air–Sea Heat Flux Measurements from Nearly Neutrally Buoyant Floats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of neutrally buoyant, high-drag floats to measure the air–sea heat flux from within the turbulent oceanic boundary layer is investigated using float data from four different winter and fall float deployments. Two flux estimates can be ...

Eric A. D'Asaro

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Analysis System for Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratios in Flask Air Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for measuring the concentration of CO2 in flask air samples from the NOAA/CMDL worldwide flask sampling network is described. Up to 180 samples per day can he analyzed using a nondispersive infrared CO2 analyzer. All data acquisition and ...

Kirk W. Thoning; Thomas J. Conway; Ni Zhang; Duane Kitzis

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Measurements of Momentum and Heat Transfer across the Air–Sea Interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study makes direct measurements of turbulent fluxes in the mixed layer in order to close heat and momentum budgets across the air–sea interface and to assess the ability of rigid-boundary turbulence models to predict mean vertical gradients ...

Gregory P. Gerbi; John H. Trowbridge; James B. Edson; Albert J. Plueddemann; Eugene A. Terray; Janet J. Fredericks

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Inertial-Dissipation Air-Sea Flux Measurements: A Prototype System Using Realtime Spectral Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype system for the measurement and computation of air–sea fluxes in realtime was tested in the Humidity Exchange Over the Sea (HEXOS) main experiment, HEXMAX. The system used a sonic anemometer/thermometer for wind speed, surface stress ...

C. W. Fairall; J. B. Edson; S. E. Larsen; P. G. Mestayer

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

Eberhart, Craig

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Measured winter performance of storm windows  

SciTech Connect

Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

Klems, Joseph H.

2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

89

Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Fans Air-to-Air Heatexpected from exhaust fan A-I Infiltration contribution toIndoor Air Quality -- Exhaust Fan Mitigation" Final Report

Grimsrud, David T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ACT sup 2 project report: Ventilation and air tightness measurement of the Sunset Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation and air tightness measurements made on the test section of the Sunset Building as part of the ACT{sup 2} project. Real-time measurements were made over a two-week period in July 1991 to determine the building's performance; most of the results derive from intensive measurements made during (unoccupied) weekend periods. The ventilation rate of the entire building was measured to be about 2 air changes per hour of outdoor air which exceeds ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 design requirements by over a factor of two. Ventilation in all specific locations was found to be adequate, except for conference rooms -- some of which were significantly under ventilated. Opportunities exist for energy savings with better control of the ventilation. Ventilation efficiency was measured for the test section and selected sub-sections as well. In order to account for interzonal and intrazonal interactions, axillary information was collected and used to adjust the data. The implications of this data may be important for future interpretation of the building's performance.

Sherman, M.; Dickerhoff, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

ACT{sup 2} project report: Ventilation and air tightness measurement of the Sunset Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation and air tightness measurements made on the test section of the Sunset Building as part of the ACT{sup 2} project. Real-time measurements were made over a two-week period in July 1991 to determine the building`s performance; most of the results derive from intensive measurements made during (unoccupied) weekend periods. The ventilation rate of the entire building was measured to be about 2 air changes per hour of outdoor air which exceeds ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 design requirements by over a factor of two. Ventilation in all specific locations was found to be adequate, except for conference rooms -- some of which were significantly under ventilated. Opportunities exist for energy savings with better control of the ventilation. Ventilation efficiency was measured for the test section and selected sub-sections as well. In order to account for interzonal and intrazonal interactions, axillary information was collected and used to adjust the data. The implications of this data may be important for future interpretation of the building`s performance.

Sherman, M.; Dickerhoff, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Winter Infiltration Results from the FRTF Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Florida Florida Winter Infiltration Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Stakeholders Meeting Austin, TX March 1-2, 2012 Philip Fairey FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Project Objectives Under side-by-side, in situ controlled conditions: * Measure effectiveness of various energy retrofit improvements * Produce high-quality empirical data set useful for home energy simulation verification. FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida * Two identical side-by-side 1536 ft 2 , concrete block, slab-on-grade residences * Single pane fenestration, evenly distributed * No concrete block wall insulation

93

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

MEMOIRS OF A LEAK: Infiltrating Research for a Quarter of a Century  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEMOIRS OF A LEAK: Infiltrating Research for a Quarter of a Century MEMOIRS OF A LEAK: Infiltrating Research for a Quarter of a Century Speaker(s): Max Sherman Date: November 16, 2000 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: David Faulkner Infiltration is the (usually uncontrolled) flow of air through leaks in the building envelope, driven by natural and mechanical pressures. Before the oil crises, there was not a lot of interest in infiltration. For houses and other envelope-dominated buildings, however, infiltration typically accounted for all of their ventilation needs and 1/3-1/2 of their space-conditioning load. Starting in the mid-70s there was a realization that this important problem was not well understood, but represented an important energy-saving opportunity. Research institutions around the world

96

ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites ARMlUnmanned Air VehiclelSatelites The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program: An Overview P. A. Crowley Environmental Sciences Division U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94550 Introduction for leased UA V operation over the next year. Examples include, but are not limited to, the existing Gnat 750-45, with its 7-8 km ceiling, as well as the planned FY93 demonstration of two 20 km capable UA Vs-the Perseus- B and the Raptor. Thus the funding of some initial flights and the availability of leased UAVs will enable us to start up the ARM-UAV program. Additional funding will be required to continue this program. Interim Science Team This paper and the one that follows describe the start-up

97

Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

B. Keilhauer; J. Bluemer; R. Engel; D. Gora; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; M. Unger; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners  

SciTech Connect

A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Measuring important parameters for air-sea heat exchange Christoph S. Garbeab, Uwe Schimpfab and Bernd Jhneab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring important parameters for air-sea heat exchange Christoph S. Garbeab, Uwe Schimpfab Exchange, Heat flux, Digital Image Processing, Surface Renewal 1. INTRODUCTION Thermographic techniques-water heat exchange. A driving force in air sea interactions is the net sea surface heat flux. It is a vital

Garbe, Christoph S.

100

Characterization of dielectric barrier discharge in air applying current measurement, numerical simulation and emission spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air is characterized applying current measurement, numerical simulation and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). For OES, a non-calibrated spectrometer is used. This diagnostic method is applicable when cross-sectional area of the active plasma volume and current density can be determined. The nitrogen emission in the spectral range of 380 nm- 406 nm is used for OES diagnostics. Electric field in the active plasma volume is determined applying the measured spectrum, well-known Frank-Condon factors for nitrogen transitions and numerically- simulated electron distribution functions. The measured electric current density is used for determination of electron density in plasma. Using the determined plasma parameters, the dissociation rate of nitrogen and oxygen in active plasma volume are calculated, which can be used by simulation of the chemical kinetics.

Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Awakowicz, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System  

SciTech Connect

This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

Burdick, A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Measurement of Wind Waves and Wave-Coherent Air Pressures on the Open Sea from a Moving SWATH Vessel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and implementation on a Small Waterline Area Twin Hull (SWATH) vessel of a complete system for measuring the directional distribution of wind waves and the concomitant fluctuations of air pressure and wind speed immediately above them ...

Mark A. Donelan; Fred W. Dobson; Hans C. Graber; Niels Madsen; Cyril McCormick

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between ``node`` and ``bond`` and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches Title Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-3978E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Sherman, Max H., Jennifer M. Logue, and Brett C. Singer Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 17 Issue 2 Pagination 159 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords resave Abstract The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

105

Measured concentrations of radioactive particles in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concentrations of radioactive particles (U-238, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210) in air were measured in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill, Bluewater, New Mexico. Airborne particles were collected at three stations for about two-thirds of a year using a continuous collection method at a sampling rate of 10 L/min, and also were measured in monthly composites collected periodically at four stations using high volume air samplers at a sampling rate of 1400 L/min. The ratios of concentrations of each radionuclide to the concentrations of U-238 indicate that the concentrations of the radionuclides are influenced principally by the proximity of the major sources of emission and the direction of the wind. In all cases, the concentration of Pb-210 exceeded that of U-238. The ratio of Pb-210/U-238 was 12.3 and 13.3 for stations dominated by the emissions from the tailings and ore pads, but was only 1.6 for the station dominated by the yellowcake stack emission. The ratio of the radionuclide concentrations measured by the two methods of sample collection was between 0.8 and 1.2 for uranium, radium, and lead at station 104, but was 0.28 to 1.7 for thorium, radium, and lead at stations 101 and 102. The average concentrations calculated from the measurements made in this study suggest that releases from the Anaconda mill were made well within the existing limits of the maximum permissible concentrations for inhalation exposure of the general public.

Momeni, M H; Kisieleski, W E

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems. This is the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes. Only six homes were included in this study because of budgetary constraints; therefore this is not a representative sample. These investigations do provide some useful information on the heating efficiency of these homes. Useful comparisons can be drawn between these study homes and site-built heating efficiencies measured with a similar protocol. The protocol used to test these homes is very similar to another Ecotope protocol used in the study conducted in 1992 and 1993 for the Bonneville Power Administration to test the heating efficiency of 24 homes. This protocol combined real-time power measurements of furnace energy usage with energy usage during co-heat periods. Accessory data such as house and duct tightness measurements and tracer gas measurements were used to describe these homes and their heating system efficiency. Ensuring that manufactured housing is constructed in an energy and resource efficient manner is of increasing concern to manufactured home builders and consumers. No comparable work has been done to measure the heating system efficiency of MCS manufactured homes, although some co-heat tests have been performed on manufactured homes heated with natural gas to validate HUD thermal standards. It is expected that later in 1994 more research of this kind will be conducted, and perhaps a less costly and less time-consuming method for testing efficiencies will be develops.

Davis, Bob; Palmiter, Larry S.; Siegel, Jeff

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Amplitude calibration of a digital radio antenna array for measuring cosmic ray air showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radio pulses are emitted during the development of air showers, where air showers are generated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. These nanosecond short pulses are presently investigated by various experiments for the purpose of using them as a new detection technique for cosmic particles. For an array of 30 digital radio antennas (LOPES experiment) an absolute amplitude calibration of the radio antennas including the full electronic chain of the data acquisition system is performed, in order to estimate absolute values of the electric field strength for these short radio pulses. This is mandatory, because the measured radio signals in the MHz frequency range have to be compared with theoretical estimates and with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations to reconstruct features of the primary cosmic particle. A commercial reference radio emitter is used to estimate frequency dependent correction factors for each single antenna of the radio antenna array. The expected received power is related to the power recorded by the full electronic chain. Systematic uncertainties due to different environmental conditions and the described calibration procedure are of order 20%.

S. Nehls; A. Hakenjos; M. J. Arts; J. Bluemer; H. Bozdog; W. A. van Cappellen; H. Falcke; A. Haungs; A. Horneffer; T. Huege; P. G. Isar; O. Kroemer

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

330E 330E Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement Josh Bode, Michael Sullivan, Joseph H. Eto January 2012 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

110

Radiative Heating Errors in Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements Made from Buoys*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar radiative heating errors in buoy-mounted, naturally ventilated air temperature sensors are examined. Data from sensors with multiplate radiation shields and collocated, fan-aspirated air temperature sensors from three buoy deployments ...

Steven P. Anderson; Mark F. Baumgartner

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurements of soot, OH, and PAH concentrations in turbulent ethylene/air jet flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results from an investigation of soot formation in turbulent, non-premixed, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/air jet flames. Tests were conducted using a H{sub 2}-piloted burner with fuel issuing from a 2.18 mm i.d. tube into quiescent ambient air. A range of test conditions was studied using the initial jet velocity (16.2-94.1 m/s) as a parameter. Fuel-jet Reynolds numbers ranged from 4000 to 23,200. Planar laser-induced incandescence (LII) was employed to determine soot volume fractions, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to measure relative hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Extensive information on the structure of the soot and OH fields was obtained from two-dimensional imaging experiments. Quantitative measurements were obtained by employing the LII and LIF techniques independently. Imaging results for soot, OH, and PAH show the existence of three soot formation/oxidation regions: a rapid soot growth region, in which OH and soot particles lie in distinctly different radial locations; a mixing-dominated region controlled by large-scale motion; and a soot-oxidation region in which the OH and soot fields overlap spatially, resulting in the rapid oxidation of soot particles. Detailed quantitative analyzes of soot volume fractions and OH and soot zone thicknesses were performed along with the temperature measurement using the N{sub 2}-CARS system. Measurements of OH and soot zone thicknesses show that the soot zone thickness increases linearly with axial distance in the soot formation region, whereas the OH zone thickness is nearly constant in this region. The OH zone thickness then rapidly increases with downstream distance and approximately doubles in the soot-oxidation region. Probability density functions also were obtained for soot volume fractions and OH concentrations. These probability density functions clearly define the spatial relationships among the OH, PAH concentrations, the soot formation, and oxidation processes. (author)

Lee, Seong-Young [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Turns, Stephen R.; Santoro, Robert J. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

AIR LEAKAGE, SURFACE PRESSURES AND INFILTRATION RATES IN HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vapor barrier. Active solar heating Sealed combustion woodbarrier. heating systems possible including active solar.

Grimsrud, D.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

AIR LEAKAGE, SURFACE PRESSURES AND INFILTRATION RATES IN HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar heating Sealed combustion wood stove. 174 m floorheating system; sealed combustion wood stove back-up. 197 m

Grimsrud, D.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

AIR LEAKAGE, SURFACE PRESSURES AND INFILTRATION RATES IN HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active solar heating Sealed combustion wood stove. 174 mradiant heating system; sealed combustion wood stove back-One story wood frame construction. floor furnace heating. m

Grimsrud, D.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct of a certain length, based on the unit outlet geometry, and this ducting added to the unit height may result in a test apparatus height that exceeds psychometric test room dimensions. This project attempted to alter the outlet duct in a way that reduces the test apparatus height while maintaining the reliability of the ASHRAE Standard 37 testing setup. The investigation was done in two scenarios, the first, which altered the direction of the flow after the unit with an elbow and measured static pressure downstream of the elbow, and the second which inserted a passive resistive piece in the flow to decrease the required distance between the unit and the static pressure measurement. Three air handling units were used in Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 testing, with the two smallest units additionally being tested in Scenario 1 with an over-sized duct. The scenario tests were required to be within 5% power and 2.5% airflow of a baseline test following ASHRAE Standard 37. he results for Scenario 1 have shown that ASHRAE Standard 37 can be modified to reduce testing height restrictions by using a square elbow with turning vanes, provided it is oriented in a specific way in relation to the blower. Furthermore, additional Scenario 1 testing on the over-sized outlet duct shows that possibilities exist for using a single over-sized duct to successfully meet ASHRAE Standard 37 testing conditions when testing a variety of units. Finally, the results of Scenario 2 have shown that the height constraints of the outlet duct can be reduced by installing a passive resistive device consisting of a mesh at the outlet; however, this approach applies only to those units with the heat exchanger located downstream of the blower. As a result of specific issues or problems that were encountered during the project that were beyond the scope, eleven case studies were presented and recommended for future work.

Wheeler, Grant Benson

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Detonation cell size measurements in H/sub 2/-air-H/sub 2/O mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conclusions of this study are: (1) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures at 20/sup 0/C and a total pressure of 101 kPa, detonations have been achieved between 13.5% and 70% H/sub 2/ mole fraction. This compositional range is wider than the detonability limits previously reported for smaller tubes. (2) The addition of CO/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/-air mixtures greatly reduces the detonability of the mixture. (3) For a given initial temperature, air density and equivalence ratio, the addition of steam to a H/sub 2/-Air mixture greatly decreases the detonability of the mixture. (4) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, detonation of H/sub 2/-air mixtures with up to 30% steam have been recorded. (5) For H/sub 2/-air mixtures, the detonability increases with increasing initial temperature at constant density. Consequently, the diluent effect of the addition of steam to a fixed volume of an H/sub 2/-air mixture in reducing detonability is partially offset if there is a concomitant temperature increase. (6) At 100/sup 0/C and an air density of 41.6 moles/m/sup 3/, a 13.0% H/sub 2/-air mixture has been detonated. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Shepherd, J.E.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor. By means of testing data analysis, it is indicated that several problems such as unsuitable operation schedule of the chiller, low COP, irrational matching of pump and motor, unbalanced conditions of chilled water flow, and low working stability and efficiency ratio of the pump are existent. The paper presents suggestions for improvement with relevance based on the induction and analysis of system fault found in measurements.

Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Air Leakage of U.S. Homes: Model Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses a model developed from that database in conjunction with US Census Bureau data for estimating air leakage as a function of location throughout the US.

Sherman, Max H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V. Presentation Title, Electrolytic Infiltration into Laser Sintered Porous Graphite ... Tensile and Fatigue Testing of 304 Stainless Steel after Gaseous Hydrogen ...

122

Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Laia, J.R.; Barbero, R.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

123

Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-55226 Catalyst-Infiltrated Supporting Cathode for Thin-demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can beinfiltrating nano- sized catalyst particles into its pores

Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally insulated ducts Title Effects of airflow infiltration on the thermal performance of internally insulated...

125

STEP—A Temperature Profiler for Measuring the Oceanic Thermal Boundary Layer at the Ocean–Air Interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast measuring system has been designed and built to determine the oceanic thermal microstructure at the ocean–air interface. The system consists of a profiler sonde, which amends through the uppermost few meters of the ocean with a time of ...

