National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air force base

  1. Hickam Air Force Base

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

  2. Hill Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hill Air Force Base Hill Air Force Base Hill Air Force Base Overview Energy savings performance contracting at Hill Air Force Base generated much interest during a recent training session on energy management that downlinked 12 Department of Defense sites. Energy systems in 940 buildings on the Base will be upgraded under an 18-year ESPC between the Government and the energy service company, CES/Way. Improvements are distributed over five task orders that will be completed in five years, with

  3. ESPC Success Story - Dyess Air Force Base

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DYESS AIR FORCE BASE DYESS, TEXAS Water Conservation and Green Energy ESPC SUCCESS STORY Dyess Air Force Base and surrounding west Texas has been under extreme-drought water ...

  4. Hill Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy savings performance contracting at Hill Air Force Base generated much interest ... There was a need to reduce energy and water use at Hill Air Force Base, which is subjected ...

  5. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at Hickam Air Force Base Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon ...

  6. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    operating at Hickam Air Force Base in Honolulu, Hawaii. PDF icon 42233.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base Hydrogen and ...

  7. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Federal Energy ...

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Nellis Air Force Base -...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Nellis Air Force Base - NV 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NELLIS AIR FORCE BASE (NV.04) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not ...

  9. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The 45 th Space Wing at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB) is pursuing its energy goals through ... Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals ...

  10. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early implementation experience from an evaluation of two prototype fuel cell vehicles operating at Hickam Air Force Base in Honolulu, Hawaii. PDF icon 42233.pdf More Documents & Publications Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Transit Bus Evaluations: Joint

  11. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Report NRELTP-560-42233 October 2007 Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kevin ...

  12. air force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases...

  13. F.E. Warren Air Force Base Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    F.E. Warren Air Force Base Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name F.E. Warren Air Force Base Wind Farm Facility F.E. Warren Air Force Base Sector Wind energy Facility Type...

  14. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-12-31

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base.

  15. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  16. Born on an Air Force base in Mississippi, Jan never

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Born on an Air Force base in Mississippi, Jan never lived any place for more than three years as a child. Her family moved to Germany when she was seven, and she recalls trips all over Europe. "We visited Holland, camped in Italy for a summer, and toured numerous museums and castles. My dad had been a pilot in World War II and Korea, and he took us to Hitler's Eagle's Nest retreat, and even to the Dachau concentration camp. These made extremely strong impressions of the influences of

  17. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goals | Department of Energy Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Federal Energy Management Program case study focuses on Patrick Air Force Base's use of a utility energy services contract to achieve its energy goals. PDF icon Download the Patrick Air Force Base case study. More Documents & Publications FPL Energy Services ESCO Qualification Sheet UESC Project

  18. Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy Fact sheet describes the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) Success Story on water conservation and green energy at Dyess Air Foce Base at Dyess, Texas. PDF icon espc_ss_dyess.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Performance Contract Success Stories Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE Briefing Harold

  19. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  20. AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command

  1. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  2. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  3. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  4. Environmental assessment: Warren Air Force Base 115-kV transmission line, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), is propsoing to construct a new electrical tranmission line and substation in southeastern Wyoming. This proposed line, called the Warren Air Force Base Tranmission Line, will supply power for Western's system to Francis E.Warren Air Force Base (F.E. Warren AFB) near Cheyenne. It would allow for increased tranmission capacity to the air base. F.E. Warren AFB currently is served electrically be Western via a 13.8-kv line. It is a wood-pole, double-circuit line without an overhead ground wire, which extends from Western's Cheyenne Substation, through an urban area, and onto the air base. The Cheyenne Substation is located on the south side of the city of Cheyenne. The electrical load on the base is increasing from 4 megawatts (MW) to 11 or 12 MW, an approximate three-fold increase. Voltage problems occasionally occur at the base due to the present electrial loads and to the age and inadequacy of the 13.8-kv line, which was placed in service in 1941. The existing line has served beyond its designed service life and requires replacement. Replacement would be necessary even without an increasing load. F.E. Warren AFB has several new and expanding programs, including additional housing, shopping centers, and the Peacekeeper Missile Program. Part of this expansion already has occured; the remainder is expected by early 1988. This expansion has created the need for additional electrical service. The present 13.8-kV line is not capable of supporting the additional load. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public-private partnership has helped one Air Force base reduce its energy costs and convert to 25 percent renewable energy. Nellis Air Force Base, just north of Las Vegas, took a big step in 2007 when it installed a 14.2-megawatt, 70,000-panel photovoltaic solar array that reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 24,000 tons a year. Built partly on a landfill, the field of solar panels takes advantage of two resources plentiful in Nevada: sunshine and empty land. At its unveiling in December of 2007, the Nellis array was the largest solar panel installation in North America. The project was originally expected to produce about 30,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per year, but Steven Dumont, Air Combat Command Energy Manager, says it’s actually producing closer to 32,000 megawatt-hours, which is about 8 percent above expectations. Despite this success, Dumont said he nearly didn’t pursue the project.

  6. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-15

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  8. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  9. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  10. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  11. Griffiss Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Electric resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Shankle, S.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Stucky, D.J.; Keller, J.M.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Dagle, J.E.; Gu, A.Y.

    1993-09-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). FEMP, with support from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is designing this model program for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. The program with Griffiss AFB will (1) identify and evaluate all cost-effective electric energy projects; (2) develop a schedule for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have them procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the ACC Griffiss AFB facility located near Rome, New York. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in seven common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO provides information on the initial cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. The evaluation methodology and technical and cost assumptions are also described for each ERO. Summary tables present the operational performance of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  12. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  13. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  14. Sitewide biological risk assessment Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska: Risks to terrestrial receptors from diverse contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Becker, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) is located southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. Eielson AFB was listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List with a total of 64 potential terrestrial and aquatic source areas. Contaminants of concern include fuel and fuel components, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead. As part of the remedial investigations of these sites, a biological risk assessment (BRA) was conducted to estimate the risk of ecological effects on terrestrial receptors posed by contaminants in the Eielson environment. There are 32 mammal species, 117 bird species, 17 fish species, and 1 amphibian species known to inhabit Eielson AFB and vicinity. The BRA screened source areas based on completed biological exposure pathways, selected receptors for analysis, estimated exposure of receptors to contaminants, and compared these exposures to known toxicological effects. Lower Garrison Slough and Flightline Pond posed a substantial risk for shrikes and goshawks. Ingestion of PCBs constituted the primary pathway/contaminant combination contributing to this risk. The effects of the various sources of uncertainty in the ingestion exposure calculations for these sites were evaluated in a probabilistic risk assessment using Monte Carlo methods. There was an 11% risk of reproductive effects from PCBs for goshawks feeding from Flightline Pond and a 25 % risk from lower Garrison Slough. There was an 81 % risk of reproductive effects from PCB exposure for shrikes feeding near lower Garrison Slough.

  15. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  16. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  17. Baseline biological risk assessment for aquatic populations occurring near Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, D.; Brandt, C.; Lewis, R.; Smith, R.

    1995-12-31

    Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska was listed as a Superfund site in November 1989 with 64 potential source areas of contamination. As part of a sitewide remedial investigation, baseline risk assessments were conducted in 1993 and 1994 to evaluate hazards posed to biological receptors and to human health. Fish tissue, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic vegetation, sediment, and surface water data were collected from several on-site and off-site surface water bodies. An initial screening risk assessment indicated that several surface water sites along two major tributary creeks flowing through the base had unacceptable risks to both aquatic receptors and to human health because of DDTs. Other contaminants of concern (i.e., PCBs and PAHs) were below screening risk levels for aquatic organisms, but contributed to an unacceptable risk to human health. Additional samples was taken in 1994 to characterize the site-wide distribution of PAHs, DDTs, and PCBs in aquatic biota and sediments. Concentrations of PAHs were invertebrates > aquatic vegetation > fish, but concentrations were sufficiently low that they posed no significant risk to biological receptors. Pesticides were detected in all fish tissue samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also detected in most fish from Garrison Slough. The pattern of PCB concentrations in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) was related to their proximity to a sediment source in lower Garrison Slough. Ingestion of PCB-contaminated fish is the primary human-health risk driver for surface water bodies on Eielson AFB, resulting in carcinogenic risks > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for future recreational land-use at some sites. Principal considerations affecting uncertainty in the risk assessment process included spatial and temporal variability in media contaminant concentrations and inconsistencies between modelled and measured body burdens.

  18. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hart, Dirk

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  19. Clean Air Task Force CATF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Force (CATF) Place: Boston, Massachusetts Zip: 2108 Product: Massachusetts-based scientific research and legal advocacy center. References: Clean Air Task Force (CATF)1 This...

  20. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  1. Sandia Energy - Air Force Research Laboratory Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque utilized the site at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility to evaluate seismic and optical activity from explosives set...

  2. Sandia Energy - Air Force Research Laboratory Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) in Albuquerque utilized the site at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) to evaluate seismic and optical activity from...

  3. air force | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range WASHINGTON - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and ...

  4. Characterization and remediation of 91B radioactive waste sites under performance based contracts at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, P.A.; Anderson, K.D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the challenges behind the implementation of the characterization, remediation, and the Site Closure for three 91b Radioactive Wastes under a Performance Based Contract at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) was established by Section 211 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). A part of the DERP provides for the cleanup of hazardous substances associated with past Department of Defense (DoD) activities and is consistent with the provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). It is the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP) that has responsibility for the cleanup activities associated with CERCLA. Under contract to the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE), the ECC Project Team, that included ECC, Cabrera Services, and Malcolm Pirnie, was responsible for the implementation of the actions at three sites. The three IRP (91b) sites included RW015, a 0.02 square kilometer (5.5 acre) site, RW017 a 0.003 square kilometer (0.9 acre) site, and RW033 an 0.356 square kilometer (88 acre) site. Adding to the complexities of the project were issues of archaeological areas of interest, jurisdictional wetlands, land open to hunting, issues of security as well as compliance to the myriad of air force base rules, regulations, and Air Force Instructions (AFI). The award of the project task order was July of 2005, the project plan phase started in July of 2005 followed by the remedy implementation that included characterization and remediation as required reached completion in June of 2006. The project closure including the development and approval final status survey reports, proposed plans, and decision documents that parallel the CERCLA process was initiated in June of 2006 and is expected to reach completion in August of 2007. This paper will focus on the issues of working to achieve radiological and chemical closure under a performance based contract vehicle and the challenges encountered while reaching this goal. (authors)

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA region 10): Eielson Air Force Base, Fairbanks-North Star Borough, AK, September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The decision document presents the final remedial action selected for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska. The sitewide investigation at Eielson AFB evaluated basewide contamination that is not confined or attributable to specific source areas identified and addressed in the FFA as well as cumulative risks to human health and the environment posed by contamination on a sitewide basis. Garrison Slough is the only one that poses an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the fish tissue and sediments of Garrison Slough. Soils in a trench adjacent to Garrison Slough were contaminated with PCBs and appear to be the source of contamination to slough sediments via surface water runoff. The major components of the selected remedy include: Fishing restrictions in Garrison Slough; Fish control device near the downstream edge of Eielson AFB; Excavation of contaminated soils and sediments with concentrations greater than 10 mg/kg PCBs; Onsite disposal of material with PCB concentrations less than 50 mg/kg; Offsite disposal or treatment of materials with PCB concentrations greater than 50 mg/kg in accordance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 40 CFR part 761; and Environmental monitoring of soils, sediments, surface water, fish, and groundwater.

  6. Economic analysis of operating alternatives for the South Vandenberg Power Plant at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), located approximately 50 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California, commissioned the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct an economic analysis of operating alternatives of the South Vandenberg Power Plant (SVPP). Recent concern over SVPP operating and environmental costs prompted VAFB personnel to consider other means to support the Missile Operation Support Requirement (MOSR). The natural gas-fired SVPP was originally designed to support the Space Transportation System launch activities. With cancellation of this mission, the SVPP has been used to provide primary and backup electric power to support MOSR activities for the Space Launch Complexes. This document provides economic analysis in support of VAFB decisions about future operation of the SVPP. This analysis complied with the life-cycle cost (LCC) analytical approach detailed in 10 CFR 436, which is used in support of all Federal energy decisions. Many of the SVPP operational and environmental cost estimates were provided by VAFB staff, with additional information from vendors and engineering contractors. The LCC analysis consisted of three primary operating strategies, each with a level of service equal to or better than the current status-quo operation. These scenarios are: Status-quo operation where the SVPP provides both primary and backup MOSR power; Purchased utility power providing primary MOSR support with backup power provided by an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system. The SVPP would be used to provide power for long-duration power outages; Purchased utility power provides primary MOSR support with backup power provided by a UPS system. A new set of dedicated generators would provide backup power for long-duration power outages.

  7. Environmental security: Concepts and air force implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walewski, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    With the end of the Cold War the Department of Defense (DoD) has been reorganized to establish the position of Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security. As a result, the definition of national security has been broadened to include the environment. Environment and protection of the interrelated resources are seen as vital components to the health and welfare of the United States. National security is dependent on environmental security. This paper introduces the role of environmental security as a component of current national security strategy; reviews DoD and the military services role in the domestic legacy of environmental impacts created by the cold war; details the status of current programs and methodologies used to improve environmental performance, compliance with environmental laws, and stewardship activities. Implementation will be demonstrated using Air Force policy, programs and activities underway, and a detailed explanation of Air Force environmental goals and objectives will be highlighted. Lessons learned to date will be covered in addition to future alternative strategies. Military readiness however does not preclude environmental stewardship. Many military lands have become virtual sanctuaries since years of restricted access and activity created islands of diverse ecosystems. Recent survey and inventory work on DoD lands have found some of the most pristine tracts remaining in the country. Consolidation of mission activities through base closure an realignment, and increasing weapon system sophistication, adds additional challenges to comply with environmental laws and regulation. This paper will define these unique environmental challenges, and discuss the methodologies used by the Air Force to fulfill its environmental stewardship role.

  8. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Fact sheet offers an overview of the U.S. Air ...

  9. NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Instrumented Flight Tests | National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Instrumented Flight Tests February 09, 2015 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and United States Air Force completed eight successful B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) Vibration Fly Around/ Instrumented Measurement Vehicle (VFA/IMV) tests at Eglin Air Force Base and Edwards Air Force Base during July to December 2014.The

  10. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification, Stage 2 for Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina. Volume 1. Final report, July 1986-November 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, W.J.; Winters, S.L.; Guthrie, S.A.

