Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

E-Print Network 3.0 - air ventilation rate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of ventilation rates and CO2-concentrations... : ventilation rates, carbon dioxide, health effects, SBS-symptoms, air exchange rate, relative risks. 12;LBNL... not indicate...

2

WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WAGES, FLEXIBLE EXCHANGE RATES, AND MACROECONOMIC POLICY* JEFFREY SACHS In an open economy with a floaLing exchange rate, the efficacy of fiscal and monetary policy depends fundamentally on the wage rate depreciation, while fiscal expansion has no output effect. These results hold only when real wages

3

Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around Aqueous Ions . Abstract: The rates...

4

Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY ACROSS EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 COMMODITY PRICE VOLATILITY ACROSS EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES John T. Cuddington* and Hong Liang** March 10, 2003 ABSTRACT This paper documents a new "stylized fact" regarding the relative price 1880 to 1996, this key relative price among two categories of tradable goods is shown to exhibit

7

STUDY OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDY OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.5.3 Air Side Heat Transfer Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3.5.4 Fluid Side Heat

8

Essays on Real Exchange Rates and Theoretical Monetary Aggregation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation is a collection of three essays focused on real exchange rates and theoretical monetary aggregation. The first essay focused on the convergence of real exchange rates' idiosyncratic effects after isolating ...

Zheng, Mingming

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of rain on air-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean David T. Ho,1,2 Christopher J-sea gas exchange: Lessons from a model ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S18, doi:10.1029/2003JC001806. 1; published 1 July 2004. [1] Rain has been shown to significantly enhance the rate of air-water gas exchange

Ho, David

10

Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

Domanski, P. A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Self-defrosting recuperative air-to-air heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger is described which includes a stationary spirally or concentrically wound heat exchanger core with rotating baffles on upper and lower ends thereof. The rotating baffles include rotating inlets and outlets which are in communication with respective fixed inlets and outlets via annuli. The rotation of the baffles causes a concurrent rotation of the temperature distribution within the stationary exchanger core, thereby preventing frost build-up in some applications and preventing the formation of hot spots in other applications. 3 figures.

Drake, R.L.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

12

Inflation targeting in emerging countries: the exchange rate issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current discussion of Inflation Targeting (IT) in emerging economies deals with the effects that nominal exchange rate movements have on the overall inflation rate. The literature has focused in the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages...

Reyes Altamirano, Javier Arturo

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

air-sea gas exchange: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were Ho, David 49 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND RAIN ON THE GAS TRANSFER Geosciences Websites Summary: AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE:...

14

Migrant Remittances and Exchange Rate Regimes in the Developing World  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article argues that the international financial consequences of immigration exert a substantial influence on the choice of exchange rate regimes in the developing world. Over the past two decades, migrant remittances ...

Singer, David Andrew

15

Currency Unions, Product Introductions, and the Real Exchange Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a novel data set of online prices of identical goods sold by four large global retailers in dozens of countries to study good-level real exchange rates and their aggregated behavior. First, in contrast to the prior ...

Cavallo, Alberto F.

16

air change rate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rydhof 2 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

17

air change rates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rydhof 2 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

18

Water Exchange Rates and Molecular Mechanism around Aqueous Halide Ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to systematically study the water-exchange mechanism around aqueous chloride, bromide, and iodide ions. Transition state theory, Grote-Hynes theory, and the reactive flux method were employed to compute water exchange rates. We computed the pressure dependence of rate constants and the corresponding activation volumes to investigate the mechanism of the solvent exchange event. The activation volumes obtained using the transition state theory rate constants are negative for all the three anions, thus indicating an associative mechanism. Contrary to the transition state theory results, activation volumes obtained using rate constants from Grote-Hynes theory and the reactive flux method are positive, thus indicating a dissociative mechanism. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this work. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.

2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

19

November 2005 Deforestation and the Real Exchange Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 2005 Deforestation and the Real Exchange Rate Abstract Deforestation is a phenomenon of deforestation that focuses on the factors a¤ecting the incen- tives to transform forested land into agricultural land. We show that: (i) lower discount rates and stronger institutions decrease deforestation; (ii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Multiscale models of atmospheric mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

entrainment of RGM-rich air from the free troposphere (25­40%). Oxidation of Hg0 by Cl is minor (3Multiscale models of atmospheric mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport Multiscale models of atmospheric mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport Abstract

Holmes, Christopher D.

22

An Improved Global Model for Air-Sea Exchange of Mercury: High  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Improved Global Model for Air-Sea Exchange of Mercury: High Concentrations over the North by inputs from Hg enriched subsurface waters through entrainment and Ekman pumping. Globally, subsurface). Previous efforts to model Hg air-sea exchange (2) and atmospheric transport (4-6) have been unable

Holmes, Christopher D.

23

Essays in Applied Macroeconomics: Asymmetric Price Adjustment, Exchange Rate and Treatment Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in weekly retail gasoline prices Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports...

Gu, Jingping

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

linked with gas transfer. Microbreaking, or the breakdown of small-scale waves that do not entrain airEnvironmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems; accepted 5 April 2007; published 17 May 2007. [1] Air-water gas transfer influences CO2 and other

Ho, David

25

Measurements of air-sea gas exchange at high wind speeds in the Southern Ocean: Implications for global parameterizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 2006. [1] The SOLAS Air-Sea Gas Exchange (SAGE) Experiment was conducted in the western Pacific of air-sea gas exchange. Globally, the dominant control of air-sea gas exchange is turbulent energy as the primary source of energy for the atmospheric and oceanic molecular boundary layers have been derived from

Ho, David

26

Spin Exchange Rates in Electron-Hydrogen Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spin temperature of neutral hydrogen, which determines the 21 cm optical depth and brightness temperature, is set by the competition between radiative and collisional processes. In the high-redshift intergalactic medium, the dominant collisions are typically those between hydrogen atoms. However, collisions with electrons couple much more efficiently to the spin state of hydrogen than do collisions with other hydrogen atoms and thus become important once the ionized fraction exceeds ~1%. Here we compute the rate at which electron-hydrogen collisions change the hydrogen spin. Previous calculations included only S-wave scattering and ignored resonances near the n=2 threshold. We provide accurate results, including all partial wave terms through the F-wave, for the de-excitation rate at temperatures T_K =2 hydrogen levels becomes significant. Accurate electron-hydrogen collision rates at higher temperatures are not necessary, because collisional excitation in this regime inevitably produces Lyman-alpha photons, which in turn dominate spin exchange when T_K > 6200 K even in the absence of radiative sources. Our rates differ from previous calculations by several percent over the temperature range of interest. We also consider some simple astrophysical examples where our spin de-excitation rates are useful.

Steven Furlanetto; Michael Furlanetto

2006-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

28

air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

29

Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

Goolsby, G.K.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with realistic air-exchange and product usage rates, theand total rate of air freshener product volatilization (26, 589-597. Cleaning Product and Air Freshener Emissions (

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pollutants from indoor sources as well as conditioning the air for occupant comfort. In many buildingsIn review 1 d Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control through Interagency Agreement I-PHI-01070; by the U.S. Environmental

32

air exchange effectiveness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- TxSpace Summary: not same as Qactual because of the interaction of heat conduction, solar radiation, and air infiltration in the building components Liu and Guidelines for...

33

Air Exchange Rates in New Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

differential (ACHJO). The ELA is calculated at a reference pressure differential of 4 Pa and is a measure of the total of all leakage areas around doors, windows, vents, and other openings. The ACH-50 is a relative indicator of the leakiness of the envelope... in the home. As-Found Vents-Sealed Figure 3 Effective Leakage Area The results of the EL4 and ACH-50 calculations for the vents-sealed test for each category of homes tested are summarized in Table 3 and shown graphically in the boxplot in Figure 4...

Hadley, D. L.; Bailey, S. A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10. China's Emergence, Real Exchange Rates, and Implications for East Asian Regional Trade arena is China, whose economic reforms have led it to record growth rates, dramatically accelerating results of sustained trade surpluses and managed exchange rate policies, China now holds the world

Kammen, Daniel M.

35

Optimal Capacity Investment, and Pricing Across International Markets Under Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Duopoly Competition.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this dissertation we investigate joint optimal capacity investment, pricing and production decisions for a multinational manufacturer who faces exchange rate uncertainties. We consider a (more)

Ahmed, Anas A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

37

Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* -led use of this inprarrPd air mtianer cycle with dssicrants will met likely occur in the cammrcial sector bbm desiccants are acmnonly IaKWn end the potential for savimy is greatar. Cne patential amnercial a~plication where the humidity pmblm...

Cromer, C. J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

air-to-air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

39

air-to-air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Exchangers, Heat Transfer, Energy, Phase Change and multiphase process, Renewable energy (Solan, Tidal), Energy Storage, Conversion Cessi, Paola 62 Dealing with...

40

Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The impact of exchange rates on beef and cattle trade in North America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A long-standing area of debate in agriculture revolves around the impact of exchange rates on prices and trade. The ability to compete worldwide in an import-export market for agricultural products is of critical importance to agriculture...

Kristinek, Jennifer Jane

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mode, the system must remove heat from the cold outdoor air and provide it to the conditioned space. To remove the heat from the outdoor air, the refrigerant entering the outdoor heat exchanger must be colder than the outdoor air. The outdoor air... is pulled across the heat exchanger surface by the outdoor fan Hence, the cold liquid refrigerant passing through the evaporator coil receives heat from the outdoor ambient air passing over the coil, causing the refrigerant to vaporize into a cool gas...

Parker, Brandon DeWayne

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Trade balance instability and the optimal exchange rate regime: The case of OPEC countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The OPEC members have experienced wide fluctuations in their trade balances. This can be attributed to several factors: (1) heavy dependence of national income and export earnings on a single primary export-oil; (2) instability of price and world demand for oil; and (3) the exchange rate regime practiced in recent years. An exchange rate policy can be used to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance, given the changes in exchange rates of major international currencies. The purpose of this study is two fold; first, examine the effects of fluctuations in trade balance on the OPEC economies, and second, propose appropriate exchange rate regime for selected OPEC members. The study is divided into two parts. The first part demonstrates the impact of trade balance changes on national income and other macroeconomic variables using a Keynesian framework. The second part involves using conventional trade models to search for the appropriate exchange rate regime to minimize the fluctuations in trade balance of each selective country. The study's findings are: first, fluctuations in trade balances had negative effects on the economics of Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Second, the current exchange rate regime of no sample country is optimal in minimizing trade balance fluctuations. Third, in contrast to expectations, U.S. dollar peg did not stabilize the trade balance of any OPEC member. Finally, the results show that the sample OPEC economies could have enjoyed faster - though with different degree - economic growth if they had pegged their currencies to the derived optimal exchange rate regime. These optimal exchange rate regimes are: the SDR for Algeria and the United Arab Emirates, the purchasing power parity for Libya and Saudi Arabia, and the real Yen for Kuwait.

Aljerrah, M.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

Dinulescu, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Spin Exchange Rates in Proton-Hydrogen Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The spin temperature of neutral hydrogen, which determines the optical depth and brightness of the 21 cm line, is determined by the competition between radiative and collisional processes. Here we examine the role of proton-hydrogen collisions in setting the spin temperature. We use recent fully quantum mechanical calculations of the relevant cross sections, which allow us to present accurate results over the entire physically relevant temperature range 1-10,000 K. For kinetic temperatures T_K>100 K, the proton-hydrogen rate coefficient exceeds that for hydrogen-hydrogen collisions by about a factor of two. However, at low temperatures (T_K < 5 K) H-p collisions become several thousand times more efficient than H-H and even more important than H-e^- collisions.