Theodor C. Mammen; Nikolaus von Bosse

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Measurement of genotoxic air pollutant exposures in street vendors and school children in and near Bangkok  

SciTech Connect

The effects of air pollution on human health are a great concern, particularly in big cities with severe traffic problems such as Bangkok, Thailand. In this study, exposure to genotoxic compounds in ambient air was studied by analysis of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene through direct measurement of concentrations in air as well as through the use of different biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) for PAHs and urinary t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) for benzene. The study was conducted in various susceptible groups of the population with different occupations in 5 traffic-congested areas of Bangkok, as well as in primary school children. The level of total PAHs on the main roads at various sites ranged from 7.10 to 83.04 ng/m{sup 3}, while benzene levels ranged from 16.35 to 49.25 ppb. In contrast, ambient levels in nearby temples, the control sites, ranged from 1.67 to 3.04 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 10.16 to 16.25 ppb benzene. Street vendors selling clothes were exposed to 16.07 {+-} 1.64 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 21.97 {+-} 1.50 ppb benzene, levels higher than in monks and nuns residing in nearby temples (5.34 {+-} 0.65 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs and 13.69 {+-} 0.77 ppb benzene). Grilled-meat vendors in the same area were exposed to both total PAHs and benzene at even higher levels, possibly due to additional formation of PAHs during the grilling of meat (34.27 {+-} 7.02 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs; 27.49 {+-} 2.72 ppb benzene). At the end of the workday, urinary 1-OHP levels in street vendors (0.12 and 0.15 {mu}mol/mol creatinine in clothes and grilled-meat vendors, respectively) were significantly higher than in controls (0.04 {mu}mol/mol creatinine; P < 0.01). Afternoon urinary t,t-MA levels in both groups of street vendors (0.12 mg/g creatinine) were also significantly higher than in controls (0.08 mg/g creatinine; P < 0.05). School children from two schools in Bangkok were exposed to total PAHs and benzene at levels of 6.70 {+-} 0.47 ng/m{sup 3} and 4.71 {+-} 0.25 ppb, respectively, higher than those to which children living outside the city were exposed (1.25 {+-} 0.24 ng/m{sup 3} total PAHs; 2.10 {+-} 0.16 ppb benzene). At the end of the school day, levels of urinary 1-OHP and t,t-MA were significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) in Bangkok school children (0.23 {mu}mol/mol creatinine and 0.27 mg/g creatinine, respectively) than in school children from outside Bangkok (0.10 {mu}mol/mol creatinine and 0.08 mg/g creatinine, respectively)

Ruchirawat, Mathuros [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand) and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)]. E-mail: mathuros@tubtim.cri.or.th; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Settachan, Daam [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tuntaviroon, Jantamas [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Buthbumrung, Nantaporn [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Sharma, Suman [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand)

2005-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Air Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Title Air Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-48671 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Sherman, Max H., and Nance Matson Abstract Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

128

Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

Laughman, Christopher Reed.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Sensor and Electronic Biases/Errors in Air Temperature Measurements in Common Weather Station Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biases of four commonly used air temperature sensors are examined and detailed. Each temperature transducer consists of three components: temperature sensing elements, signal conditioning circuitry, and corresponding analog-to-digital ...

X. Lin; K. G. Hubbard

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tighter homes and the air sealing of existing homes.Tightening or air sealing of homes to reduce outdoor airhealth hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can

Logue, J.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Measurement of /sup 85/Kr concentrations in air using a cryogenic sampling technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to detect moderate concentrations (down to approximately 370 Bq/m/sup 3/ under actual field conditions) of /sup 85/Kr in air has been developed. This method employs a cryogenic sampler for collection of the air sample of interest and a Ge(Li) spectroscopy system to determine the concentration of /sup 85/Kr by detection of the 514-keV gamma photon. Data from experiments are presented.

Owens, M.E.; Berven, B.A.; Perdue, P.T.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Analysis of air-temperature measurements from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor building  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of the ambient air resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) just after the hydrogen burn in the TMI-2 Reactor Building is examined. The performance of the sensors is compared with physical models of the sensor/ambient air system. With one exception, the RTD data appear to be valid for the period examined. Based on the data, the hydrogen burn ended considerably before the first data points were recorded.

Fryer, M.O.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Preliminary Analysis of U.S. Residential Air Leakage Database v.2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Analysis of U.S. Residential Air Leakage Database v.2011 Preliminary Analysis of U.S. Residential Air Leakage Database v.2011 Title Preliminary Analysis of U.S. Residential Air Leakage Database v.2011 Publication Type Conference Proceedings LBNL Report Number LBNL-5552E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., and Max H. Sherman Conference Name 2011 32nd AIVC Conference and 1st TightVent Conference: Towards Optimal Airtightness Performance Date Published 10/2011 Conference Location Brussels, Belgium. Keywords air leakage, blower door, fan pressurization measurements, infiltration Abstract Air leakage and other diagnostic measurements are being added to LBNL's Residential Diagnostics Database (ResDB). We describe the sources of data that amount to more than 80,000 blower door measurements. We present summary statistics of selected parameters, such as floor area and year built. We compare the house characteristics of new additions to ResDB with prior data. Distributions of normalized leakage are computed for income-qualified homes that were weatherized, homes that were participants of various residential energy efficiency programs, and new constructions built between 2006 and 2011. Further work is underway to relate air leakage to house characteristics utilizing the full database for predictive modeling of air infiltration and to support studies of energy efficiency. Current status of ResDB can be found at http://resdb.lbl.gov/.

134

A New Approach to Mass Measurements of UHECR: Horizontal Air Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of Horizontal Showers induced by cosmic rays is discussed in detail. A new approach to the calculation of the muon component in horizontal air showers induced by protons, heavier nuclei or photons is presented which allows a simple analytical evaluation of the muon density profiles at ground level. The results of the first application of these results to horizontal air showers detected at the Haverah Park Array by the recently started {\\sl Leeds-Santiago collaboration}, leading to important restrictions on composition at ultra high energies, are reported.

Enrique Zas

2000-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

135

CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residential buildings with dynamic insulation”, 16* AIVCas dynamic insulation, air is drawn through the building

Buchanan, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Errors of Naturally Ventilated Air Temperature Measurements in a Spatial Observation Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spatial network of 25 air temperature sensors was deployed over an area of 3.5 km × 3.5 km of agricultural land, aiming to calculate the sensible heat flux by spatial averaging instead of temporal averaging. Since temperature sensors in ...

Matthias Mauder; R. L. Desjardins; Zhiling Gao; Ronald van Haarlem

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

On the Measurement of the Transfer of Gases across the Air–Sea Interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An outline is given of the procedure for obtaining the gas transfer across the air–sea interface when the heat flux from the water to the surface is known. An essential assumption is similarity between the fluxes of heat and other scalar ...

Joost A. Businger

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Test and evaluation of the Argonne BPAC10 Series air chamber calorimeter designed for 20 minute measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the final report on DOE-OSS Task ANLE88002 Fast Air Chamber Calorimetry.'' The task objective was to design, construct, and test an isothermal air chamber calorimeter for plutonium assay of bulk samples that would meet the following requirements for sample power measurement: average sample measurement time less than 20 minutes. Measurement of samples with power output up to 10 W. Precision of better than 1% RSD for sample power greater than 1 W. Precision better than 0.010 watt SD, for sample power less than 1 W. This report gives a description of the calorimeter hardware and software and discusses the test results. The instrument operating procedure, included as an appendix, gives examples of typical input/output and explains the menu driven software. Sample measurement time of less than 20 minutes was attained by pre-equilibration of the samples in low cost precision preheaters and by prediction of equilibrium measurements. Tests at the TA55 Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, on typical samples, indicates that the instrument meets all the measurement requirements.

Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.; Jung, E.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Cremers, T. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements in an air/molten salt direct-contact heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comparison of experimental data with a recently published model of heat exchange in irrigated packed beds. Heat transfer and pressure drop were measured in a 150 mm (ID) column with a 610-mm bed of metal Pall rings. Molten nitrate salt and preheated air were the working fluids with a salt inlet temperature of approximately 440{degree}C and air inlet temperatures of approximately 230{degree}C. A comparison between the experimental data and the heat transfer model is made on the basis of heat transfer from the salt. For the range of air and salt flow rates tested, 0.3 to 1.2 kg/m{sup 2} s air flow and 6 to 18 kg/m{sup 2} s salt flow, the data agree with the model within 22% standard deviation. In addition, a model for the column pressure drop was validated, agreeing with the experimental data within 18% standard deviation over the range of column pressure drop from 40 to 1250 Pa/m. 25 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Bohn, M.S.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing Indoor Air Quality, ASHRAE Trans.   97(2), pp896?Indoor Air Quality”  ASHRAE Trans.  pp 93?101 Vol.  111 (I) Energy  Characteristics”,  ASHRAE  Transactions, Vol.103 (

Sherman, Max

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the outer sheathing (plywood) allow air to leak into thefor turbulence. The plywood sheathing is represented as an

Buchanan, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Measuring the benefits of air quality improvements: a hedonic salary approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates the compensating variation associated with nonmarginal changes in air quality using a hedonic salary model and 1970 data collected for a national sample of university professors. Recent advances in the theory of hedonic prices are utilized in constructing the theoretical model and formulating a procedure for generating empirical estimates. Lower bound estimates of the compensating variation associated with a one standard deviation increase in total suspended particulates (27.6 mgs/cu. meter/24 hours) were $419 for full professors, $234 for associate professors, and $209 for assistant professors in 1970. These results were not sensitive to the specification of the hedonic salary equations.

Bayless, M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Measurement of Air Exchange in Interconnected Underground Structures for Con Edison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has about 250,000 structures in its system. Of these, 70,000 are manholes and 180,000 are service boxes, which are the object on average of about 1400 events per year. Vented manhole covers have perforations that allow air exchange between the interior of a manhole and the ambient atmosphere. The amount of venting affects the exchange of gases between underground structures and thus the potential for rapid pressure buildup and explosions. This re...

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode  

SciTech Connect

It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, ...

J. Fishman; L. T. Iraci; J. Al-Saadi; K. Chance; F. Chavez; M. Chin; P. Coble; C. Davis; P. M. DiGiacomo; D. Edwards; A. Eldering; J. Goes; J. Herman; C. Hu; D. J. Jacob; C. Jordan; S. R. Kawa; R. Key; X. Liu; S. Lohrenz; A. Mannino; V. Natraj; D. Neil; J. Neu; M. Newchurch; K. Pickering; J. Salisbury; H. Sosik; A. Subramaniam; M. Tzortziou; J. Wang; M. Wang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

imap: Indirect measurement of air pollution with cellphones. PerCOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract—In this paper, we introduce the cellphonebased indirect sensing problem. While participatory sensing aims at monitoring of a phenomenon by deploying a dense set of sensors carried by individuals, our indirect sensing problem aims at inferring the manifestations of a sparsely monitored phenomenon on the individuals. The main advantage of the indirect sensing method is that, by making use of existing exposure modeling and estimation methods, it provides a more feasible alternative to direct sensing. Collection of time-location logs using the cellphones plays a major role in our indirect sensing method, while direct sensing at the cellphones is unneeded. We focus on the air pollutant exposure estimation problem as an application of the indirect sensing technique and propose a web-based framework, iMAP, for addressing this problem. I.

Murat Demirbas; Carole Rudra; Atri Rudra; Murat Ali Bayir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Field Evaluation of Nanofilm Detectors for Measuring Acidic Particles in Indoor and Outdoor Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

independent and unbiased research organization to provide high quality, impartial, and relevant science on the health effects of emissions from motor vehicles, fuels, and other environmental sources. All results are provided to industry and government sponsors, other key decisionmakers, the scientific community, and the public. HEI funds research on all major pollutants, including air toxics, diesel exhaust, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and particulate matter. The Institute periodically engages in special review and evaluation of key questions in science that are highly relevant to the regulatory process. To date, HEI has supported more than 220 projects at institutions in North America, Europe, and Asia and has published over 160 Research Reports and Special Reports. Typically, HEI receives half of its core funds from the US Environmental Protection Agency and half from 28

E F F E Cts; Beverly S Cohen; Maire Sa Heikkinen; Yair Hazi; Hai Gao; Paul Peters

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A New Portable Instrument for Continuous Measurement of Formaldehyde in Ambient Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new instrument for the in situ measurement of formaldehyde with online concentration output was built on the base of the Hantzsch chemistry fluorimetric detection of formaldehyde in liquid phase. The instrument was specially designed for ...

W. Junkermann; J. M. Burger

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Measurements of the Air Temperature Profile near the Ground by Two Laser Beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two neon-helium gas lasers were used for temperatures profile measurements near the ground. The experiment was carried out during the cold season (when absolute humidity is small on the asphalt pavement) to be free from humidity effects. The ...

Takehisa Yokoi

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) on board the NASA DC-8 measured high-resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NASA African Monsoon ...

Syed Ismail; Richard A. Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; Gao Chen; Bruce Anderson; Susan A. Kooi; Anthony Notari; Carolyn F. Butler; Sharon Burton; Marta Fenn; Jason P. Dunion; Gerry Heymsfield; T. N. Krishnamurti; Mrinal K. Biswas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Determination of Longwave Heat Flux at the Air-Sea Interface Using Measurements from Buoy Platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory for pyrgeometer operation is utilized for determining downwelling longwave radiation. Errors in downwelling longwave radiation measurements are due to differences in pyrgeometer body and dome temperatures compared to that of the ...

T. D. Dickey; D. V. Manov; R. A. Weller; D. A. Siegel

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Cluster Analysis of Hourly Wind Measurements to Reveal Synoptic Regimes Affecting Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A clustering algorithm is developed to study hourly, ground-level wind measurements obtained from a network of monitoring stations positioned throughout the San Francisco Bay Area of California. A statistical model based on principal components ...

Scott Beaver; Ahmet Palazoglu

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Measurement of Clear-Air Gradients and Turbulence Properties with Radar Wind Profilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experiment comparing balloon and profiler observations was carried out to evaluate the capability of Doppler radar wind profilers to remotely measure useful meteorological quantities other than wind. The site chosen was in Southern California ...

E. E. Gossard; D. E. Wolfe; K. P. Moran; R. A. Paulus; K. D. Anderson; L. T. Rogers

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The accuracy of miniature bead thermistors in the measurement of upper air temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A laboratory study was made of the errors of miniature bead thermistors of 5, 10, and 15 mils nominal diameter when used for the measurement of atmospheric temperature. Although the study was primarily concerned with the ...

Thompson, Donald C. (Donald Charles), 1933-

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Comparing LOPES measurements of air-shower radio emission with REAS 3.11 and CoREAS simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmic ray air showers emit radio pulses at MHz frequencies, which can be measured with radio antenna arrays - like LOPES at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany. To improve the understanding of the radio emission, we test theoretical descriptions with measured data. The observables used for these tests are the absolute amplitude of the radio signal, and the shape of the radio lateral distribution. We compare lateral distributions of more than 500 LOPES events with two recent and public Monte Carlo simulation codes, REAS 3.11 and CoREAS (v 1.0). The absolute radio amplitudes predicted by REAS 3.11 are in good agreement with the LOPES measurements. The amplitudes predicted by CoREAS are lower by a factor of two, and marginally compatible with the LOPES measurements within the systematic scale uncertainties. In contrast to any previous versions of REAS, REAS 3.11 and CoREAS now reproduce the shape of the measured lateral distributions correctly. This reflects a remarkable progress compared to the si...

Apel, W D; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Airborne Measurements of Air Mass from O2 A-Band Absorption Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne experiments to assess the feasibility of remote sensing surface pressure from a space platform are described. The data are high-resolution spectra in the O2 A band (759–771 nm) of sunlight reflected from the sea surface, measured by a ...

D. M. O’Brien; R. M. Mitchell; S. A. English; G. A. Da Costa

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Measurement of the proton-air cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}=57$ TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzing the tail of the distribution of the shower maxima, a proton-air cross section of [505 {+-} 22(stat){sub -36}{sup +28}(syst)] mb is found.

Collaboration, Auger

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Duct Leakage Impacts on Airtightness, Infiltration, and Peak Electrical Demand in Florida Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing for duct leakage was done in 155 homes. Tracer gas tests found that infiltration rates were three times greater when the air handler was operating than when it was off. Infiltration averaged 0.85 air changes per hour (ach) with the air handler (AH) operating continuously and 0.29 ach with the AH off. Return leaks were found to average 10.3% of AH total flow. House airtightness, in 90 of these homes, determined by blower door testing, averaged 12.58 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACHSO). When the duct registers were sealed, ACHSO decreased to 11.04, indicating that 12.2% of the house leaks were in the duct system. Duct leaks have a dramatic impact upon peak electrical demand. Based on theoretical analysis, a fifteen percent return leak from the attic can increase cooling electrical demand by 100%. Duct repairs in a typical. electrically heated Florida home reduce winter peak demand by about 1.6 kW per house at about one-sixth the cost of building new electrical generation capacity.

Cummings, J. B.; Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nomenclature Cp= specific heat capacity of air (1006 J/kg K) CP,= specific heat capacity of insulation solidJ/kg K) CPW specific heat capacity of wall sheathing (1200

Buchanan, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration. Topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between {open_quotes}node{close_quotes} and{open_quote}bond{close_quotes} and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

A Prediction of Energy Savings Resulting from Building Infiltration Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat transfer through building walls consists of three main components: conduction heat transfer, solar gain and infiltration heat transfer. An interaction among these three heat transfer components alters the effective heat transfer through a wall, working to reduce or increase it. This study uses simulation to evaluate the potential energy impact of the interaction when several different strategies for controlling air leakage direction and velocity in building envelope components are implemented. The simulations performed in this study show that significant energy savings can be realized with the use of controlled airflow through non-airtight walls in a building. Comparing the energy load of a building which uses airflow control in its walls with the energy load found with a standard calculation (where the interaction effect is not considered), annual energy load savings were found in a warm climate as high as 17%. The results were less promising when compared against the performance of a building experiencing simulated natural airflow (and heat recovery) through its exterior walls: the best annual load savings percentage was 10% in a warm climate. It was found that in a cooler climate, the natural flow configuration performed about as well as any of the artificial airflow configurations, so airflow control is not recommended in cool climates.

McWatters, K.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Technical Review Meeting April 29-30, 2013 A Research Institute of the University of Central...

166

Synthesis of Carbon-Carbon Composite via Infiltration Process of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon frame was first pyrolyzed from the wood template. The final composites were then obtained by infiltrating molten coal tar pitch into the carbon frame ...

167

Case Study 3 - Energy Impacts of Infiltration and Ventilation in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the energy use in commercial buildings due to infiltration and ventilation airflows and to investigate the potential for energy savings that could be ...