    1988-11-01

    A Phase II, Stage 2 survey has been conducted at the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base under the Department of Defense's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Six sites were identified by the Air Force for further study and include: Fire Training Area No. 3 (Site 1); Landfill No. 4 (Site 2); Landfill No. 1 (Site 3); Landfill No. 3 (Site 4); DPDO Waste Storage Area (Site 5); and Coal Pile Storage Area (Site 6). The evaluation primarily included the drilling of soil test borings, the installation, development, and sampling of new monitoring wells, resampling of selected Stage 1 monitoring wells, and the analysis of soil and water samples. A thin surficial aquifer was encountered at shallow depths beneath the sites that border the southeastern side of Stoney Creek. The surficial aquifer is contaminated at Sites 1, 2, 4, and 5 as a result of Base activities. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer is primarily horizontal and discharges into Stoney Creek along the northwestern limit of the Base. The major environmental concern revealed by this evaluation is the potential discharge of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer into Stoney Creek.

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Air Force Plant No 36 -...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Air Force Plant No 36 - OH 06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: AIR FORCE PLANT NO. 36 (OH.06 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Site referred to DOD Designated Name: Not ...

  12. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Fact sheet offers an overview of the U.S. Air Force's fuel-efficiency program. PDF icon af_fuelefficiency.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation National Clean Fleets Partnership Fact Sheet and Progress Update Report of the DOE-DOE Workshop on Fuel Cells in Aviation: Workshop Summary and Action Plan

  13. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  14. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  15. Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Civil Engineer Support Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency Place: Florida Zip: 32403-5319 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  16. Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has released a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) for over $25 million for Alternative Energy Research & Development.

  17. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon fupwgfall12brown.pdf More Documents & Publications Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Notes Assessment of Small ...

  18. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  19. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  20. Air Force Generic In-Kind Consideration Delivery Agreement |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Delivery Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Air Force Generic In-Kind Consideration Delivery AgreementLegal...

  1. Air Force Guide to Unsolicited Proposals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to Unsolicited Proposals Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Air Force Guide to Unsolicited ProposalsLegal Abstract...

  2. Air Force Generic In-Kind Consideration Trust Agreement | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trust Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Air Force Generic In-Kind Consideration Trust AgreementLegal Abstract...

  3. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification stage 1 for Minot Air Force Base, Minot, North Dakota. Volume 2. Appendices A through F. Final report, September 1985-October 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This document in the appendices A-F for the Installation-Restoration Program Report concerning Minot Air Force Base. The overall objective of the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Phase II investigation is to assess potential contamination at past hazardous-waste-disposal and spill sites on Air Force installations. A series of stages field investigations may be required to meet this objective. The purpose of this task is to undertake a field investigation at Minot AFB ND to: (1) confirm the presence or absence of contamination within the specified areas of investigation: (2) if possible, determine the extent and degree of contamination and the potential for migration of those contaminants in various environmental media; (3) identify public health and environmental hazards of migrating pollutants based on State or Federal standards for those contaminants; and (4) delineate additional investigations required beyond this stage to reach the Phase II objectives.

  4. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  5. Common Operating and Response Environment - U.S. Air Force

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-02

    CORE is an architecture to bridge the gaps between disparate data integration and delivery of disparate information visualization. The CORE Technology Program includes a suite of tools and user-centered staff that can facilitate rapid delivery of a deployable integrated information to users. Integration of Air Force data streams, summarizing the information and providing team members with the information they need to rapidly understand and respond.

  6. NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range July 08, 2015 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The United States Air Force (USAF) ...

  7. U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Force Energy Program Presentation U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation Omar Mendoza, U.S. Air Force, presentation on the U.S. Air Force Energy Program at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable. PDF icon 6_mendoza_roundtable.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable - List of Participants Report of the DOE-DOE Workshop on Fuel Cells in Aviation: Workshop Summary and Action Plan Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda

  8. Patrick Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Meeting Notes FPL Energy Services ESCO Qualification Sheet UESC Project Overview: NASA Ames Research Center...

  9. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Air Force’s Air Mobility Command (AMC) is changing the way it does business. It is saving energy and money through an aircraft fleet fuel-efficiency program inspired by private industry best practices and ideas resulting from the empowered fuel savings culture.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  11. NNSA, Air Force Conduct Successful W87/Minuteman III Joint Flight Test |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range | National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range November 16, 2015 WASHINGTON - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and United States Air Force completed the third development flight test of a non-nuclear B61-12 nuclear gravity bomb at Tonopah Test Range in Nevada on October 20, 2015. "This demonstration of effective

  12. NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range | National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range November 16, 2015 WASHINGTON - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and United States Air Force completed the third development flight test of a non-nuclear B61-12 nuclear gravity bomb at Tonopah Test Range in Nevada on October 20, 2015. "This demonstration of effective

  13. Paleo-channel deposits of natural uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, C.; Weismann, PGJ.; Nelson, CHPK. [Cabrera Services, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of radionuclides that were detected in monitor wells surrounding a closed solid-waste landfill at the former Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado. Groundwater concentrations of gross alpha, gross beta, and total uranium were thought to exceed regulatory standards. Down-gradient concentrations of these parameters exceeded up-gradient concentrations, suggesting that the landfill is leaching uranium to groundwater. Alternate hypotheses for the occurrence of the uranium included that either equipment containing refined uranium had been discarded or that uranium ore may have been disposed in the landfill, or that the uranium is naturally-occurring. Our study has concluded that the elevated radionuclide concentrations stem from naturally-occurring uranium in the regional watershed which has been preferentially deposited in paleo-channel sediments beneath the site. This study shows that a simple comparison of up-gradient versus down-gradient groundwater samples can be an inadequate method for determining whether heterogeneous geo-systems have been contaminated. It is important to understand the geologic depositional system, plus local geochemistry and how these factors impact contaminant transport. (authors)

  14. Paleo-channel deposition of natural uranium at a US Air Force landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Carl; Weismann, Joseph; Caputo, Daniel [Cabrera Services, Inc., East Hartford, Connecticut (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The US Air Force sought to identify the source of radionuclides that were detected in groundwater surrounding a closed solid waste landfill at the former Lowry Air Force Base in Denver, Colorado, USA. Gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium levels in groundwater were thought to exceed US drinking water standards and down-gradient concentrations exceeded up-gradient concentrations. Our study has concluded that the elevated radionuclide concentrations are due to naturally-occurring uranium in the regional watershed and that the uranium is being released from paleo-channel sediments beneath the site. Groundwater samples were collected from monitor wells, surface water and sediments over four consecutive quarters. A list of 23 radionuclides was developed for analysis based on historical landfill records. Concentrations of major ions and metals and standard geochemical parameters were analyzed. The only radionuclide found to be above regulatory standards was uranium. A search of regional records shows that uranium is abundant in the upstream drainage basin. Analysis of uranium isotopic ratios shows that the uranium has not been processed for enrichment nor is it depleted uranium. There is however slight enrichment in the U-234:U- 238 activity ratio, which is consistent with uranium that has undergone aqueous transport. Comparison of up-gradient versus down-gradient uranium concentrations in groundwater confirms that higher uranium concentrations are found in the down-gradient wells. The US drinking water standard of 30 {mu}g/L for uranium was exceeded in some of the up-gradient wells and in most of the down-gradient wells. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium occurring in streams has been preferentially deposited in paleo-channel sediments beneath the site, and that the paleo-channel deposits are causing the increased uranium concentrations in down-gradient groundwater compared to up-gradient groundwater. (authors)

  15. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger

    2015-08-15

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the “forest of peaks” frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  16. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  17. Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    highest potential to save aviation fuel. All MAF personnel are encouraged to propose fuel savings ideas. These ideas are then processed as initiatives, assigned a primary point of contact, and routed through an analysis process to prepare the initiative for presenta- tion to the Air Force's corporate structure. The corporate structure then evaluates and determines the initiatives with the highest potential fuel savings. Fuel-saving efforts focus on six major areas: policy, planning, execution,

  18. Information-based physics, influence, and forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, James Lyons; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2015-01-13

    In recent works, Knuth and Bahreyni have demonstrated that the concepts of space and time are emergent in a coarse-grained model of direct particle-particle influence. In addition, Knuth demonstrated that observer-made inferences regarding the free particle, which is defined as a particle that influences others, but is not itself influenced, result in a situation identical to the Feynman checkerboard model of the Dirac equation. This suggests that the same theoretical framework that gives rise to an emergent spacetime is consistent with quantum mechanics. In this paper, we begin to explore the effect of influence on the emergent properties of a particle. This initial study suggests that when a particle is influenced, it is interpreted as accelerating in a manner consistent with special relativity implying that, at least in this situation, influence can be conceived of as a force.

  19. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  20. Controlled-force end seal arrangement for an air press of a papermaking machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, David A.

    2003-07-08

    An air press for pressing a fiber web includes a plurality of rolls and a pair of end seal arrangements. Of the plurality of rolls, each pair of adjacent rolls forms a nip therebetween. Further, each roll has a pair of roll ends, the plurality of rolls together forming two sets of roll ends. Each end seal arrangement coacts with one set of roll ends, the plurality of rolls and the pair of end seal arrangements together defining an air press chamber having an air chamber pressure. Each end seal arrangement is composed of at least one roll seal, including a first roll seal, and an adjustable bias mechanism. Each roll seal forms a seal with at least one roll end, and one side of the first roll seal being exposed to the air chamber pressure. The adjustable bias mechanism is configured for controlling a position of each roll seal relative to a respective at least one roll end and for adjusting a seal force between the roll seal and the respective at least one roll end.

  1. Evaluation of innovative volatile organic compound and hazardous air-pollutant-control technologies for U. S. Air Force paint spray booths. Final report, Aug 88-Aug 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritts, D.H.; Garretson, C.; Hyde, C.; Lorelli, J.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1990-10-01

    Significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants are released into the atmosphere during USAF maintenance operations. Painting operations conducted in paint spray booths are major sources of these pollutants. Solvent based epoxy primers and solvent-based polyurethane coatings are typically used by the Air Force for painting aircraft and associated equipment. Solvents used in these paints include methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, lacquer thinner, and other solvents involved in painting and component cleaning. In this report, carbon paper adsorption/catalytic incineration (CPACI) and fluidized-bed catalytic incineration (FBCI) were evaluated as control technologies to destroy VOC emissions from paint spray booths. Simultaneous testing of pilot-scale units was performed to evaluate the technical performance of both technologies. Results showed that each technology maintained greater than 99 percent Destruction and Removal Efficiencies (DREs). Particulate emissions from both pilot-scale units were less than 0.08 grains/dry standard cubic foot. Emissions of the criteria pollutants--sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide--were also below general regulatory standards for incinerators. Economic evaluations were based on a compilation of manufacturer-supplied data and energy consuption data gathered during the pilot scale testing. CPACM and FBCI technologies are less expensive than standard VOC control technologies when net present costs for a 15-year equipment life are compared.

  2. Force-Based Needle Insertion for Medical Applications (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: Force-Based Needle Insertion for Medical Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Force-Based Needle Insertion for Medical Applications No abstract prepared. Authors: Love, Lonnie J [1] ; Jansen, John F [1] ; Lloyd, Peter D [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2009-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 966427 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: IROS 2009: The 2009 IEEE/RSJ International

  3. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... steel packages for military or commercial transport. *&1; Three primary PODs: &2;&1; Hydrogen Fuel Processor (H 2 FP) using two Teledyne Energy Systems HMX 200 electrolyzers; production ...

  4. Attempt to estimate measurement uncertainty in the Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zettlemoyer, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model that predicts plumes, concentrations, and hazard distances of toxic chemical spills. A measurement uncertainty propagation formula derived by Freeman et al. (1986) is used within AFTOX to estimate resulting concentration uncertainties due to the effects of data input uncertainties in wind speed, spill height, emission rate, and the horizontal and vertical Gaussian dispersion parameters, and the results are compared to true uncertainties as estimated by standard deviations computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The measurement uncertainty uncertainty propagation formula was found to overestimate measurement uncertainty in AFTOX-calculated concentrations by at least 350 percent, with overestimates worsening with increasing stability and/or increasing measurement uncertainty.

  5. Development of residential-conservation-survey methodology for the US Air Force. Interim report. Task two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrams, D. W.; Hartman, T. L.; Lau, A. S.

    1981-11-13

    A US Air Force (USAF) Residential Energy Conservation Methodology was developed to compare USAF needs and available data to the procedures of the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program as developed for general use by utility companies serving civilian customers. Attention was given to the data implications related to group housing, climatic data requirements, life-cycle cost analysis, energy saving modifications beyond those covered by RCS, and methods for utilizing existing energy consumption data in approaching the USAF survey program. Detailed information and summaries are given on the five subtasks of the program. Energy conservation alternatives are listed and the basic analysis techniques to be used in evaluating their thermal performane are described. (MCW)

  6. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J.

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  7. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  8. A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radiative forcing is sensitive to the model's horizontal resolution, the use of predicted vs. analyzed relative humidity, the prediction vs. diagnosis of aerosol number and ...

  9. Feasibility study of burning waste paper in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis examined the feasibility of using waste paper derived fuel in coal-fired boilers on Air Force installations in an attempt to help solve air pollution and solid waste disposal problems. The implementation of waste paper derived fuel was examined from both a technical acceptability and an economic feasibility viewpoint. The majority of data for this study was obtained through literature reviews and personal interviews. Waste paper was found to be technically acceptable for use as fuel. However, waste paper has certain characteristics that may create problems during combustion and therefore further research is required. These problems included the possibility of increased nitrous oxide emissions, increased volatile emissions, dioxin and furan emissions, formation of hydrochloric acid, and the presence of heavy metals in emissions and ash.

  10. Introduction Yucca Lady, a World War II Boeing-17G Flying Fortress Army Air Force serial number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yucca Lady, a World War II Boeing-17G Flying Fortress Army Air Force serial number 44-83575, was flown to the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site - NNSS) in 1952, where she was instrumented and subjected to three atmospheric nuclear tests as part of the Operation Tumbler-Snapper -- Vulnerability of Parked Aircraft to Atomic Bombs series, conducted in April and May 1952. The project would determine the effects of a nuclear device detonated above an airfield,

  11. NNSA Deploys Nuclear Detonation Detection Equipment Aboard Air...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    on the Air Force's new Space Based Infrared System satellites, as well as on a new block of GPS satellites. Working together, NNSA and the Air Force Space and Missile Systems ...

  12. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-03-03

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  13. Determination of the origin of elevated uranium at a Former Air Force Landfill using non-parametric statistics analysis and uranium isotope ratio analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weismann, J.; Young, C.; Masciulli, S.; Caputo, D.