Steven Furlanetto; Michael Furlanetto

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

46

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

47

A new class of non-zeolitic sorbents for air separations: Lithium ion exchanged pillared clays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zeolites are the only known sorbents that adsorb N{sub 2} selectively over O{sub 2}, and are used for industrial air separation. Pillared clays (PILCs) have a high Broensted acidity (k.e., high proton density). It is found in this study that when the protons are exchanged by alkali metal ions, in particular Li{sup +}, the ion exchanged pillared clays can exhibit a high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} adsorption selectivity that rivals that of the zeolites. The first result shows a pure-component adsorption ratio of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} = 3.2 (at 25 C and 1 atm) for Li{sup +}-exchanged PILC. The N{sub 2} capacity, however, is only 20% that of the zeolite, and remains to be improved. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effects of three factors on the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity: (1) starting clays (tetrahedral vs octahedral isomorphous substitution and clays with different charge densities), (2) different metal oxides as pillars, and (3) different ion exchange alkali metal cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}). The highest N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivities are achieved by using clays with the highest charge densities, metal oxides forming pillars with the narrowest gallery spaces, and ion exchange cations with the smallest ionic radii. Effects by all three factors are qualitatively understood. The high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity on the Li{sup +} exchanged PILC is the result of the small ionic radius (and hence high polarizing power) of Li{sup +} and the strong quadrupole moment of the N{sub 2} molecule. Moreover, a technique is developed with which the amount of the exchanged cations can exceed that allowed by the original cation exchange capacity of the clay by using a high pH value in the ion exchange solution.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico Carlos of a model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth for Mexico, with disaggregated exports (manufactured for the slowdown in Mexico's actual growth during the early phase of trade liberalization and macro stabilization

Lansky, Joshua

49

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos structural changes in the composition of Mexico's trade and the parameters that affect it across five-of-payments constraint may account for the post-liberalization slowdown in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods

Lansky, Joshua

50

High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High precision measurements of atmospheric concentrations and plant exchange rates of carbonyl K I R * *Environmental Sciences and Energy Research, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. The results were consistent with those of nononline gas chromatography­mass spectrometry for COS and IR gas

Yakir, Dan

51

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods of the post-liberalization era, and that the impact the recent crisis), Mexico stands out for having fully embraced trade liberalization and undergoing deep

Carlini, David

52

air kerma rate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compressed air with pressure regulators to purge control cabinets. Finally, a review of compressor technologies with typical cfm, pressure ranges, and price... Herron, D. J. 414...

53

air kerma rates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compressed air with pressure regulators to purge control cabinets. Finally, a review of compressor technologies with typical cfm, pressure ranges, and price... Herron, D. J. 414...

54

Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

Hansen, René Rydhof

55

Accumulation and replacement of exchangeable sodium in soils of Southeast Texas under turfgrass and its effect on soil infiltration rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in soils of this area. This study assessed the degree of Na accumulation on cation exchange sites as affected by gypsum treatments in soils that support turfgrass (bermudagrass) and the response of soil infiltration rate to different rates of gypsum...

Aydemir, Salih

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

air flow rates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation...

57

air flow rate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 Overheat Instability in an Ascending Moist Air Flow as a Mechanism of Hurricane Formation...

58

Experimental evaluation of dry/wet air-cooled heat exchangers. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate goal of this project was to contribute to the development of improved cooling facilities for power plants. Specifically, the objective during FY-81 was to experimentally determine the thermal performance and operating characteristics of an air-cooled heat exchanger surface manufactured by the Unifin Company. The performance of the spiral-wound finned tube surface (Unifin) was compared with two inherently different platefin surfaces (one developed by the Trane Co. and the other developed by the HOETERV Institute) which were previously tested as a part of the same continuing program. Under dry operation the heat transfer per unit frontal area per unit inlet temperature difference (ITD) of the Unifin surface was 10% to 20% below that of the other two surfaces at low fan power levels. At high fan power levels, the performances of the Unifin and Trane surfaces were essentially the same, and 25% higher than the HOETERV surface. The design of the Unifin surface caused a significantly larger air-side pressure drop through the heat exchanger both in dry and deluge operation. Generally higher overall heat transfer coefficients were calculated for the Unifin surface under deluged operation. They ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F as compared to less than 2.0 Btu hr-ft/sup 2/-/sup 0/F for the Trane and HOETERV surfaces under similar conditions. The heat transfer enhancement due to the evaporative cooling effect was also measureably higher with the Unifin surface as compared to the Trane surface. This can be primarily attributed to the better wetting characteristics of the Unifin surface. If the thermal performance of the surfaces are compared at equal face velocities, the Unifin surface is as much as 35% better. This method of comparison accounts for the wetting characteristics while neglecting the effect of pressure drop. Alternatively the surfaces when compared at equal pressure drop essentially the same thermal performance.

Hauser, S.G.; Gruel, R.L.; Huenefeld, J.C.; Eschbach, E.J.; Johnson, B.M.; Kreid, D.K.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Wind- and thermal-driven air flows and the buoyancy and advection effects on air exchange within urban environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human exposure to air pollutants and thermal stress in urban areas are public health concerns. The year 2008 was the first year when more than half of the human population lived in urban areas. Studies of the urban air ...

Magnusson, Sigurur Ptur

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Prediction of Room Air Diffusion for Reduced Diffuser Flow Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?, IEA Annex 20 project. The simulated results, in terms of maximum velocity, distribution of velocity and temperature in the room are validated against the experimental data. 3.1.1 Study the effect of various parameters on the CFD simulation. A study... and the walls of the room. The window is assumed to have a surface temperature of 30 0C.The diffuser used is a ?HESCO? type diffuser, which was used in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Annex 20 project (1993): ?Room air and contaminant flow, evaluation...

Gangisetti, Kavita

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

PROCESS WATER RECOVERY: DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION COMPARED TO HIGH SHEAR RATE SEPARATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROCESS WATER RECOVERY: DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION COMPARED TO HIGH SHEAR RATE SEPARATION John H to the feed without dissolved air or with the addition of dual polymer flocculating polymers. Although fiber intend to investigate the effect of pacifying stickies by precipitating calcium carbonate with carbon

Abubakr, Said

62

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutant Control Index: A New Method of Characterizing Ventilation in Commercial Buildings." Proceedings of Indoor Air'

Sherman, Max H.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Direct retrieval of stratospheric CO2 infrared cooling rate profiles from AIRS data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of heating and cooling may be warranted. The largest infrared cooling takes place in the stratosphereDirect retrieval of stratospheric CO2 infrared cooling rate profiles from AIRS data D. R. Feldman,1 infrared cooling rate profiles, originally developed by Liou and Xue (1988) through application

Liou, K. N.

65

Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

participated in the Mexico City Air Pollution Campaign [33].as part of the Mexico City Air Pollution Campaign. In 2004,pollution, PM 2.5 , Ozone, Heart rate variability, Mexico

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-cooled heat exchangers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

require water for mirror washing. Water... based on concerns with the potential aquatic environmental impact of such systems.2 Air ... Source: Laughlin, Robert B. - Department of...

67

Experimental and numerical investigation on air-side performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers with various fin patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air-side heat transfer and friction characteristics of five kinds of fin-and-tube heat exchangers, with the number of tube rows (N = 12) and the diameter of tubes (D{sub o} = 18 mm), have been experimentally investigated. The test samples consist of five types of fin configurations: crimped spiral fin, plain fin, slit fin, fin with delta-wing longitudinal vortex generators (VGs) and mixed fin with front 6-row vortex-generator fin and rear 6-row slit fin. The heat transfer and friction factor correlations for different types of heat exchangers were obtained with the Reynolds numbers ranging from 4000 to 10000. It was found that crimped spiral fin provides higher heat transfer and pressure drop than the other four fins. The air-side performance of heat exchangers with the above five fins has been evaluated under three sets of criteria and it was shown that the heat exchanger with mixed fin (front vortex-generator fin and rear slit fin) has better performance than that with fin with delta-wing vortex generators, and the slit fin offers best heat transfer performance at high Reynolds numbers. Based on the correlations of numerical data, Genetic Algorithm optimization was carried out, and the optimization results indicated that the increase of VG attack angle or length, or decrease of VG height may enhance the performance of vortex-generator fin. The heat transfer performances for optimized vortex-generator fin and slit fin at hand have been compared with numerical method. (author)

Tang, L.H.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Q.W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and CST were added to the feed. These reductions in melt rate are consistent with previous studies that showed a negative impact of increased TiO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of melting. The impact of agitating the melt pool via bubbling was not studied as part of this work, but may be of interest for further testing. It is recommended that additional melt rate testing be performed should a potential reduction in melt rate of 10-15% be considered an issue of concern, or should the anticipated composition of the glass with the addition of material from salt waste processing be modified significantly from the current projections, either due to changes in sludge batch preparation or changes in the composition or volume of SCIX and SWPF material.

Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

anisotropic spin-exchange rates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 He polarizations in excess of 90 such polarizations using spin- exchange optical pumping 8 . Such high polarizations have not been attained, however Walker, Thad G. 3 Spin...

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-surface exchanges related Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

side by a liquid-air surface which... + a2 h0k3 5 is restoring forces due to gravity and surface tension acting ... Source: Goldstein, Raymond E. - Department of Applied...

71

Oxidation rate of K-Basin spent nuclear fuel in moist air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine the oxidation rate of damaged/corroded N-Reactor fuel material in moist air. Five SNF pieces (with regular geometrical shapes) sectioned from a damaged element stored in the K-West Basin were oxidized in flowing air containing moisture. The SNF oxidation behavior in moist air at a temperature of 198 C can best be fitted by parabolic oxidation kinetics. A linear rate equation gave the best fit to the oxidation data at 250 C and above. The results within the temperature range studied, therefore, show a transition from parabolic oxidation kinetics to linear oxidation kinetics. The transition temperature is somewhere between 198 C and 250 C. The tests at approximately 300 C gave results that were very different from the other tests at temperatures of 198 C, 250 C, and 349 C. The SNF sample weight change at this temperature showed erratic behavior. Visual examination indicated the sample fragmented into small pieces and powder as a result of rapid oxidation and hydration. Additional tests at temperatures close to 300 C (i.e., 300 {+-} 10 C) are recommended in order to fully understand the oxidation behavior of the damaged/corroded SNF samples in moist air at about 300 C.

Abrefah, J.; Buchanan, H.C.; Marschman, S.C.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Chemical response of methane/air diffusion flames to unsteady strain rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects of unsteady strain rate on the response of methane/air diffusion flames are studied. The authors use the finite-domain opposed flow configuration in which the nozzle exit velocity is imposed as a function of time. The GRI mechanism v2.11 is used for the detailed methane/air chemistry. The response of individual species to monochromatic oscillation in strain rate with various frequencies reveals that the fluctuation of slow species, such as CO and NO{sub x}, is more rapidly suppressed as the flow time scale decreases. It is also observed that the maximum CO concentration is very insensitive to the variation in the scalar dissipation rate. An extinction event due to an abrupt imposition of high strain rates is also simulated by an impulsive velocity with various frequencies. For a fast impulse, a substantial overshoot in NO{sub 2} concentration is observed after extinction. Finally, the overall fuel burning rate shows a nonmonotonic response to the variation in characteristic unsteady time scale, while the emission indices for NO{sub x} shows monotonic decay in response as frequency is increased.