168

Photovoltaic cells made from conjugated polymers infiltrated into mesoporous titania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells made from conjugated polymers infiltrated into mesoporous titania Kevin M photovoltaic cells by infiltrating the conjugated polymer regioregular poly 3-hexylthiophene into films for electrons to travel to an electrode after electron transfer has occurred. The photovoltaic cells have

McGehee, Michael

169

A Study of the Effect of Molecular and Aerosol Conditions in the Atmosphere on Air Fluorescence Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to perform calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers created by cosmic rays of above 10^18 eV. To correct these measurements for the effects introduced by atmospheric fluctuations, the Observatory contains a group of monitoring instruments to record atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 km^2. The atmospheric data are used extensively in the reconstruction of air showers, and are particularly important for the correct determination of shower energies and the depths of shower maxima. This paper contains a summary of the molecular and aerosol conditions measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory since the start of regular operations in 2004, and includes a discussion of the impact of these measurements on air shower reconstructions. Between 10^18 and 10^20 eV, the systematic uncertainties due to all atmospheric effects increase from 4% to 8% in measurements of shower energy, and 4 g/cm^2 to 8 g/cm^...

,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Colorimetric Detection of Formaldehyde: A Sensor for Air Quality Measurements and a Pollution-Warning Kit for Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of new chemical sensors for the detection of formaldehyde, a ubiquitous and carcinogenic indoor air pollutant is described. These sensors are based on the use of nanoporous matrices acting as sponge to trap the targeted pollutant and ... Keywords: Formaldehyde, colorimetric detection, chemical sensor, indoor air, nanoporous matrices, sol-gel

S. Mariano; W. Wang; G. Brunelle; Y. Bigay; T. H. Tran-Thi

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A hybrid source apportionment model integrating measured data and air quality model results - article no. D07301  

SciTech Connect

The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility (BRAVO) study was an intensive air quality study designed to understand the causes of haze in Big Bend National Park. Daily speciated fine aerosols were measured from July through October 1999 at 37 sites located mostly in Texas. In support of BRAVO, two chemical transport models (CTMs) were used to apportion particulate sulfate at Big Bend and other sites in Texas to sources in the eastern and western United States, Texas, Mexico, and the Carbon I and II coal-fired power plants, located 225 km southeast of Big Bend in Mexico. Analysis of the CTM source attribution results and comparison to results from receptor models revealed systematic biases. To reduce the multiplicative biases, a hybrid source apportionment model, based on inverse modeling, was developed that adjusted the initial CTM source contributions so the modeled sulfate concentrations optimally fit the measured data, resulting in refined daily source contributions. The method was tested using synthetic data and successfully reduced source attribution biases. The refined sulfate source attribution results reduced the initial eastern U.S. contribution to Big Bend, averaged over the BRAVO study period, from about 40% to about 30%, while Mexico's contribution increased from 24 - 32% about 40%. The contribution from the Carbon facility increased from similar to 14% to over 20%. The increase in Mexico's contribution is consistent with more recent SO{sub 2} emissions estimates that indicate that the BRAVO Mexican SO{sub 2} emissions were underestimated. Source attribution results for other monitoring sites in west Texas were similar to results at Big Bend.

Schichtel, B.A.; Malm, W.C.; Gebhart, K.A.; Barna, M.G.; Knipping, E.M. [Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

172

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Analysis of Mesoscale Airflow Patterns in the South-Central Coast Air Basin during the SCCCAMP 1985 Intensive Measurement Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the mesoscale airflow patterns in the south-central coast air basin (SCCAB) was performed using data collected during the 1985 South-Central Coast Cooperative Aerometric Monitoring Program (SCCCAMP). Airflow within the SCCAB is ...

Sharon G. Douglas; Robert C. Kessler

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Estimating Regional Surface Heat and Moisture Fluxes above Prairie Cropland from Surface and Upper-Air Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-air budget methods can be used to estimate the surface sensible and latent heat flux densities on a regional scale. This study assesses the application of radiosonde-based budget methods above homogeneous cropland. Serial daytime soundings ...

Alan G. Barr; G. S. Strong

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Atmospheric Radon Measurements in the Arctic; Fronts, Seasonal Observations, and Transport of Continental Air to Polar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radon was determined in the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean in flights of a United States Naval Research Laboratory aircraft in April and May 1974. Simultaneously collected air samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, methane, ...

P. E. Wilkniss; R. E. Larson

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Isotopic evidence for the infiltration of mantle and metamorphic CO2-H2O fluids from below in faulted rocks from the San Andreas Fault System  

SciTech Connect

To characterize the origin of the fluids involved in the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system, we carried out an isotope study of exhumed faulted rocks from deformation zones, vein fillings and their hosts and the fluid inclusions associated with these materials. Samples were collected from segments along the SAF system selected to provide a depth profile from upper to lower crust. In all, 75 samples from various structures and lithologies from 13 localities were analyzed for noble gas, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions. Fluid inclusions exhibit helium isotope ratios ({sup 3}He/{sup 4}He) of 0.1-2.5 times the ratio in air, indicating that past fluids percolating through the SAF system contained mantle helium contributions of at least 35%, similar to what has been measured in present-day ground waters associated with the fault (Kennedy et al., 1997). Calcite is the predominant vein mineral and is a common accessory mineral in deformation zones. A systematic variation of C- and O-isotope compositions of carbonates from veins, deformation zones and their hosts suggests percolation by external fluids of similar compositions and origin with the amount of fluid infiltration increasing from host rocks to vein to deformation zones. The isotopic trend observed for carbonates in veins and deformation zones follows that shown by carbonates in host limestones, marbles, and other host rocks, increasing with increasing contribution of deep metamorphic crustal volatiles. At each crustal level, the composition of the infiltrating fluids is thus buffered by deeper metamorphic sources. A negative correlation between calcite {delta}{sup 13}C and fluid inclusion {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He is consistent with a mantle origin for a fraction of the infiltrating CO{sub 2}. Noble gas and stable isotope systematics show consistent evidence for the involvement of mantle-derived fluids combined with infiltration of deep metamorphic H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in faulting, supporting the involvement of deep fluids percolating through and perhaps weakening the fault zone. There is no clear evidence for a significant contribution from meteoric water, except for overprinting related to late weathering.

Pili, E.; Kennedy, B.M.; Conrad, M.E.; Gratier, J.-P.

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Lorenzetti, David M., Astrid H. Kristoffersen, and Ashok J. Gadgil Journal Indoor Air Pagination 7 Keywords recirculating ventilation, tracer decay rate Abstract Tracer gas measurements are used to estimate the flow rate of fresh air into a room or building. These methods commonly account for the decay of tracer gas concentration as the result of ventilation air supply and infiltration, using a well-mixed model of the space. Some researchers also have considered the effect of leakage in the ventilation ductwork. This paper considers the effect of recirculation through ventilation ducts on the calculated fresh air supply rate. Transport delay in the ducts can significantly alter the time evolution of tracer concentration, and hence alter the estimated air change rate.

178

Isokinetic air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

Sehmel, George A. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at the BNL high-temperature combustion facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) was designed and constructed with the objective of studying detonation phenomena in mixtures of hydrogen-air-steam at initially high temperatures. The central element of the HTCF is a 27-cm inner-diameter, 21.3-m long cylindrical test vessel capable of being heating to 700K {+-} 14K. A unique feature of the HTCF is the {open_quotes}diaphragmless{close_quotes} acetylene-oxygen gas driver which is used to initiate the detonation in the test gas. Cell size measurements have shown that for any hydrogen-air-steam mixture, increasing the initial mixture temperature, in the range of 300K to 650K, while maintaining the initial pressure of 0.1 MPa, decreases the cell size and thus makes the mixture more detonable. The effect of steam dilution on cell size was tested in stoichiometric and off-stoichiometric (e.g., equivalence ratio of 0.5) hydrogen-air mixtures. Increasing the steam dilution in hydrogen-air mixtures at 0.1 MPa initial pressure increases the cell size, irrespective of initial temperature. It is also observed that the desensitizing effect of steam diminished with increased initial temperature. A 1-dimensional, steady-state Zel`dovich, von Neumann, Doring (ZND) model, with full chemical kinetics, has been used to predict cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at different initial conditions. Qualitatively the model predicts the overall trends observed in the measured cell size versus mixture composition and initial temperature and pressure. It was found that the proportionality constant used to predict detonation cell size from the calculated ZND model reaction zone varies between 10 and 100 depending on the mixture composition and initial temperature. 32 refs., 35 figs.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.L. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Title Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2004 Authors Kristoffersen, Astrid H., Ashok J. Gadgil, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms - RoomVent 2004, Pagination pp 6 Date Published September 5-8, 2 Conference Location Coimbra, Portugal Abstract Tracer gas measurements are commonly used to estimate the fresh air exchange rate in a room or building. Published tracer decay methods account for fresh air supply, infiltration, and leaks in ductwork. However, the time delay associated with a ventilation system recirculating tracer back to the room also affects the decay rate. We present an analytical study of tracer gas decay in a well-mixed, mechanically-ventilated room with recirculation. The analysis shows that failing to account for delays can lead to under- or over-estimates of the fresh air supply, depending on whether the decay rate calculation includes the duct volume

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

Dismukes, E.B. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States); Elia, G.G. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Measurements of Fission Products from the Fukushima Daiichi Incident in San Francisco Bay Area Air Filters, Automobile Filters, Rainwater, and Food  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of environmental media were analyzed for fallout radionuclides resulting from the Fukushima nuclear accident by the Low Background Facility (LBF) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. Monitoring activities in air and rainwater began soon after the onset of the March 11, 2011 tsunami and are reported here through the end of 2012. Observed fallout isotopes include $^{131}$I, $^{132}$I,$^{132}$Te,$^{134}$Cs, $^{136}$Cs, and $^{137}$Cs. Isotopes were measured on environmental air filters, automobile filters, and in rainwater. An additional analysis of rainwater in search of $^{90}$Sr is also presented. Last, a series of food measurements conducted in September of 2013 are included due to extended media concerns of $^{134, 137}$Cs in fish. Similar measurements of fallout from the Chernobyl disaster at LBNL, previously unpublished publicly, are also presented here as a comparison with the Fukushima incident. All measurements presented also include natural radionuclides found in the environment to provide a basis for comparison.

A. R. Smith; K. J. Thomas; E. B. Norman; D. L. Hurley; B. T. Lo; Y. D. Chan; P. V. Guillaumon; B. G. Harvey

2013-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

183

Epistemic Uncertainty in Evalustion of Evapotranspiration and Net Infiltration Using Analogue Meteorological Data  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty is typically defined as a potential deficiency in the modeling of a physical process, owing to a lack of knowledge. Uncertainty can be categorized as aleatoric (inherent uncertainty caused by the intrinsic randomness of the system) or epistemic (uncertainty caused by using various model simplifications and their parameters). One of the main reasons for model simplifications is a limited amount of meteorological data. This paper is devoted to the epistemic uncertainty quantification involved in two components of the hydrologic balance-evapotranspiration and net infiltration for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates at Yucca Mountain, using the data from analogue meteorological stations. In particular, the author analyzes semi-empirical models used for evaluating (1) reference-surface potential evapotranspiration, including temperature-based models (Hargreaves-Samani, Thornthwaite, Hamon, Jensen-Haise, and Turc) and radiation-based models (Priestly-Taylor and Penman), and (2) surface-dependent potential evapotranspiration (Penman-Monteith and Shuttleworth-Wallace models). Evapotranspiration predictions are then used as inputs for the evaluation of net infiltration using the semi-empirical models of Budyko, Fu, Milly, Turc-Pike, and Zhang. Results show that net infiltration ranges are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The propagation of uncertainties through model predictions for different climates is characterized using statistical measures. Predicted evapotranspiration ranges are reasonably corroborated against the data from Class A pan evaporometers (taking into account evaporation-pan adjustment coefficients), and ranges of net infiltration predictions are corroborated against the geochemical and temperature-based estimates of groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone obtained at Yucca Mountain.

B. Faybishenko

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cloud Layers, Particle Identification, and Rain-Rate Profiles from ZRVf Measurements by Clear-Air Doppler Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Networks of radars that point almost vertically and continuously measure the vertical profile of the horizontal wind will, in the future, be operated at many locations around the world. Although such radars are designed to measure the Doppler-...

E. E. Gossard; R. G. Strauch; D. C. Welsh; S. Y. Matrosov

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

LLOYD, E.R.

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Infiltration Processing of Metal Matrix-Fly Ash Particle Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal Matrix composites can provide improved functional properties compared to solid metal castings while saving production energy and raw material costs. Ash-derived metal matrix composites, in particular, can provide high value-added use to coal fly ash. This report describes research on use of pressure infiltration techniques to produce composites for automotive component applications.

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

Analysis of ICPP tank farm infiltration  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses water seeping into underground vaults which contain high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Each of the vaults contains from one to three sumps. The original purpose of the sumps was to serve as a backup leak detection system for release of HLLW from the storage tanks. However, water seeps into most of the vaults, filling the sumps, and defeating their purpose as a leak detection system. Leak detection for the HLLW storage tanks is based on measuring the level of liquid inside the tank. The source of water leaking into the vaults was raised as a concern by the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Group because this source could also be leaching contaminants released to soil in the vicinity of the tank farm and transporting contaminants to the aquifer. This report evaluates information concerning patterns of seepage into vault sumps, the chemistry of water in sumps, and water balances for the tank farm to determine the sources of water seeping into the vaults.

Richards, B.T.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Correlation of turbulent burning velocities of ethanol-air, measured in a fan-stirred bomb up to 1.2 MPa  

SciTech Connect

The turbulent burning velocity is defined by the mass rate of burning and this also requires that the associated flame surface area should be defined. Previous measurements of the radial distribution of the mean reaction progress variable in turbulent explosion flames provide a basis for definitions of such surface areas for turbulent burning velocities. These inter-relationships. in general, are different from those for burner flames. Burning velocities are presented for a spherical flame surface, at which the mass of unburned gas inside it is equal to the mass of burned gas outside it. These can readily be transformed to burning velocities based on other surfaces. The measurements of the turbulent burning velocities presented are the mean from five different explosions, all under the same conditions. These cover a wide range of equivalence ratios, pressures and rms turbulent velocities for ethanol-air mixtures. Two techniques are employed, one based on measurements of high speed schlieren images, the other on pressure transducer measurements. There is good agreement between turbulent burning velocities measured by the two techniques. All the measurement are generalised in plots of burning velocity normalised by the effective unburned gas rms velocity as a function of the Karlovitz stretch factor for different strain rate Markstein numbers. For a given value of this stretch factor a decrease in Markstein number increases the normalised burning velocity. Comparisons are made with the findings of other workers. (author)

Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Evaluation of beta partical densitometry for determination of self-absorption factors in gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements on air particulate filter samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alpha and beta particles emitted from radioactive material collected on an air filter may be significantly attenuated by the mass (thickness) of collected dust. In this study, we determined the mass or thickness of the simulated dust deposit by measurement of the attenuation of beta particles from an external radioactive source as the particles pass through the filter-dust combination. This measured attenuation should be empirically related to demonstrated counting efficiency. A graph of mass density vs. fraction of beta source transmitted was developed. This graph provides factors which will correct for selfabsorption losses in the filter during the counting procedure. This experimental procedure could favorably affect the cost and effort required to accurately monitor airborne radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities.

Breida, Margaret A

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Statistical Parameters of the Air Turbulent Boundary Layer over Steep Water Waves Measured by the PIV Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A turbulent airflow with a centerline velocity of 4 m s?1 above 2.5-Hz mechanically generated gravity waves of different amplitudes has been studied in experiments using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Direct measurements of the ...

Yu. Troitskaya; D. Sergeev; O. Ermakova; G. Balandina

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

193

NAREL (National Air and Standard Environmental Laboratory) standard operating procedures for radon-222 measurement using diffusion barrier charcoal canisters  

SciTech Connect

Radon monitoring procedures for the National Air and Radiation Environment Laboratory (NAREL) are described. Radon is detected by sorption to activated charcoal, followed by detection of gamma ray emissions from the radon decay products lead-214 (295 KeV and 392 KeV) and bismuth-214 (609 KeV). The activated charcoal is held in an 8 ounce metal can, under a polyethylene diffusion barrier and a stainless steel screen, 30--50% open. The polyethylene barrier reduces water absorption by the charcoal, and improves integration over the exposure period. The proper use of the container is described, as is the counting system and calibration of the detecting system. Fabrication of reference standards and background canisters is described. Equations and sample calculations to determine radon concentrations are given. All terms in the equation are defined, and all calibration factors are calculated. The minimal detectable amounts of radon as a function of detector exposure time are calculated. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (MHB)

Gray, D.J.; Windham, S.T.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ga Air Compressor, Ga Air Compressor Products, Ga Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ga Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Ga Air Compressor Products from Global Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Ga Air Compressor ...

195

A Reaction-Transport Model for Calcite Precipitation andEvaluation of Infiltration Fluxes in unsaturated fractured rock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The percolation flux in the unsaturated zone (UZ) is an important parameter addressed in site characterization and flow and transport modeling of the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. The US Geological Survey (USGS) has documented hydrogenic calcite abundances in fractures and lithophysal cavities at Yucca Mountain to provide constraints on percolation fluxes in the UZ. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between percolation flux and measured calcite abundances using reactive transport modeling. Our model considers the following essential factors affecting calcite precipitation: (1) infiltration, (2) the ambient geothermal gradient, (3) gaseous CO2 diffusive transport and partitioning in liquid and gas phases, (4) fracture matrix interaction for water flow and chemical constituents, and (5) water rock interaction. Over a bounding range of 2 20 mm/year infiltration rate, the simulated calcite distributions capture the trend in calcite abundances measured in a deep borehole (WT-24) by the USGS. The calcite is found predominantly in fractures in the welded tuffs, which is also captured by the model simulations. Simulations showed that from about 2 to 6 mm/year, the amount of calcite precipitated in the welded Topopah Spring tuff is sensitive to the infiltration rate. This dependence decreases at higher infiltration rates owing to a modification of the geothermal gradient from the increased percolation flux. The model also confirms the conceptual model for higher percolation fluxes in the fractures compared to the matrix in the welded units, and the significant contribution of Ca from water rock interaction. This study indicates that reactive transport modeling of calcite deposition can yield important constraints on the unsaturated zone infiltration-percolation flux and provide useful insight into processes such as fracture matrix interaction as well as conditions and parameters controlling calcite deposition.

Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Appendix B Surface Infiltration and Aquifer Test Data  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

B B Surface Infiltration and Aquifer Test Data This page intentionally left blank Infiltration Tests This page intentionally left blank 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 TIME (MIN) 200 250 TIME (MIN) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 TIME (MIN) zoo 800 1000 TIME (MIN) 0 150 300 450 600 750 , 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 TIME (MIN) TIME (MIN) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 TIME (MIN) INF-8 TEST I 300 400 TIME (MIN) INF-8 TEST 2 200 250 300 TIME (MIN) 200 250 TIME (MIN) zoo 800 1000 TIME (MIN) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 TIME (MIN) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 TIME (MIN) September 1997 Alluvial Aquifer Tests This page intentionally left blank - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

197

Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Title Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5966E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., Jeffrey Joh, and Max H. Sherman Date Published 08/2012 Keywords air infiltration, blower door, fan pressurization measurements, retrofit, weatherization Abstract LBNL Residential Diagnostics Database (ResDB) contains blower door measurements and other diagnostic test results of homes in United States. Of these, approximately 134,000 single-family detached homes have sufficient information for the analysis of air leakage in relation to a number of housing characteristics. We performed regression analysis to consider the correlation between normalized leakage and a number of explanatory variables: IECC climate zone, floor area, height, year built, foundation type, duct location, and other characteristics. The regression model explains 68% of the observed variability in normalized leakage. ResDB also contains the before and after retrofit air leakage measurements of approximately 23,000 homes that participated in weatherization assistant programs (WAPs) or residential energy efficiency programs. The two types of programs achieve rather similar reductions in normalized leakage: 30% for WAPs and 20% for other energy programs.

198

Ventilating Existing Homes in the US Air Infiltration Review. 2010;31(2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

programs refer to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 ­ or its predecessor 62-89 (www.ashrae.org). These standards provide rate estimated based on the local #12;climate. ASHRAE 62.2 refers to the weather factors in ASHRAE

199

IMPACT OF REDUCED INFILTRATION AND VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in building materials such as insulation, particleboard,Particleboard Insulation Adhesives Paint Building Contentsfoam insulation, and radon from various building materials -

Hollowell, Craig D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fabrication and electrochemical performance of co-fired,LSM-SYSZ [i.e., La0.65Sr0.30MnO3 (LSM) - (Sc2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01(ZrO2)0.89] supported thin-film cells were examined using humidified hydrogen as a fuel. Co-firing of bi-layers and tri-layers was successful at 1250 C by optimizing the amount of carbon pore formers. A power density of a factor of 2.5 higher than that recently reported for the same type of cell at 800 C [3] was obtained for a cell with cobalt infiltration into the supporting cathode: the peak power densities were 455, 389, 285, 202, 141mW/cm2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600 C, respectively, and in most cases power densities at 0.7V exceeded more than 90 percent of the peak output. Increasing the cathode porosity from 43 to 53 percent improved peak power densities by as much as 1.3, shifting the diffusion limitation to high current densities. Cobalt infiltration into the support improved those by as much as a factor of 2 due to a significant reduction in non-ohmic resistance. These results demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can be effective and low-cost supporting electrodes for reduced temperature, thin film SOFCs.

Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe,Lutgard C.

2004-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Treatment of Livestock Wastewater by Three Step Series Constructed Rapid Infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constructed Rapid Infiltration system (CRI) is anew type of wastewater land disposal technique based on the traditional wastewater Rapid Infiltration. This paper was study on three step series CRI for removal of pollutants by using preparation of the ... Keywords: constructed rapid infiltration system, three step series, piggery wastewater, oxygen recovery

Kang Ai-bin; Chen Hong-han

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple rat peritoneal model where enhanced peritoneal fluid neutrophil infiltration was noted in rats injected OPN intraperitoneally. Taken together these data indicate that OPN expression induced during ASH may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ASH by stimulating neutrophil transmigration.

Apte, Udayan M. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Banerjee, Atrayee [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); McRee, Rachel [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Wellberg, Elizabeth [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

Thermal Regime of a Cold Air Trap in Central Pennsylvania, USA: the Trough Creek Ice Mine  

SciTech Connect

Air temperatures internal and external to a talus cave (‘ice mine’) in central Pennsylvania were measured hourly for three years. Despite its location near the base of a talus slope, the cave demonstrated the thermal characteristics of an apparently static cave, with limited connections to the external environment other than through the cave entrance. Congelation ice that lasted until late spring formed as drip or flowstone and ponded ice from the limited influx of infiltrating water during late winter/early spring. A closed period of thermal stratification and slow warming of cave air was followed by an open period in winter months during which the cave was cooled by the influx of cold dry air. Unlike the occasionally strong and localised cooling induced by the flow of cold air from vents at the base of talus slopes, static cold traps retain their cold air and have little apparent effect on surrounding biota, instead providing potential refugia for organisms that prefer colder temperatures. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Edenborn, Harry M.; Sams, James I.; Kite, Steven

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

204

Air Kerma - High Energy Xray  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... such as high energy megavoltage x rays with peak voltages of at least 5 MV. Currently, air-kerma measurements at these high energies are not ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA  

SciTech Connect

Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation.

B. Faybishenko

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Meeting the Air Leakage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting the Air Leakage Meeting the Air Leakage Requirements of the 2012 IECC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The newest edition of the International Energy Conservation Code ® (IECC) (2012) sets the bar higher for energy efficiency, and new air sealing requirements are one of the key new provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the new air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these new measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, Best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code (IRC) requirements are referenced throughout the guide.

207

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acceptable Indoor Air Quality” ASHRAE Trans. pp 93-101 Vol.Energy Characteristics”, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.103 (1),2 ASHRAE

Sherman, Max H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION  

SciTech Connect

For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the root zone. More significantly, water movement throughout the soil profile is treated according to the bucket model, in which the amount of water that moves down from one layer to the next is equal to the mass of water in excess of field capacity in the upper layer. The development of a numerical model of infiltration involves a number of abstractions and simplifications to represent the complexity of environmental conditions at Yucca Mountain, such as the arid climate, mountain-type topography, heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, and irregular soil-rock interface.

NA

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Winter Morning Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of temperature measurements, which may be applied to inference of winter temperatures in data-sparse areas, are presented. The morning air temperatures during three winters were measured at 80 places in a 10 km × 30 km area along the ...

A. Hogan; M. Ferrick

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

air pollution from biomass combustion and acute respiratorycountries where biomass and kerosene combustion is common.to smoke from biomass fuel combustion increases the severity

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Development of Instrumentation and Methods for Measurement of Air-Sea Interaction and Coastal Processes from Manned and Unmanned Aircraft /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications. Tech.approximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Communityinto 30-minute bins. Solar radiation, air temperature,

Reineman, Benjamin D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

Su, G.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moulton, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Svyatskiy, Daniil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Finite-volume model for chemical vapor infiltration incorporating radiant heat transfer. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

Most finite-volume thermal models account for the diffusion and convection of heat and may include volume heating. However, for certain simulation geometries, a large percentage of heat flux is due to thermal radiation. In this paper a finite-volume computational procedure for the simulation of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in three dimensional complex enclosures is developed. The radiant heat transfer is included as a source term in each volume element which is derived by Monte Carlo ray tracing from all possible radiating and absorbing faces. The importance of radiative heat transfer is illustrated in the modeling of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of tubes. The temperature profile through the tube preform matches experimental measurements only when radiation is included. An alternative, empirical approach using an {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} thermal conductivity for the gas space can match the initial temperature profile but does not match temperature changes that occur during preform densification.

Smith, A.W.; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Combustion-reacted SiC-AlN Presinter and Pressureless Infiltration ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Combustion-reacted SiC-AlN Presinter and Pressureless Infiltration with ... Laser Deposited In Situ TiC Reinforced Nickel Matrix Composites: ...

217

Improvement of SOFC Electrodes through Catalyst Infiltration & Control of Cr Volatilization from FeCr Components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the improvement of SOFC electrodes through catalyst infiltration and control of Cr volatilization from FeCr components.

Visco, S.J.; Jacobson, C.; Kurokawa, H.; Sholklapper, T.; Lu, C.; De Jonghe, L.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

218

Hydraulic Conductivity, Infiltration, and Runoff from No-till and Tilled Cropland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Infiltration and runoff are important processes that affect the efficiency of center pivot irrigation systems. No-till planting systems potentially influence the hydraulic properties of soils… (more)

Deck, Jessica H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalysts infiltrated into SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell)the demanding environment of SOFC electrodes. Introductioninfiltrated into already formed SOFC electrodes to enhance

Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mobile home weatherization measures: A study of their effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (DOE OBCS) in FY 1987 and 1988 to investigate cost effective ways to weatherize mobile homes constructed prior to the enactment of HUD Thermal Standards in 1976. In FY 1987 SERI studied the effectiveness of a variety of infiltration-reducing retrofits by monitoring 20 units in the field before, during, and after applications of air tightening measures. In FY 1988 we began studying measures intended to reduce envelope conduction losses. These measures included storm windows, insulated skirting, and wall, roof, and floor insulation. This part of the project resulted in the development of a short-term testing method for measuring the thermal impact of individual conduction-reducing retrofits.

Judkoff, R.; Hancock, E.; Franconi, E.; Hanger, R.; Weiger, J.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data  

SciTech Connect

At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

B. Faybishenko

2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratoryTuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: AR.D. Retherford, and K.R. Smith, Biomass cooking fuels and

Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Comparison between predicted duct effectiveness from proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and measured field data for residential forced air cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Forced Air Systems in Proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P.ASHRAE Transactions, 104(1B), 1360-1375. Walker I, ShermanDuct Effectiveness from Proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and

Siegel, Jeffrey A.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Study of Air Quality in the Southeastern Hampton–Norfolk–Virginia Beach Region with Airborne Lidar Measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of air quality was performed using a compact, aircraft aerosol lidar designed in the Science Directorate at NASA Langley Research Center and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals. ...

Jasper Lewis; Russell De Young; D. Allen Chu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Data Quality Evaluation of Hazardous Air Pollutants Measurements for the US Environmental Protection Agency's Electric Utility Steam Generating Units Information Collection Request  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an Information Collection Request (ICR) to owners of fossil fuel-fired, electric steam generating units. Part III of the ICR required that almost 500 selected power plant stacks be tested for emissions of four groups of substances classified as hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act: acid gases and hydrogen cyanide; metals; volatile and semivolatile organics; and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlori...

2010-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

226

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

12/2011 12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air monitoring as of December 31, 2000. Groundwater has been routinely monitored at the site since 1986. Separate groundwater monitoring programs were established for the Chemical Plant and Quarry sites because of geographic separation and differences in the hydrogeologic features that influence

228

List of Compressed air Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Efficiency Incentive Program (Texas) Local Grant Program Texas Commercial Ceiling Fan Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building Compressed air...

229

A GIS tool for modelling annual diffuse infiltration on a plot scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ArcB is a GIS tool for modelling annual diffuse infiltration (R"P) from precipitation (P) on a plot scale that uses ArcObjects as the programming language to incorporate equations and boundary conditions for the water-balance consistency. Because detailed ... Keywords: ArcObjects, Diffuse infiltration, GIS, SE Spain, Semiarid climate

Salvador EspañA, Francisco J. Alcalá, ÁNgela Vallejos, Antonio Pulido-Bosch

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

231

Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

232

Ventilation measurements in large office buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation rates were measured in nine office buildings using an automated tracer gas measuring system. The buildings range in size from a two-story federal building with a floor area of about 20,000 ft/sup 2/ (1900 m/sup 2/) to a 26-story office building with a floor area of 700,000 ft/sup 2/ (65,000 m/sup 2/). The ventilation rates were measured for about 100 hours in each building over a range of weather conditions. The results are presented and examined for variation with time and weather. In most cases, the ventilation rate of a building is similar for hot and cold weather. In mild weather, outdoor air is used to cool the building and the ventilation rate increases. In the buildings where infiltration is a significant portion of the total ventilation rate, this total rate exhibits a dependence on weather conditions. The measured ventilation rates are discussed in relation to the outdoor air intake strategy in each building. The ventilation rates are also compared to the design rates in the buildings and ventilation rates based on the ASHRAE Standard 62-81. Some of the buildings are at times operated at lower ventilation rates than recommended in Standard 62-81.

Persily, A.K.; Grot, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Air Temperature Model Evaluation in the North Mediterranean Belt Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparative assessment of air temperature models, using hourly and daily air temperature measurements in 34 different stations in the north Mediterranean belt, is presented. Four air temperature models were used to estimate hourly and daily ...

Julia Bilbao; Argimiro H. de Miguel; Harry D. Kambezidis

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Detecting Air Leaks | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Detecting Air Leaks Detecting Air Leaks Detecting Air Leaks September 27, 2012 - 6:39pm Addthis For a thorough and accurate measurement of air leakage in your home, hire a qualified technician to conduct an energy assessment, particularly a blower door test. For a thorough and accurate measurement of air leakage in your home, hire a qualified technician to conduct an energy assessment, particularly a blower door test. You may already know where some air leakage occurs in your home, such as an under-the-door draft, but you'll need to find the less obvious gaps to properly air seal your home. For a thorough and accurate measurement of air leakage in your home, hire a qualified technician to conduct an energy assessment, particularly a blower door test. A blower door test, which depressurizes a home, can

235

Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain UsingAnalogue Meteorological Data  

SciTech Connect

At Yucca Mountain, NV, future changes in climatic conditionswill probably alter net infiltration, drainage below the bottom of theevapotranspiration zone within the soil profile, or flow across theinterface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva CanyonTuff. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a semiempiricalmodel and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limitedmeteorological data from analog meteorological stations, for interglacial(present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacialclimates over the Yucca Mountain region; and (ii) corroborate thecomputed net infiltration ratesby comparing them with the empiricallyand numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation ratesthrough the unsaturated zone from published data. This study approachedcalculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitationeffectiveness indices using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, withreference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from theradiation-based Penman formula. Results of calculations show that netinfiltration rates are expected to generally increase from thepresent-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate,and then to the glacial climate, following a power law relationshipbetween net infiltration and precipitation. The forecasting resultsindicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for differentclimates. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states issubject to numerous uncertainties associated with selecting climateanalog sites, using relatively short analog meteorological records,neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and run-on on alocal scale, as well as possible anthropogenically induced climatechanges.

Faybishenko, Boris

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

The role of the US Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development  

SciTech Connect

Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the US The annual cost of this energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35% in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 1.5 exajoules ($US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the buildings indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the US from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global air pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness.

Traynor, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Talbott, J.M.; Moses, D.O. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A prediction of energy savings resulting from building infiltration control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis provides a description of the methods of application of theoretical models of heat transfer in computer simulations, to determine the energy performance of a wall or building. The heat transfer simulations include calculation equations which account for the interaction among conduction heat transfer, solar gain, and infiltration heat transfer in building walls. This interaction effect has received only limited previous study. The goal of modeling the behavior of a building with these simulations is to determine optimum arrangements of induced (or controlled) airflow direction and magnitude in building exterior walls, where the walls can be considered porous and can act, to an extent, like a heat exchanger. Recent research toward designing walls especially suited to this application has developed porous walls which are dubbed "dynamic walls." This study attempts to determine the optimum application of dynamic walls, or walls which behave in a similar fashion, in a building in a theoretical analysis. The computer simulations which apply the calculations to model the energy use of a building have been written especially for this study. The results of the theoretical analysis made for this thesis show that significant energy savings can be realized with the use of controlled airflow through non-airtight walls in a building. Comparing the energy use of a building which uses airflow control in dynamic walls with the energy use found with a standard calculation (where the interaction effect is not considered), annual energy savings were found in a warm climate as high as 17%, and as high as 30% in a cooler climate. The results were less promising when compared against the performance of a building experiencing natural, or not induced, airflow (and heat recovery) through its exterior walls: the best annual savings percentages were 10% in a warm climate and just 2% in a cooler climate. The specific building airflow arrangements which produce the best theoretical performances found in this study should be considered for application in future experimental tests, if the dynamic walls and/or building airflow control system are considered economically feasible in light of the projected energy savings they produce.

McWatters, Kenneth Rob

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Comparison of Control System Performance for Fossil-Fuel Fired Power Plants Using Emission Measurement Data from the Utility Industr y Information Collection Request for Hazardous Air Pollutants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On On May 3, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (40 Code of Federal Regulations Parts 60 and 63: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-FuelFired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam-Generating Units). The intent of this rulemaking is to set Maximum Achiev...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

MEMOIRS OF A LEAK: Infiltrating Research for a Quarter of a Century  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

infiltration typically accounted for all of their ventilation needs and 13-12 of their space-conditioning load. Starting in the mid-70s there was a realization that this...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in San Joaquin Valley sandy loam soils. Paper #012259. 2001Effects on Infiltration in Sandy Loam Soils Husein A. Ajwa*irrigation in some sandy loam soils in California.

Ajwa, Husein A; Trout, T J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Energy efficiency and air regulation | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA boiler rules New EPA regulations for industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers encourage energy efficiency measures to help reduce hazardous air pollutants. Energy...

243

Regulations for Air Quality (Quebec, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Regulation establishes emission standards for particulates and gases, emission opacity standards, standards of air quality and control measures to prevent, eliminate or reduce the emission of...

244

Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

D. Levitt

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (ARB or Board) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider adoption of the Proposed Airborne Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) to Reduce Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products. The proposed ATCM would reduce the public’s current exposure to formaldehyde by reducing emissions from hardwood plywood (HWPW), particleboard (PB) and medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels. The ATCM would also apply to finished goods made with these materials.

unknown authors

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Air Pollution (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

247

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

248

Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they oversimplify a complex landscape and associated hydrologic processes, especially since the model assumptions have not been adequately corroborated by field and laboratory observations at Yucca Mountain.

Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer /Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

Water Infiltration and Permeability of Selected Urban Soils as Affected by Salinity and Sodicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil sodicity is known to affect soil structural stability and permeability. However, the impact differs depending on salinity of irrigation water, soil types as well as irrigation management practices. This study examined water infiltration into two alluvial soils (Torrifluvents), and two upland soils (Paleorthid and Calciorthid, Aridisols) placed in greenhouse pots. For the first experiment, irrigation solutions simulating the Rio Grande water, city potable water, and two sources of reclaimed water (EC of 1.4 and 2.2 dS m-1 and SAR of 6 and 11) were applied twice a week at 1.7 cm per application for a total of 27 irrigation events using 46 cm of water. No significant effect of water quality was detected in Delnorte gravelly loam (Paleorthid) and a small effect on infiltration into Harkey silt loam (Torrifluvent). However, the use of distilled water curtailed infiltration mainly in Harkey soil. In the second greenhouse experiment using a carefully crafted soil packing and water application protocols, the impact of water quality on infiltration into two Torrifluvents, Harkey silt loam and Glendale silty clay loam appeared after water application of 40 to 50 cm (16" - 20"). When saline solutions were applied as deep as 10 cm per application, the infiltration time nearly doubled when SAR of the solution increased from 1 to 6 or 12 in alluvial soils, but not in Turney silty clay loam (Calciorthid, Aridisol). When the irrigation depth per application was reduced to 7.5, 5.0, and 2.5 cm per application, the difference in infiltration rate was markedly reduced. The impact of elevated sodicity (SAR of 6 to 12) on infiltration can be an issue in alluvial soils, but unlikely in upland soils at irrigation water salinity of 1 to 2 dS m-1.

Miyamoto, S.

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

250

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

251

Air pollution  

SciTech Connect

This book reports that homeowners do not have adequate assurance that companies have demonstrated a minimum level of competency in measuring radon and that the test results provided to them have some degree of accuracy. This is because the voluntary nature of the RMP program allows firms to market devices that have not been tested or that failed the test. In addition, the RMP program does not require measurement companies to implement quality assurance programs. GAO believes that two changes in the RMP program that would increase homeowners' assurance are requiring measurement firms to pass the RMP program before marketing their devices, and requiring radon measurement firms to demonstrate the existence of adequate quality assurance programs as a condition for participating in the RMP program.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Metal-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Review and Assessment of Air Quality Management Activities in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many air quality studies indicate that ozone, fine particulates, and haze are interrelated and often regional in extent. Emission management strategies to mitigate these pollutants are likely to involve regional control measures. This report summarizes recent air quality studies in the State of Texas to support the development of integrated air quality management strategies to meet new air quality standards.

1999-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

254

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_GATech_LSM-Infiltrated LSCF Cathodes.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Interfaces and Interfaces in LSM-Infiltrated LSCF Cathodes Wentao Qin, Mingfei Liu, Matthew E. Lynch, Jong-jin Choi and Meilin Liu Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 771 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Telephone: 404-894-6114 Email: meilin.liu@mse.gatech.edu Recent studies suggest that the stability and performance of a porous La x Sr 1-x Co y Fe 1-y O 3- (LSCF) cathode may be enhanced by the infiltration of a thin-film La x Sr 1-x MnO 3- (LSM) coating. However, the mechanism of the observed enhancement is still unknown. This poster will present our recent findings in microanalyses of the structure, composition, and morphology of the LSM and LSCF surfaces as well as the LSM/LSCF interfaces in LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathodes. Results indicate that a

255

The Development of Instrumentation and Methods for Measurement of Air-Sea Interaction and Coastal Processes from Manned and Unmanned Aircraft /  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 A portable airborne scanning lidar system for ocean and3.4.5 Lidar and imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Figure 2.7: Repeat lidar measurements over the runway of the

Reineman, Benjamin D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Feasibility of air capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

Ranjan, Manya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Lifetime Response of a Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lifetime studies in four-point flexure were performed on a Hi-NicalonTM fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite over a temperature range of 700 degrees to 1150 degrees C in air. The composite consisted of ~40 vol. % Hi-NicalonTM fiber (8-harness weave) with a 0.5 Mu-m BN fiber coating and a melt-infiltration SiC matrix wand was tested with as-machined surfaces. Lifetime results indicated that the composite exhibited a stress-dependent lifetime at stress levels above an apparent fatigue limit, similar to the trend observed in CG-NicalonTM fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. At less than or equal to 950 degrees C, the lifetimes of Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composites decreased with increasing applied stress level and test temperature. However, the lifetimes were extended as test temperature increased from 950 degees to 1150 degrees C as a result of surface crack sealing due to glass formation by the oxidation of Mi SiC matrix. The lifetime governing processes were, in general, attributed to the progressive oxidation of BN fiber coating and formation of glassy phase, which formed a strong bond between fiber and matrix, resulting in embrittlement of the composite with time.

Becher, P.F.; Lin, H.T.; Singh, M.

1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

258

Primary zone air proportioner  

SciTech Connect

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

259

Air Pollution Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the Department of Environmental Management and the Air Pollution Control Board, which are tasked with the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution by all...

260

Development of an automated methodology for calibration of simplified air-side HVAC system models and estimation of potential savings from retrofit/commissioning measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation provides one methodology to determine potential energy savings of buildings with limited information. This methodology is based upon the simplified energy analysis procedure of HVAC systems and the control of the comfort conditions. Numerically, the algorithm is a tailored exhaustive search over all the independent variables that are commonly controlled for a specific type of HVAC system. The potential energy savings methodology has been applied in several buildings that have been retrofitted and/or commissioned previously. Results from the determined savings for the Zachry building at Texas A&M after being commissioned show a close agreement to the calculated potential energy savings (about 85%). Differences are mainly attributed to the use of simplified models. Due to the restriction of limited information about the building characteristics and operational control, the potential energy savings method requires the determination of parameters that characterize its thermal performance. Thus, a calibrated building is needed. A general procedure has been developed to carry out automated calibration of building energy use simulations. The methodology has been tested successfully on building simulations based on the simplified energy analysis procedure. The automated calibration is the minimization of the RMSE of the energy use over daily conditions. The minimization procedure is fulfilled with a non-canonical optimization algorithm, the Simulated Annealing, which mimics the Statistical Thermodynamic performance of the annealing process. That is to say, starting at a specified temperature the algorithm searches variable-space states that are steadier, while heuristically, by the Boltzmann distribution, the local minima is avoided. The process is repeated at a new lower temperature that is determined by a specific schedule until the global minimum is found. This methodology was applied to the most common air-handler units producing excellent results for ideal cases or for samples modified with a 1% white noise.

Baltazar Cervantes, Juan Carlos

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Partial CO2 Column-Averaged Dry-Air Mixing Ratio from Measurements by Coherent 2-?m Differential Absorption and Wind Lidar with Laser Frequency Offset Locking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coherent 2-?m differential absorption and wind lidar (Co2DiaWiL) with a 2-?m single-frequency Q-switched laser with laser frequency offset locking was used for long-range CO2 measurement. The frequency stabilization of the single-frequency ? on ...

Shoken Ishii; Kohei Mizutani; Philippe Baron; Hironori Iwai; Ryoko Oda; Toshikazu Itabe; Hirotake Fukuoka; Takayoshi Ishikawa; Mizuki Koyama; Tomoaki Tanaka; Isamu Morino; Osamu Uchino; Atsushi Sato; Kazuhiro Asai

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) Method for an Anisotropic Infiltration Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed ... Keywords: heterogeneous porous media, hierarchical, infiltration, multiscale, two-phase flow

Konstantin Lipnikov; David Moulton; Daniil Svyatskiy

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Interfacial microstructure in a B{sub 4}C/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration.  

SciTech Connect

In this work, B{sub 4}C particulate-reinforced Al composite was fabricated by a pressureless infiltration technique, and its interfacial microstructure was studied in detail by X-ray diffraction as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The B{sub 4}C phase was unstable in Al melt during the infiltration process, forming AlB{sub 10}-type AlB{sub 24}C{sub 4} or Al{sub 2.1}B{sub 51}C{sub 8} as a major reactant phase. The Al matrix was large grains (over 10 {micro}m), which had no definite orientation relationships (ORs) with the randomly orientated B{sub 4}C or its reactant particles, except for possible nucleation sites with {l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub B{sub 4}C} almost parallel to {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub Al} at a deviation angle of 1.5 deg. Both B{sub 4}C-Al and reactant-Al interfaces are semicoherent and free of other phases. A comparison was made with the SiC/Al composite fabricated similarly by the pressureless infiltration. It was suggested that the lack of ORs between the Al matrix and reinforced particles, except for possible nucleation sites, is the common feature of the composites prepared by the infiltration method.

Luo, Z.; Song, Y.; Zhang, S.; Miller, D. J. (Materials Science Division); (Teaxas A& M Univ.); (Beijing Inst. Aeronautical Mater.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of methods of sealing supply-air registers wereand sealing practices when leakage at connections to duct-mounted equipment is not considered. The measured air-

Fisk, W.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

On Deriving Vertical Air Motions from Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for deriving vertical air motions from cloud radar Doppler spectrum measurements is introduced. The method is applicable to cloud volumes containing small particles, in this case liquid droplets, which are assumed to trace vertical air ...

Matthew D. Shupe; Pavlos Kollias; Michael Poellot; Edwin Eloranta

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread ...

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-

270

Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of different states of air supply and airflow patterns on temperature gradient distribution are calculated and analyzed with the help of FFSV3.0 software, using the LB models and LES and RANS methods. An experimental study with upper supply and upper return air flow was performed in normal airflow room. The results were compared with numerical simulation results and were found to agree well. Information on delaminating laws, and measurements of the relationship of delaminating heights and air supply temperature and velocity is also presented. According to the simulation results, a formula that avoids hot air delaminating in ceiling air supply is derived, which can guide engineering design.

Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Liu, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Energy Basics: Solar Air Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Air Heating Solar air heating systems use air as the working fluid for absorbing and transferring solar energy. Solar air collectors (devices to heat air...

272

Improving Regional Air Quality with Wind Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This model documentation is designed to assist State and local governments in pursuing wind energy purchases as a control measure under regional air quality plans. It is intended to support efforts to draft State Implementation Plans (SIPs), including wind energy purchases, to ensure compliance with the standard for ground-level ozone established under the Clean Air Act.

Not Available

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Microwave remote sensing of ionized air.  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of microwave scattering from ambient room air ionized with a negative ion generator. The frequency dependence of the radar cross section of ionized air was measured from 26.5 to 40 GHz (Ka-band) in a bistatic mode with an Agilent PNA-X series (model N5245A) vector network analyzer. A detailed calibration scheme is provided to minimize the effect of the stray background field and system frequency response on the target reflection. The feasibility of detecting the microwave reflection from ionized air portends many potential applications such as remote sensing of atmospheric ionization and remote detection of radioactive ionization of air.

Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Heifetz, A.; Elmer, T.; Fiflis, P.; Koehl, E. R.; Chien, H. T.; Raptis, A. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Effectiveness of the ASOS, MMTS, Gill, and CRS Air Temperature Radiation Shields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Periodic upgrades of air temperature measurement systems in surface weather station networks cause data discontinuities. From a climatological viewpoint, it is necessary to evaluate the air temperature data discontinuities when air temperature ...

K. G. Hubbard; X. Lin; E. A. Walter-Shea

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Infiltrating the Ocean Floor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Grant S. Bromhal, Duane H. Smith, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; M. Ferer, Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered to be a potentially important method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (US DOE, 1999). Oceans are currently the largest atmospheric carbon dioxide sink; and certainly, enough storage capacity exists in the oceans to hold all of the CO 2 that we can emit for many years. Additionally, technologies exist that allow us to pump liquid CO 2 into the oceans at depths between one and two kilometers for extended periods of time and five times that deep for shorter durations. The biggest unknown in the ocean sequestration process, however, is the fate and

276

Water/Wastewater Engineering Report (Storm Sewer/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation-M1 Model)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In some cities, the municipal sewer system collects both storm water and sanitary sewage in the same pipes. During dry weather these sewers carry all the sanitary sewage to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment. However, when rainstorms or snow melt increase the amount of runoff, the combined flow of sanitary sewage and storm water can exceed the capacity of the sewer system, which can cause serious problems like the storm water and sewage mix are discharged untreated into the river or the sewage backs up into streets and basement. Storm water treated in the sewage treatment plant also causes unnecessary energy use. Sewer systems can also have unintended ground water entering the network, which occurs because of hydraulic pressure on the buried sewer lines infiltration. Therefore, separating the storm water/infiltration and sanitary sewage reduces the possibility of sewage discharge during heavy rain periods, and saves energy.

Liu, Z.; Brumbelow, K.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont) Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility...

278

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Products from Global Vsd Oil Free Air Compressor Suppliers ...

279

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Ga Air Compressor Products at ...

280

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Products from Global Oil Free Vsd Air Compressor Suppliers ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers, Screw Type Ac Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Screw Type Ac Air Compressor, Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Screw Type Ac Air Compressor Traders, ...

282

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

283

Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup ?8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

foam insulation, and radon from building gas context of withbuilding envelope to reduce exfiltration and infiltration, improving insulation,

Hollowell, C.D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance Title Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-3383E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords air flow measurement, air leakage, blower power measurement, blowers, energy performance of buildings group, forced air systems, furnaces, indoor environment department, other, public interest energy research (pier) program, residential hvac Abstract This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit - indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called "ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823 "Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

286

Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

287

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compared to k- factors in CIBSE and ASHRAE data as well asto those given in the CIBSE guide, and these were lower thanwith data published in the CIBSE Guide and ASHRAE Handbook.

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Passive ventilation for residential air quality control  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led to tighter residential construction standards on both continents and as a result problems associated with insufficient background ventilation have surfaced. Can European passive ventilation systems be adapted for use in North American dwellings to provide general background ventilation for air quality control? This paper attempts to answer this question. The configuration, specifications and performance of the preferred European passive ventilation system--the passive stack ventilation (PSV) system--will be reviewed; innovative components and system design strategies recently developed to improve the traditional PSV system performance will be outlined; and alternative system configurations will be presented that may better serve the climatic extremes and more urban contexts of North America. While these innovative and alternative passive ventilation systems hold great promise for the future, a rational method to size the components of these systems to achieve the control and precision needed to meet the conflicting constraints of new ventilation and air tightness standards has not been forthcoming. Such a method will be introduced in this paper and an application of this method will be presented.

Axley, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thin Air Breathing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is controlled by the brainstem. Anyway-the reason that it is harder for some people to breathe at higher altitudes is that the air pressure differences aren't as great between the inside of the lungs and outside.

290

Optical resonant nanoprobes for the measurements of biomolecular interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.5. Measured spectral peaks for air, oil and water and2.5. Measured spectral peaks for air, oil and water andpeaks for three samples: air, water, and silicon oil. An

Zlatanovic, Sanja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Modeling Ambient Air Quality In The Detroit-Windsor Airshed.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The spatial variability of airborne contaminants in an international airshed was investigated using geostatistics and air dispersion modeling. Analyses were conducted on contaminant species measured… (more)

Molaroni, Shannon Marie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Accumulation and replacement of exchangeable sodium in soils of Southeast Texas under turfgrass and its effect on soil infiltration rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many municipal water supplies in Southeast Texas have a relatively high level of Ne and low total dissolved solids. Smectitic clays which respond to wetting by swelling, especially when wetted with high Na waters of low salinity are the major clays in soils of this area. This study assessed the degree of Na accumulation on cation exchange sites as affected by gypsum treatments in soils that support turfgrass (bermudagrass) and the response of soil infiltration rate to different rates of gypsum amendment by using rainfall simulation. A field experiment was conducted on a sodic, non-saline Boonville soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thennic Ruptic Vertic Albaqualf) amended with gypsum at rates equivalent to 5 0%, I 00% and 200% of the exchangeable Na in the soil to a depth of 15 cm. Application of gypsum resulted in similar infiltration rates (IR) which were lower than the untreated plots suggesting a significant difference between treated and untreated soils 9 wk after application. However, at 36 wk after application, treated and untreated soils had similar IR with no statistical difference between treatments. Soils of the study area varied somewhat in textural class, but generally had more than 20 % clay within the 0-IO cm depth. Clay content in the 0-10 cm depth was not correlated with IR at the 20-min measurement. These results suggest the channels developed by roots may enable water to enter the soil in spite of clay content and degree of sodic character. The gypsum treatments statistically affected the levels of extractable Ca and Na in some plots and some depths. Treated plots had higher extractable Ca than untreated plots for the 01 0 cm depth for all sites, but treatment rates did not show a significant difference for each site in the same depth. Levels of extractable Na were statistically lower for treated plots than untreated ones for the 0-I 0 cm depth at all sites. For all sites gypsum application did not have significant effects on levels of extractable Mg and K at all depths and times. Even though the pH of the soils tended to decrease with application of gypsum, untreated soils also showed a decrease in pH over the course of the study and pH was not statistically significant.

Aydemir, Salih

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing a database of residential air leakage in theTechnical Note AIVC 57: Residential Ventilation. Brussels,in personal samples and residential indoor, outdoor and

Sherman, Max

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Infiltration and Natural Ventilation Model for Whole-Building Energy Simulation of Residential Buildings: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The infiltration term in the building energy balance equation is one of the least understood and most difficult to model. For many residential buildings, which have an energy performance dominated by the envelope, it can be one of the most important terms. There are numerous airflow models; however, these are not combined with whole-building energy simulation programs that are in common use in North America. This paper describes a simple multizone nodal airflow model integrated with the SUNREL whole-building energy simulation program.

Deru, M.; Burns, P.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for locations such as the Spring Mountains. Although this model is preliminary and uncalibrated, it provides a first approximation of the spatial distribution of net infiltration for the Death Valley region under current climatic conditions.

Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

296

Indoor Air Quality Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... CONTAM has been used at NIST to study the indoor air quality impacts of HVAC systems in single-family residential buildings, ventilation in large ...

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verifkztion

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Air Resources Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Air Resources Board (the Board or ARB) will conduct a public hearing at the time and place noted below to consider amendments to the Verification

unknown authors

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

300

Air Pollution Project: Scenario  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Summary HELP Index Summary Scenario Internet Links Student Pages SubjectContent Area: ScienceChemistry, Environment - Air Pollution Target Audience: High school chemistry...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Forced air fireplace furnace  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of heating system for buildings including a fireplace with an open front hearth for burning firewood, a chimney extending from the upper portion of the hearth, a metal firebox being open in the front and closed on the sides and back, a plenum chamber within and surrounding the sides and back of the metal firebox and the chimney lower portion, a horizontal heat distribution chamber positioned in the building attic and communicating at one end with the plenum chamber is described. An air distribution duct connects to the other end of the air distributing chamber, the duct extending to discharge heated air to a place in the building remote from the fireplace. A fan is placed in the horizontal air distributing chamber, and a return air duct extends from selected place in the building and communicates with the plenum chamber lower portion so that the fan draws air through the return air duct, through the plenum chamber around the firebox where the air is heated, through the horizontal distribution chamber, and out through the distribution duct for circulation of the heated air within the building.