    2007-07-01

    Lowry Air Force Base (Lowry) was closed in September 1994 as part of the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) program and the base was transferred to the Lowry Redevelopment Authority in 1995. As part of the due diligence activities conducted by the Air Force, a series of remedial investigations were conducted across the base. A closed waste landfill, designated Operable Unit 2 (OU 2), was initially assessed in a 1990 Remedial Investigation (RI; [1]). A Supplemental Remedial Investigation was conducted in 1995 [2] and additional studies were conducted in a 1998 Focused Feasibility Study. [3] The three studies indicated that gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations were consistently above regulatory standards and that there were detections of low concentrations other radionuclides. Results from previous investigations at OU 2 have shown elevated gross alpha, gross beta, and uranium concentrations in groundwater, surface water, and sediments. The US Air Force has sought to understand the provenance of these radionuclides in order to determine if they could be due to leachates from buried radioactive materials within the landfill or whether they are naturally-occurring. The Air Force and regulators agreed to use a one-year monitoring and sampling program to seek to explain the origins of the radionuclides. Over the course of the one-year program, dissolved uranium levels greater than the 30 {mu}g/L Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) were consistently found in both up-gradient and down-gradient wells at OU 2. Elevated Gross Alpha and Gross Beta measurements that were observed during prior investigations and confirmed during the LTM were found to correlate with high dissolved uranium content in groundwater. If Gross Alpha values are corrected to exclude uranium and radon contributions in accordance with US EPA guidance, then the 15 pCi/L gross alpha level is not exceeded. The large dataset also allowed development of gross alpha to total uranium correlation factors so that gross alpha action levels can be applied to future long-term landfill monitoring to track radiological conditions at lower cost. Ratios of isotopic uranium results were calculated to test whether the elevated uranium displayed signatures indicative of military use. Results of all ratio testing strongly supports the conclusion that the uranium found in groundwater, surface water, and sediment at OU 2 is naturally-occurring and has not undergone anthropogenic enrichment or processing. U-234:U-238 ratios also show that a disequilibrium state, i.e., ratio greater than 1, exists throughout OU 2 which is indicative of long-term aqueous transport in aged aquifers. These results all support the conclusion that the elevated uranium observed at OU 2 is due to the high concentrations in the regional watershed. Based on the results of this monitoring program, we concluded that the elevated uranium concentrations measured in OU 2 groundwater, surface water, and sediment are due to the naturally-occurring uranium content of the regional watershed and are not the result of waste burials in the former landfill. Several lines of evidence indicate that natural uranium has been naturally concentrated beneath OU 2 in the geologic past and the higher of uranium concentrations in down-gradient wells is the result of geochemical processes and not the result of a uranium ore disposal. These results therefore provide the data necessary to support radiological closure of OU 2. (authors)

  14. A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Physically-Based Estimate of Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosol Estimates of direct and indirect radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols from an integrated global aerosol and climate modeling system are presented. A detailed global tropospheric chemistry and aerosol model that

  15. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  16. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  17. Installation restoration program. Phase I. Records search. Niagara Falls Air Force Reserve facility, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) has developed a program to identify and evaluate past hazardous material disposal sites on DOD property, to control the migration of hazardous contaminants, and to control hazards to health or welfare that may result from these past disposal operations. This program is called the Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The IRP has four phases consisting of Phase I, Initial Assessment/Records Search; Phase II, Confirmation and Quantification; Phase III, Technology Base Development; and Phase IV, Operations/Remedial Measures. Niagara Falls AFRF is located in Niagara County, New York, approximately six miles northeast of the City of Niagara Falls and approximately fifteen miles north of Buffalo. The installation is currently comprised of 985 acres with a base population of approximately 2,560. The following areas were determined to have a sufficient potential to create environmental contamination and follow-on investigation is warranted: Bldg. 600 JP-4 Pipeline Leak; POL JP-4 Tank C; Landfill; BX MOGAS Tank Leak; NYANG Hazardous Waste Drum Storage; POL JP-4 Tank A; JP-4 Tank Truck Spill; Bldg. 202 Drum Storage Yard; Fire Training Facility No. 1, 2 and 3; Bldg. 850 Drum Storage Yard; and AFRES Hazardous Waste Drum Storage.

  18. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 The U.S. ...

  19. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C L; Bearden, Mark D; Horner, Jacob A; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B Peter

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure. This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  20. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Bearden, Mark D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Cabe, James E.; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure. This project assessed the technical and economic feasibility of implementing geothermally coupled well-based CAES for grid-scale energy storage. Based on an evaluation of design specifications for a range of casing grades common in U.S. oil and gas fields, a 5-MW CAES project could be supported by twenty to twenty-five 5,000-foot, 7-inch wells using lower-grade casing, and as few as eight such wells for higher-end casing grades. Using this information, along with data on geothermal resources, well density, and potential future markets for energy storage systems, The Geysers geothermal field was selected to parameterize a case study to evaluate the potential match between the proven geothermal resource present at The Geysers and the field’s existing well infrastructure. Based on calculated wellbore compressed air mass, the study shows that a single average geothermal production well could provide enough geothermal energy to support a 15.4-MW (gross) power generation facility using 34 to 35 geothermal wells repurposed for compressed air storage, resulting in a simplified levelized cost of electricity (sLCOE) estimated at 11.2 ¢/kWh (Table S.1). Accounting for the power loss to the geothermal power project associated with diverting geothermal resources for air heating results in a net 2-MW decrease in generation capacity, increasing the CAES project’s sLCOE by 1.8 ¢/kWh.

  1. Jet engine test stand and soil stockpile. 107th fighter-interceptor group Niagara Falls Air Force Reserve Station, New York Air National Guard, Niagara Falls, New York. Final site assessment addendum report, 9-12 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    THis report outlines additional site assessment activities which were conducted at the Jet Engine Test Stand (JETS), Building No. 852 located at the 197th Fighter-Interceptor Group, Niagara Falls Air National Guard Station (NFANGS), Air Force Reserve Facility (AFRF) approximately 6 miles northeast of Niagara Falls, New York (Figure 1.1). The additional site assessment activities were performed in response to requests, dated February 9 and 12, 1993, by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) to further investigate contaminated soil and groundwater conditions at the JETS and at an existing soil stockpile (Appendix A).

  2. Development of a quartz tuning-fork-based force sensor for measurements in the tens of nanoNewton force range during nanomanipulation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oiko, V. T. A. Rodrigues, V.; Ugarte, D.; Martins, B. V. C.; Silva, P. C.

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the mechanical properties of nanoscale systems requires new experimental and theoretical tools. In particular, force sensors compatible with nanomechanical testing experiments and with sensitivity in the nN range are required. Here, we report the development and testing of a tuning-fork-based force sensor for in situ nanomanipulation experiments inside a scanning electron microscope. The sensor uses a very simple design for the electronics and it allows the direct and quantitative force measurement in the 1100 nN force range. The sensor response is initially calibrated against a nN range force standard, as, for example, a calibrated Atomic Force Microscopy cantilever; subsequently, applied force values can be directly derived using only the electric signals generated by the tuning fork. Using a homemade nanomanipulator, the quantitative force sensor has been used to analyze the mechanical deformation of multi-walled carbon nanotube bundles, where we analyzed forces in the 540 nN range, measured with an error bar of a few nN.

  3. Graphene-based Electrode Leads to Highest Capacity Lithium-Air...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Graphene-based Electrode Leads to Highest Capacity Lithium-Air Batteries Basic Energy Sciences ... Funding Basic Research: DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences ...

  4. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  5. Avian Field guide and checklist for Kunsan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levenson, J. B.; Environmental Assessment

    2005-11-15

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Kunsan Air Base (AB). This on-going survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Kunsan AB, and the 8th Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred sixteen bird species representing 34 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Cultural Property Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Six species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's(KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, only ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected because the Eurasian Spoonbill, Peregrine Falcon, and Eurasian Oystercatcher are listed by both agencies. The primary objective of the avian survey at Kunsan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex C.4.a.(1-4) of the 8th Fighter Wing BASH Plan(8FWOPLAN 91-202). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Kunsan AB throughout the year, and from the survey results determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Kunsan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Kunsan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a and also that are favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  6. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  7. Volatile organic compound and particulate emission studies of AF (Air Force) paint-booth facilities. Phase 1. Final report, February-December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayer, J.; Wolbach, D.

    1988-07-01

    This study presents the results of volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate emission surveys performed at three Air Force painting facilities. The three facilities -- one in McClellan AFB buildings 655 and two at Travis AFB in buildings 550 and 1014 -- did not meet local VOC emission standards. The possibility of reducing these emissions with recirculation modifications and various VOC reduction and control strategies is discussed. Although VOC emissions from paint spray booths can be controlled by add-on control systems, control is expensive for present air flow rates. The use of air recirculation within the spray booth can reduce the cost of VOC emission controls by reducing the quantity of air that requires processing. Recirculation systems were designed for two of the painting facilities included in this study. In designing the systems, various criteria such as paint booth VOC concentrations and health and safety standards were considered. Add-on VOC emission-control systems that can be used in conjunction with the recirculation system are evaluated. The devices of interest are a solvent incineration system and an activated-carbon adsorption bed. The VOC removal efficiency, initial capital investment and operating costs for both of these technologies are discussed.

  8. Cloud-Based Air Traffic Management Announcement | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Works to Bring Air Traffic Management Into "The Cloud" Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Works to Bring Air Traffic Management Into "The Cloud" A global leader in avionics and software development, the General Electric Company (NYSE: GE) has embarked on an 18-month project with the

  9. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation. Bolling Air Force Base. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools, software, and procedures used to identify and evaluate energy-efficiency technologies and improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy use efficiency. To assist in procurement of energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies devise and implement performance contracting and utility demand-side management strategies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) supports the FEMP mission of energy systems modernization. Under this charter, the Laboratory and its contractors work with federal facility energy managers to assess and implement energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities nationwide.

  11. Spring 1995 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-18

    The objectives of the 1994 and 1995 wildlife and vegetation surveys were to gather data to be used for various applications including: (1) basewide Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) Work Plan (Scoping Document), (2) the completion of the basewide ERA, (3) determining remedial activities, and (4) determining the distribution of state and federal list plant and animal species on Norton AFB. Data gathering included an inventory of plant and animal species present, the identification of potential ecological receptors, mapping of habitats, and constructing the ecological food web present on or near the IRP sites of concern.

  12. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final technical report, February 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-01

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  13. An empirical analysis of exposure-based regulation to abate toxic air pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakovits, D.M.; Considine, T.J.

    1996-11-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments requires the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate 189 air toxics, including emissions from by-product coke ovens. Economists criticize the inefficiency of uniform standards, but Title III makes no provision for flexible regulatory instruments. Environmental health scientists suggest that population exposure, not necessarily ambient air quality, should motivate environmental air pollution policies. Using an engineering-economic model of the United States steel industry, we estimate that an exposure-based policy can achieve the same level of public health as coke oven emissions standards and can reduce compliance costs by up to 60.0%. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEM images of Ir-rGO composite showing Ir nanoparticles less than 2 nm in size. (courtesy of Nature Publishing Group) A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide January 20, ...

  15. National Air & Space Intelligence Center Holds Program About Empowering Women in the Workplace

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Air and Space Intelligence Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, hosted a dialogue on addressing female employees' workplace concerns during an equal opportunity team event Sept. 18.

  16. Assessment of Small Modular Reactor Suitability for Use On or Near Air

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Force Space Command Installations SAND 2016-2600 | Department of Energy Small Modular Reactor Suitability for Use On or Near Air Force Space Command Installations SAND 2016-2600 Assessment of Small Modular Reactor Suitability for Use On or Near Air Force Space Command Installations SAND 2016-2600 This report assesses the suitability of using US-developed light water SMR technology to provide energy for Schriever Air Force Base, CO and Clear Air Force Station, AK, as well as broader SMR

  17. CASL - CFD-Based Turbulence Force Evaluation for Grid-to-Rod...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light water reactors. GTRF is a complicated phenomenon, which includes flow excitation force, non-linear mechanical vibration, tribology, changing irradiated material properties...

  18. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  19. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the worlds first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithiumbased negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the batterys reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  20. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2013-08-01

    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  1. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  2. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Kuo, Lewis; Li, Baozhen

    1999-01-01

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO.sub.3. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La.sub.w Ca.sub.x Ln.sub.y Ce.sub.z MnO.sub.3, wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics.

  3. Lanthanum manganite-based air electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.; Li, B.

    1999-06-29

    An air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell is disclosed. The electrode material is based on lanthanum manganite having a perovskite-like crystal structure ABO[sub 3]. The A-site of the air electrode material preferably comprises La, Ca, Ce and at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd. The B-site of the electrode material comprises Mn with substantially no dopants. The ratio of A:B is preferably slightly above 1. A preferred air electrode composition is of the formula La[sub w]Ca[sub x]Ln[sub y]Ce[sub z]MnO[sub 3], wherein Ln comprises at least one lanthanide selected from Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Y and Nd, w is from about 0.55 to about 0.56, x is from about 0.255 to about 0.265, y is from about 0.175 to about 0.185, and z is from about 0.005 to about 0.02. The air electrode material possesses advantageous chemical and electrical properties as well as favorable thermal expansion and thermal cycle shrinkage characteristics. 10 figs.

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2007-06-01

    Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.

  5. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  6. Thin-film encapsulation of the air-sensitive organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, I. H.; Harberts, M.; Yu, H.; Johnston-Halperin, E.; Lu, Y.; Epstein, A. J.

    2015-03-23

    The organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V[TCNE]{sub x∼2}) has demonstrated potential for use in both microwave electronics and spintronics due to the combination of high temperature magnetic ordering (T{sub C} > 600 K), extremely sharp ferromagnetic resonance (peak to peak linewidth of 1 G), and low-temperature conformal deposition via chemical vapor deposition (deposition temperature of 50 °C). However, air-sensitivity leads to the complete degradation of the films within 2 h under ambient conditions, with noticeable degradation occurring within 30 min. Here, we demonstrate encapsulation of V[TCNE]{sub x∼2} thin films using a UV-cured epoxy that increases film lifetime to over 710 h (30 days) as measured by the remanent magnetization. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature decay more slowly than the remanence, and the coercivity is unchanged after 340 h (14 days) of air exposure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that the epoxy does not react with the film, and magnetometry measurements show that the presence of the epoxy does not degrade the magnetic properties. This encapsulation strategy directly enables a host of experimental protocols and investigations not previously feasible for air-sensitive samples and lays the foundation for the development of practical applications for this promising organic-based magnetic material.

  7. A non-contact, thermal noise based method for the calibration of lateral deflection sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullin, Nic Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2014-11-15

    Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or liquid. Here we make a full quantitative comparison of the lateral inverse optical lever sensitivity obtained by the lateral thermal noise method and the shape independent method developed by Anderson et al. We find that the thermal method provides accurate results for a wide variety of rectangular cantilevers, provided that the geometry of the cantilever is suitable for torsional stiffness calibration by the torsional Sader method, in-plane bending of the cantilever may be eliminated or accounted for and that any scaling of the lateral deflection signal between the measurement of the lateral thermal noise and the measurement of the lateral deflection is eliminated or corrected for. We also demonstrate that the thermal method may be used to characterize the linearity of the detector signal as a function of position, and find a deviation of less than 8% for the instrument used.