Im, H.G.; Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, J.Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Rates of water exchange for two cobalt(II) heteropoly-oxotungstate compounds in aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyoxometalate ions are used as ligands in water-oxidation processes related to solar energy production. An important step in these reactions is the association and dissociation of water from the catalytic sites, the rates of which are unknown. Here we report the exchange rates of water ligated to Co{sup II} atoms in two polyoxotungstate sandwich molecules using the {sup 17}O-NMR-based SwiftConnick method. The compounds were the [Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-{alpha}-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 10?} and the larger {alpha}??{alpha}-[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(P{sub 2}W{sub 15}O{sub 56}){sub 2}]{sup 16?} ions, each with two water molecules bound trans to one another in a Co{sup II} sandwich between the tungstate ligands. The clusters, in both solid and solution state, were characterized by a range of methods, including NMR, EPR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and EXAFS spectroscopy, ESI-MS, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and potentiometry. For [Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-{alpha}-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 10?} at pH?5.4, we estimate: k{sup 298}=1.5(5)0.310{sup 6}?s{sup ?1}, ?H{sup ?}=39.80.4?kJ?mol{sup ?1}, ?S{sup ?}=+7.11.2?J?mol{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and ?V{sup ?}=5.6 1.6?cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}. For the WellsDawson sandwich cluster ({alpha}??{alpha}-[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(P{sub 2}W{sub 15}O{sub 56}){sub 2}]{sup 16?}) at pH?5.54, we find: k{sup 298}=1.6(2)0.310{sup 6}?s{sup ?1}, ?H{sup ?}=27.60.4?kJ?mol{sup ?1} ?S{sup ?}=?331.3?J?mol{sup ?1}?K{sup ?1} and ?V{sup ?}=2.21.4?cm{sup 3}mol{sup ?1} at pH?5.2. The molecules are clearly stable and monospecific in slightly acidic solutions, but dissociate in strongly acidic solutions. This dissociation is detectable by EPR spectroscopy as S=3/2 Co{sup II} species (such as the [Co(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} monomer ion) and by the significant reduction of the CoCo vector in the XAS spectra.

Ohlin, C. A.; Harley, S. J.; McAlpin, J. G.; Hocking, R. K.; Mercado, B. Q.; Johnson, Rene L.; Villa, Eric M.; Fidler, M. K.; Olmstead, M. M.; Spiccia, L.; Britt, R. D.; Casey, William H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

McCarthy, Matthew

76

Energy effectiveness of simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simultaneous heat and mass exchange devices such as cooling towers, humidifiers and dehumidifiers are widely used in the power generation, desalination, air conditioning, and refrigeration industries. For design and rating ...

Narayan, G. Prakash

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Effects of air oxidation on the dissolution rate of LWR spent fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissolution rates for air-oxidized spent fuel were measured in flowthrough tests. Results from two types of specimens, separated grains and multigrain particles, both in oxidized (U[sub 4]O[sub 9+x]) and unoxidized (UO[sub 2]) conditions indicated only minor effects of oxidation on the surface-area-normalized rates. Similar results were obtained for unirradiated specimens in three different oxidation states (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub 7], and U[sub 3]O[sub 8]). These observations have important practical implications for disposal of spent fuel in a geologic repository as well as implications regarding the oxidative dissolution mechanism of UO[sub 2] fuel.

Gray, W.J.; Thomas, L.E.; Einziger, R.E.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Air-sea gas exchange of CO 2 and DMS in the North Atlantic by eddy covariance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements of the air/sea flux of dimethylsulfide over the2008a), Open ocean DMS air/sea fluxes over the eastern SouthE. S. Saltzman (2008b), DMS air/sea flux and gas transfer

Miller, Scott D; Marandino, Christa A; De Bruyn, Warren; Saltzman, Eric S; McCormick, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

Droppo, James G.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The effects of strain rate and curvature on surface density function transport in turbulent premixed methane-air and hydrogen-air flames: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of tangential strain rate and curvature on the surface density function (SDF) and on source terms within the SDF transport equation are studied for lean methane-air and hydrogen-air flames using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations with detailed chemistry. A positive correlation is observed between the SDF and the tangential strain rate, and this is explained in terms of the interaction between the local tangential strain rate and the dilatation rate due to heat release. Curvature is also seen to affect the SDF through the curvature response of both tangential strain rate and dilatation rate on a given flame isosurface. Strain rate and curvature are found to have an appreciable effect on several terms of the SDF transport equation. The SDF straining term in both methane and hydrogen flames is correlated positively with tangential strain rate, as expected, and is also correlated negatively with curvature. For methane flames, the SDF propagation term is found to correlate negatively with flame curvature toward the reactant side of the flame and positively toward the product side. By contrast, for hydrogen flames the SDF propagation term is negatively correlated with curvature throughout the flame brush. The variation of the SDF curvature term with local flame curvature for both methane and hydrogen flames is found to be nonlinear due to the additional stretch induced by the tangential diffusion component of the displacement speed. Physical explanations are provided for all of these effects, and the modeling implications are considered in detail. (author)

Chakraborty, N. [Engineering Department, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Hawkes, E.R. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chen, J.H. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Cant, R.S. [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Variation in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate of cattle as related to variations in solar radiation, air temperature, wind velocity, and vapor pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VARIATION IN RECTAL TEMPERATURE, RESPIRATORY RATE, AND PULSE RATE GF CATTLE AS RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION, AIR TEMPERATURE, WIND VELOCITY, AND VAPOR PRESSURE A Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim Quazi Approved as to style... Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim tyiazi Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1955 Major Subject: Genetics ? ?4...

Quazi, Mohammad Fazlur Rahim

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Settlement PF Exchange Rates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) SrEvaluatingconstructionSession Name:Seth

85

A study of the air flow rates and their effects on bin drying sorghum grain with unheated air in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the foot storage spoon use not availablo to hold their grain for s mors favorable market. Furthermore, only a limited amount of a~nial storage vss available at that time, These oonditions disolosed the need for infox- mstion consuming pxoesdurss.../ustment of the air flow to the desired rates was controlled bp two sliding gates in the latexal ss shown in Figure 5. Bzxcyle ports were installed in each bin at two levels ? one foot. from the bottom snd halfway between the bottom and the toy, This per- mitted...

Aldred, William H

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Fast Neutral Generation by Charge Exchange Reaction and Its Effect on Neutron Production Rate in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast neutral generation by charge exchange reaction in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas is studied by solving the Poisson equation and the Boltzmann equation for fast neutrals. Fusion reactions carried by the charge exchange fast neutrals become appreciable compared with ion-background fusion reaction. It is shown that the fusion reaction between fast neutral and background gas is sensitively affected by experimental parameters (grid voltage, background gas pressure) and ion distribution function.

Yoshinaga, S.; Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K. [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Particulate Air Pollution, Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability, and Cardiac Arrhythmia in Retirement Community Residents with Coronary Artery Disease  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with traffic and air pollution in patients with coronary2009. A panel study of air pollution in subjects with heartcardia triggered by air pollution in patients with coronary

Bartell, Scott M.; Longhurst, John; Tjoa, Thomas; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of coronaryof particulate air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2001,between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Particulate air pollution, ambulatory heart rate variability, and cardiac arrhythmia in retirement community residents with coronary artery disease.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with traffic and air pollution in patients with coronary2009. A panel study of air pollution in subjects with heartcardia triggered by air pollution in patients with coronary

Bartell, Scott M; Longhurst, John; Tjoa, Thomas; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - air sampling system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

system... in correlation to the air exchange rate and the sampling duration time for an ice rink arena. The theoretical ACH... higher values ( i.e. areas very close to the main...

91

Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

min? under conditions of saturated flow. Column eluate was monitored for pH, carbonate alkalinity, and Na, Ca and Cl concentrations to evaluate the elution of SAR 10 solution, dissolution of CaCO? and exchange of Na by Ca on the cation...

Navarre, Audrey

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

93

Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

Ken Mortensen

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

MULTI-SCALE MODELING AND APPROXIMATION ASSISTED OPTIMIZATION OF BARE TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers are very common in air-conditioning, heat pump and refrigeration applications. In these heat exchangers, there is a great benefit in terms of size, weight, refrigerant charge and heat transfer coefficient, by moving from conventional channel sizes (~ 9mm) to smaller channel sizes (< 5mm). This work investigates new designs for air-to-refrigerant heat exchangers with tube outer diameter ranging from 0.5 to 2.0mm. The goal of this research is to develop and optimize the design of these heat exchangers and compare their performance with existing state of the art designs. The air-side performance of various tube bundle configurations are analyzed using a Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) technique. PPCFD allows for fast-parametric CFD analyses of various geometries with topology change. Approximation techniques drastically reduce the number of CFD evaluations required during optimization. Maximum Entropy Design method is used for sampling and Kriging method is used for metamodeling. Metamodels are developed for the air-side heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop as a function of tube-bundle dimensions and air velocity. The metamodels are then integrated with an air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger design code. This integration allows a multi-scale analysis of air-side performance heat exchangers including air-to-refrigerant heat transfer and phase change. Overall optimization is carried out using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The optimal designs found can exhibit 50 percent size reduction, 75 percent decrease in air side pressure drop and doubled air heat transfer coefficients compared to a high performance compact micro channel heat exchanger with same capacity and flow rates.

Bacellar, Daniel [University of Maryland, College Park; Ling, Jiazhen [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

ESTIMATION OF RADIOLYTIC GAS GENERATION RATE FOR CYLINDRICAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES - APPLICATION TO SPENT ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste packages containing water and/or organic substances have the potential to radiolytically generate hydrogen and other combustible gases. Typically, the radiolytic gas generation rate is estimated from the energy deposition rate and the radiolytic gas yield. Estimation of the energy deposition rate must take into account the contributions from all radionuclides. While the contributions from non-gamma emitting radionuclides are relatively easy to estimate, an average geometry factor must be computed to determine the contribution from gamma emitters. Hitherto, no satisfactory method existed for estimating the geometry factors for a cylindrical package. In the present study, a formulation was developed taking into account the effect of photon buildup. A prototype code, called PC-CAGE, was developed to numerically solve the integrals involved. Based on the selected dimensions for a cylinder, the specified waste material, the photon energy of interest and a value for either the absorption or attenuation coefficient, the code outputs values for point and average geometry factors. These can then be used to estimate the internal dose rate to the material in the cylinder and hence to calculate the radiolytic gas generation rate. Besides the ability to estimate the rates of radiolytic gas generation, PC-CAGE can also estimate the dose received by the container material. This is based on values for the point geometry factors at the surface of the cylinder. PC-CAGE was used to calculate geometry factors for a number of cylindrical geometries. Estimates for the absorbed dose rate in container material were also obtained. The results for Ontario Power Generation's 3 m3 resin containers indicate that about 80% of the source gamma energy is deposited internally. In general, the fraction of gamma energy deposited internally depends on the dimensions of the cylinder, the material within it and the photon energy; the fraction deposited increases with increasing dimensions of the cylinder and decreases with increasing photon energy.

Husain, A.; Lewis, Brent J.