Bruce, R.W.; Gorman, R.E.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Adsorption air conditioner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

Rousseau, Jean L. I. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners year month keywords appliance energy efficiency energy efficiency incentives Market Transformation standards url https isswprod lbl gov...

305

Air Pollution Controls  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

306

An Airborne Laser Air Motion Sensing System. Part I: Concept and Preliminary Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement of air motion relative to an aircraft by a conically scanned optical Doppler technique has advantages over measurements with conventional gust probes for many applications. Advantages of the laser air motion sensing technique ...

R. J. Keeler; R. J. Serafin; R. L. Schwiesow; D. H. Lenschow; J. M. Vaughan; A. A. Woodfield

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion device. Results are presented here for a series of tests in which the evaporator air flow was reduced from 25 to 90% below what is normally recommended for this air conditioner. At present, very little information is available which quantifies the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system-wide maintenance programs.

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits. Seven field audits were conducted to refine the software and methodology as well as assess the savings potential of six common Operation and Maintenance measures. Audit results yielded significant savings with short payback periods. Total estimated savings for the project were 4,056,000 kWh or 49.2% of annual compressor energy for a cost savings of $152,000. Total implementation costs were $94,700 for a project payback period of 0.6 years. Capital benefits of delaying or avoiding the cost of a new compressor might double the energy benefits if a new compressor is being considered. The methodology proved to be a simple and effective audit tool.

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the surface growth effects for the infiltration of molten Si in carbon preforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The infiltration of molten silicon into carbon preforms is a widespread technique employed in the industry in order to enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of the final ceramic products. A proper understanding of this phenomenon is quite challenging since it stems from the reciprocal action and reaction between fluid flow, the transition to wetting, mass transport, precipitation, surface growth as well as heat transfer. As a result, the exhaustive modeling of such problem is an involved task. Lattice Boltzmann simulations in 2D for capillary infiltration are carried out in the isothermal regime taking into account surface reaction and subsequent surface growth. Precisely, for a single capillary in the linear Washburn regime, special attention is paid to the retardation for the infiltration process induced by the thickening of the surface behind the contact line of the invading front. Interestingly, it turns out that the process of surface growth leading to pore closure marginally depends on the infiltration velocity. We conclude that porous matrices with straight and wide pathways represent the optimal case for impregnation. Our analysis includes also a comparison between the radii characterizing the infiltration process (i.e., minimum, hydraulic, average and effective radii).

Danilo Sergi; Loris Grossi; Tiziano Leidi; Alberto Ortona

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Historical Atmospheric Transmission Changes and Changes in Midwestern Air Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of haze, smoke, dust, and visibility in the midwest available from 1901 to 1980 reveal sizable temporal fluctuations. These appear useful as surrogates of air pollutants not measured before 1950. Their historical record reflects both ...

Stanley A. Changnon

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Light Extinction by Aerosols during Summer Air Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to utilize satellite measurements of optical thickness over land for estimating aerosol properties during air pollution episodes the optical thickness was measured from the surface and investigated. Aerosol optical thicknesses have been ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Coordination of energy and air quality management  

SciTech Connect

The project had two goals: first, to demonstrate industrial firms can improve plant energy efficiency as air pollution emissions are reduced; second, to demonstrate that both Seattle City Light and PSAPCA could more effectively accomplish their individual objectives through mutual cooperation, even though the two agencies have very different missions. The cooperative efforts promised benefits for all the parties involved. Seattle City Light hoped that PSAPCA`s knowledge of the likely developments in air pollution controls would help the utility better target energy conservation opportunities among its industrial customers. PSAPCA hoped that the financial assistance offer by Seattle City Light through its conservation programs would make industry less resistant to PSAPCA enforcement of new air pollution control regulations. Finally, individual industrial firms could mitigate some of the cost of meeting the new air pollution control standards. The results of the project were mixed. CEAM did demonstrate that industrial plants can improve energy efficiency as they reduce air pollution emissions, but the relationship between air pollution reduction and energy consumption is complicated; and the project was less successful in meeting its second goal. The project design did not include a measure by which results could be compared against what the two agencies would have accomplished had they not collaborated. Moreover, the project could have benefited substantially from a more complete implementation plan and the production of data quantifying the energy conservation potential resulting from the development of more stringent air pollution control regulations for each of Seattle`s major industries.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable emissions standards and...

317

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DEEP Air Management Department Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Division Environmental Protection Division; Bureau of Air Management Address 79 Elm Street Place...

318

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Air Shower Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro [Centro de Tecnologias de Informacion y Comunicaciones, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru); Araya, Ignacio J. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Knapp, Johannes [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Air heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Feature - Lithium-air Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Develop Lithium-Air Battery Li-air Li-air batteries hold the promise of increasing the energy density of Li-ion batteries by as much as five to 10 times. But that potential will...

322

Luminescence of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots infiltrated into an opal matrix  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the photonic band gap in the photonic crystal, the synthesized SiO{sub 2} opal with embedded CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, on its luminescence in the visible spectral region is studied. It is shown that the position of the photonic band gap in the luminescence and reflectance spectra for the infiltrated opal depends on the diameter of the constituent nanospheres and on the angle of recording the signal. The optimal conditions for embedding the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots from the solution into the opal matrix are determined. It is found that, for the opal-CdSe/ZnS nanocomposites, the emission intensity decreases and the luminescence decay time increases in the spatial directions, in which the spectral positions of the photonic band gap and the luminescence peak of the quantum dots coincide.

Gruzintsev, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gran@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Emelchenko, G. A.; Masalov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Yakimov, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Barthou, C.; Maitre, A. [Institut des NanoSciences (France)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions).

Spasennykh, M.Yu. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Apps, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Air Carrier Flight Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and ...

Midkif, Alan H.

325

AIR RESOURCES BOARD Acknowledgements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared with the assistance and support from other agencies, divisions and offices of the Air Resources Board, and private firms. Staff would especially like to thank the following individuals for their assistance in developing this proposed pathway:

Green Wastes; Green Wastes; Richard Corey; Deputy Executive Officer; Cynthia Marvin Chief; Michael Waugh Chief; Kamal Ahuja; Brian Helmowski; Wes Ingram; Ray Asregadoo (arb; Juliet Bohn (hwma; Richard Boyd (arb; Alicia Chakrabarthy (ebmud; Steven Cliff (arb; Kevin Dickison (ebmud; Jacques Franco (calrecycle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Breathing zone air sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Office of Legacy Management Weldon Spring Site Air and Water Monitoring 32008 This fact sheet provides information at Weldon Spring, Missouri. This site is managed by the U.S....

328

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have an air economizer cycle for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. During the economizer cycle, the outside air and return air dampers are modulated to seek mixing air temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control. Actually the dehumidification is not necessary when outside air dew point is less than 55°F. Meanwhile the space may have less cooling load due to envelope heat loss and/or occupant schedule. These provide an opportunity to use higher supply air temperature to reduce or eliminate mechanical cooling and terminal box reheat. On the other hand the higher supply air temperature will require higher air flow as well as higher fan power. Therefore the supply air temperature has to be optimized to minimize the combined energy for fan, cooling and heating energy. In this paper a simple energy consumption model is established for AHU systems during the economizer and then a optimal supply air temperature control is developed to minimize the total cost of the mechanical cooling and the fan motor power. This paper presents AHU system energy modeling, supply air temperature optimization, and simulated energy savings.

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Category: NEPA Resources...

330

STATE OF CALIFORNIA MANDATORY MEASURES SUMMARY: RESIDENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System Measures: §110-§113: HVAC equipment, water heaters, showerheads, faucets and all other regulated a label listing the certified U-Factor, certified Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and infiltration Material. Indicate type and include on CF-6R Form. §118(i): The thermal emittance and solar reflectance

331

HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project HVAC Radial Air Bearing Heat Exchangers Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) radial air bearing heat exchangers. Rotary air bearing heat exchanger technology simultaneously solves four long standing problems of conventional "fan-plus-finned-heat-sink" heat exchangers. Project Description This project seeks to design, fabricate, and test successive generations of prototype radial air bearing heat exchanger devices based on lessons learned and further insights into device optimization, computational fluid dynamic studies for parametric optimization and determination of scaling laws, and laboratory measurement of flow field and heat transfer

332

Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

334

A Survey: Indoor Air Quality in Schools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 A Survey: Indoor Air Quality in Schools We recently undertook a survey and critical review of the published literature on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, particularly those in the state of California. The survey's objectives included identifying the most commonly reported building-related health symptoms involving schools, and assembling and evaluating existing measurement data on key indoor air pollutants most likely to be related to these symptoms. The review also summarizes existing measurements of ventilation rates in schools and information on the causes of IAQ and health problems in schools. Most of the literature we reviewed (more than 450 articles and reports) dealt with complaint or problem schools. Among the papers were

335

ARM - Campaign Instrument - rad-air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsrad-air govInstrumentsrad-air Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Radiometers (RAD-AIR) Instrument Categories Radiometric, Airborne Observations Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

336

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Air quality trends in Region VIII (1979 data). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Air quality trends and status for the calendar year 1979 were determined for the six states in Region VIII. These states include Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. Data resident in the SAROAD national data bank was analyzed. Statistical test which detect significant differences between two populations were utilized to identify trends. The status and severity of air pollutants was reported as a direct measure of air quality in each nonattainment area.

Tabor, W.H.; Entzminger, T.A.; Bell, S.C.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Compressed Air System Maintenance Guide" provides fossil plant personnel with information on the operation and maintenance of the compressed air system. The contents of this guide will assist personnel in improving performance of the compressed air system, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing air system reliability.

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

339

Solar Buildings: Transpired Air Collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transpired air collectors preheat building ventilation air by using the building's ventilation fan to draw fresh air through the system. The intake air is heated as it passes through the perforated absorber plate and up the plenum between the absorber and the south wall of the building. Reduced heating costs will pay for the systems in 3--12 years.

NONE

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effects of Cr-Mo Infiltration Source Structure on the Thickness of Alloy Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To strengthen the growth characteristics of layer on Q235 steel, a new source structure of Cr-Mo infiltration was proposed by plasma surface metallurgy technology. Comparative experiments were carried out on source polar of scrubbing brush structure ... Keywords: Surface alloying, Cr-Mo infiltrated, Plasma surface metallurgy technology, Thickness of layer

Jinyong Xu; Jingchun Zhang; Yajuan Liu; Cheng Gao

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Air Charter Services  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

42.2 (April 2012) 42.2 (April 2012) 1 Documentation and Approval of Federally Funded International Travel (Fly America Act-Open Skies Agreement) Overview This section provides guidance to DOE Contracting Officers, Contracting Officer Representatives, and Program Officials on documentation and approval of federally funded international travel by Federal contractors and subcontractors in accordance with FAR 52.247-63 PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003), 49 U.S.C. §40118 (Fly America Act) and the Open Skies Agreements as amended. Background Contracts that include FAR clause 52.247-63, PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003) as prescribed in FAR 47.405 require that, if available, the Contractor (and subcontractors), in performing work under the contract, shall use U.S.-flag air carriers for

342

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor, Inverter Controlled Screw Air Compressor Manufacturers & Suppliers Directory - Find here Inverter ...

345

Investigating the association between birth weight and complementary air pollution metrics: a cohort study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

land use regression models for traffic-related air pollution.air pollution metrics, for pregnancy-long exposures (a) Landpollution were used (measurements from ambient monitoring stations, predictions from land

Laurent, Olivier; Wu, Jun; Li, Lianfa; Chung, Judith; Bartell, Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Air Entrainment Processes and Bubble Size Distributions in the Surf Zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new optical instrument was deployed in the surf zone in a trial experiment to measure bubble size distributions and visualize air entrainment and bubble formation mechanisms within breaking surf. Images of bubbles and the evolving air–water ...

Grant B. Deane; M. Dale Stokes

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solar air collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system including a radiant heat collector apparatus made up of an enclosure having glazed panels. The collector provided within the enclosure is upstanding with the enclosure and the collector has heat absorbent flat walls spaced inwardly from the glazed panels. A heat storage core is provided centrally within the collector and spaced from the walls of the collector. The heat storage core includes an insulated housing and a heat retaining member within the insulated housing. Air passageways are formed between the collector walls and the insulated housing for passing input air, and duct members are provided for communicating with a household.

Deschenes, D.; Misrahi, E.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy consumption. Both reset strategies make engineering sense as long as the reset schedules are reasonable. Quite often the decision to use one over the other is made with the assumption that they will all achieve some sorts of energy savings. However, the impact of these two strategies on AHU energy consumption could be very different. A comparison of these two commonly used supply air temperature reset strategies for a single-duct constant air volume system is presented in this paper. It is shown that from either the building energy consumption or building comfort point of view, the reset strategy based on outside air temperature is inherently better than that based on return air temperature. Significant amount of heating energy savings can be achieved by switching from return air temperature based reset to outside air temperature based reset. The reset strategy can also benefit variable air volume (VAV) AHUs. An improved supply air temperature set point reset control strategy is proposed by combining and staging the outside air and return air temperature based resets.

Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

351

Residential HVAC Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) Tav Commins #12;Contact Information · Energy construction, Additions /Alterations · Nonresidential and Residential #12;Residential HVAC && Indoor Air Quality(ASHRAE 62.2) ·HVAC EfficiencyHVAC Efficiency ·Quality Installation (HERS Measures) S li b HERS R t

352

17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

First, M.W. (ed.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hexane Air Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Air-cleaning apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

Howard, A.G.

1981-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

355

Air Proportional Counter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

Simpson, J.A. Jr.

1950-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Detonation of hydrogen-air mixtures. [PWR; BWR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The detonation of a hydrogen-air cloud subsequent to an accidental release of hydrogen into ambient surroundings cannot be totally ruled out in view of the relative sensitivity of the hydrogen-air system. The present paper investigates the key parameters involved in hydrogen-air detonations and attempts to establish quantitative correlations between those that have important practical implications. Thus, for example, the characteristic length scale lambda describing the cellular structure of a detonation front is measured for a broad range of hydrogen-air mixtures and is quantitatively correlated with the key dynamic detonation properties such as detonability, transmission and initiation.

Lee, J.H.S.; Knystautas, R.; Benedick, W.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Compressed Air Audits: A Holistic Approach -Addressing the Air System as a Whole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

First, consider the Independent Auditor. Plant management should consider using an independent auditor without ties to equipment sales who has experience with a variety of manufacturing facilities and can provide strong references documenting proven energy savings. The quality and comprehensiveness of manufacturing facilities, and therefore audits, vary widely and it is important to consider experience. Compressed Air Technologies has audited nearly 200 manufacturing facilities since our inception in 1996. Compressed Air Technologies is the preferred air energy services provider for Georgia Pacific Corporation, INVISTA Chemicals and a primary energy partner with KRAFT Foods, among others. Compressed Air Technologies has no OEM affiliation of any kind and will provide recommendations that are system-neutral and commercially impartial. Compressed Air Technologies (CAT) is an international energy reduction and system optimization services corporation. CAT is a totally independent business structure with no ties or affiliations with any air compressor manufacturers -we are free of OEM restrictions. Our strict adherence to an independent approach related to compressed air and gas system assessments allows for unbiased commentary and recommendations, regardless of the brand or equipment type currently utilized in your plant. The majority of our competitors have either 1) equipment to sell and/or,2) existing equipment on the site to protect. In both situations, the interests of the client is not the paramount issue. Independent auditors should have no obvious or hidden agenda. CAT compressed air audit services are in essence, holistic. The analysis of your facility compressed air and gases systems is all-inclusive and consists of an engineered assessment beginning at the air compressor equipment area inside your facility and finishing at point-of-use consumption points. CAT engineers utilize a variety of instruments to collect data from all critical, relevant areas of the compressed air and gas systems. From air compressor blow off loss to the cost of the always present distribution/ piping system leaks, each individual loss or inefficiency is measured, analyzed, quantified and catalogued. CAT engineers then compile all of the collected data to create a total current profile report of your facility operations including an assigned cost to each discovered inefficiency. A typical audit results in identification of 25 to 60 percent or more in total system operational waste, which includes energy costs, maintenance costs, and all matters related to operating your compressed gas systems. It is not unusual to discover half of what you pay for compressed air operations is wasted due to inefficient utilization and operation of this important utility.

Shaver, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

359

Building Energy Code Resource Guide: Air Leakage Guide | Building Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage Guide Air Leakage Guide The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) sets the bar for energy efficiency, and air sealing requirements are one of the key provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code requirements are referenced throughout the guide. Publication Date: Friday, September 30, 2011 BECP_Buidling Energy Code Resource Guide Air Leakage

360

List of Duct/Air sealing Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Duct/Air sealing Incentives Duct/Air sealing Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 580 Duct/Air sealing Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-580) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Construction Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Building Insulation Caulking/Weather-stripping Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Duct/Air sealing Unspecified technologies Yes AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Installer/Contractor Residential Central Air conditioners Custom/Others pending approval Duct/Air sealing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Aerodynamic effects on fuel spray characteristics: Air-assist atomizer  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on the internal structure of a kerosene fuel spray, generated with an air-assist type nozzle. Effects of atomization air flow rate and combustion air swirl on droplet transport processes have been investigated. Spatially-resolved measurements have been obtained on mean droplet size, number density and velocity, at different combustion air swirl and atomization air flow rates. An ensemble light scattering technique, based on measurement of the polarization ratio, and laser velocimetry have been used for these measurements. The results indicate that as atomization air flow rate increases, the spray becomes confined to a narrower spray angle; in addition, mean droplet size decreases and number density increases significantly along the spray centerline. Larger droplets are found generally on the spray boundary, and smaller ones near the spray centerline. In all cases, there is a gradual increase in mean droplet size along the spray centerline with axial distance. Under burning conditions the flame plume becomes short and intense, with fewer droplets penetrating through the flame envelope. Combustion air swirl and atomization air have a significant effect on the transport of droplets and on combustion characteristics of spray flames. 20 refs., 9 figs.