  8. Analysis of global radiation budgets and cloud forcing using three-dimensional cloud nephanalysis data base. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, B.

    1990-12-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer model was used to compute the global radiative budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface for January and July. 1979. The model was also used to determine the global cloud radiative forcing for all clouds and for high and low cloud layers. In the computations. the authors used the monthly cloud data derived from the Air Force Three-Dimensional Cloud Nephanalysis (3DNEPH). These data were used in conjunction with conventional temperature and humidity profiles analyzed during the 1979 First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment (FGGE) year. Global surface albedos were computed from available data and were included in the radiative transfer analysis. Comparisons of the model-produced outgoing solar and infrared fluxes with those derived from Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERS) data were made to validate the radiative model and cloud cover. For reflected solar and emitted infrared (IR) flux, differences within 20 w/sq m meters were shown.

  9. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management Aerial Measuring System AMS Logo NNSA's Aerial Measuring System (AMS) provides specialized airborne radiation detection systems to provide real-time measurements of low levels of air and ground contamination. The AMS team consists of scientists, technicians, pilots, and ground support personnel. These trained experts are in charge of maintaining a state of readiness to respond to a radiological emergency at any time. The team is based out of Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas, Nevada,

  10. Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

    2008-06-02

    Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

  11. The fabrication of polyfluorene and polycarbazole-based photovoltaic devices using an air-stable process route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovill, E.; Lidzey, D. G.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.

    2014-12-01

    We report a comparative study based on the fabrication of polymer:fullerene photovoltaic (PV) devices incorporating carbazole, fluorene, and a PTB based co-polymer. We have explored the efficiency and performance of such devices when the active polymer:fullerene layer is deposited by spin-casting either under nitrogen or ambient conditions. We show that PV devices based on carbazole and fluorene based materials have very similar power conversion efficiencies when processed under both air and nitrogen, with other photobleaching measurements suggesting that such materials have comparatively enhanced photostability. Devices based on the PTB co-polymer, however, have reduced efficiency when processed in air.

  12. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  13. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive Learning Controller has little impact due to the variable nature of the wave period. We then introduce a new approach to HAT control, Ship Motion Compensation for Force Control Systems (SMCFCS). This basic approach uses inclinometer and acceleration information from the base of the robot to compensate for ship motion disturbances. Results of the simulation study show over an order of magnitude decrease in the disturbance force reflected back to the operator and an order of magnitude increase in positioning accuracy and resolution.

  14. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  15. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 2. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  16. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 October 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint, the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation. A volunteer painter was briefed on the increased risk of exposure during recirculation, and on the purposes and possible benefits of this study. He then signed an informed consent form before participating in the recirculation tests. A series of tests generally equivalent to the baseline series was conducted during split-flow and recirculating ventilation, and three tests were performed during only split-flow ventilation.

  17. Demonstration of split-flow ventilation and recirculation as flow-reduction methods in an Air Force paint spray booth. Volume 1. Final report, 15 February 1991-9 January 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.; Ayer, J.; Sutay, R.

    1994-07-27

    During a series of painting operations in a horizontal-flow paint spray booth at Travis AFB, CA, baseline concentrations of four classes of toxic airborne pollutants were measured at 24 locations across a plane immediately forward of the exhaust filters, in the exhaust duct, and inside and outside the respirator in the painter`s breathing zone (BZ). The resulting data were analyzed and used to design a modified ventilation system that (1) separates a portion of the exhaust exiting the lower portion of the booth, which contains a concentration of toxic pollutants greater than the average at the exhaust plane (split-flow); and (2) provides an option to return the flow from the upper portion of the exhaust to the intake plenum for mixing with fresh air and recirculation through the booth (recirculation). After critical review by cognizant Air Force offices, and an experimental demonstration showing that a flame ionization detector monitoring the air entering the booth is able to detect excursions above the equivalent exposure limit for the solvents in the paint the exhaust duct was reconfigured for split-flow and recirculating ventilation.

  18. NNSA to save $7 million on electricity at Sandia, Kirtland Air...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    save 7 million on electricity at Sandia, Kirtland Air Force Base over two years | ... Home NNSA Blog NNSA to save 7 million on electricity ... NNSA to save 7 million on ...

  19. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  20. protective force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ntex%20-%20protective%20force%20-%20edited.jpg" alt"successfully completed a recent assessment by the U.S. Department " >

    Members of Pantex's Protective Force on...

  1. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  2. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.997; for the bi-directional configuration, the coefficient of determination r{sup 2} is equal to 0.990 for positive flows (inspiration) and 0.988 for negative flows (expiration). Measurement uncertainty {delta}Q of air flow rate has been evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions and the percentage error in the arrangement of bi-directional sensor ranges from a minimum of about 0.5% at -18.0 l/min to a maximum of about 9% at -12.0 l/min.

  3. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  4. Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; Lpez-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D.

    2014-09-14

    This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup } proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in open loop).

  5. Force sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  6. Force sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  7. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  8. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-03-07

    The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

  9. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  10. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  11. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  12. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-08-15

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications.

  13. Forced Air Systems in High Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  14. Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Handbook providing practical information to help regulators decide if they want to use output-based regulations and explains how to develop an output-based emission standard

  15. Aire Valley Environmental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aire Valley Environmental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aire Valley Environmental Place: United Kingdom Product: Leeds-based waste-to-energy project developer. References: Aire...

  16. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  17. Energy Savings for Occupancy-Based Control (OBC) of Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian; Lutes, Robert G.; Liu, Guopeng; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-01-24

    This study evaluates the savings potential of occupancy based control (OBC) for large office buildings with VAV terminal boxes installed.

  18. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air and electromechanical batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  19. Development of a Zirconia-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen in Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E; Mukundan, R; Lujan, R; Garzon, F; Woo, L; Worsley, M; Glass, B

    2008-07-16

    Mixed potential sensors utilizing a machined, dense indium-tin oxide working electrode (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:SnO{sub 2}; 90%:10%), a Pt wire counter electrode, and porous YSZ electrolyte were prepared using ceramic tape casting methods. The response of these devices to hydrogen concentrations up to 2% in air were studied from 600 to 740 C. The sensor response exhibited a reversible behavior and a fast response time with sensitivity increasing with decreasing temperature. GC analysis confirmed significant heterogeneous oxidation of the H{sub 2} on heated furnace tube wall surfaces thus driving sensor response at H{sub 2} concentrations greater than a few hundred ppm. The transition to a cold wall, miniature platform heater significantly reduced hydrogen oxidation although some flow rate dependence remains.

  20. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  1. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  2. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C. Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C.

    2014-06-14

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  3. Short-Term Oxidation Studies on Nicrofer- 6025HT in Air at Elevated Temperatures for Advanced Coal Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Bowden, Mark E.; Weil, K. Scott

    2013-04-01

    Several advanced air separation unit (ASU) designs being considered for use in coal gasification rely on the use of solid state mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Nicrofer-6025HT, a nickel-based alloy, has been identified as a potential manifold material to transport the hot gases into the ASUs. In the current study, isothermal oxidation tests were conducted on Nicrofer-6025HT in the temperature range of 700900 C for up to 24 h. The evolution of oxide scale was evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The composite surface oxide layer that formed consisted of an outer chromia-rich scale and an inner alumina scale. For the longer times at the higher temperatures evaluated, a NiCr2O4 spinel phase was located at the interface between the alumina and chromia. Based on the experimental results a four-step oxidation model was proposed.

  4. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. March 17, 2015 Real-time data monitoring ...

  5. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  6. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  7. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-04

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter`s mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps.

  8. Graphene-based Electrode Leads to Highest Capacity Lithium-Air Batteries |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biosensors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126641 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28234 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  9. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; et al

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototypemore » and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.« less

  10. A Community-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Device for Measuring Ambient Air Exposure, Location, and Respiratory Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohlman, Diana; Syron, Laura; Hobbie, Kevin; Anderson, Kim A.; Scaffidi, Christopher; Sudakin, Daniel; Peterson, Elena S.; Waters, Katrina M.; Haynes, Erin; Arkin, Lisa; Feezel, Paul; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-08-15

    In west Eugene (Oregon), community research indicates residents are disproportionately exposed to industrial air pollution and exhibit increased asthma incidence. In Carroll County (Ohio), recent increases in unconventional natural gas drilling sparked air quality concerns. These community concerns led to the development of a prototype mobile device to measure personal chemical exposure, location, and respiratory function. Working directly with the environmental justice (EJ) communities, the prototype was developed to (1) meet the needs of the community and; (2) evaluate the use in EJ communities. The prototype was evaluated in 3 community focus groups (n=25) to obtain feedback on the prototype and feasibility study design to evaluate the efficacy of the device to address community concerns. Focus groups were recorded and qualitatively analyzed with discrete feedback tabulated for further refinement. The prototype was improved by community feedback resulting in 8 alterations/additions to software and instructional materials. Overall, focus group participants were supportive of the device and believed it would be a useful environmental health tool. The use of focus groups ensured that community members were engaged in the research design and development of a novel environmental health tool. We found that community-based research strategies resulted in a refined device as well as relevant research questions, specific to the EJ community needs and concerns.

  11. MHK Technologies/Ocean Powered Compressed Air Stations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The Ocean Powered Compressed Air Station is a point absorber that uses an air pump to force air to a landbased generator The device only needs 4m water depth and...

  12. EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS OVERLYING ARCADE BASED ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Shuo; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haimin; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2014-03-20

    Dynamic phenomena indicative of slipping reconnection and magnetic implosion were found in a time series of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations for the active region 11515, which underwent significant changes in the photospheric fields and produced five C-class flares and one M-class flare over five hours on 2012 July 2. NLFFF extrapolation was performed for the uninterrupted 5 hour period from the 12 minute cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. According to the time-dependent NLFFF model, there was an elongated, highly sheared magnetic flux rope structure that aligns well with an Hα filament. This long filament splits sideways into two shorter segments, which further separate from each other over time at a speed of 1-4 km s{sup –1}, much faster than that of the footpoint motion of the magnetic field. During the separation, the magnetic arcade arching over the initial flux rope significantly decreases in height from ∼4.5 Mm to less than 0.5 Mm. We discuss the reality of this modeled magnetic restructuring by relating it to the observations of the magnetic cancellation, flares, a filament eruption, a penumbra formation, and magnetic flows around the magnetic polarity inversion line.

  13. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  14. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  15. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  16. U.S. Air Force (USAF) Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Worth, TX R2R Breakout Session October 8, 2014 * Click to edit Master text styles - Second level * Third level - Fourth level Fifth level * Solicit input from industry to ...

  17. Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This fact sheet describes ventilation and the importance of sealing air leaks and providing controlled ventilation.

  18. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de; Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M.; Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W.; Dalgliesh, Robert M.

    2012-11-15

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  19. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation quantification. Stage 2 for MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Volume 1. Final report, June 1986-July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-22

    An Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Phase II, Stage 2 investigation was conducted at MacDill AFB and Avon Park AFR, Florida, to confirm the presence or absence of contamination at twelve sites. Eight of the twelve sites were previously investigated under Phase II, Stage I efforts. Four sites had not previously been investigated under Phase II efforts. A field program was conducted, consisting of geophysical surveys, the drilling and installation of 28 monitoring wells, an aquifer pumping test in the surficial aquifer, and the collection and analysis of ground water, surface water, and sediment samples. At MacDill AFB, no significant contaminants were found at two of the sites. These sites were recommended for no further action. At three other sites no significant contamination was found but other evidence suggested that additional study should be considered before specific action at these sites is recommended. Significant contamination was found at three sites and these sites were recommended for additional investigation. One site at MacDill AFB was recommended for remedial action. At Avon Park AFR, all three sites showed no significant contamination and were recommended for no further action.

  20. Installation-Restoration Program. Phase 2. Confirmation quantification. Stage 2 for MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Volume 2. Final report, June 1986-July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-22

    An Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Phase II, Stage 2 investigation was conducted at MacDill AFB and Avon Park AFR, Florida, to confirm the presence or absence of contamination at twelve sites. Eight of the twelve sites were previously investigated under Phase II, Stage 1 efforts. Four sites had not previously been investigated under Phase II efforts. A field program was conducted, consisting of geophysical surveys, the drilling and installation of 28 monitoring wells, an aquifer pumping test in the surficial aquifer, and the collection and analysis of ground water, surface water, and sediment samples. At MacDill AFB, no significant contaminants were found at two of the sites. These sites were recommended for no further action. At three other sites no significant contamination was found but other evidence suggested that additional study should be considered before specific action at these sites is recommended. Significant contamination was found at three sites and these sites were recommended for additional investigation. One site at MacDill AFB was recommended for remedial action. At Avon Park AFR, all three sites showed no significant contamination and were recommended for no further action.

  1. Link Force Holdings Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Link Force Holdings Ltd Place: China Product: China-based energy saving LED street light maker. References: Link Force Holdings Ltd1 This article is a stub. You...

  2. Save the World Air | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the World Air Jump to: navigation, search Name: Save the World Air Place: Santa Barbara, California Zip: 93101 Product: California-based, device manufacturer for better fuel...

  3. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    frequently. Based on size alone, an air conditioner generally needs 20 Btu for each square foot of living space. Other important factors to consider when selecting an air...

  4. Air filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

    1981-03-03

    An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

  5. DunoAir | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DunoAir Jump to: navigation, search Name: DunoAir Place: Hessen, Germany Zip: 6865 VX Sector: Wind energy Product: Doorwerth-based wind project developer. References: DunoAir1...

  6. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  7. Using Net-Zero Energy Projects to Enable Sustainable Economic Redevelopment at the Former Brunswick Air Naval Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, S.

    2011-10-01

    A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites. The Brunswick Naval Air Station is a naval air facility and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Super Fund site that is being cleaned up, and closed down. The objective of this report is not only to look at the economics of individual renewable energy technologies, but also to look at the systemic benefits that can be gained when cost-effective renewable energy technologies are integrated with other systems and businesses in a community; thus multiplying the total monetary, employment, and quality-of-life benefits they can provide to a community.

  8. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J

    2015-01-06

    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  9. Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    1997-01-01

    A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

  10. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  11. Fluid force transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  12. Administering Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-05-14

    The order provides requirements and responsibilities for administering work force discipline and corrective actions. Supersedes DOE O 3750.1.

  13. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  14. Coulomb force as an entropic force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Tower

    2010-05-15

    Motivated by Verlinde's theory of entropic gravity, we give a tentative explanation to the Coulomb's law with an entropic force. When trying to do this, we find the equipartition rule should be extended to charges and the concept of temperature should be reinterpreted. If one accepts the holographic principle as well as our generalizations and reinterpretations, then Coulomb's law, the Poisson equation, and the Maxwell equations can be derived smoothly. Our attempt can be regarded as a new way to unify the electromagnetic force with gravity, from the entropic origin. Possibly some of our postulates are related to the D-brane picture of black hole thermodynamics.