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

96

ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Particulate air pollution, ambulatory heart rate variability, and cardiac arrhythmia in retirement community residents with coronary artery disease.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air pollution in patients with coronary artery disease. Environ Healthair pollution on cardiac arrhythmia: the APACR Study. Environ Healthair pollution and air temperature among myocardial infarction survivors. Environ Health

Bartell, Scott M; Longhurst, John; Tjoa, Thomas; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

forth through the heat exchangers, thereby phasing the rates at which heat is absorbed and rejected from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditions Charge Pressure (psia) Firing Rate (KBTUH) Frequency (Hz) Power Piston Stroke (in.) Displacer the earlier analysis; these results are shown in Fig. 4. Working Fluid Charge Pressure (psia) Power Level (k was measured as the total enthalpy gain of the refrigerant across the compres- sor. Table 2 shows the range

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

99

The subunit exchange rate of the cyanobacterial circadian clock component KaiC is independent of phosphorylation state  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Andy LiWang The study of the in vitro circadian oscillator of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has uncovered a complex interplay of its three protein components. Synchronization of the clock's central oscillatory component...C, this study has shown that shuffling rates are largely unaffected by phosphorylation state. These findings conflict with previous reports and hence revise our understanding of this oscillator. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee chair...

Ihms, Elihu Carl

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Analysis Method for Nitrogen Dioxide Rapid Air Monitor Uptake rate (ml/min)= 0.5102 x temp (C) + 18.697  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis Method for Nitrogen Dioxide Rapid Air Monitor Uptake rate (ml/min)= 0.5102 x temp (°C of the atmospheric concentration of Nitrogen Dioxide using the mass of nitrite on the sampler is made as follows: 6s3

Short, Daniel

102

Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurements of Ice Crystal Growth Rates in Air at -5C and -10C K. G. Libbrecht and H. M. Arnold to: kgl@caltech.edu Abstract. We present experiments investigating the growth of ice crystals from produce large morphological changes at all scales. One popular example of this phenomenon is the formation

Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

103

Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air ? air ? part ? part FPI HVAC REFERENCES Anonymous, 1987,LBNL-47668 Fouling of HVAC Fin and Tube Heat ExchangersCIEE SPONSOR. FOULING OF HVAC FIN AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

affect gas exchange: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were Ho, David 15 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND RAIN ON THE GAS TRANSFER Geosciences Websites Summary: AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE:...

105

affects gas exchange: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were Ho, David 15 AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE: MECHANISMS GOVERNING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF WIND AND RAIN ON THE GAS TRANSFER Geosciences Websites Summary: AIR-WATER GAS EXCHANGE:...

106

Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Background While air pollution exposures have been linked to cardiovascular outcomes, the contribution from acute gas and particle traffic-related pollutants remains unclear. Using a panel study design with repeated ...

Shields, Kyra Naumoff

107

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University of Colorado, 1991 cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP

Victoria, University of

108

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate, cost-efficient monitoring instrumentation has long been considered essential to the operation of power plants. Nonetheless, for the monitoring of coal flow, such instrumentation has been sorely lacking and technically difficult to achieve. With more than half of the electrical power in the United States currently supplied by coal, energy generated by this resource is critical to the US economy. The demand for improvement in this area has only increased as a result of the following two situations: First, deregulation has produced a heightened demand for both reduced electrical cost and improved grid connectivity. Second, environmental concerns have simultaneously resulted in a need for both increased efficiency and reduced carbon and NOx emissions. A potential approach to addressing both these needs would be improvement in the area of combustion control. This would result in a better heat rate, reduced unburned carbon in ash, and reduced NOx emissions. However, before feedback control can be implemented, the ability to monitor coal flow to the burners in real-time must be established. While there are several ''commercially available'' products for real-time coal flow measurement, power plant personnel are highly skeptical about the accuracy and longevity of these systems in their current state of development. In fact, following several demonstration projects of in-situ coal flow measurement systems in full scale utility boilers, it became obvious that there were still many unknown influences on these instruments during field applications. Due to the operational environment of the power plant, it has been difficult if not impossible to sort out what parameters could be influencing the various probe technologies. Additionally, it has been recognized for some time that little is known regarding the performance of coal flow splitters, even where rifflers are employed. Often the coal flow distribution from these splitters remains mal-distributed. There have been mixed results in the field using variable orifices in coal pipes. Development of other coal flow control devices has been limited. An underlying difficulty that, to date, has hindered the development of an accurate instrument for coal flow measurements is the fact that coal flow is characterized by irregular temporal and spatial variation. However, despite the inherent complexity of the dynamic system, the system is in fact deterministic. Therefore, in principle, the coal flow can be deduced from the dynamics it exhibits. Nonetheless, the interactions are highly nonlinear, rendering standard signal processing approaches, which rely on techniques such as frequency decomposition, to be of little value. Foster-Miller, Inc. has developed a methodology that relates the complex variation in such systems to the information of interest. This technology will be described in detail in Section 2. A second concern regarding the current measurement systems is installation, which can be labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive. A process that does not require the pulverizer to be taken off line would be highly desirable. Most microwave and electrostatic methods require drilling up to 20 holes in the pipe, all with a high degree of precision so as to produce a proper alignment of the probes. At least one electrostatic method requires a special spool piece to be fitted into each existing coal pipe. Overall, these procedures are both difficult and very expensive. An alternative approach is pursued here, namely the development of an instrument that relies on an acoustic signal captured by way of a commercial accelerometer. The installation of this type of sensor is both simpler and less invasive than other techniques. An accelerometer installed in a pipe wall need not penetrate through the wall, which means that the system may be able to remain on line during the installation. Further, due to the fact that the Dynamical Instruments technology, unlike other systems, does not rely on uniformity of the air or coal profile, the installation location need not be on a long, straight run

R. Demler

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Isotopic exchange measurements of the rates of adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ over chromia-promoted magnetite: implications for water-gas shift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopic exchange measurements were used to investigate the adsorption/desorption and interconversion of CO and CO/sub 2/ on chromia-promoted magnetite at 565 and 627 K. The interconversion between CO and CO/sub 2/ was shown to take place through surface adsorbed species. Furthermore, the rate of interconversion was limited by the rates of adsorption/desorption, indicating either that adsorbed CO and CO/sub 2/ are in equilibrium on the surface or that the adsorption of CO and CO/sub 2/ leads to the same surface species, e.g., a surface carbonate species. A kinetic model for the water-gas shift over magnetite is proposed, and the results of the isotopic exchange measurements and volumetric adsorption data are used to estimate the rate and equilibrium constants for this model.

Tinkle, M.; Dumesic, J.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate.

Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong [Tsing-Hua Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China); Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrogeninfrared; NO 2 : Nitrogen dioxide; NO x : Nitrogen oxides; OLack of effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on heart rate

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Multi-dimensional Meta-analysis for Assessment of Relationships between Asthma Rates and Particulate Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-dimensional meta-analysis (MDMA) is an innovative technique for investigating complex scientific problems influenced by "external" factors, such as social, medical, economic, political or climatic trends. MDMA extends traditional meta-analysis by identifying significant data from diverse and independent disciplines ("orthogonal dimensions") and incorporating truth tables and non-parametric analysis methods in the interpretation protocol. In this paper, we outline the methodology of MDMA. We then demonstrates how to apply the method to a specific problem: the relationship between asthma and air particulates. The conclusions from the example show that the further reduction of atmospheric particulate levels is not necessarily the answer to the increasing asthma incidence. This example also demonstrates the strength of this method of analysis for complex problems.

J. I. Brand; M. S. Hallbeck; S. M. Ryan

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Guidelines for Measuring Air Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness (IHEE), Submitted to the Texas Higher Education Coordination Board Energy Research Application Program Project #227  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 12 Reference Anderlind, G., 1985, "Energy Consumption due to Air Infiltration," Proceedings of the 3rd ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings, Clearwater Beach, FL, pp. 201-208 ASHRAE, 1981, "ASHRAE.... 1992c, "The Energy Impact of Combined Solar- Radiation/Infiltration/Conduction Effects in Walls and Attics," Proceedings of Thermal Guidelines for Measuring IHEE, P. 13 Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings, 5th ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC Conference...

Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the ASHRAE 55 (1992) thermal comfort envelope provided inASHRAE 55 (1992) thermal comfort envelope values provided inthe ASHRAE 55 (1992) thermal comfort envelope of 30-60% RH.

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of concern. For example, acrolein was recently named one ofhealth importance, e.g. , acrolein. The UCLA PCS conductedacetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, propionaldehyde,

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPECIFY UNITS) when heat (of HVAC) is turned off?using the heat (from HVAC)? A. B. C. D. January Februaryair conditionmg (from HVAC)? A. B. C. D. January February

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ND m e t h y l e n e chloride MTBE chloroprene c a r b o ny l e n e chloride Max. ND MTBE chloroform 0.11 N D c a r b1,3-butadiene methylene chloride MTBE chloroprene chloroform

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2000, Vol.1, Espoo,Proceedings of Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97: Global Issues andand secondary schools. Healthy Buildings 2000, 1: 193-98.

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings/IAQ '97: Global Issues andand secondary schools. Healthy Buildings 2000, 1: 193-98.Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2000, Vol.1, Espoo,

Shendell, Derek Garth

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 M.B. 1 P 0 M.B. n/a n/a Putin P. 22 Put in P. 22 3/Librarydiagram 74 N O 88 N O NO Putin 1 P.22 N/A field dupl. 3/Lib.blank K B 121 N O 0 M.B. - Putin 1 P.22 1 P M M 87 N O 96 N

Shendell, Derek Garth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

RESIDENTIAL EXCHANGE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

establishes the right of Pacific Northwest electric utilities to participate in the Residential Exchange Program that provides wholesale power cost benefits for residential and...

123

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Case study details the Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service), which took a leadership role in kitchen appliance upgrades to improve water efficiency by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization's overall sustainability plan and objectives.

124

Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina FALL 2009 WINTER 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina FALL 2009 ­ WINTER 2010 My exchange, and was confronted to a new culture that is very different from mine. Studies at UTDT very highly rated in Argentina, and that will help you understand Argentina: its politics, its economics, and its social world. It is also very

Barthelat, Francois

125

Demonstration and Performance Monitoring of Foundation Heat Exchangers...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

for New and Existing Homes: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options...

126

Executive Summary Critique Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ME440W Executive Summary Critique Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Low Fin Tube Heat Exchanger as compared to the bare tubes. However, contrary to Air Products' argument that the heat exchangers were to reduce turbulence of the air before it reaches the fan. The inline fan pulls the air through the test

Demirel, Melik C.

127

On Discretion versus Commitment and the Role of the Direct Exchange Rate Channel in a Forward-Looking Open Economy Model.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Looking Open Economy Model. By Alfred V. Guender* Department of Economics University of Canterbury Christchurch the behavior of key economic variables to differ dramatically in an open economy compared to a closed economy. In an open economy, the policymaker can no longer perfectly stabilize real output and the rate of inflation

Hickman, Mark

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs requirements definition Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: air. This requires a relatively small, additional energy use for pumping the heat exchange fluid and... components and the large volumes of air moving through the...

129

Air heating system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE TribaltheMy nameMid-LevelMidwestSept. 2005 | Department

131

Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 RoadmapProgram 2013: AlaskaSTEM0-1FACT SHEET: SALTSandia's

132

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

AirTAP BriefingsA publication of the AirTAP program of the Center for Transportation Studies at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the University of Minnesota Setting rates and charges can be one of the most challenging tasks an airport services, and rates and charges can fluctu- ate depending on the types of services that are offered. Finally, if rates and charges are set too high at an airport, pilots can easily relocate their aircraft

Minnesota, University of

135

Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Why Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data...