Presser, C.; Semerjian, H.G.; Gupta, A.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

New observations of infiltration through fractured alluvium in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site: A preliminary field investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional tectonics coupled with the subsurface detonation of nuclear explosives has caused widespread fracturing of the alluvium of Yucca Flat. Fractures deeper than 30 meters have been observed in boreholes. Some of these fractures are large enough to capture significant amounts of runoff during storm events. Evidence of stream capture by fractures and observations of runoff flowing into open fractures give qualitative evidence of infiltration to depths greater than several meters and possibly to the saturated zone. Our field observations contradict the assumption that little infiltration occurs on Yucca Flat. The larger, hydrologically important fractures are associated with geologic faults or the regional stress field. Additional field studies are needed to investigate the impact of fractures on the transport of contaminants.

Kao, C.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Smith, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McKinnis, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Mercury, NV (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Characterization of melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composite combustor liners using meso- and micro-NDE techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melt-infiltrated ceramic matrix composite SiC/SiC material systems are under development for use in combustor liners for low-emission advanced gas turbines. Uncertainty in repeatability of processing methods for these large components (33--76 cm diameter), and hence possible reduced reliability for the end user. This requires that appropriate test methods, at both meso- and micro-scale, be used to ensure that the liners are acceptable for use. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, if demonstrated to reliably detect changes caused by processing, would be of significant benefit to both manufacturer and end user. This paper describes the NDE methods and their applications in detecting a process upset in a melt-infiltrated 33 cm combustor liner and how high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was used to verify the NDE data.

Ellingson, W. A.; Sun, J. G.; More, K. L.; Hines, R.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

364

Structure and properties of braided sleeve preforms for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In all composites the properties and structure of the reinforcement strongly influence the performance of the material. For some composites, however, the reinforcement also affects the fabrication process itself exerting an additional, second order influence on performance. This is the case for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabrication of ceramic matrix composites. In this process the matrix forms progressively as a solid deposit, first onto the fiber surfaces, then onto the previous layer of deposit, ultimately growing to fill the inter-fiber porosity. The transport of reactants to the surfaces and the evolved morphology of the matrix depend on the initial reinforcement structure. This structure can vary greatly and is controlled by such factors as fiber size and cross-section, the number of filaments and amount of twist per tow or yarn, and the weave or braid architecture. Often the choice of reinforcement is based on mechanical performance analysis or on the cost and availability of the material or on the temperature stability of the fiber. Given this choice, the composite densification process--CVI--must be optimized to attain a successful material. Ceramic fiber in the form of cylindrical braided sleeve is an attractive choice for fabrication of tube-form ceramic matrix composites. Multiple, concentric layers of sleeve can be placed over a tubular mandrel, compressed and fixed with a binder to form a freestanding tube preform. This fiber architecture is different than that created by layup of plain weave cloth--the material used in most previous CVI development. This report presents the results of the investigation of CVI densification of braided sleeve preforms and the evolution of their structure and transport properties during processing.

Starr, T.L.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Technology

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Comparing MODIS and AIRS Infrared-Based Cloud Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons are described for infrared-derived cloud products retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) using measured spatial response functions obtained from prelaunch ...

Shaima L. Nasiri; H. Van T. Dang; Brian H. Kahn; Eric J. Fetzer; Evan M. Manning; Mathias M. Schreier; Richard A. Frey

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

AIRS Subpixel Cloud Characterization Using MODIS Cloud Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the Earth Observing System's (EOS's) Aqua satellite enable improved global monitoring of the distribution of clouds. MODIS is ...

Jun Li; W. Paul Menzel; Fengying Sun; Timothy J. Schmit; James Gurka

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Retrieval of Cloud Microphysical Properties from MODIS and AIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite enable global monitoring of the distribution of clouds during day and night. ...

Jun Li; Hung-Lung Huang; Chian-Yi Liu; Ping Yang; Timothy J. Schmit; Heli Wei; Elisabeth Weisz; Li Guan; W. Paul Menzel

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Air Pollution Health Effects: Toward an Integrated Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientists and policy makers have become increasingly aware of the need to jointly study climate change and air pollution because of the interactions among policy measures and in the atmospheric chemistry that creates the ...

Yang, Trent.

369

TASITA—Towed Air–Sea interface Temperature Analyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate platinum RTD-based (resistive temperature device) system has been developed to measure the vertical temperature profile in the region of the atmosphere-ocean interface. TASITA, the towed air–sea interaction temperature analyzer, ...

R. P. Cechet; J. Bennett; I. Helmond; P. A. Coppin; E. F. Bradley; I. J. Bapton; J. S. Godfrey

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Air Bubbles Produced by Breaking Wind Waves: A Laboratory Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air bubbles produced by breaking wind waves are measured in a laboratory tank to study bubble clouds produced in freshwater under various wind and wave conditions. Vertical entrainment of bubbles and their size compositions are found to be ...

Paul A. Hwang; Y-H. L. Hsu; Jin Wu

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation  

SciTech Connect

An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

373

Judging Air Quality Model Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on air quality modeling, a small group of scientists was convened to review and recommend procedures to evaluate the performance of air quality models. Particular ...

Douglas G. Fox

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However, they have a higher manufacturing cost and lower thermal efficiency, especially when high temperature air is needed. For this reason, a direct air heater applicable for or feed and industrial raw products is put forward, which has advantages such as less production cost, smaller dimensions and higher thermal efficiency. Their design, working principles, characteristics, structure and applications are presented in this article, and brief comparisons are made between the indirect and direct air heater. Finally, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium.

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

377

Uncertainty in Air Quality Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the direction of the AMS Steering Committee for the EPA Cooperative Agreement on Air Quality Modeling, a small group of scientists convened to consider the question of uncertainty in air quality modeling. Because the group was particularly ...

Douglas G. Fox

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Air cathode structure manufacture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total plant energy use. Furthermore, air compression is inefficient with up to 95% of compressor power dissipated as heat. Thus even minor improvements in system operation, control strategies, and efficiency can yield large energy savings and significant non-energy or productivity benefits from reliable compressed air. Compressed air is often called the ""fourth utility"" in industrial facilities after electricity, natural gas, and water. It provides motive power for machinery, cooling, materials handling, and hand tools. It is a safe, flexible, and powerful resource, but one that is seldom run for low operating costs or best productivity. Learning the basics of compressed air systems represents the beginning of both reducing energy costs and enjoying the productive benefits of reliable compressed air. Compressed air management systems, including a system approach to managing demand, stabilizing pressure, reducing leaks and compressor controls, can allow the industrial end user to save 20% - 50% of their air compressor electricity usage. The monitoring capabilities of compressed air management systems provide a useful tool through power, pressure and flow trending to maintain both the energy savings and increased system reliability. More efficiently managed compressed air systems are less costly to maintain and have less impact on the environment. The most important issues of industrial compressed air in relation to energy efficiency and management are: 1. Compressed air is an essential industrial utility; 2. Compressing air is a fundamentally inefficient energy transformation process; 3. Optimal operation of compressed air systems in industrial plants is seldom a priority and adequate management infonnation is rare, resulting in negative impacts on production and even less efficiency."

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Metal-air battery assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

383

California Air Resources Board | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Resources Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Air Resources Board Name California Air Resources Board Place Sacramento, California Website http:www.arb.ca.gov...

384

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Management Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant. Minimum quantities are specified in Table III of these regulations. Permits will be granted based in part on the impact of the projected emissions of the stationary source on acceptable ambient levels

385

Analysis of U.S. residential air leakage database  

SciTech Connect

The air leakage of a building envelope can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. More than 70,000 air leakage measurements have been compiled into a database. In addition to air leakage, the database includes other important characteristics of the dwellings tested, such as floor area, year built, and location. There are also data for some houses on the presence of heating ducts, and floor/basement construction type. The purpose of this work is to identify house characteristics that can be used to predict air leakage. We found that the distribution of leakage normalized with floor area of the house is roughly lognormal. Year built and floor area are the two most significant factors to consider when predicting air leakage: older and smaller houses tend to have higher normalized leakage areas compared to newer and larger ones. Results from multiple linear regression of normalized leakage with respect to these two factors are presented for three types of houses: low-income, energy-efficient, and conventional. We demonstrate a method of using the regression model in conjunction with housing characteristics published by the US Census Bureau to derive a distribution that describes the air leakage of the single-family detached housing stock. Comparison of our estimates with published datasets of air exchange rates suggests that the regression model generates accurate estimates of air leakage distribution.

Chan, Wanyu R.; Price, Phillip N.; Sohn, Michael D.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Urban and Regional Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment equipment Urban and Regional Air Quality Research in this area is concerned with regional air quality issues such as: Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, to manage tropospheric ozone pollution. Hazardous air pollutants: using science to base standards on rigorously studied risks. Air quality and climate: how does climate influence air quality at a regional or local level? Current modeling practices often do not capture variations in pollutants such as ozone-they represent a limited sample of the diverse meteorology and human behavior that affect air pollution. Improved modeling of regional air quality will help understand variability, reveal patterns of behavior, and pollutant transport issues. Controlled experiments in lab and field can help validate improved models.

387

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

389

Retrofit Air Preheat Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can be increased to a range of 89% to 92%. The economic justification for the addition of this equipment is presented in new total investment curves and simple payout curves for a range of fuel cost. This will enable the owner to quickly determine the preliminary feasibility and conceptual requirements for his project before proceeding with more vigorous work.

Goolsbee, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

PROPOSED RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ACHIEVING INDOOR AIR QUALITY SUPPORTING HEALTH AND  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROPOSED RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ACHIEVING PROPOSED RESEARCH AGENDA FOR ACHIEVING INDOOR AIR QUALITY SUPPORTING HEALTH AND COMFORT IN HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Pawel Wargocki 1* , Max Sherman 2 , Willem de Gids 3 , Peter Wouters 4 , Francis Allard 5 , Remi Carrie 6 , Paolo Carrer 7 , and Stylianos Kephalopolous 8 1 International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 Residential Building Systems Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA 3 VentGuide, the Netherlands 4 Air Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, Belgium 5 University of La Rochelle, France 6 International Network for Information on Ventilation, Belgium 7 The University of Milan, Italy 8 Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy ABSTRACT Research topics that need to be addressed so that the future highly energy efficient buildings do not compromise

392

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper addresses the real-time use of ambient wet bulb temperature measurements in the optimization of building air conditioning system control as a means to… (more)

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring Project (SCAMP) Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring Project (SCAMP) The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for airborne fine particles (PM2.5) are based on the mass of PM2.5 measured at outdoor monitoring stations; however, most people spend the majority of their time indoors. In order to fully understand the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and human health effects, it is important to define how ambient PM2.5 concentrations and compositions compare to those actually breathed by humans during normal daily activities. The objective of SCAMP is to measure the concentrations of PM2.5 and other potential air pollutants at ambient monitoring stations in and around Steubenville, OH, and relate them to the pollutant concentrations in air that is actually breathed by people living in the area. Steubenville was chosen by DOE for this study because of the ability to integrate its results with those of the UORVP, and also because Steubenville was one of the six cities where correlations between ambient PM2.5 mass and adverse health effects had been noted. These correlations had been cited by EPA as one of the primary justifications for its 1997 ambient PM2.5 standards. Complete characterization of the relationships between ambient PM2.5 and human exposure, including the chemical components of PM2.5 at various locations, will provide a comprehensive database for use in subsequent epidemiological studies, long-range transport studies, and State Implementation Program development. CONSOL Energy is the primary performer of SCAMP, and will provide the necessary coordination and data integration between the various components of the study.

394

Performance assessment on continuous air monitors under real operating conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the nuclear industry, workers may be exposed to artificial radioactive aerosols. These aerosols are generally composed of particles with a diameter measuring between 0.1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. To protect workers in nuclear facilities, monitors that continuously measure radioactivity in the air are used. The main function of the monitor is to provide real-time measurement of activity concentration. Measurement of aerosol activity concentration can be affected by a number of factors specific to the aerosols and the instrument. The first part of the article will present the general operating principles of continuous air monitors (CAMs) and inherent measurement difficulties, as well as the main standard tests. The second section describes the experimental ICARE facility The ICARE facility generates standard artificial and natural radioactive aerosols for calibrating continuous air monitors under real operating conditions. (authors)

Monsanglant-Louvet, C.; Liatimi, N.; Gensdarmes, F. [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN, Saclay (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations describe maximum allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for...

396

Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

requirements. Policy Contact Contact Name Anne Gobin Department Department of Energy & Environmental Protection Division Bureau of Air Management Phone (860) 424-3026...

397

Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal, May, Arens, E. ,17-22, Copenhagen. . ASHRAE Standard 55- 2010. ThermalSensations of Sedentary Man, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 80 (

Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the procedures developed to calculate the electricity savings and emissions reductions from the infiltration of storm water into sanitary sewage separation using a two-step regression method: one step to correlate the gallons of wastewater treated to the rainfall, and a second step that correlates the gallons of wastewater treated to the electricity consumed during a given period. The procedure integrates ASHRAE’s Inverse Model Toolkit (IMT) for the weather-normalization analysis and the EPA’s Emissions and Generations Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) for calculating the NOx emissions reductions for the electric utility provider associated with the user.

Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Development of a Web-Based, Emissions Reduction Calculator for Storm Water/Infiltration Sanitary Sewage Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the procedures developed to calculate the electricity savings and emissions reductions from the infiltration of storm water into sanitary sewage separation using a two-step regression method: one step to correlate the gallons of wastewater treated to the rainfall, and a second step that correlates the gallons of wastewater treated to the electricity consumed during a given period. The procedure integrates ASHRAE's Inverse Model Toolkit (IMT) for the weather-normalization analysis and the EPA's Emissions and Generations Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) for calculating the NOx emissions reductions for the electric utility provider associated with the user.

Liu, Z.; Haberl, J. S.; Brumbelow, K.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVAC equipment manufacturers, specifiers and end users interacting in the marketplace today are only beginning to address the series of issues promulgated by the increased outside air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62- 1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity indoors. Preconditioning is the term applied for taking outside air to the indoor air setpoint (dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). The large humidity loads from outside air can now be readily recognized and quantified at cooling design point conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) that measures the magnitude of latent (and sensible) loads for preconditioning outside air to indoor space conditions over the come of an entire year. The VLI has units of ton-hrs/scfm of outside air. The loads are generated using new weather data binning software called ~BinMaker, also from GRI, that organizes the 239 city, 8760 hour by hour, TMY2 weather data into user selected bidtables. The VLI provides a simple methodology for accessing the cooling load impact of increased ventilation air volumes and a potential basis for defining a "humid" climate location.

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Rheological measurements in reduced gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA’s KC?135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate

Sayavur I. Bakhtiyarov; Ruel A. Overfelt

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Reactive Air Aluminization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

403

Oklahoma Clean Air Act (Oklahoma)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation establishes the authority for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to administer programs to maintain and monitor air quality across Oklahoma. The Department monitors...

404

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern… (more)

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and...

406

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

407

Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate the economic attractiveness of retrofitting HVAC industrial energy recovery equipment.

Graham, E. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution distribution systems has been taken into consideration by the ASHRAE standards through the air distribution effectiveness. For example, Table 6-1 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 (ASHRAE 2004) defines the minimum

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

409

Modeling of a Signal Processing System for Aircraft Air Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling of a Signal Processing System for Aircraft Air Data Modeling of a Signal Processing System for Aircraft Air Data Instrumentation Speaker(s): Thomas John Rohloff Date: September 21, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3148 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Joan M. Daisey The velocity, attitude and altitude of flight vehicles have typically been measured with booms that extend from the vehicle surface out into the flow field. However, this arrangement was found to be unacceptable for certain flight applications. Instrumentation was therefore developed by other researchers to measure the flight parameters using an array of pressure measurements located on the surface of the vehicle. The relationship between these pressure measurements and the air data is a complex non-linear function that is not easily described with simple aerodynamic

410

Hydrogen-air mixing evaluation in reciprocating engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a computational study of fuel-air mixing in a hydrogen jet using a spark-ignited, hydrogen-fueled engine. The computational results were compared with experimental measurement being conducted at the Musashi Institute of Technology in Tokyo, Japan. The hydrogen-air mixing work was directed at understanding the extreme sensitivity of ignition to spark plug location and spark timing in direct-injected, hydrogen-fueled engines.

Dodge, L; Naegeli, D [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Air conditioning: Impact on the built environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topics discussed in this book are: Introduction. 1. Air Conditioning - An Ever Expanding Market. 2. Building Envelope Design and Air Contitioning. 3. Air Conditioning and Energy - The CIBSE Building Energy Code. 4. Thermal Storage in Air Conditioning Systems. 5. Good Practice in the Design and Construction of Air Conditioning Systems. 6. Software for Air Conditioning Load Analysis and Design. 7. Lloyd's of London - The Architecture of Air Conditioning - Prediction of the Environment.

Sherratt, A.F.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

VSD/VFD Screw air compressor, Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

VSD/VFD Screw air compressor,Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant Co.,Ltd is the leading air compressor manufacturer and exporter in china, Professional ...

413

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

414

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Clean Air Mercury Rule  

SciTech Connect

Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Michael Rossler [Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC (US)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

air conditioner | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

air conditioner air conditioner Dataset Summary Description View 2010 energy efficiency data from AeroSys Inc, Coaire, Cold Point, First Operations, LG Electronics, Nordyne, and Quietside manufacturers. Data includes cooling capacity, cooling performance, heating capacity, and heating performance. Spreadsheet was created by combining the tables in pdf files that are included in the zip file. Source Energy Applicance Data - United States Federal Trade Commission, www.ftc.gov Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords air conditioner central air conditioner efficiency efficient energy heat pump Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010_CentralAC_All.xls (xls, 82.4 KiB) application/zip icon 2010CentralAirConditioner.zip (zip, 398.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

417

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment

418

High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters Home Standards DOE Workshops Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference Proceedings Qualified Filter List News Items Related Sites HEPA Related Lessons Learned Contact Us HSS Logo High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters The HEPA Filter web site provides a forum for informing and reporting department-wide activities related to filtration and ventilation issues with special reference to the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters' use, inspection, and testing. This site contains essentials of DOE HEPA filter test program, procedures, requirements and quality assurance aspects applicable to HEPA filters used in DOE facilities. This site contains information about the DOE-accepted Filter Test Facility and its management, operation and quality assuranceprogram.