  15. Initial validation of FORCE2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burge, S.W.

    1991-06-01

    Erosion has been identified as one of the significant design issues in fluid beds. A cooperative R&D venture of industry, research, and government organizations was recently formed to meet the industry need for a better understanding of erosion in fluid beds. Research focussed on bed hydrodynamics, which are considered to be the primary erosion mechanism. As part of this work, ANL developed an analytical model (FLUFIX) for bed hydrodynamics. Partial validation was performed using data from experiments sponsored by the research consortium. Development of a three-dimensional fluid bed hydrodynamic model was part of Asea-Babcock`s in-kind contribution to the R&D venture. This model, FORCE2, was developed by Babcock & Wilcox`s Research and Development Division existing B&W program and on the gas-solids modeling and was based on an existing B&W program and on the gas-solids modeling technology developed by ANL and others. FORCE2 contains many of the features needed to model plant size beds and, therefore can be used along with the erosion technology to assess metal wastage in industrial equipment. As part of the development efforts, FORCE2 was partially validated using ANL`s two-dimensional model, FLUFIX, and experimental data. Time constraints as well as the lack of good hydrodynamic data, particularly at the plant scale, prohibited a complete validation of FORCE2. This report describes this initial validation of FORCE2.

  16. Investigation on the Charging Process of Li2O2-Based Air Electrodes in Li-O2 Batteries with Organic Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Deyu; Towne, Silas A.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-04-15

    The charge processes of Li-O2 batteries were investigated by analyzing the gas evolution by in situ gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) technique. The mixture of Li2O2/Fe3O4/Super P carbon/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used as the starting air electrode material and 1M LiTFSI in carbonate-based solvents was used as electrolyte. It was found that Li2O2 is reactive to 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and PVDF binder used in the electrode preparation. During the 1st charge (up to 4.6 V), O2 was the main component in the gases released. The amount of O2 measured by GC/MS was consistent with the amount of Li2O2 decomposed in the electrochemical process as measured by the charge capacity, indicative of the good chargeability of Li2O2. However, after the cell was discharged to 2.0 V in O2 atmosphere and re-charged to ~ 4.6 V in the second cycle, CO2 was dominant in the released gases. Further analysis of the discharged air electrode by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that lithium-containing carbonate species (lithium alkyl carbonate and/or Li2CO3) were the main reaction products. Therefore, compatible electrolyte and electrodes as well as the electrode preparation procedures need to be developed for long term operation of rechargeable Li-O2 or Li-air batteries.

  17. SciThur PM: Imaging 03: A novel ?erenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A; Rowlands, J A; Pang, G

    2014-08-15

    Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Recently a new concept of a high quantum efficiency (QE) ?erenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on ?erenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibres aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few ?erenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required. In this work we propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index, a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Our Monte Carlo studies have shown that the modified new CPID has a QE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  18. MEAM interatomic force calculation subroutine for LAMMPS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-10-25

    Interatomic force and energy calculation subroutine tobe used with the molecular dynamics simulation code LAMMPS (Ref a.). The code evaluates the total energy and atomic forces (energy gradient) according to cubic spine-based variant (Ref b.) of the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM).

  19. Elastic actuator for precise force control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pratt, G.A.; Williamson, M.M.

    1997-07-22

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

  20. Elastic actuator for precise force control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pratt, Gill A.; Williamson, Matthew M.

    1997-07-22

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

  1. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  2. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  3. Air Force Veteran Begins New Career at EM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Bart Barnhart was recently named EM’s new Deputy Assistant Secretary for Program Planning and Budget.

  4. Air Force pollution prevention research and development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, G.

    1995-12-01

    The prevention surveys pollution prevention R&D in selected technology areas to meet high priority customer needs. Projects are categorized into four areas: Ozone Deleting Compound (ODC) Elimination, HAZMAT Materials and Substitution, HAZMAT Waste Reduction, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Elimination. Each category has specific goals. The ODC Elimination goal was to eliminate the purchases of ODCs by 1 Apr 94. The HAZMAT Materials and Process Replacement goal is to reduce the purchase of EPA 17 materials from 1992 baseline 50% by the end of 1996. The HAZMAT Waste Reduction goal is 25% by the end of 1996, and 50% by the end of 1999. VOC elimination goals are included in the HAZMaT Materials and Substitution and HAZMAT Waste Reduction areas. Each category consists of a portfolio of projects which meet high priority customer technology needs (TNs) and contributes to meeting specific goals. The presentation provides more detailed information for the On-Board Halon Replacement Program, Atomic Oxygen Cleaning process for Oxygen Systems, Non-Chemical Metal Surface Preparation, and LARPS.

  5. Title Final EIS: Proposed Public Land Withdraw!: Nellis Air Force...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Heavy pumping of the groundwater systems could alter the characteristics of the desert ... Approximately the eastern half of the state of Nevada is prospectively valuable for oil ...

  6. Air Force Generic Site Development Lease | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Site Development LeaseLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  7. US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; works ...

  8. U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fuel requirements via alternative fuel blend by 2016 GOAL PROGRESS: First transcontinental flight, supersonic flight, aerial refueling 1.3M gals of alternative fuels...

  9. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) Playbook | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cited 20141022. Available from: http:www.afcec.af.milsharedmediadocumentAFD-140619-058.pdf Related Files AFD-140619-058.pdf Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited ?erenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute , Thunder Bay P7A 7T1; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2 ; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) ?erenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on ?erenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few ?erenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (?1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  11. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  12. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  13. Federal Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-15

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  14. Reduction-in-Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

  15. Three-body forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1986-10-15

    A review of current knowledge of three-body forces from experimental and theoretical standpoints is given. The 3-H and 3-He nuclei are discussed. Also, nucleon scattering from deuterium is discussed. (AIP)

  16. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-02-13

    To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

  17. Critical Question #5: What are Recent Innovations in Air Distribution Systems?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The majority of heating systems are forced air. What kinds of innovations have been developed to make these systems more efficient?

  18. An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fosco, Cesar D.; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche ; Lombardo, Fernando C.; IFIBA ; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.

    2012-08-15

    A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

  19. Joining Forces: Clean Energy Companies Commit to Hire Veterans | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Joining Forces: Clean Energy Companies Commit to Hire Veterans Joining Forces: Clean Energy Companies Commit to Hire Veterans April 27, 2015 - 9:15am Addthis AirStreams Renewables trains veterans on how to get certified to work on wind towers. Last Thursday, the First Lady announced that companies from the energy, manufacturing, transportation and information technology sectors have committed to hiring approximately 90,000 veterans and military spouses over the next five years. |

  20. Hydroxide Anion at the Air-Water Interface (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Hydroxide Anion at the Air-Water Interface Here we use first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, in which the forces are obtained "on the fly" from electronic...

  1. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  2. Contractor Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-05

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  3. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  4. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  5. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  6. Electrostatic microvalves utilizing conductive nanoparticles for improved speed, lower power, and higher force actuation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Branson, Eric D.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Desai, Amit; Schudel, Ben; Givler, Richard C.; Tice, Josh; Collord, Andrew; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Cook, Adam W.

    2009-09-01

    We have designed and built electrostatically actuated microvalves compatible with integration into a PDMS based microfluidic system. The key innovation for electrostatic actuation was the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the PDMS valve membrane, allowing for electrostatic charging of the PDMS layer and subsequent discharging, while still allowing for significant distention of the valveseat for low voltage control of the system. Nanoparticles were applied to semi-cured PDMS using a stamp transfer method, and then cured fully to make the valve seats. DC actuation in air of these valves yielded operational voltages as low as 15V, by using a supporting structure above the valve seat that allowed sufficient restoring forces to be applied while not enhancing actuation forces to raise the valve actuation potential. Both actuate to open and actuate to close valves have been demonstrated, and integrated into a microfluidic platform, and demonstrated fluidic control using electrostatic valves.

  7. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Lead Performer: Mechanical Solutions Inc. - Whippany, NJ Partners: Lennox International Inc. - Richardson, Membrane Based Air Conditioning Lead Performer: Dais Analytic Corporation ...

  8. Air Liquide Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Air Liquide Group Place: Paris, France Zip: 75321 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Paris-based manufacturer of industrial and medical gases. The company is...

  9. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  10. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  11. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, J.; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q watermore » and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.« less

  12. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in liquid using Electrochemical Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Kilpatrick, J.; Tselev, Alexander; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid-gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe-sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present). Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl) and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane) liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM), a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved) spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids), KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD) values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions). EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.

  13. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  14. Air sampling in the workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC`s Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ``Air sampling in the Workplace.`` That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC`s regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed.

  15. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  16. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  17. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    122011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring ...

  18. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  19. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  20. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  1. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  2. Miniature quartz resonator force transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    EerNisse, E.P.

    The invention relates to a piezoelectric quartz force transducer having the shape of a double-ended tuning fork.

  3. Miniature quartz resonator force transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eer Nisse, Errol P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a piezoelectric quartz force transducer having the shape of a double-ended tuning fork.

  4. Force-Field Parameter Fitter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-05-27

    ParFit is a flexible and extendable framework and library of classes for fitting force-field parameters to data from high-level ab-initio calculations on the basis of deterministic and stochastic algorithms. Currently, the code is fitting MM3 and Merck force-field parameters but could easily extend to other force-field types.

  5. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  7. Dark Forces At The Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckley, Matt; Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Hooper, Dan; Neil, Ethan

    2011-08-19

    A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of σmore » ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.« less

  8. Normal Force and Drag Force in Magnetorheological Finishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2010-01-13

    The material removal in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is known to be controlled by shear stress, tau, which equals drag force, Fd, divided by spot area, As. However, it is unclear how the normal force, Fn, affects the material removal in MRF and how the measured ratio of drag force to normal force Fd/Fn, equivalent to coefficient of friction, is related to material removal. This work studies, for the first time for MRF, the normal force and the measured ratio Fd/Fn as a function of material mechanical properties. Experimental data were obtained by taking spots on a variety of materials including optical glasses and hard ceramics with a spot-taking machine (STM). Drag force and normal force were measured with a dual load cell. Drag force decreases linearly with increasing material hardness. In contrast, normal force increases with hardness for glasses, saturating at high hardness values for ceramics. Volumetric removal rate decreases with normal force across all materials. The measured ratio Fd/Fn shows a strong negative linear correlation with material hardness. Hard materials exhibit a low coefficient of friction. The volumetric removal rate increases with the measured ratio Fd/Fn which is also correlated with shear stress, indicating that the measured ratio Fd/Fn is a useful measure of material removal in MRF.

  9. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #5 PDF icon Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook

  10. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  11. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus)

  12. Electrodynamic force of dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J. S.; Roveda, F.; Huang, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    The periodic electrostatic force of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in nitrogen for flow control is investigated by a system of physics-based, two-dimensional model equations. The plasma generation process of DBD is mainly the avalanche growth of electrons through the secondary emission from cathode. Therefore, the charged particle motion of a succession of random micro discharges can be approximated by the drift-diffusion model. The force of DBD generated by charge separation and accumulation over the dielectrics is obtained by solving the model equations with the rigorous media interface boundary condition of Maxwell equations in the time domain. The discharge structure and force components by different electrical permittivity and amplitudes of externally applied electrical potential are delineated and quantified.

  13. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  14. Results of Inspection and Cleaning of Two Radionuclide Air-Sampling Systems Based on the Requirements of ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Douglas, David D.; Edwards, Daniel L.

    2004-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted inspection and cleaning activities at two radionuclide air-sampling systems that continuously monitor radioactive air emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities. The inspection and cleaning was performed to evaluate effective methods and potential cost impacts of maintenance requirements in the revised American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standard Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities (ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999). The standard requires at least annual inspections of sampling systems followed by cleaning if deposits are visible. During 2001 and 2002, inspections were performed leaving the sampling systems in place and inserting videoscope cables into different access points to allow viewing of the inside and outside of sampling manifolds and transport lines. Cleaning was performed on one of the systems by disconnecting and extracting the sampling manifold, then washing it with de-ionized water and scrub brushes. The wash water was analyzed for radioactivity and solids. Results of the inspection showed greater deposition in one of the systems than would be expected by a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtered exhaust stream; the second system was also downstream of HEPA filters and appeared much cleaner. The videoscope was a useful and cost-effective tool and provided a better view than could be obtained with the naked eye. However, because even small amounts of deposition were made visible with the videoscope, clarification is needed in defining when probe washing is merited, particularly in existing sampling systems whose design is not conducive to easy removal and cleaning.

  15. Force As A Momentum Current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-07-28

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  16. Army Energy Initiatives Task Force

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the Army Energy Initiatives Task Force.

  17. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2010-09-22

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  18. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  19. Detecting Air Leaks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    You may already know where some air leakage occurs in your home, such as an under-the-door draft, but you'll need to find the less obvious gaps to properly air seal your home.

  20. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  1. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process air, ... Contaminants can enter a compressed air system at the compressor intake, or can be ...

  2. Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Interactive Models (SIM-air) AgencyCompany Organization:...

  3. Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In computer modeling of air guns the theory is often based on the assumption of an ideal freely oscillating spherical air bubble in an ideal fluid. Theoretical and experimental ...

  4. Time-Localization of Forced Oscillations in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.; Pierre, John W.

    2015-07-26

    In power systems forced oscillations occur, and identification of these oscillations is important for the proper operation of the system. Two of the parameters of interest in analyzing and addressing forced oscillations are the starting and ending points. To obtain estimates of these parameters, this paper proposes a time-localization algorithm based on the geometric analysis of the sample cross-correlation between the measured data and a complex sinusoid at the frequency of the forced oscillation. Results from simulated and measured synchrophasor data demonstrate the algorithm's ability to accurately estimate the starting and ending points of forced oscillations.

  5. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakio?lu, T.; zgn, Ege; Gnay, Mehmet

    2014-04-21

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  6. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  7. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  8. Air Sparging Decision Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    The Air Sparging Decision Tool is a computer decision aid to help environmental managers and field practitioners in evaluating the applicability of air sparging to a wide range of sites and for refining the operation of air sparging systems. The program provides tools for the practitioner to develop the conceptual design for an air sparging system suitable for the identified site. The Tool provides a model of the decision making process, not a detailed designmore » of air sparging systems. The Tool will quickly and cost effectively assist the practitioner in screening for applicability of the technology at a proposed site.« less

  9. Gelatin based on Power-gel.TM. as solders for Cr.sup.4+laser tissue welding and sealing of lung air leak and fistulas in organs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R.; Tang, Jing; Evans, Jonathan M.; Ho, Peng Pei

    2006-04-25

    Laser tissue welding can be achieved using tunable Cr.sup.4+ lasers, semiconductor lasers and fiber lasers, where the weld strength follows the absorption spectrum of water. The use of gelatin and esterified gelatin as solders in conjunction with laser inducted tissue welding impart much stronger tensile and torque strengths than albumin solders. Selected NIR wavelength from the above lasers can improve welding and avoid thermal injury to tissue when used alone or with gelatin and esterified gelatin solders. These discoveries can be used to enhance laser tissue welding of tissues such as skin, mucous, bone, blood vessel, nerve, brain, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, lung, bronchus, respiratory track, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, or gynecologic tract and as a sealant for pulmonary air leaks and fistulas such as intestinal, rectal and urinary fistulas.