136

Agriculture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agriculture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram Students enrolled in courses offered through the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment are welcome to apply for exchange. However, to ensure that you Academic Adviser before submitting an exchange application. Undergraduate Agriculture students normally go

Viglas, Anastasios

137

Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is applied to describe the interaction between formaldehyde in building materials and the concentration of the species in the indoor air. Storage buffering can decrease the effect of ventilation on the indoor concentration, compared to the inverse dependence of indoor concentration on the air exchange rate that is consistent with a constant emission rate source. If the exposure time of an occupant is long relative to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure will depend inversely on the air exchange rate. This lumped capacitance model is also applied to moisture buffering in the indoor environment, which occurs over much shorter depletion timescales of the order of days. This model provides a framework to interpret the impact of storage buffering on time-varying concentrations of chemical species and resulting occupant exposure. Pseudo-steady state behavior is validated using field measurements. Model behavior over longer times is consistent with formaldehyde and moisture concentration measurements in previous studies.

Sherman, Max H.; Hult, Erin L.

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

138

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Impact of Energy Recovery on Window Air-conditioner Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental energy recovering air-conditioner can produce fresh air exchange heat with exhaust air in the heat exchanger, which has no additional moving parts. The EER of the experimental air-conditioner (EAC) is increased by 17.4~37.3 percent...

Luo, Q.; Tang, C.; Liao, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

Grisham, Phillip Ryan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the present study was to determine the performance of CO{sub 2} microchannel evaporators and gas coolers in operational conditions representing those of residential heat pumps. A set of breadboard prototype microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was developed and tested. The refrigerant in the heat exchangers followed a counter cross-flow path with respect to the airflow direction. The test conditions corresponded to the typical operating conditions of residential heat pumps. In addition, a second set of commercial microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was tested for a less comprehensive range of operating conditions. The test results were reduced and a comprehensive data analysis, including comparison with the previous studies in this field, was performed. Capacity and pressure drop of the evaporator and gas cooler for the range of parameters studied were analyzed and are documented in this report. A gas cooler performance prediction model based on non-dimensional parameters was also developed and results are discussed as well. In addition, in the present study, experiments were conducted to evaluate capacities and pressure drops for sub-critical CO{sub 2} flow boiling and transcritical CO{sub 2} gas cooling in microchannel heat exchangers. An extensive review of the literature failed to indicate any previous systematic study in this area, suggesting a lack of fundamental understanding of the phenomena and a lack of comprehensive data that would quantify the performance potential of CO{sub 2} microchannel heat exchangers for the application at hand. All experimental tests were successfully conducted with an energy balance within {+-}3%. The only exceptions to this were experiments at very low saturation temperatures (-23 C), where energy balances were as high as 10%. In the case of evaporators, it was found that a lower saturation temperature (especially when moisture condensation occurs) improves the overall heat transfer coefficient significantly. However, under such conditions, air side pressure drop also increases when moisture condensation occurs. An increase in airflow rate also increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. Air side pressure drop mainly depends on airflow rate. For the gas cooler, a significant portion of the heat transfer occurred in the first heat exchanger module on the refrigerant inlet side. The temperature and pressure of CO{sub 2} significantly affect the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics due to some important properties (such as specific heat, density, and viscosity). In the transcritical region, performance of CO{sub 2} strongly depends on the operating temperature and pressure. Semi-empirical models were developed for predictions of CO{sub 2} evaporator and gas cooler system capacities. The evaporator model introduced two new factors to account for the effects of air-side moisture condensate and refrigerant outlet superheat. The model agreed with the experimental results within {+-}13%. The gas cooler model, based on non-dimensional parameters, successfully predicted the experimental results within {+-}20%. Recommendations for future work on this project include redesigning headers and/or introducing flow mixers to avoid flow mal-distribution problems, devising new defrosting techniques, and improving numerical models. These recommendations are described in more detail at the end of this report.

Zhao, Y.; Ohadi, M.M.; Radermacher, R.

2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating...

145

5th International Conference on Research in Air Transportation (ICRAT 2012) Design, Testing and Evaluation of a Pushback Rate Control Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

airports. This paper describes the implementation of a congestion control strategy at Boston Logan International Airport (BOS). The approach predicts the departure throughput in the next 15 minute interval International airport (ATH) [11]. In contrast to these approaches, the Pushback Rate Control strategy is a low

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

146

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effects of slitted fins on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a compact heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact heat exchanger which consists of air-cooled aluminum fins and copper tubes circulating refrigerant has been used in a cooling system for a long time. There are two key parameters to be seriously considered for a design of the heat exchanger and its performance improvement. These are the heat transfer rate and pressure drop coefficient which varies with the change of the tube size, its arrangement and the fin configuration. In here, a numerical study was carried to understand the effect of the fin configuration on the heat transfer and pressure drop of the heat exchanger. The diameter and the arrangement of tubes were fixed but three different types of the fin configuration were used to see its effect on the heat transfer capacity and the static pressure drop. The calculation results were compared with that of a flat plate fin. From the comparison, it was found that the slitted fins have higher pressure drop; however, they have higher heat transfer rate. It means that the simpler of the fin configuration, the lower pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients are obtained. It is mainly due to the discretisation of the thermal boundary layer on the fin surface to maximize the heat transfer to air. The slitted sides of fins act like obstacles in the airflow path. From the experimental result, it was found that the same trend in the variation of the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop with the change of the fin configuration was obtained.

Kim, C.H.; Yun, J.Y. [LG Electronics Living System Research Lab., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

148

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

Wilson, David Gordon (Winchester, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

Wilson, David Gordon

2001-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

150

Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

Wilson, D.G.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

152

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinias air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinias improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The SOLAS airsea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004 Mike J. Harvey a,n  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The SOLAS airsea gas exchange experiment (SAGE) 2004 Mike J. Harvey a,n , Cliff S. Law a , Murraysea gas exchange Iron fertilisation Ocean biogeochemistry SOLAS a b s t r a c t The SOLAS airsea gas

Ho, David

155

air crew exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E. 18 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

156

air pollution studies: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

14 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

157

air endotoxin exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E. 17 Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study MIT - DSpace Summary: Abstract Background While air pollution...

158

EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Spin Exchange of Nitroxide-Free Radicals in Liquids 4. Test of a Method to Measure Re-Encounter Rates in Liquids Employing 15N  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLES EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Spin Exchange of Nitroxide-Free Radicals, California 91330 ReceiVed: NoVember 9, 2007; In Final Form: December 16, 2007 EPR line shifts due to spin, respectively. Nonlinear least-squares fits of the EPR spectra yielded the resonance fields of the nitrogen

Bales, Barney

159

A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean. Stocker (2008), Modeled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation descriptions of the air-sea gas exchange the models produce similar column inventories for excess 14 C among

Fischlin, Andreas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

162

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

channel wheel heat exchanger under different ambient conditions using the model developed. These include frost formation on the surface of the channel wheel heat exchanger, and impacts on the operational performance of the channel wheel fresh air...

Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor...

165

Ion exchange selectivity of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. R. Martin The ion exchange selectivity of Nafion was evaluated. Two separate series of homologous cations were separated. A series of viologens, methyl, benzyl, and heptyl, were sepa- rated by utilizing tetramethyl ammonium... which demonstrated X m the ionic exchange characteristic of the system. Comparison of the elution volumes of methyl viologen on ODS (1. 80 ml) and on Nafion coated ODS (9. 50 ml) also indicates the ionic characteristic of the Nafion column...

Wilkerson, James Edward

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Heat exchanger for power generation equipment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

terminal unit (TU) cooling design supply air temperature (due to the low supply airflow at low cooling load conditioncontrol the cooling air flow rate or reheated supply air to

Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gas exchange measurements in natural systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes /sup 14/C, /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO/sub 2/ exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The /sup 222/Rn to /sup 226/Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess /sup 3/He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with /sup 226/Ra and /sup 3/H in order to allow the use of the /sup 222/Rn and /sup 3/He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO/sub 2/ exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - air soil water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iii. Soil-Plant Relationships iv. Cation exchange IV. Pollution of Water, Soil, and Air: (Lecture... unsaturated unsteady water flow X. Gaseous Phase of Soils (Hillel pages...

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - air water soil Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iii. Soil-Plant Relationships iv. Cation exchange IV. Pollution of Water, Soil, and Air: (Lecture... unsaturated unsteady water flow X. Gaseous Phase of Soils (Hillel pages...

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - air heater experiment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air heat... exchanger Two dc power supplies; power supply for running the cooling fan Thermocouples, heaters, load Source: Braun, Paul - Department of Materials...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - air handler condensate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air handler's heating coils while rejecting cold evaporative water to the well via the heat exchangers... ) Environmentally-appropriate landscaping, including native and...

173

Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange 1 The Role of Exchanges and Standardization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange 1 The Role of Exchanges and Standardization in Reducing Emissions at Scale Michael J. Walsh, Ph.D. Executive Vice President Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. #12;Chicago Climate Exchange, Inc. 2010 Chicago Climate Exchange Pacala-Socolow GHG

175

Environmental Aspects of Air Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Innovation Center #12;2 Aviation and Climate #12;3 Combustion Products Commercial jet fuel is essentially FOR AIR TRANSPORTATIONCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHSYSTEMS RESEARCH Metron Aviation GMU, and the process inside real engines is considerably more complex. Typical emission rates for jet aircraft (grams

176

Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermal and air quality acceptability in buildings that reduce energy by reducing minimun airflow from overhead diffusers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for rating the performance of air outlets and inlets. ANSI/comfort with a variable air volume (VAV) system. InternalGuidelines: Advanced Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, 1791of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Simulation Modelsfor Rating Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,

Yu, Bingyi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Applying Learnable Evolution Model to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman and Ryszard S. Michalski*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the evaporator tubes in the heat exchanger of an air conditioner. This is a very difficult problem because conditioner, refrigerant flows through a loop. It is superheated and placed in contact with cooler outside air conditions, manufacturers of air conditioning systems currently assume in their models average operating

Michalski, Ryszard S.

180

What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature and decreased combustion gas mass flow rate. The method for calculating savings from preheating flow include minimizing combustion air, preheating combustion air, minimizing ventilation air from minimizing combustion air accounts for improvement in efficiency from increased combustion

Kissock, Kelly

182

Direct fired heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal heat pumps, sometimes called ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs), have been proven capable of significantly reducing energy use and peak demand in buildings. Conventional equipment for controlling the temperature and humidity of a building, or supplying hot water and fresh outdoor air, must exchange energy (or heat) with the building's outdoor environment. Equipment using the ground as a heat source and heat sink consumes less non-renewable energy (electricity and fossil fuels) because the earth is cooler than outdoor air in summer and warmer in winter. The most important barrier to rapid growth of the GSHP industry is high first cost of GSHP systems to consumers. The most common GSHP system utilizes a closed-loop ground heat exchanger. This type of GSHP system can be used almost anywhere. There is reason to believe that reducing the cost of closed-loop systems is the strategy that would achieve the greatest energy savings with GSHP technology. The cost premium of closed-loop GSHP systems over conventional space conditioning and water heating systems is primarily associated with drilling boreholes or excavating trenches, installing vertical or horizontal ground heat exchangers, and backfilling the excavations. This project investigates reducing the cost of horizontal closed-loop ground heat exchangers by installing them in the construction excavations, augmented when necessary with additional trenches. This approach applies only to new construction of residential and light commercial buildings or additions to such buildings. In the business-as-usual scenario, construction excavations are not used for the horizontal ground heat exchanger (HGHX); instead the HGHX is installed entirely in trenches dug specifically for that purpose. The potential cost savings comes from using the construction excavations for the installation of ground heat exchangers, thereby minimizing the need and expense of digging additional trenches. The term foundation heat exchanger (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation, 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three par

Hughes, Patrick [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

air handling unit: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

185

air dispersion modeling: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

186

air handling units: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

case of fans, or indirectly, in the case of heat exchangers, which impose loads on the chiller and boiler plant. Air-handling units can comprise a myriad of subsystems (fans,...