419

NETL: IEP - Air Quality Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Air Quality Research Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Air Quality Research Innovations for Existing Plants Air Quality Research Ambient Monitoring Emissions Characterization Predictive Modeling & Evaluation Health Effects Regulatory Drivers Air Quality Research Reference Shelf The NETL Air Quality Research program is designed to resolve the scientific uncertainties associated with the atmospheric formation, distribution, and chemical transformation of pollutant emissions from today's coal-fired power plants, and to obtain a realistic assessment of the human health impacts of these emissions. Results of this research will help the DOE Office of Fossil Energy address policy questions regarding coal plant emissions and provide guidance for future emissions control R&D programs at

420

Powdered coal air dispersion nozzle  

SciTech Connect

An improved coal/air dispersion nozzle introduces fuel into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine as a finely atomized, dispersed spray for a uniform combustion. The nozzle has an inlet that receives finely powdered coal from a coal transport or coal/air fluidizer system and a scroll swirl generator is included within the nozzle to swirl a fluidized coal/air mixture supplied to the inlet of the nozzle. The scroll is in the form of a thin, flat metal sheet insert, twisted along its length, and configured to prevent build-up of coal particles within the nozzle prior to ejection from its outlet. Airblast air jets are included along the length of the nozzle body to assist in the discharge of the fluidized coal from the nozzle outlet and an angular pintle tip overlies the outlet to redirect coal/air mixture through a desired fluidized coal spray angle.

Kosek, T.P.; Steinhilper, E.A.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Air-powered sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allows it to produce higher volt- ages at the lower speedsof motor/generator. supply volts no-load speed, rpm back-emfand 1000 fpm. We measured volt- age and current supplied to

Federspiel, C.; Chen, J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Evaluation of Urban Air Quality Models for Regulatory Use: Refinement of an Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical measures for evaluating the performance of urban air quality models have recently been strongly recommended by several investigators. Problems that were encountered in the use of recommended performance measures in an evaluation of ...

Mary W. Downton; Robin L. Dennis

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Improvement to Air2Air® Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling tower with relatively drier and cooler ambient air. This is done in an air-to-air heat exchanger made up of plastic sheets with two discreet air pathways. As the warm,...

424

Indoor air radon  

SciTech Connect

This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references.

Cothern, C.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Federal agencies to select ENERGY STAR and ... analyze the proposed air conditioner and heat pump standards, a new baseline ... square foot office building 0.4 to 0.8 ...

426

Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air conditioning with all fresh air is founded on the principle of dehumidifying by liquid desiccant. It has the characteristics of being clean, power-saving, easy to operate, and requiring low-grade heat. It is suitable for applying waste heat, and solar power as the heat source for regeneration. Hence, this system has a great latent potential for energy savings and environmental protection. The system chooses the padding tower as a dehumidifier and regenerator, which are often used in petrochemical industry. The system chooses a padding tower as a dehumidifier, and LiCl-Water as a liquid desiccant. The vapor in the air is absorbed by the spray of the LiCl solution, and then the absorbed vapor will be released by heating the absorbent. These processes form the circle of absorptive refrigeration operating in atmospheric pressure. This paper describes studies on the theory and experiment of the padding tower of the dehumidifying air conditioning, including selecting different padding and measuring the speed of the air flow and the solution flow and the pressure drop between the layers of the padding. The experimental and computational results indicate that the design parameters of the padding tower significantly influence the characteristics of the liquid desiccant air conditioning. Of these design parameters, the framework of the padding tower, ratio of the air and the concentration of the inlet solution is largest through the tower, the temperature and effects of the dehumidifying capability of the tower.

Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning May 30, 2012 - 8:01pm Addthis Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. What does this mean for me? Central air conditioning systems are thermostatically controlled and convenient to use. Central air conditioning systems must be installed properly to operate efficiently. Central air conditioning systems can share ductwork with your heating system. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls,

429

Tips: Sealing Air Leaks | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sealing Air Leaks Sealing Air Leaks Tips: Sealing Air Leaks May 16, 2013 - 5:03pm Addthis Sources of Air Leaks in Your Home. Areas that leak air into and out of your home cost you a lot of money. The areas listed in the illustration are the most common sources of air leaks. Sources of Air Leaks in Your Home. Areas that leak air into and out of your home cost you a lot of money. The areas listed in the illustration are the most common sources of air leaks. Air leaks can waste a lot of your energy dollars. One of the quickest energy-- and money-saving tasks you can do is caulk, seal, and weather strip all seams, cracks, and openings to the outside. Tips for Sealing Air Leaks Test your home for air tightness. On a windy day, carefully hold a lit incense stick or a smoke pen next to your windows, doors, electrical

430

Tips: Sealing Air Leaks | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Sealing Air Leaks Tips: Sealing Air Leaks Tips: Sealing Air Leaks May 16, 2013 - 5:03pm Addthis Sources of Air Leaks in Your Home. Areas that leak air into and out of your home cost you a lot of money. The areas listed in the illustration are the most common sources of air leaks. Sources of Air Leaks in Your Home. Areas that leak air into and out of your home cost you a lot of money. The areas listed in the illustration are the most common sources of air leaks. Air leaks can waste a lot of your energy dollars. One of the quickest energy-- and money-saving tasks you can do is caulk, seal, and weather strip all seams, cracks, and openings to the outside. Tips for Sealing Air Leaks Test your home for air tightness. On a windy day, carefully hold a lit incense stick or a smoke pen next to your windows, doors, electrical

431

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. What does this mean for me? Room air conditioners are less expensive and disruptive to install than central air conditioning systems. Room air conditioners can be a cost-effective alternative to central air conditioning systems. How does it work? Room air conditioners work by cooling one part of your home. Room or window air conditioners cool rooms rather than the entire home or business. If they provide cooling only where they're needed, room air conditioners are less expensive to operate than central units, even though

432

SolarAire LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SolarAire LLC Place Folsom, California Sector Solar Product Developing a solar thermal air conditioning unit. References SolarAire LLC1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile...

433

DunoAir | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DunoAir Jump to: navigation, search Name DunoAir Place Hessen, Germany Zip 6865 VX Sector Wind energy Product Doorwerth-based wind project developer. References DunoAir1 LinkedIn...

434

A field measurement system for the study of thermal comfort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metal screen. A platinum RTD measured air sors usedin theAir Temperature platinum RTD IVlEASURENIENT ACCURACY,Surface Temperature platinum RTD M: 06 m N/A N/A -+ 0 5°C

Benton, C.; Bauman, Fred; Fountain, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System  

SciTech Connect

Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

Tiax Llc

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

ISOTHERMAL AIR-INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory has conducted airingress experiments as part of a campaign to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) analysis. An isothermal test loop was designed to recreate exchange or stratified flow that occurs in the lower plenum of VHTR after a break in the primary loop allows helium to leak out and reactor building air to enter the reactor core. The experiment was designed to measure stratified flow in the inlet pipe connecting to the lower plenum of the General Atomics gas turbine–modular helium reactor (GT-MHR). Instead of helium and air, brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used as the lighter fluid to create, using scaling laws, the appropriate flow characteristics of the lower plenum immediately after depressurization. These results clearly indicate that stratified flow is established even for very small density differences. Corresponding CFD results were validated with the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations. The calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that current CFD methods are suitable for simulating density gradient stratified flow phenomena in an air-ingress accident.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Extended Air Showers and Muon Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to report on the influence of muon interactions on the development of air showers initiated by astroparticles. We make a comparative study of the different theoretical approaches to muon bremsstrahlung and muonic pair production interactions. A detailed algorithm that includes all the relevant characteristics of such processes has been implemented in the AIRES air shower simulation system. We have simulated ultra high energy showers in different conditions in order to measure the influence of these muonic electromagnetic interactions. We have found that during the late stages of the shower development (well beyond the shower maximum) many global observables are significantly modified in relative terms when the mentioned interactions are taken into account. This is most evident in the case of the electromagnetic component of very inclined showers. On the other hand, our simulations indicate that the studied processes do not induce significant changes either in the position of the shower maximum or the structure of the shower front surface.

A. N. Cillis; S. J. Sciutto

2000-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

438

Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: radon  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has a long-standing interest in investigating the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality. The Office of Environmental Analysis has prepared this handbook in an effort to bring together available information on the impact of radon and its decay products on residential indoor air quality and on human health. The handbook is designed to enhance the understanding of the current state-of-knowledge regarding indoor radon for both homeowners and technical persons with an interest in indoor air quality issues. It provides the technical reader with a comprehensive review and reference source on the sources of radon and its transport mechanisms; reported indoor concentrations; building, and meteorological effects on radon concentration; models for predicting indoor concentrations; health effects and standards; and control technologies. The major questions and concerns of homeowners regarding the issue of indoor radon are addressed in a separate section entitled Radon in the Home: A Primer for Homeowners. This section also provides a starting point for readers desiring a general overview of the subject.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conditioners Incentives Conditioners Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 112 Room Air Conditioners Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 112) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota) Utility Rebate Program Minnesota Residential Central Air conditioners

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air infiltration measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Operational air sampling report, July 1--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Nevada Test Site postshot and tunnel events generate beta/gamma fission products. The REECo air sampling program is designed for measurement of these radionuclides at various facilities supporting these events. Monthly radon sampling is done for documentation of working levels in the tunnel complexes, which would be expected to have the highest radon levels for on-site facilities. Out of a total of 628 air samples taken in the tunnel complexes, 24 showed airborne fission products with concentrations well below their respective Derived Air Concentrations (DAC). All of these were related to event reentry or mineback operations. Tritiated water vapor concentrations were very similar to previously reported levels. The 838 air samples taken at the Area-6 decontamination bays and laundry were again well below any DAC calculation standard and negative for any airborne fission products from laboratory analyses.

Lyons, C.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

List of Central Air conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central Air conditioners Incentives Central Air conditioners Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 1032 Central Air conditioners Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-1000) CSV (rows 1001-1032) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Roofs Windows Yes AEP (Central and SWEPCO) - Coolsaver A/C Tune Up (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Installer/Contractor

443

[Characterization of historical infiltration in the unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site using chloride, bromide, and chlorine-36 as environmental tracers]; [Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

This document is an end-of-contract report, prepared by Hydro Geo Chem for Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number 9-XDD-6329F-1. The ultimate goal of this work is to characterize historical infiltration and unsaturated flow in the Yucca Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site. Work on this contract has focused on using chloride, bromide, stable chlorine isotopes, and chlorine-36 distributions to evaluate the depth of infiltration in the unsaturated zone. Effort in support of this work has included developing analytical procedures, exploring ways in which to separate the. meteoric component from the rock component, and meeting quality assurance requirements.

NONE

1991-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

444

Reply to "Commentary: Assessment of past infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis of the secondary mineral record-is it a viable methodology?", by Y.V. Dublyansky and S.Z. Smirnov  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

infiltration fluxes through Yucca Mountain on the basis ofdata for the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain (Nevada).AMR U0085, Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Disposal Project,

Sonnenthal, Eric; Xu, Tianfu; Bodvarrson, Gudmundur

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mountain Air | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Air Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain Air Facility Mountain Air Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Terna Energy Developer Terna Energy Energy Purchaser Idaho Power Location Hammett ID Coordinates 42.98719519°, -115.3985024° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.98719519,"lon":-115.3985024,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

447

Kansas Air Quality Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All new air contaminant emission sources or alterations to emission sources that are required to be reported shall be in compliance with all applicable emission control regulations at the time that...

448

Manual on indoor air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This reference manual was prepared to assist electric utilities in helping homeowners, builders, and new home buyers to understand a broad range of issues related to indoor air quality. The manual is directed to technically knowledgeable persons employed by utility companies - the customer service or marketing representative, applications engineer, or technician - who may not have specific expertise in indoor air quality issues. In addition to providing monitoring and control techniques, the manual summarizes the link between pollutant concentrations, air exchange, and energy conservation and describes the characteristics and health effects of selected pollutants. Where technical information is too lengthy or complex for inclusion in this volume, reference sources are given. Information for this manual was gathered from technical studies, manufacturers' information, and other materials from professional societies, institutes, and associations. The aim has been to provide objective technical and descriptive information that can be used by utility personnel to make informed decisions about indoor air quality issues.

Diamond, R.C.; Grimsrud, D.T.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Kansas Air Quality Act (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

No person shall construct, own, operate, install, alter or use any air contaminant emission stationary source which, in accordance with rules and regulations, the secretary finds may cause or...

450

Nadir Correction of AIRS Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical method to correct for the limb effect in off-nadir Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) channel radiances is described, using the channel radiance itself and principal components (PCs) of the other channel radiances to account for ...

Chee-Kiat Teo; Tieh-Yong Koh

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

buy vsd air compressor - high quality Manufacturers,Suppliers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

vsd air compressor trade offers directory and vsd air compressor business offers list. Trade leads from vsd air compressor Suppliers and vsd air ...

452

STUDIES ON AIR POLLUTION OF ISOTOPE DEPARTMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The need for a simple, effective, low-cost filter to measure atmospheric radioactive pollution in radiotherapy departments employing isotopes is considered. It was noted that not only may the patients emit substantial gamma radiation, but various body discharges, soiled laundry, treatment equipment, storage areas for laundry, and urine specimens present a radiation hazard for hospital personnel. A light, portable sampling and monitoring device was designed that would preclude the use of large built-in filters and their time- consuming operation. The filter was formed from 20 layers of gauze sewn together making a pad of 25mm dia. This pad filtered out only 50% of the aerosol particles, but its air resistance was 10 times less than conventional types, allowing it to be attached to an ordinary vacuum clean;r. A gas flow meter, installed between the pad and the vacuum cleaner, showed that 1 m/sup 3/ air passed through the pad in approximates 5 min. The filter samples were assayed for radioactivity with a 25-mm dia G-M tube. When the results were checked against a 99.8% effective Sovietmade filter, the 20-layer gauze filter compared favorably. When measurements were made in rooms of patients treated with I/sup 131/, the samples showed that the activity decreased much more rapidly than the normal 8-day half life of I/sup 131/. Since there was no other isotope pollution in the area tested, the only explanation for this atmospheric activity is the rapid sublimation of iodine. The first 24 hours following I/sup 131/ administration showed a generally higher air pollution level than had been assumed. Average measurements showed 10/sup -9/ mu C/m/sup 3/ before the rooms were ventilated. The activity measurements were about the same during treatment with I/sup 131/, P/sup 32/, Au/sup 198/, and Na/sup 24/. Airing the rooms thoroughly three times a day is considered absolutely necessary, as this decreased the atmospheric pollution considerably. (BBB)

Bozoky, L.

1962-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Indoor Air Quality and Volatile Organic Compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The unit was sized to comply with the outdoor air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62.2 Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low ...

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

454

Aire Valley Environmental | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Aire Valley Environmental Place United Kingdom Product Leeds-based waste-to-energy project developer. References Aire Valley Environmental1 LinkedIn...

455

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon FromFugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides from Diffuse Sources

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides from Diffuse SourcesHazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides), Availability ofLBNL to Revise Its Radionuclide NESHAP Monitoring Approach,”

Wahl, Linnea

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Central Air conditioners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Central Air conditioners Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Central Air conditioners Incentives Retrieved...

458

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

459

Air permitting of IGCC plants  

SciTech Connect

The IGCC process is, currently, the preferred choice over conventional thermal power production in regard to cleanup of fuel and significantly reduced contaminant emissions. The air permitting requirements include the review of: feed preparation and PM emissions; feed gasification and contaminant emissions; elemental sulfur recovery and SO{sub 2} emissions; options for carbon-dioxide recovery; syngas characteristics for combustion; CT design and combustion mechanisms; air contaminant emissions of CT; controlled CT emissions of nitrogen-oxides and carbon-monoxide gases using the SCR and oxidation catalysts, respectively; and, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, the IGCC processes are being rigorously reviewed for the system integration and reliability, and significant reduction of air contaminant emissions (including the greenhouse gases). This paper included a review of IGCC air contaminant emission rates, and various applicable regulatory requirements, such as NSR (New Source Review), NSPS (New Source Performance Standards), and MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The IGCC facility's NOX, CO, SO{sub 2}, PM, VOCs, and HAPs emission rates would be significantly low. Thus, effective, construction and installation, and operation air permits would be necessary for IGCC facilities.

Chitikela, S.R.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Air Monitoring of Emissions from the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, and the subsequent emissions from Fukushima-Daiichi, we monitored the air near Los Alamos using four air-monitoring systems: the standard AIRNET samplers, the standard rad-NESHAP samplers, the NEWNET system, and high-volume air samplers. Each of these systems has advantages and disadvantages. In combination, they provide a comprehensive set of measurements of airborne radionuclides near Los Alamos during the weeks following March 11. We report air-monitoring measurements of the fission products released from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear-power-plant accident in 2011. Clear gamma-spectrometry peaks were observed from Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137, I-131, I132, Te-132, and Te-129m. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides, are adequate for an assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi did not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos. The data demonstrate the capabilities of the Los Alamos air-monitoring systems.

McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allen, Shannon P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Debra C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coronado, Melissa A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dewart, Jean M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fuehne, David P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, Milan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Green, Andrew A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lujan, Joan J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacDonell, Carolyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

462

Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems May 30, 2012 - 6:41pm Addthis A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. What does this mean for me? You can eliminate the most common air conditioner problems before hiring an air conditioning technician. You can do some air conditioner maintenance and repair tasks yourself. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of connected rooms as much as possible from the rest of your home.

463

Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems May 30, 2012 - 6:41pm Addthis A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. What does this mean for me? You can eliminate the most common air conditioner problems before hiring an air conditioning technician. You can do some air conditioner maintenance and repair tasks yourself. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of connected rooms as much as possible from the rest of your home.

464

An attic-interior infiltration and interzone transport model of ahouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed model is developed for predicting the ventilation rates of the indoor, conditioned zone of a house and the attic zone. The complete set of algorithms is presented in a form for direct incorporation in a two zone ventilation model. One of the important predictions from this model is the leakage flow rate between the indoor and attic zones. Ventilation rates are predicted from a steady state mass flow rate balance for each zone where all individual flow rates through leakage sites are based on a power law expression for flow rate versus pressure difference. The envelope leakage includes distributed leakage associated with background leakage, localized leakage associated with vents and flues, and active fan ventilation. The predicted ventilation rates agree quite well with field measurements of ventilation rates in houses and attics with different leakage configurations, without the use of any empirically adjusted parameters or constants.

Walker, Iain S.; Forest, Tom W.; Wilson, David J.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z