  10. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  11. AltAir Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Product: Seattle-based developer of projects for the production of jet fuel from renewable and sustainable oils. References: AltAir Fuels1 This article is a...

  12. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  13. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyan, S. Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known electromagnetic force compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20?S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6?}S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1?S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  14. Air Combat Command deicing/anti-icing operation: Compliance evaluation and requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fronapfel, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will present information on Air Combat Command`s (ACC) efforts in evaluating its deicing and anti-icing activities at all applicable ACC bases. This effort, led by Ecology and Environment (E and E), of Lancaster NY, will evaluate the operations, infrastructure, and management of deicing and anti-icing programs at ACC bases and will provide recommendations to each base for maintaining compliance with applicable regulations and minimizing the environmental impact of these operations. In addition to evaluating such operations at ACC bases, E and E, along with subcontractor Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., will research activities around the nation and the world to assist in developing the best recommendations for each ACC base. Armstrong Laboratory`s Water Quality Branch of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Division (AL/OEBW) is responsible for technical and contractual oversight of this effort. A summary of information gathered to date will be presented in this paper. Although the disposal of deicing fluids has led a somewhat charmed life until recently, these activities are likely to receive increased regulatory scrutiny in the years to come. Air Combat Command has had more than one instance where NOVs or potential NOVs have arisen due to fish kills associated with deicing/anti-icing chemical laden runoff. In an effort to prevent future compliance problems and to foster proper stewardship of the environment, ACC has taken these proactive measures at its bases. ACC`s efforts will also be used at the Air Staff level to assist in making Air Force wide pollution prevention and best management practice (P2/BMP) recommendations.

  15. Forces and moments on a slender, cavitating body

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hailey, C.E.; Clark, E.L.; Buffington, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently a numerical code has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to predict the pitching moment, normal force, and axial force of a slender, supercavitating shape. The potential flow about the body and cavity is calculated using an axial distribution of source/sink elements. The cavity surface is assumed to be a constant pressure streamline, extending beyond the base of the model. Slender body approximation is used to model the crossflow for small angles of attack. A significant extension of previous work in cavitation flow is the inclusion of laminar and turbulent boundary layer solutions on the body. Predictions with this code, for axial force at zero angle of attack, show good agreement with experiments. There are virtually no published data availble with which to benchmark the pitching moment and normal force predictions. An experiment was designed to measure forces and moments on a supercavitation shape. The primary reason for the test was to obtain much needed data to benchmark the hydrodynamic force and moment predictions. Since the numerical prediction is for super cavitating shapes at very small cavitation numbers, the experiment was designed to be a ventilated cavity test. This paper describes the experimental procedure used to measure the pitching moment, axial and normal forces, and base pressure on a slender body with a ventilated cavity. Limited results are presented for pitching moment and normal force. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  17. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  18. Adsorption air conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Jean L. I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

  19. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  20. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Final Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Final Report Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Final Report This is the final report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) training program, which was designed to provide plant personnel and compressed air system vendors with knowledge and tools required to effect improvements to the energy efficiency and overall performance of plant compressed air systems. The evaluation is based on three main research tasks: analysis of the

  1. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  2. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  3. Portable oven air circulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  4. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  5. Protective air lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  6. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  7. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: AIRS retrievals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AIRS retrievals of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity - comparisons with radiosondes and ship-based remote sensing during AEROSE Minnett, Peter University of Miami...

  8. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  9. Task Force Approach | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Results of the ARI Task Force: The purpose of the ARI Task Force is to 1) identify, prioritize, and resolve issues to enable sites and programs to implement revitalization efforts more effectively and 2) to facilitate programmatic incorporation of revitalization concepts into DOE's programmatic business environments. The Task Force must do this through coordinating and facilitating communication and connections, sharing lessons learned,

  10. DOE Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds Up to 100 employees Contractor can ... to provide approval for NNSA work force restructurings in consultation with LM 501 ...

  11. Task Force on Biofuels Infrastructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the federal Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) adopted in 2005 and amended in 2007, the United States is committed to a substantial (five-fold) increase in its use of biofuels by 2022. The National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP) convened a Biofuels Infrastructure Task Force in 2008 to examine the infrastructure implications of this relatively swift and unprecedented shift in the composition of the nation’s transportation fuel supply. Specifically, the Task Force explored issues and developed recommendations for advancing the infrastructure investments needed to support timely and cost-effective implementation of the current biofuels mandate.

  12. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  13. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  14. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  15. Approximate photochemical dynamics of azobenzene with reactive force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Hartke, Bernd

    2013-12-14

    We have fitted reactive force fields of the ReaxFF type to the ground and first excited electronic states of azobenzene, using global parameter optimization by genetic algorithms. Upon coupling with a simple energy-gap transition probability model, this setup allows for completely force-field-based simulations of photochemical cis?trans- and trans?cis-isomerizations of azobenzene, with qualitatively acceptable quantum yields. This paves the way towards large-scale dynamics simulations of molecular machines, including bond breaking and formation (via the reactive force field) as well as photochemical engines (presented in this work)

  16. Air Shower Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alania, Marco; Gomez, Adolfo V. Chamorro; Araya, Ignacio J.; Huerta, Humberto Martinez; Flores, Alejandra Parra; Knapp, Johannes

    2009-04-30

    Air shower simulations are a vital part of the design of air shower experiments and the analysis of their data. We describe the basic features of air showers and explain why numerical simulations are the appropriate approach to model the shower simulation. The CORSIKA program, the standard simulation program in this field, is introduced and its features, performance and limitations are discussed. The basic principles of hadronic interaction models and some gerneral simulation techniques are explained. Also a brief introduction to the installation and use of CORSIKA is given.

  17. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J.

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  18. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

  19. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air presure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  20. Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data D. Cimini University of L'Aquila ...

  1. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  2. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space Waldorf, Maryland PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Ventilation Effectiveness Location: Waldorf, MD Partners: Building ...

  3. Casimir force in absorbing multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomas, M.S.

    2002-11-01

    The Casimir effect in a dispersive and absorbing multilayered system is considered adopting the (net) vacuum-field pressure point of view to the Casimir force. Using the properties of the macroscopic field operators appropriate for absorbing systems and a convenient compact form of the Green function for a multilayer, a straightforward and transparent derivation of the Casimir force in a lossless layer of an otherwise absorbing multilayer is presented. The resulting expression, in terms of the reflection coefficients of the surrounding stacks of layers, is of the same form as that obtained by Zhou and Spruch for a purely dispersive multilayer using the (surface) mode summation method [Phys. Rev. A 52, 297 (1995)]. Owing to the recursion relations that the generalized Fresnel coefficients satisfy, this result can be applied to more complex systems with planar symmetry. This is illustrated by calculating the Casimir force on a dielectric (metallic) slab in a planar cavity with realistic mirrors. Also, a relationship between the Casimir force and energy in two different layers is established.

  4. Guide to Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Air sealing is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. Hire a certified professional contractor for best results.

  5. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  6. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  7. Air Sealing Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-14

    This information sheet addresses windows and may also be applied to doors and other pre-assembled elements installed in building enclosures that also perform an air barrier function.

  8. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  9. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  10. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  11. Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air Products is partnering with Denbury Green Pipeline – Texas, LLC to capture and sequester one million tons of carbon dioxide per year from two existing steam-methane reformers at Air Products’ hydrogen-production facility in Port Arthur, Texas. The captured CO2 is transported by pipeline to oil fields in eastern Texas for enhanced oil recovery. The total award value of the project is $431 million, with $284 million comprising DOE’s 66 percent share.

  12. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  13. October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

  14. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  15. protective force | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home protective force Pantex Protective Force hailed as "well prepared, well trained" Members of Pantex's Protective Force on the firing range. The Protective Force successfully completed a recent assessment by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enterprise Assessments. The Pantex Plant recently hosted the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enterprise Assessments,...

  16. Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  17. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Pressure Objective The objective of this ... Important Points to Understand Air has weight and exerts pressure on everything with which ...

  18. Wave forces on an array of oscillating water column type free standing wave energy caissons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neelamani, S.; Thiruvenkatasamy, K.

    1995-12-31

    The wave induced in-line forces on a 1:50 scale model of an array of Multi resonant Oscillating Water Column (MOWC) type free standing wave energy caisson were experimentally investigated. A range of hydrodynamic parameters with different damping of oscillating water column (OWC) chamber and various center to center spacings between the caissons were used. In general, the force on the MOWC caisson array is two times that of a vertical wall, for maximum damping of OWC chamber. Reduction of damping of the OWC air chamber reduces the force on the array of caissons. With reduced damping, forces on OWC array can even be smaller than that the ones on a vertical wall. For smaller center to center (C/C) spacing between the caissons with respect to its harbor width, OWC array acts like a perforated breakwater, attracting smaller wave forces and for higher C/C spacing, it behaves like a vertical wall.

  19. Floor-supply displacement air-conditioning: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The results of laboratory measurements on the performance of a floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system in comparison to a displacement ventilation system with a side-wall-mounted diffuser and a ceiling-based distribution system are described. Thermal stratification was observed, as there were greater vertical air temperature differences in both of the displacement systems than in the ceiling-based system. The floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system produced a uniformly low air velocity at each measurement height, while a rather high air velocity near the floor was observed for the displacement ventilation system with a sidewall-mounted diffuser. Local mean age of air of the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system was lower than that of the other systems, especially in the lower part of the room. According to the simulation results, the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling requires 34% less energy than the conventional air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling.

  20. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  1. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  2. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  3. Membrane Based Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using ...

  4. Minimize Compressed Air Leaks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Air Leaks Minimize Compressed Air Leaks This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Minimize Compressed Air Leaks (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Eliminate Inappropriate Uses of Compressed Air Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant Analyzing Your Compressed Air System

  5. Linear air-fuel sensor development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzon, F.; Miller, C.

    1996-12-14

    The electrochemical zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor, is extensively used for monitoring oxygen concentrations in various fields. They are currently utilized in automobiles to monitor the exhaust gas composition and control the air-to-fuel ratio, thus reducing harmful emission components and improving fuel economy. Zirconia oxygen sensors, are divided into two classes of devices: (1) potentiometric or logarithmic air/fuel sensors; and (2) amperometric or linear air/fuel sensors. The potentiometric sensors are ideally suited to monitor the air-to-fuel ratio close to the complete combustion stoichiometry; a value of about 14.8 to 1 parts by volume. This occurs because the oxygen concentration changes by many orders of magnitude as the air/fuel ratio is varied through the stoichiometric value. However, the potentiometric sensor is not very sensitive to changes in oxygen partial pressure away from the stoichiometric point due to the logarithmic dependence of the output voltage signal on the oxygen partial pressure. It is often advantageous to operate gasoline power piston engines with excess combustion air; this improves fuel economy and reduces hydrocarbon emissions. To maintain stable combustion away from stoichiometry, and enable engines to operate in the excess oxygen (lean burn) region several limiting-current amperometric sensors have been reported. These sensors are based on the electrochemical oxygen ion pumping of a zirconia electrolyte. They typically show reproducible limiting current plateaus with an applied voltage caused by the gas diffusion overpotential at the cathode.

  6. ARMY SERiWE FORCES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' This doc~omnt consists tif-..$---..-- PaWs ?5-i3s4 " No.,J ______ d&---.copies. series.-f;;i, ' ARMY SERiWE FORCES UNITED STATES ' ENGINEER OFFICE MANHP.~AN Dwmtcr CHIWOO A\RU o,,,c* P. 0. 90x 3140 A CHICA so, ILrlNole 20 June 1945 F' '2 0 Subject: Licenae Agreement - International Pulverizing Corporation - Subcoritract #7401-37-82. To: The District~Eqinssr, U. S. Engineer Office, Manhattan District, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention: Contract Section. As llsted'below, there are

  7. Air Proportional Counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, J.A. Jr.

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  8. AIR M A IL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    MEMORlAL DRIVE AIR M A IL . AtFxb.-zf .7.-i- M r. s. .II. Gown - Gentlemen: Re: A.E.C. Contract No. We assume the weight of the 9-l2" biscuits will:be 107'poutids ...

  9. US Wind Force LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Wind Force LLC Place: Wexford, Pennsylvania Zip: PA 15090-9 Sector: Wind energy Product: US Wind Force, LLC is an independent, privately...

  10. New Directions: GEIA's 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New Directions: GEIA's 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Directions: GEIA's 2020 Vision for Better Air Emissions Information We are witnessing a crucial change in how we quantify and understand emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, with an increasing demand for science-based transparent emissions information produced by robust community efforts. Today's scientific capabilities, with

  11. Motion characteristics of long ac arcs in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Shanqiang; He Jinliang; Zeng Rong; Zhang Bo; Xu Guozheng; Chen Weijiang

    2007-01-29

    Experiments on the motion of long alternating current arcs in atmospheric air show that the anode and cathode arc roots have different motion characteristics because of different formation mechanisms. During a half cycle of the arc current, the anode arc root moves towards the direction of magnetic force and occasionally has a jumping motion, while the cathode arc root moves sufficiently slow to consider it stationary and hardly has any jump. The arc column has a complex shape and moves under the drive of the magnetic force and is also quickened by the lower arc root.

  12. CNS employees greet Honor Air veterans | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration CNS employees greet Honor Air veterans Thursday, December 10, 2015 - 1:46pm NNSA Blog Y-12 Deputy Site Manager Gene Sievers, left, and ProForce's Neal Wolfenbarger pose for photo at McGhee Tyson Airport in Knoxville, TN, as Wolfenbarger waits on his uncle to return from Washington, D.C. Veterans Day is important to all Americans, but it carries an even more elevated meaning to those who have served our country in the Armed Forces. Not only are they recognized for their

  13. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low costiron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the batterys iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the batterys air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than todays best commercial batteries.

  14. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  15. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 ?m and 80??m). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality.

  16. Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action November 23, 2010 - 6:34pm Addthis The Department of Energy has settled the civil penalty action it initiated against Air-Con International for Air-Con's sale of air conditioners in the United States that used more energy than allowed by federal law. On September 20, 2010, based on Air-Con's responses to a DOE subpoena, DOE ordered Air-Con

  17. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  18. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  19. Memorandum, Protective Force Law Enforcement Authority- May 1, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation allegations that contractor procetive force personnel at a DOE site exceeded their legistative ,regulatory, and policy-based authority by providing on-duty, armed off-site assistance to local law enforcement authorites during other than recapture/recovery operations, and by accessing the local law enforcement database for background checks during the course of on-site administrative traffic stops.