187

air sacs add: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: area so gas exchange can easily take place. Absence or reduction of these natural lung surfactants and eventually reaching the alveoli or air sacs. Type II cells of...

188

Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

irritant effects. For energy models, we estimated buildingreduced outdoor air VRs. The energy models estimate that, inof commercial building energy models. The study assessed the

Apte, Michael G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

Not Available

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Air Resources Laboratory Publications FY 1994  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.D. A comparative study of mass and energy exchange rates over a closed C3 (wheat) and an open C4 (corn) crop: II. CO2 exchange and water use efficiency. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 67:291-321 (1994 Physiology 14:1069-1079 (1994). BALDOCCHI, D.D. Are crops and forests spherical?: The role of canopy

191

Anion exchange membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heat and mass exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

193

Heat and mass exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute Brazil, Radioactive Waste Management Department IPEN/GRR, Sao Paulo. SP. (Brazil)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Norman, Kirsten (Albuquerque, NM); Hickner, Michael A. (State College, PA)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

196

Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California: Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control should be the first priority instead of dilution of pollutants by ventilation or by cleaning the air.air quality, could better provide healthful indoor environments, and also reward designers and owners who control indoor pollutantsair quality, could better document healthful indoor environments, and also reward designers and owners who control indoor pollutants

Mendell, Mark

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN XUHUI LEE and XINZHANG HU-air exchange of carbon, water, and energy was conducted at a mid-latitude, mixed forest on non-flat terrain to address this question, we conducted a field experiment on energy and carbon exchanges in a mixed forest

Lee, Xuhui

198

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Radial flow heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre theAdministratorCFM LEAPAgendaConditioning AirWhy » Air

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue (more)

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

artificial matter exchange: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

changes in the real exchange rate. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas 1999-01-01 9 Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 33 (2008) 3377 Submitted 0907; published 0908 ICE: An...

204

Fouling of HVAC Fin and Tube Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Van P. Carey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fouling of heat exchangers used in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is important contributor to overall energy use and peak electric demand. Furthermore, the location of heat exchangers in HVAC systems means that if bioaerosols containing bacteria, fungi, and viruses deposit on heat

205

Error Analysis of Heat Transfer for Finned-Tube Heat-Exchanger Text-Board  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to reduce the measurement error of heat transfer in water and air side for finned-tube heat-exchanger as little as possible, and design a heat-exchanger test-board measurement system economically, based on the principle of test-board system...

Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

Wechsler, Risa H.

207

Indoor-Outdoor Air Leakage of Apartments and Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compiled and analyzed available data concerning indoor-outdoor air leakage rates and building leakiness parameters for commercial buildings and apartments. We analyzed the data, and reviewed the related literature, to determine the current state of knowledge of the statistical distribution of air exchange rates and related parameters for California buildings, and to identify significant gaps in the current knowledge and data. Very few data were found from California buildings, so we compiled data from other states and some other countries. Even when data from other developed countries were included, data were sparse and few conclusive statements were possible. Little systematic variation in building leakage with construction type, building activity type, height, size, or location within the u.s. was observed. Commercial buildings and apartments seem to be about twice as leaky as single-family houses, per unit of building envelope area. Although further work collecting and analyzing leakage data might be useful, we suggest that a more important issue may be the transport of pollutants between units in apartments and mixed-use buildings, an under-studied phenomenon that may expose occupants to high levels of pollutants such as tobacco smoke or dry cleaning fumes.

Price, P.N.; Shehabi, A.; Chan, R.W.; Gadgil, A.J.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Small Break Air Ingress Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ion exchange phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - air monitoring adjacent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ventilation rate on perceived quality of air polluted by different materials, small - scale and full - scale... the ventilation required for acceptable indoor air...

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - air void system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

served by varying air flow rates. Using visual observation and Figure 2 Test section for void fraction... - phase combinations of air and three different liquids (Table 7). The...

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force experience Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Chemistry, University of Sydney Collection: Chemistry 70 Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Summary: air entrainment rate on Z. It is suggested to...

213

Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fin and tube heat exchangers are used widely in residential, commercial and industrial HVAC applications. Invariably, indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul these heat exchangers. This fouling can cause decreased capacity and efficiency of the HVAC equipment as well as indoor air quality problems related to microbiological growth. This paper describes laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms that cause fouling. The laboratory experiments involve subjecting a 4.7 fins/cm (12 fins/inch) fin and tube heat exchanger to an air stream that contains monodisperse particles. Air velocities ranging from 1.5-5.2 m/s (295 ft/min-1024 ft/min) and particle sizes from 1--8.6 {micro}m are used. The measured fraction of particles that deposit as well as information about the location of the deposited material indicate that particles greater than about 1 {micro}m contribute to fouling. These experimental results are used to validate a scaling analysis that describes the relative importance of several deposition mechanisms including impaction, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The analysis is extended to apply to different fin spacings and particle sizes typical of those found in indoor air.

Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafelyparts per billion induce rapid kiwifruit softening during cold storage, we investigated the rate

Crisosto, Carlos H.

215

Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthComments MEMA:May1.docEx5.doc

216

Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

218

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Vertical Concentric Tube Ground Couoled Heat Exchangers V. C. Mei and S. K. Fischer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to extract heat from or reject heat to the environment. The majority of heat pumps use ambient air of the air. Ground water is a better heat source/sink for heat pump application (due to its superior thermal exchangers for use in heat-pump applications is described. The experimental apparatus consists

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones Saleh Nabi*, M.R. Flynn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current reflects from the end wall and propagates back toward the opening in the form of an internal bore the exchange of hot and cold air between the inside and outside of a building and between different zones for the design of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems or for increasing the efficiency

Flynn, Morris R.

222

Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

223

Rate Schedules  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

224

Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

225

Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners Michael A. McNeilFigure 1 MEPS for 1.5 ton Window Air Conditioners 1994-4 Figure 2 Air Conditioner Test Data and Rating Plan -

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type Size Category (Btu/h) Size.ahridirectory.org/ceedirectory/pages/ac/cee/defaultSearch.aspx 12,000 Btu/h = 1 ton Less than 65,000 Btu/h Air Conditioners, Air Cooled Air Conditioners, Water completed by the California Energy Commission at a rate of 12,000 Btu/h per ton of air conditioning Source

228

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Proceedings: Heat exchanger workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat transfer processes are of controlling importance in the operation of a thermal power plant. Heat exchangers are major cost items and are an important source of problems causing poor power plant availability and performance. A workshop to examine the improvements that can be made to heat exchangers was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on June 10-11, 1986, in Palo Alto, California. This workshop was attended by 25 engineers and scientists representing EPRI-member utilities and EPRI consultants. A forum was provided for discussions related to the design, operation and maintenance of utility heat transfer equipment. The specific objectives were to identify research directions that could significantly improve heat exchanger performance, reliability and life cycle economics. Since there is a great diversity of utility heat transfer equipment in use, this workshop addressed two equipment categories: Boiler Feedwater Heaters (FWH) and Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). The workshop was divided into the following panel sessions: functional design, mechanical design, operation, suggested research topics, and prioritization. Each panel session began with short presentations by experts on the subject and followed by discussions by the attendees. This report documents the proceedings of the workshop and contains recommendations of potentially valuable areas of research and development. 4 figs.

Not Available

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Micromachinable Leaky Wave Air Transducers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reflection coefficient can also in a thin plate as a meam of efficient coupling of ultrasonic energy to air of the ultrasonic energy is a function of the elastic properties of the plate andmost dominantly determinedby lowerleak rates as compared to silicon and aluminum. Since these thin dates aremuch easier to fabricate wine

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

231

Sandia National Laboratories: Heat Exchanger Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LabHeat Exchanger Development Heat Exchanger Development Planned Heat Exchanger Test Loop Capabilities Heat Exchanger 1 500 kW Heaters (Elec.) 500 kW Gas Cooler Unbalanced flows...

232

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Modeling exchange rate dependence dynamics at different time horizons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Copula-GARCH, Conditional dependence, Dynamic copula Corresponding author. Tel.: +44(0) 247 657 4297. Financial time-series are often modeled with GARCH type models. In the multivariate GARCH literature there exist several models, like CCC- GARCH, DVEC, matrix-diagonal GARCH, BEKK and principal components GARCH

Embrechts, Paul

234

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES EXCHANGE RATES AND ECONOMIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jeffrey Sachs Working Paper No. 1498 NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH 1050 Massachusetts Avenue- and demand--side channels suggested by modern variants of the Keynesian model. We show next that there can depression)- Perverse monetary and fiscal responses in such countries as Germany and France are blamed

235

Global Current Account Imbalances and Exchange Rate Adjustments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's surplus countries.2 To balance its current account simply through higher exports, the United States would adds net interest payments to its trade balance deficit. As we shall later discuss, the United States trajectory, rising energy prices, and the fact that the United States has become increasingly dependent

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

236

Transition Path Sampling of Water Exchange Rates and Mechanisms around  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2Topo II: AnTraining andfor aOxide Nanoparticles.

237

Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger to verify the return air ratio. In this comparison, the recovered energy from the return air was equalized with the heat transfer of the heat exchanger model. An example of this methodology was used to simulate the HVAC system with a heat... to be measured for further investigation to verify the AirModel simulation. This method can be applied in Energy Plus and other simulation tools/software to simulate the building exhaust energy recovery. Acknowledgements The work of this paper...

Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Moving air for comfort  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. Air movement good or bad? Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Feasibility of air capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

Ranjan, Manya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Stirling engine with air working fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Stirling engine with air working fluid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

Corey, J. A.

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

244

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitorsfor Shade LandscapingMaintaining Your Air

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - air vents discharge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519 6.2. Compressed air energy storage... and discharge rates for many cycles. Indeed, the high cycling...

246

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Primary zone air proportioner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decrease models of the heat recovery decay. A mathematical comparison of mechanical and chemical cleaning of heat exchangers has identified the most significant parameters which affect the choice between the two methods. INTRODUCTION In most... can be somewhat mitigated by periodic chemical or mechanical cleaning of the exchanger surface, and by the addition of antifoul ants. The typical decay in heat recovery capabil ity due to fou 1i ng and restoration afte r heat exchanger cleaning...

Siegell, J. H.

250

The design, construction, and calibration of a heat exchanger calorimeter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the sensing 12 Cahbratson Coal Thernrocouple Grid Test Section Installation . g ". lL Test Section Entry Figure 4 Test Section 18" 21" Figure 5 Test Coil Dimensions 14 D D/2 Pressure Tap (Typ. 4) Thermocouple Flow 3D ll ' Pl Figure 6 Flow... . . 5 A. Test Loop Configuration B. Chilled Water System C. Test Section Air Temperature D. Air Mass Flow Rate Measurement E. Air Flow Control F. Test Section Water System IV ANALYSIS . 5 . 7 10 11 15 16 20 A. Mass Flow Rate Calculation...

Lovelady, Jeffery Paul

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Quality Assurance Exchange, January 2007  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

third article of this series (Quality Assurance Exchange June, volume 2, Issue 2), the bulk of the comments derived from the factual accuracy review should be editorial. When...