  20. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  3. Fresh air indoors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kull, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes and compares ventilation systems for the control of indoor air pollution in residential housing. These include: local exhaust fans, whole-house fans, central exhaust with wall ports, and heat-recovery central ventilation (HRV). HRV's have a higher initial cost than the other systems but they are the only ones that save energy. Homeowners are given guidelines for choosing the system best suited for their homes in terms of efficiency and payback period.

  4. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  5. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  6. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  7. ARM - Instrument - ccn-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsccn-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "ccn-air" does not exist.

  8. ARM - Instrument - cpc-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentscpc-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "cpc-air" does not exist.

  9. ARM - Instrument - hk-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentshk-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "hk-air" does not exist.

  10. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  11. Air quality committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Committees on air quality, coal, forest resources, and public lands and land use report on legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1979. There was no new significant air quality legislation, but a number of lawsuits raised questions about State Implementation Plans, prevention of significant deterioration, the Clean Air Act Amendments, new source performance standards, and motor vehicle emissions. Efforts to increase coal utilization emphasized implementation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 and the Surface Mining Program. New legislation protects certain forest products from exploitation and exportation. Forest-related lawsuits focused on the RARE II process. Land-use legislation modified credit assistance to coastal zones and the language of interstate land sales, established a new agency to consolidate flood-insurance programs, and added protection to archaeological resources. Land-use-related lawsuits covered coastal zone management, interstate land sales, Indian reservations, and land-use planning in the context of civil rights, antitrust action, exclusionary zoning, comprehensive planning, and regional general welfare. Other suits addressed grants, leasing, claims, grazing rights, surveys, and other matters of public lands concern. Administrative actions centered on implementing the Coastal Zone Management Act, establishing the Council of Energy Resource Tribes, and developing guidelines for energy development. 147 references. (DCK)

  12. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  13. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  14. Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Bubbles Help Break Energy Storage Record for Lithium Air-Batteries Foam-base graphene keeps oxygen flowing in ...

  15. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Executive Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is the executive summary of a report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) training program, which was designed to provide plant personnel and compressed air system vendors with knowledge and tools required to effect improvements to the energy efficiency and overall performance of plant compressed air systems. The evaluation is based on three main research tasks: analysis of the CAC registration database, interviews with 100 end-user personnel who attended the CAC training, and interviews with 100 compressed air system vendors and consulting engineers who attended the training sessions.

  16. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality Maintaining System Air Quality This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #12 PDF icon Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System Pressure

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    In this project, Building Science Corporation worked with production homebuilder K. Hovnanian to evaluate air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multipoint fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing measured the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  18. Micropatterning of metal substrate by adhesive force lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Soon-min; Park, Jeong-yong; Lee, Hong H.

    2005-03-28

    We introduce adhesive force lithography (AFL), a detachment-based method for patterning metal surface. In this method, all the polymer layer except for the desired pattern gets lifted up from the metal surface. The craze microstructure unique to thin polymer films on the order of 10{sup 2} nm is utilized for this AFL along with a difference in adhesive force at two interfaces. Poly(urethaneacrylate) mold, which has a high enough work of adhesion with polymer, makes AFL effective. This technique is purely additive, fast ({approx}10 s contact time), and applicable to large area patterning (10 cmx10 cm)

  19. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will identify and analyze advanced air cooling strategies thatallow air-cooled geothermal power plants to maintain a high electric power output during periods of high air dry bulb temperatures while minimizing water consumption.

  20. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  1. Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

  2. Measure Guideline: Guide to Attic Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The Guide to Attic Air Sealing was completed in 2010 and although not in the standard Measure Guideline format, is intended to be a Measure Guideline on Attic Air Sealing. The guide was reviewed during two industry stakeholders meetings held on December 18th, 2009 and January 15th, 2010, and modified based on the comments received. Please do not make comments on the Building America format of this document. The purpose of the Guide to Attic Air Sealing is to provide information and recommendations for the preparation work necessary prior to adding attic insulation. Even though the purpose of this guide is to save energy - health, safety and durability should not be compromised by energy efficiency. Accordingly, combustion safety and ventilation for indoor air quality are addressed first. Durability and attic ventilation then follow. Finally, to maximize energy savings, air sealing is completed prior to insulating. The guide is intended for home remodelers, builders, insulation contractors, mechanical contractors, general contractors who have previously done remodeling and homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done.

  3. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos. A...

  4. Analyzing Your Compressed Air System; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Training * Fundamentals of Compressed Air ... Compressed air needs are defned by the air quality and ... Plants with a fatter load profle can use simpler control ...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Validation Sonde Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The AIRS instrument was intended to make highly accurate measurements of air temperature, humidity, clouds, and surface temperature. The data collected by AIRS was...

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - AIRS Validation Sonde Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The AIRS instrument is intended to make highly accurate measurements of air temperature, humidity, clouds, and surface temperature. The data collected by AIRS will be...

  7. California Air Resources Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Resources Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Air Resources Board Name: California Air Resources Board Place: Sacramento, California Website: www.arb.ca.gov...

  8. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Conditioners Tips: Air Conditioners Bigger isn't always better for an air conditioner. Learn effective ways to stay cool while saving energy. | Photo courtesy of ...

  9. The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Federal Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management | Department of Energy Federal Energy Management The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Federal Energy Management The Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Federal Energy Management is composed of SEAB members and independent experts charged with examining Federal energy management supported by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and recommending a set of actions to advance it. The Task Force's work should be based on information

  10. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  11. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  12. CCS Task Force - Executive Summary | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CCS Task Force - Executive Summary CCS Task Force - Executive Summary PDF icon CCS Task Force - Executive Summary More Documents & Publications CCSTF - Final Report Before the ...

  13. Simplified air change effectiveness modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rock, B.A.; Anderson, R.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes recent progress in developing practical air change effectiveness modeling techniques for the design and analysis of air diffusion in occupied rooms. The ultimate goal of this continuing work is to develop a simple and reliable method for determining heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system compliance with ventilation standards. In the current work, simplified two-region models of rooms are used with six occupancy patterns to find the air change effectiveness. A new measure, the apparent ACH effectiveness, yields the relative ventilation performance of an air diffusion system. This measure can be used for the prediction or evaluation of outside air delivery to the occupants. The required outside air can be greater or less than that specified by ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62-89.

  14. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  15. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  16. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  17. Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; Wisniacki, Diego A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Universidad de Buenos Aires, and Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Monastra, Alejandro G. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Avenida General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin (Argentina)

    2010-11-15

    We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, could be qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries. This suggests that there could be signatures of quantum chaos in the Casimir effect.

  18. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) preliminary assessment of the 154th air control squadron. 154th air control squadron, Kekkaha Armory, Hawaii Air National Guard, Kekaha, Kauai, Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The document identifies ANGRC attempt to assess possible Installation Restoration Program sites at the station. The process involves research via personal interviews, record searches, review historic data, assessing `As Built Drawings`, aerial photographs, and a site visit. Site investigations of hazardous wastes, installation restoration, soil pollution, site investigations, fuel contamination at air force facilities.

  19. Protective Forces | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Protective Forces NNSA has some of the best trained and best equipped forces protecting its nuclear weapons and material. Since the events of September 11, 2001, NNSA has hired additional armed security police officers. It has also shifted towards a paramilitary, "tactical response force" that utilizes a robust mix of offensive and defensive qualified officers who are well-trained in small team and weapons tactics. It has improved its training capabilities by expanding training ranges

  20. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established Washington, DC NNSA's Administrator Linton Brooks announces the establishment of the Nuclear Radiological Threat Reduction Task ...

  1. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Atomic Force Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Force Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) operates in several modes. In contact mode, a tip that is attached to a cantilever is scanned over the sample surface, while the force between tip and sample is measured. While the tip is scanned laterally, the force is kept constant by moving the cantilever/tip assembly up and down, so that the deflection of the cantilever is kept constant. The vertical movement of the cantilever/tip assembly is recorded and used to generate an image of the

  2. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

  3. Weardale Task Force | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that is developing a sustainable community in the East gate area which will be run on wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and hydro power. References: Weardale Task Force1...

  4. Air-breathing fuel cell stacks for portable power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.S.; DeCaro, D.; Neutzler, J.K.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-10-01

    Increasing attention is being directed towards polymer electrolyte fuel cells as battery replacements because of their potentially superior energy densities and the possibility of `mechanical` refueling. On the low end of the power requirement scale (ca. 10 W), fuel cells can compete with primary and secondary batteries only if the fuel cell systems are simple, inexpensive, and reliable. Considerations of cost and simplicity (and minimal parasitic power) discourage the use of conventional performance enhancing subsystems (e.g., humidification, cooling, or forced-reactant flow). We are developing a stack design that is inherently self-regulating to allow effective operation without the benefit of such auxiliary components. The air cathode does not use forced flow to replenish the depleted oxygen. Instead, the oxygen in the air must diffuse into the stack from the periphery of the unit cells. For this reason the stack is described as `air-breathing.` This configuration limits the ability of water to escape which prevents the polymer electrolyte membranes from drying out, even at relatively high continuous operation temperatures (+60 degrees C). This results in stacks with reliable and stable performance. This air-breathing configuration assumes a unique stack geometry that utilizes circular flow-field plates with an annular hydrogen feed manifold and the single tie-bolt extending up through the central axis of the stack. With this geometry, the hydrogen supply to the unit cells is radially outward, and the air supply is from the periphery inward. This configuration has several advantages. The entire periphery is free to air access and allows greater heat conduction to enhance cooling. Furthermore, all of the components in the stack (e.g., the flow-fields, seals and membrane/electrode assemblies), are radially symmetrical, so part fabrication is simple and the entire system is potentially low-cost. Lastly, this configuration is compact and lightweight.

  5. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  6. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by

  7. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  8. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K.

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  9. NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The B61-12 LEP refurbishes both nuclear and non-nuclear components to extend the bomb's service life while improving its safety, security and reliability. The LEP will reuse or ...

  10. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  11. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  12. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  13. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  14. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  15. Air Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a larger footprint than Water Cooling, but when water restrictions are great enough to prevent the...

  16. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  17. Clean Air Act, Section 309

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CLEAN AIR ACT 309* 7609. Policy review (a) The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and ...

  18. Performance of a double pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramani, B.M.; Gupta, Akhilesh; Kumar, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Double pass counter flow solar air collector with porous material in the second air passage is one of the important and attractive design improvement that has been proposed to improve the thermal performance. This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of double pass solar air collector with and without porous material. A mathematical model has been developed based on volumetric heat transfer coefficient. Effects of various parameters on the thermal performance and pressure drop characteristics have been discussed. Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of double pass solar air collector with porous absorbing material is 20-25% and 30-35% higher than that of double pass solar air collector without porous absorbing material and single pass collector respectively. (author)

  19. A NEW INTERPHASE FORCE IN TWO-PHASE FLUIDIZED BEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. ZHANG; W. VANDERHEYDEN

    2001-05-01

    Mesoscale structures such as particle clusters have been observed both in experiments and in numerical simulations of circulating fluidized beds. In a numerical simulation, in order to account for the effects of such mesoscale structures, the computational grids have to be fine enough. The use of such fine grids is impractical in engineering applications due to excessive computational costs. To predict the macroscopic behavior of a fluidized bed with reasonable computation cost, they perform a second average over the averaged equations for two-phase flows. A mesoscale inter-phase exchange force is found to be the correlation of the particle volume fraction and the pressure gradient. This force is related to the mesoscale added mass of the two-phase flow. Typically, added mass for particle scale interactions is negligible in gas-solid flows since the gas density is small compared to density of solid particles. However, for a mesoscale structure, such as a bubble, the surrounding media is the mixture of gas and particles. The surrounding fluid density experienced by the mesoscale structure is the density of the surrounding mixture. Therefore, the added mass of a mesoscale structure, such as bubbles, cannot be neglected. The property of this new force is studied based on the numerical simulation of a fluidized bed using high grid resolution. It is shown that this force is important in the region where the particle volume fraction is high. The effects of the inhomogeneity to the interphase drag are also studied.

  20. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  1. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  2. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  3. Why does LANL sample the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does LANL sample the air? Why does LANL sample the air? As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. Diagram of air quality monitors within an exhaust stack. Nuclear facilities have three additional air sampling systems. LANL samples and analyzes air to assess effects on workers, the public, animals, and plants. As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. How we do it

  4. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  5. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  6. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  7. ARM - Instrument - co-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsco-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Carbon Monoxide- Airborne (CO-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon Contact(s) Stephen Springston Brookhaven National Laboratory (631) 344-4477 srs@bnl.gov

  8. ARM - Instrument - gustprobe-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgustprobe-air Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Aircraft Gust Probe (GUSTPROBE-AIR) Instrument Categories Airborne Observations Contact(s) Annette Koontz Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Developer (509) 375-3609 annette.koontz@pnnl

  9. Uses of upper-air meteorological data for air quality data analysis and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Dye, T.S.; Ray, S.E.; Roberts, P.T.

    1996-12-31

    A series of regional-scale field studies have been conducted in recent years to study meteorological and photochemical processes that lead to ozone episodes (periods of high ozone concentration) and other types of reduced air quality. An important component of these studies has been to increase the temporal and spatial resolution of aloft measurements of winds, temperatures, and related parameters over those provided by the twice-per-day National Weather Service (NWS) balloon sounding network. Supplemental upper-air stations deployed for these studies have been equipped with a variety of observing systems, including rawinsonde sounding systems, Doppler radar wind profilers, radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS, for temperature profiling), Doppler acoustic sounders (sodar), tethersondes, lidar, and aircraft-based measurements, among others. The upper-air data collected during these programs have been used.

  10. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  11. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  13. Developing a market-based utility duct sealing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.; Baylon, D.; Houseknecht, A.

    1998-07-01

    In recent years, residential energy conservation research has focused attention on heating system distribution efficiency. Several field studies in the Pacific Northwest have found forced-air heating systems which have a majority of ducts located in unheated buffer spaces can lose as much as 30% of the equipment's heating output to duct air leakage and conduction loss. The magnitude of loss can be equivalent to the combined improvements in building shell insulation levels due to updated energy codes. Field review of forced-air heating systems often uncovers other problems with duct layout and equipment performance. Several challenges face utilities planning to undertake a large-scale duct-sealing program. Most notable of these challenges are finding suitable homes; working with field protocols which encourage consistent, successful work; and measuring the effects of the work through field quality control and impact analysis. This paper describes the response rate for duct sealing services based on one marketing approach and describes bill and field test screening criteria used to narrow the list of retrofit candidates. Results form the screening are presented, along with preliminary retrofit results and important operations and maintenance findings.