252

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

254

A Binghamton Exchange Program UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT EXCHANGE PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Binghamton Exchange Program UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT EXCHANGE PROGRAM THE BINGHAMTON PROGRAM AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE UTRECHT Utrecht University ranks first among Dutch universi- ties and is one of the finest universities in Europe. Students take courses in the University College Utrecht (UCU), Utrecht University

Suzuki, Masatsugu

255

A Binghamton Exchange Program UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS EXCHANGE PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Binghamton Exchange Program UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS EXCHANGE PROGRAM THE BINGHAMTON PROGRAM AT UTRECHT SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS Utrecht University ranks first among Dutch universi- ties and is one of the finest universities in Europe. Students take courses in the Utrecht School of Eco- nomics (USE

Suzuki, Masatsugu

256

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

257

AiR surface: AiR surface 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

Tanaka, Jiro

258

High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

Wertheim, R.J.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients following an interruption of flow to the column were calculated. The transient calculations were terminated after the maximum resin bed temperature reached the Technical Standard of 60 C, which was set to prevent significant resin degradation. The LANL column differs from the FWR column in that it has a significantly smaller radius, 3.73 cm nominal versus approximately 28 cm. It follows that natural convection removes heat much more effectively from the LANL column, so that the column may reach thermal equilibrium. Consequently, the calculations for a flow interruption were extended until an approach to thermal equilibrium was observed. The LANL ion exchange process also uses a different resin than was used in the FWR column. The LANL column uses Reillex HPQ{trademark} resin, which is more resistant to attack by nitric acid than the Ionac 641{trademark} resin used in the FWR column. Heat generation from the resin oxidation reaction with nitric acid is neglected in this analysis since LANL will be treating the resin to remove the LTE prior to loading the resin in the columns. Calculations were performed using a finite difference computer code, which incorporates models for absorption and elution of plutonium and for forced and natural convection within the resin bed. Calculations for normal column operation during loading were performed using an initial temperature and a feed temperature equal to the ambient air temperature. The model for the normal flow calculations did not include natural convection within the resin bed. The no flow calculations were started with the temperature and concentration profiles at the end of the loading stage, when there would be a maximum amount of plutonium either adsorbed on the resin or in the feed solution in the column.

Laurinat, J

2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

260

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

Riba Sagarra, Jaume

263

Pneumatic cleaning of sugarcane utilizing a high velocity air jet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- oped to cope with the increased amount of trash present in unburned sugarcane. This research involved the testing and computer simulation of a chopper air jet nozzle assembly. The experimental test setup included a two-stage conveyor. This conveyor... of the system was evaluated. The results of the chopper air jet nozzle assembly tests verified that the air velocity, nozzle size, chopper blade configuration and feed-in rate contributed signifi- cantly to the cleanliness of the billets. The air velo- city...

Fisher, John Ray

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

264

High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modular heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A shell and tube heat exchanger having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelpiped tube bundle moldules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending therethrough, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattice, each of which is situate d in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattice extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates.

Giardina, Angelo R. [Marple Township, Delaware County, PA

1981-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Energy-Exchange Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Heat exchanger using graphite foam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Heat exchanger with ceramic elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Air Electrode Design for Sustained High Power Operation of Li/air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rapid development of portable electronic devices increasingly requires much more energy to support advanced functions. However, currently available batteries do not meet the high energy requirement of these devices. Metal/air batteries, especially Li/air batteries, have a much higher specific energy than most other available batteries, but their power rate is limited by the accumulation of reaction products in the air electrode. Several approaches to improve the power rate of Li/air batteries have been analyzed in this work, including adjustment of air electrode porosity and catalyst reactivity distributions to minimize diffusion limitations and maximize air electrode material utilization. An interconnected dual pore system (one catalyzed and one noncatalyzed) is proposed to improve oxygen transport into the inner regions of the air electrode, but this approach alone cannot supply high power for long term applications. A time-release multiple catalyst approach is analyzed to provide temporal release of reactivity in the air electrode. When coupled with the dual pore configuration and catalysts with high reactivities, the time-release catalyst concept can extend the duration of higher powers to longer times, and result in maximum utilization of air electrode materials.

Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Development of an spFRET method to measure structure changes in ion exchange proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transporter, major facilitator superfamily, membrane transport, membrane transporter, OxlT, single molecule, spFRET, transport protein. Tightly coupled ion exchangers, such as the AE anion exchange systems only take place at an appreciable rate if a suitable substrate ion is bound to the transport site

Novotny, Lukas

272

Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 As the nation's largest energy consumer, the federal government has a tremendous opportunity and clear...

273

Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19,...

274

Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange Webinar September 11, 2014 7:00PM to 8:3...

275

Hear Exchange Assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey (Rocky Hill, NJ); Tonon, Thomas S. (Princeton, NJ)

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

276

MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

Vitrification of ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

Napier, Terrence

280

General Air Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Healthy Air Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

282

Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre for a total amount of 2 375 280 euros (3 654 277 Swiss francs) not subject to revision, with options for additional chillers, chilled water coils and sound attenuation, for an additional amount of 539 053 euros (829 312 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 2 914 333 euros (4 483 589 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

on man, nature & air pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technologies is needed to increase the dehumidification abilities of equipment without compromising energy efficiency or the need for fresh ventilation air. To study the effectiveness of integrated heat pump and enthalpy exchange equipment, a nominal 4-ton...

Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Air Products effective way  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PE O A e s a b O T A O ENNST Overview Air Products effective way standard me Departm Shipping has recently y of shipping eans. Air Pro ontainer that es of this pro onduct mark eep accelera eep the cost tilize widely a earch and m m visited Air er needs wer model was cr m approache ms

Demirel, Melik C.

288

Air Quality Chapter Outline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

Wechsler, Risa H.

289

MAD-AIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a...

Gaskill, Travis

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Saving Energy and Improving IAQ through Application of Advanced Air Cleaning Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saving Energy and Improving IAQ through Application of Advanced Air Cleaning Technologies Table 1, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed

293

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55F for space humidity control...

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Iodine Loading of NO Aged Silver Exchanged Mordenite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an off-gas treatment system for used nuclear fuel processing, a solid sorbent will typically be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water vapor, gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed sorbents. Silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine its iodine sorption capacity after long term exposure to increasingly more complex chemical environments. Studies previously conducted at ORNL investigated the effects of aging reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z) in dry air, moist air, and NO2. This study investigated the effects of extended exposure to nitric oxide (NO) gas on the iodine capture performance of Ag{sup 0}Z. A deep bed of Ag{sup 0}Z was aged in a 1% nitric oxide (NO) air stream, and portions of the bed were removed at pre-determined intervals. After being removed from the NO stream, each sample was loaded with iodine in a thin bed configuration. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantify the iodine content in the sample. Samples were removed at one week and one month. A 78% decrease in sample capacity was seen after one week of exposure, with no further decrease observed after 1 month of aging. The observed loss in capacity is larger in magnitude than previous studies exposing Ag{sup 0}Z to dry air, moist air, or NO2 gas. The aging study was terminated after one month and repeated; this successfully demonstrated the reproducibility of the results.

Patton, K. K. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Jubin, J. T. [ORNL; Walker, Jr., J. F. [ORNL

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

296

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

Jain, Raj

298

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

Mulholland, James A.

299

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-27-HERS Maximum Rated Total Cooling Capacity (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditioner is listed in the ARI database with a specified furnace or air handler and that furnace or air handler is to be installed. Otherwise, if the proposed Air Conditioner is listed in the ARI database (Watt) = ARI Rated Total Cooling Capacity (Btu/hr) / ARI Rated EER (Btu/Watt-hr) if the proposed Air

300

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Rate schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermal Growth Factor. |INCIDENCET3PACI-T3Rate

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs volumetric cloud Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to determine the volumetric flow rate of entrained air as a function... -17 December 2004 Air Entrainment by Free Falling Streams of Particles Zeqin Liu, Paul Cooper and Peter W......

303

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air exchange rate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxidemonoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), formaldehyde,

Lobscheid, Agnes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers for Corrosive Waste Gas Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the late 1930's of low-leakage high-pressure metallic recuperators resulted in the gradual demise of ceramic heat exchar~ers. This trend was given further impetus by the rapid fall in oil prices in the 1950's which further reduced the economic... recuperators. Metallic heat exchangers are ideally suited to handlir~ clean waste gases havir~ temperatures rar~ir~ from 300 deg. C to 1050 deg. C and for preheatir~ air up to 550 deg. C as well as low calorific gases to 450 deg. C. Operatir~ metallic...

Laws, W. R.; Reed, G. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

A Plastic-Core Compact Heat Exchanger for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is 10 er cost compared to one with a metallic core, but it as the potential of contamination from mOisfre contained in air. All of these heat exchangers su fer from fouling by dust and particulates wile condensation of moisture leads to corrosion... maximum temperature does not exceed 340 K (150?F) while polypropylene is recommended for use up to 370 K (200?F). Fouling of the transfer surfaces has the negative effect of increasing the resistance to heat flow that leads to deterioration...

Lazaridis, A.; Rafailidis, E.

306

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

308

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

Softhard exchange-coupled layered structures with modulated exchange coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0209 Received 8 April 2003; accepted 28 June 2003 Magnetically soft/hard exchange-coupled for high performance permanent magnets in the past decades and much progress has been made in improving permanent mag- netic properties. A figure of merit of permanent magnetic materials is the maximum magnetic

Garmestani, Hamid

310

Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data....2 - Performance and hardware data collectedfor this survey. 3.2 References 1. "Directory of Certified Unitary Air Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment", Semi-Annual Issues, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute...

O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Information Exchange for theInformation Exchange for the Development of SustainableDevelopment of Sustainable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information Exchange for theInformation Exchange for the Development of SustainableDevelopment influenced the development ofthe development of sustainable wood process industrysustainable wood process industry substantiallysubstantially .. Information Exchange for the development of Sustainable Wood Process

314

Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

1981-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

Engine Air Intake Manifold Having Built In Intercooler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbocharged V type engine can be equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation cooler integrated into the intake manifold, so as to achieve efficiency, cost reductions and space economization improvements. The cooler can take the form of a tube-shell heat exchanger that utilizes a cylindrical chamber in the air intake manifold as the heat exchanger housing. The intake manifold depends into the central space formed by the two banks of cylinders on the V type engine, such that the central space is effectively utilized for containing the manifold and cooler.

Freese, V, Charles E. (Westland, MI)

2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

Estimating Energy Savings in Compressed Air Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are frequently overestimated because the methods used to estimate savings neglect to consider important factors such as compressor control and type, storage, and multiple compressor operation. In this paper, a methodology is presented for modeling air... compressor performance and calculating projected energy savings from easily obtainable performance data such as full-load power, no-load power, rated capacity, average fraction full-load power or average fraction rated capacity. The methodology...

Schmidt, C.; Kissock, J. K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Personal continuous air monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Primer on nuclear exchange models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning

324

Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

Dietz, R.N.

1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

325

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications Elisabeth Weisz presented and discussed in this paper demonstrate that the IMAPP AIRS retrieval product is rigorously parameters from the operational AIRS L2 product and data from other instruments. Keywords: AIRS, IMAPP

Li, Jun

326

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

327

Air Flow Distribution in the Sales Area of a Supermarket  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many kinds of goods are displayed in a supermarket, which have their own particularities. The consumer flow rate is great and the type of shelved goods varies significantly, thereby influencing the objects that generate heat, and the demands of air...