  14. Ultrasonic-Based Mode-Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy in the industry Sufficiently flexible for compatibility with spectroscopic approaches such as Raman spectroscopy Easily adaptable to scanning near-field ultrasonic...

  15. Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

  16. Force 9 Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    9 Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Force 9 Energy Place: Amersham, United Kingdom Zip: HP7 0UT Sector: Wind energy Product: Joint owner of Abercairny windfarm development....

  17. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  18. armed forces | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Gene Sievers, left, and ProForce's Neal Wolfenbarger pose for photo at McGhee Tyson Airport in Knoxville, TN, as Wolfenbarger waits on his uncle to return from Washington, D...

  19. DOE Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Work Force Restructuring Approval Thresholds Up to 100 employees Contractor can make decision bit must notify DOE of intent of restructuring 101-200 employees DOE/NNSA field office is authorized to provide approval 201-500 employees LM is authorized to provide approval and NNSA Administrator is authorized to provide approval for NNSA work force restructurings in consultation with LM 501 and above employees Under Secretary/NNSA Administrator approval required

  20. Means of improving the operating efficiency of air condensers at the Verkhne-Mutnovskaya Geothermal Power Plant in Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parshin, B. E.; Muratov, P. V.; Pashkevich, R. I.

    2007-07-15

    Operation of the Verkhne-Mutnovskaya Geothermal Power Plant (VMGPP) has revealed ineffective summer-time performance of air condensers (AC), which is caused by an insufficient heat reserve. Four alternate schemes are examined for improvement of the operational efficiency of the AC: replacement of the four-by five-tier heat-exchange modules; installation of high-output fans; a combination of the first two schemes; and, installation of additional sections in each power-generating set. Based on thermodynamic analysis that we have adapted for conditions at the VMGPP, it is established that the last alternate scheme is optimal, andwill have a payback period of six years, and a heat reserve of more than 40%, a figure approaching requirements now in force.

  1. Development of RAMS-CMAQ to Simulate Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Its Application to East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Li-Li

    2009-11-16

    The air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) is developed to simulate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol direct forcing (DF). The aerosol-specific extinction, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor are parameterized based on Mie theory taking into account the aerosol size distribution, composition, refractive index, and water uptake of solution particles. A two-stream solar radiative model considers all gaseous molecular absorption, Rayleigh scattering, and aerosols and clouds. RAMSCMAQ is applied to simulate all major aerosol concentrations (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon, black carbon, fine soil, and sea salt) and AOD and DF over East Asia in 2005. To evaluate its performance, the simulated AOD values were compared with ground-based in situ measurements. The comparison shows that RAMSCMAQ performed well in most of the model domain and generally captured the observed variations. High AOD values (0.2−1.0) mainly appear in the Sichuan Basin as well as in central and southeastern China. The geographic distribution of DF generally follows the AOD distribution patterns, and the DF at the top-of-the-atmosphere is less than −25 and −20 W m−2 in clear-sky and all-sky over the Sichuan Basin. Both AOD and DF exhibit seasonal variations with lower values in July and higher ones in January. The DF could obviously be impacted by high cloud fractions.

  2. COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our Renewable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Future | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab April 30, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our Renewable Energy Future Mr. Al Cavallo Consultant Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven, cost effective, environmentally acceptable technology for storing extremely large amounts of energy. Invented in the 1950s in Germany, and based on widely available gas turbine equipment, two CAES plants have been built and have

  3. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  4. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  5. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  6. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  7. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  8. EPA Air Pollution and the Clean Air Act Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Pollution and the Clean Air Act Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Air Pollution and the Clean Air Act Webpage Abstract...

  9. Air-stable solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors with polymer-enhanced morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhengran; Shaik, Shoieb; Bi, Sheng; Li, Dawen; Chen, Jihua

    2015-05-04

    N,N′-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN{sub 2}) is an n-type semiconductor exhibiting high electron mobility and excellent air stability. However, the reported electron mobility based on spin-coated PDIF-CN{sub 2} film is much lower than the value of PDIF-CN{sub 2} single crystals made from vapor phase deposition, indicating significant room for mobility enhancement. In this study, various insulating polymers, including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PαMS), are pre-coated on silicon substrate aiming to enhance the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} thin film, thereby improving the charge transport and air stability. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that with the pre-deposition of PαMS or PMMA polymers, the morphology of the PDIF-CN{sub 2} polycrystalline films is optimized in semiconducting crystal connectivity, domain size, and surface roughness, which leads to significant improvement of organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) performance. Particularly, an electron mobility of up to 0.55 cm{sup 2}/V s has been achieved from OTFTs based on the PDIF-CN{sub 2} film with the pre-deposition of PαMS polymer.

  10. Is there something in the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control the Present Is there something in the air? Is there something in the air? LANL implements a conscientious program of sampling to ensure air quality. August 1, 2013 ...

  11. Metal-Air Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Air Battery Battelle Memorial Institute Contact ... The open electrochemical cells may function as metal-air batteries.Benefits Metal-air ...

  12. Why does LANL sample the air?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why does LANL sample the air? Why does LANL sample the air? As the most significant pathway, air is monitored to ensure that any possible release is quickly detected. Diagram of ...

  13. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Functions of HVAC Systems The purpose of a Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ... energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. ...

  14. Commercial Compressed Air Systems Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load screw and vane compressors, cycling refrigerated thermal mass dryers (up to 30...

  15. ARM - Instrument - inletcvi-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsinletcvi-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "inletcvi

  16. ARM - Instrument - inletisok-air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsinletisok-air Documentation Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. Instrument "inletisok

  17. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Mark R.; Constantineau, Edward J.; Groves, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  18. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.

    1997-08-19

    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  19. Clean Air Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Environment » Environmental Policy and Assistance » Clean Air Act Clean Air Act The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local and tribal air programs in protecting and improving the nation's air quality and stratospheric ozone layer by regulating emissions from mobile and stationary sources. The CAA contains titles

  20. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  1. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ductless mini-split air conditioners are a good choice if you want a zoned air conditioning system but have no ducts in your house.

  3. Preheated Combustion Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preheated Combustion Air This tip sheet describes how to improve process heating efficiency by preheating combustion air for burners. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET 1 PDF icon ...

  4. Compressed Air Storage Strategies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Compressed Air Storage Strategies (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air System Control Strategies Stabilizing System Pressure Effect of Intake on ...

  5. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  6. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System...

  7. Property:AirMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    String Description MHK Axial Load Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor & MHKInstrument Allows Values Barometric Pressure (Air);Precipitation (Air);Relative...

  8. Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Oxidation Speeds Up in Smoggy Air Print Organic aerosols (nanometer-sized liquid or solid particles suspended in air) are important constituents of the troposphere, and ...

  9. Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Reactive Air Aluminizing Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Reactive Air Aluminizing process diagram ...

  10. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in ...

  11. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effect of temperature on the density of air. ...

  12. Lithium Air Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Air Electrodes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy ...

  13. Hopi Tribe Clean Air Partnership Project

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HOPI TRIBE CLEAN AIR PARTNERSHIP PROJECT Roger Tungovia, Project Manager Ken Lomayestewa, ... Change the name from Hopi Clean Air Partnership Project to Hopi Renewable Energy Office ...

  14. Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Energy Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Name: Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Address: 6, Rue Cognacq-Jay Place: Paris, France Zip: 75321 Sector:...

  15. September 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview 2 Subgroups: Pro-Force and Non-Pro-Force Pro-Force Subgroup: Accomplishments: 1. Completion of 10 CFR 1046 [Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards] as a final rule that includes modification efforts to address barriers to workforce retention. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce

  16. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  17. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality. COMPRESSED AIR TIP ...

  18. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  19. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  20. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  1. Coating thickness and coverage effects on the forces between...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    forces between silica nanoparticles in water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coating thickness and coverage effects on the forces between silica nanoparticles in water. ...

  2. Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Forces - House Armed Services Committee Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services Committee Testimony of Daniel B. Poneman, Deputy Secretary of ...

  3. Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop Cyber Security Requirements for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to ...

  4. Los Alamos National Security awards protective force contract...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective force contract awarded to SOC Los Alamos Los Alamos National Security awards protective force contract for Los Alamos National Laboratory to SOC Los Alamos The contract...

  5. Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Federal Agencies establishing an Interagency Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage. ... The Task Force, co-chaired by the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection ...

  6. Before Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Before Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services By: David Huizenga, Senior Advisor for...

  7. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... Forcings due to Chemistry 6.7 The Direct Radiative Forcing of Tropospheric ...

  8. Implementation Plan, 29 Recommendations of the Protective Force...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementation Plan, 29 Recommendations of the Protective Force Career Options Study Group - January 2011 Implementation Plan, 29 Recommendations of the Protective Force Career...

  9. Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect Match...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect Match Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect ...

  10. Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for Rating System Linkage to Previous International PV Module QA Task Force Workshops: Proposal for ...

  11. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop ...

  12. Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State, Local, and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience. ... Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, established by an Executive Order in ...

  13. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  14. Protective Force Contingency Planning Technical Standard

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE STANDARD PROTECTIVE FORCE CONTINGENCY PLANNING TECHNICAL STANDARD U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 DOE-STD-1213-2014 JULY 2014 ──────────────── CHANGE NOTICE NO.1 SEPTEMBER 2015 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE This page intentionally left blank. DOE-STD-1213-2014 i ATTACHMENT 1 Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1213-2014 September 2015 Protective Force Contingency Planning

  15. Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

  16. GeoVision Study Task Forces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GeoVision, an Energy Department initiative, is undertaking a rigorous study that will culminate in growth scenarios for the geothermal energy sector over the next three decades. Seven current task forces assigned by the Visionary Team comprise the scope of the study.

  17. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  18. WIPP Security Force Recognized for Outstanding Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 9, 2013 – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded Security Walls, LLC, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant’s (WIPP) Security Protective Force, with a Star of Excellence Award in the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) for the fifth consecutive year.

  19. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  20. The cooperative monitoring of military forces: An exercise in strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This exercise examines a hypothetical security problem associated with conventional military forces and border security: a surprise attack. The goal of the exercise is to provide an opportunity to think about how cooperative monitoring can be part of regional security. Two hypothetical countries, VOLCANOES and MOUNTAINS, have been created for this exercise based on the US states of Arizona and New Mexico. They were selected for their size and variety of terrain. Hypothetical background information and characteristics of the two countries are provided. An outline of activities is given, including prioritization of security concerns and monitoring of objectives for security concerns. 6 tabs.

  1. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tips: Air Ducts Tips: Air Ducts Air ducts: out of sight, out of mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy and money. Air ducts: out of sight, out of mind. The unsealed ducts in your attic and crawlspaces lose air, and uninsulated ducts lose heat -- wasting energy and money. Your air ducts are one of the most important systems in your home, and if the ducts are poorly sealed or insulated they are likely contributing to

  2. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  3. Precombustion control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D.J.; Harrison, C.; Nowak, M.; Toole-O`Neil, B.

    1996-12-31

    If regulation of hazardous air pollutant emissions from utility boilers occurs in the next few years, the least-cost, lowest-risk control method for many utilities is likely to be some form of coal cleaning. Approximately 75 percent of coal mined east of the Mississippi River is already cleaned before it is used by the electric utility industry. Current methods of coal cleaning reduce ash and sulfur content by removing ash-forming and sulfur-bearing minerals; these same methods have the capability to remove large amounts of most of the 14 elements named as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act.

  4. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  5. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  6. Lower Rio Grande Valley transboundary air pollution project (TAPP). Project report 1996--1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukerjee, S.; Shadwick, D.S.; Dean, K.E.; Carmichael, L.Y.; Bowser, J.J.

    1999-04-01

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a US-Mexico Border XXI project to find out if air pollutants were moving across the border from Mexico into the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and to see what levels of air pollutants were present. Ambient measurements and meteorology were collected data for a year (March 1996-March 1997) at three fixed sites in and near Brownsville, Texas very close to the US-Mexico border on a continuous and 24-h internal basis. Overall levels of air pollution were similar to or lower than other areas in Texas and elsewhere. Based on wind sector analyses, transport of air pollution across the border did not appear to adversely impact air quality on the US side of the Valley. Southeasterly winds from the Gulf of Mexico were largely responsible for the clean air conditions.

  7. NEW - DOE O 333.1, Administering Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The order provides requirements and responsibilities for administering work force discipline and corrective actions.

  8. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  10. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies. Task Force Executive Director Dr. Timothy Unruh U.S. Department of Energy 202-586-5772 Task Force Members Organization Primary Contact Alternate Contact General Services Administration Mark Ewing Karren Curran National

  11. Work Force Retention Work Group Charter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Force Retention Work Group Charter Work Force Retention Work Group Charter The Work force Retention Work Group is established to support the Department's critical focus on maintaining a high-performing work force at a time when a significant number of the workers needed to support DOE's national security mission are reaching retirement age. PDF icon Work Force Retention Work Group Charter More Documents & Publications Workforce Retention Work Group Status Overview - September 2012 Training

  12. Federal Smart Grid Task Force | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Smart Grid Task Force Federal Smart Grid Task Force Task Force Background The Federal Smart Grid Task Force was established under Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and includes experts from eleven Federal agencies. The Department of Energy is represented by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability which is the Task Force lead, as well as the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  13. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  14. Strong interactions in air showers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, Dennis D.

    2015-03-02

    We study the role new gauge interactions in extensions of the standard model play in air showers initiated by ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Hadron-hadron events remain dominated by quantum chromodynamics, while projectiles and/or targets from beyond the standard model permit us to see qualitative differences arising due to the new interactions.

  15. Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

    2007-11-26

    We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  17. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  18. Appendix 2. Task Force Members Biographies Cherry A. Murray (SEAB Member and Task Force Chair)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Appendix 2. Task Force Members Biographies Cherry A. Murray (SEAB Member and Task Force Chair) Cherry A. Murray is Dean of Harvard University's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; John A. and Elizabeth S. Armstrong Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences; and Professor of Physics. Previously, Murray served as principal associate director for science and technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 2004-2009 and was president of the American Physical Society (APS) in

  19. protective forces | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    protective forces Design Basis Threat NNSA has taken aggressive action to improve the security of its nuclear weapons material (often referred to as special nuclear material, or SNM) and nuclear weapons in its custody. One major challenge has been, and remains, ensuring that SNM is well protected, while at the same time,... Information Security Information security deals with requirements for the protection and control of information and matter required to be classified or controlled by

  20. CASL - Lift Forces in Bubbly Flows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lift Forces in Bubbly Flows The dynamics of two-phase (gas/liquid) bubbly flows are complex: bubbles deform and disperse; large latent heats and heat capacity differentials influence local boiling; and relatively small changes in heated surface temperatures yield order of magnitude changes in boiling complexity. Because the local void volume has a direct feedback effect on reactor neutron flux and fuel rod power production, prediction of local boiling rates and bulk boiling effects in nuclear