Fang, X.; Song, C.; Zhao, J.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Managing On-air Ad Inventory in Broadcast Television  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by the experiences of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), we present an analytical model for managing on-air ad inventory in broadcast television. The ad inventory in this industry is priced based on rating ...

Bollapragada, Srinivas; Mallik, Suman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

330

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Compressed Air System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

Aegerter, R.

332

Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion, 2001, Ed. Z. Boybeyi, WIT Publications, Southampton, UK, Advances in Air Pollution, Vol 9, p. 424.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surface­atmosphere exchanges in mesoscale air pollution systems Devdutta S. Niyogi & Sethu Raman NorthMesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion, 2001, Ed. Z. Boybeyi, WIT Publications, Southampton, UK, Advances in Air Pollution, Vol 9, p. 424. Chapter 9 Numerical modeling of gas deposition and bi- directional

Raman, Sethu

333

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Second Law Optimization of Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method for optimizing heat exchangers is developed in this paper. It is based on second law efficiency relationships rather than on the traditional heat exchanger effectiveness concept. The cost of energy is based on its availability level...

Witte, L. C.

335

Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Industrial Boilers" R. E. Thompson - R. J. Goldstick KVB, Inc., 18806 Skypark Blvd., Irvine, California 92714, pg. 12-4. (3) "Condensing Heat Exchangers Using Tenon R Covered Tubes", Ronald Hessen, Condensing Heat Exchanger Corp., Latham, New York...

Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Synergistic diffuser/heat-exchanger design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The theoretical and numerical evaluation of synergistic diffusing heat-exchanger design is presented. Motivation for this development is based on current diffuser and heat-exchange technologies in cogeneration plants, which ...

Lazzara, David S. (David Sergio), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Air and water cooled modulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

Efficiency Exchange Conference Highlights Energy Efficiency Innovation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), Bonneville Power Administration and electric utilities throughout the Northwest, are hosting the second annual Efficiency Exchange...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW POWER CYCLES AND ADVANCED FALLING FILM HEAT EXCHANGERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final report for the DOE/UNM grant number DE-FG26-98FT40148 discusses the accomplishments of both the theoretical analysis of advanced power cycles and experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers. This final report also includes the progress report for the third year (period of October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). Four new cycles were studied and two cycles were analyzed in detail based on the second law of thermodynamics. The first cycle uses a triple combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas), an intermediate cycle (Rankine/steam), and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia). This cycle can produce high efficiency and reduces the irreversibility of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSC) of conventional combined power cycles. The effect of important system parameters on the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle under reasonable practical constraints was evaluated. The second cycle is a combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas) and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia) with integrated compressor inlet air cooling. This innovative cycle can produce high power and efficiency. This cycle is also analyzed and optimized based on the second the second law to obtain the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle. The results of the studies have been published in peer reviewed journals and ASME conference proceeding. Experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers was conducted to find effective additives for steam condensation. Four additives have been selected and tested in a horizontal tube steam condensation facility. It has been observed that heat transfer additives have been shown to be an effective way to increase the efficiency of conventional tube bundle condenser heat exchangers. This increased condensation rate is due to the creation of a disturbance in the liquid condensate surround the film. The heat transfer through such a film has increased due to the onset of Maranogni convection as well as the population of ''dropwise-like'' condensation increased. The results have been published in peer reviewed journals.

Arsalan Razani; Kwang J. Kim

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption air conditioner Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rating Summary: size systems such as absorption or vapor compression air-conditioners or heat pumps, the following... degradation. There are two possible designs for adjusting the...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - air injection systems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems. Different methods for measuring air-leakage rates were also compared... , and Refrigeration ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy...

344

Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a comparison of room cooling load and supply air to roomtemperatures, cooling load profiles, supply airflow rate,water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - air entraining agents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FOR ESTIMATING ENTRAINMENT RATE IN CUMULUS AND PARAMETERIZATION IN MODELS Summary: Entrainment of dry air into clouds is essential to many cloud processes, affecting cloud...

346

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

BUTCHER,T.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Flame Propagation of Butanol Isomers/Air Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and computational study was conducted on the propagation of flames of saturated butanol isomers. The experiments were performed in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure, unburned mixture temperature of 343 K, and for a wide range of equivalence ratios. The experiments were simulated using a recent kinetic model for the four isomers of butanol. Results indicate that n-butanol/air flames propagate somewhat faster than both sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames, and that tert-butanol/air flames propagate notably slower compared to the other three isomers. Reaction path analysis of tert-butanol/air flames revealed that iso-butene is a major intermediate, which subsequently reacts to form the resonantly stable iso-butenyl radical retarding thus the overall reactivity of tert-butanol/air flames relatively to the other three isomers. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined that the mass burning rates of sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 2} hydrocarbon kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions similarly to n-butanol/air flames. However, for tert-butanol/air flames notable sensitivity to fuel-specific reactions exists. While the numerical results predicted closely the experimental data for n-butanol/air and sec-butanol/air flames, they overpredicted and underpredicted the laminar flame speeds for iso-butanol/air and tert-butanol/air flames respectively. It was demonstrated further that the underprediction of the laminar flame speeds of tert-butanol/air flames by the model was most likely due to deficiencies of the C{sub 4}-alkene kinetics.

Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Xenon Recirculation-Purification with a Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid-xenon based particle detectors have been dramatically growing in size during the last years, and are now exceeding the one-ton scale. The required high xenon purity is usually achieved by continuous recirculation of xenon gas through a high-temperature getter. This challenges the traditional way of cooling these large detectors, since in a thermally well insulated detector, most of the cooling power is spent to compensate losses from recirculation. The phase change during recondensing requires five times more cooling power than cooling the gas from ambient temperature to -100C (173 K). Thus, to reduce the cooling power requirements for large detectors, we propose to use the heat from the purified incoming gas to evaporate the outgoing xenon gas, by means of a heat exchanger. Generally, a heat exchanger would appear to be only of very limited use, since evaporation and liquefaction occur at zero temperature difference. However, the use of a recirculation pump reduces the pressure of the extracted liquid, forces it to evaporate, and thus cools it down. We show that this temperature difference can be used for an efficient heat exchange process. We investigate the use of a commercial parallel plate heat exchanger with a small liquid xenon detector. Although we expected to be limited by the available cooling power to flow rates of about 2 SLPM, rates in excess of 12 SLPM can easily be sustained, limited only by the pump speed and the impedance of the flow loop. The heat exchanger operates with an efficiency of (96.8 +/- 0.5)%. This opens the possibility for fast xenon gas recirculation in large-scale experiments, while minimizing thermal losses.

K. L. Giboni; E. Aprile; B. Choi; T. Haruyama; R. F. Lang; K. E. Lim; A. J. Melgarejo; G. Plante

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

350

Science Policy Exchange September 21, 2009 Columbia River Estuary Science-Policy Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science Policy Exchange September 21, 2009 Summary 1 Columbia River Estuary Science-Policy Exchange and Conservation Council hosted a science-policy exchange in Astoria, Oregon. The Council supports strategies Science Advisory Board (ISAB) and the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) attended the exchange

351

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

352

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed. GovernmentFed. Government CommercialPollution, Air

354

Health Hazards in Indoor Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

Logue, Jennifer M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

356

Integrated Technology Air Cleaners (ITAC): Design and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to design, build, and test an air cleaner for residential use with the potential to substantially improve indoor air quality, or maintain indoor air quality unchanged, when outdoor air ventilation rates are reduced to save energy. Two air cleaners were designed and fabricated. The design targets for airflow rate, fan power, and projected cost were met. In short term laboratory studies, both units performed as expected; however, during field studies in homes, the formaldehyde removal performance of the air cleaners was much lower than expected. In subsequent laboratory studies, incomplete decomposition of some indoor air volatile organic compounds, with formaldehyde as a product of partial decomposition of volatile organic compounds, was confirmed as the explanation for the poor formaldehyde removal performance in the field studies. The amount of formaldehyde produced per unit of decomposition of other volatile organic compounds was substantially diminished by increasing the amount of catalyst on the filter and also by decreasing the air velocity. Together, these two measures reduced formaldehyde production, per unit destruction of other volatile organic compounds, by a factor of four, while increasing the removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds by a factor of 1.4. A company with a southern California office is conducting studies in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with the goal of incorporating the ITAC catalytic air cleaning technology in their future commercial products.

Fisk, William J.; Cohn, Sebastian; Destaillats, Hugo; Henzel, Victor; Sidheswaran, Meera; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

358

PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, including supercritical, choked, and two-phase flow conditions.

Mark Anderson; Greg Nellis; Michael Corradini

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

360

Retrofit Air Preheat Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

Goolsbee, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Breathing zone air sampler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Breathing zone air sampler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

Tobin, J.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

363

Padding with Compressed Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

Beals, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Air Carrier Flight Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and ...

Midkif, Alan H.

365

Air conditioning system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Canned Air in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government ...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

367

Air bag restraint device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

368

A survey of air flow models for multizone structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air flow models are used to simulate the rates of incoming and outgoing air flows for a building with known leakage under given weather and shielding conditions. Additional information about the flow paths and air-mass flows inside the building can only by using multizone air flow models. In order to obtain more information on multizone air flow models, a literature review was performed in 1984. A second literature review and a questionnaire survey performed in 1989, revealed the existence of 50 multizone air flow models, all developed since 1966, two of which are still under development. All these programs use similar flow equations for crack flow but differ in the versatility to describe the full range of flow phenomena and the algorithm provided for solving the set of nonlinear equations. This literature review was found that newer models are able to describe and simulate the ventilation systems and interrelation of mechanical and natural ventilation. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Feustel, H.E.; Dieris, J.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Combustion Air Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calibration and tune-up: ? A measure of combustion efficiency must be selected as a target operating goal for the combustion control system. Possible measures and typical targets include: Stack Gas Excess Air, 15% Stack Gas Opacity, 0.3 RN Stack Gas CO... Fuel Flows ? Preheater Inlet Temperature ? Btu Flow (Fuel Flow ? Preheater Outlet Temperature Controller Measurement) ? Ambient Temperature ? Oxygen in the Stack ? Boiler Master Controller Output ? Opac i ty Normalize the steam, air and fuel flow...

Hughart, C. L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Direct imaging of the acoustic waves generated by femtosecond filaments in air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct imaging of the acoustic waves generated by femtosecond filaments in air J. K. Wahlstrand, N of spatial single- and higher-mode 50 fs, 800 nm pulses in air at 10 Hz and 1 kHz repetition rates. Results in air [9]. They claimed a positive gas density perturba- tion on axis with a microsecond lifetime

Milchberg, Howard

372

A Laboratory Method For Measuring The Ozone Emission From In-duct Air Cleaners.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Emission rate, HVAC air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators, coronas, standard test method 1 Introduction Subchapter 8.7). However, in-duct air cleaners including electronic air cleaners, electrostatic precipitators of an ozone analyzer. Viner et al. (1992) studied commercial in-duct electrostatic precipitators and observed

Siegel, Jeffrey

373

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air, Si4O4(CH3)8) widely used as additives in personal care products. In both photocopiers and air in indoor air, the gas-phase processes limit the rate of deposition. KEY WORDS: Corona plasma; corona

Chen, Junhong

374

Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-tube Heat Exchangers with Winglets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study of forced convection heat transfer in a narrow rectangular duct fitted with a circular tube and/or a delta-winglet pair. The duct was designed to simulate a single passage in a fin-tube heat exchanger. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique in which a heated airflow is suddenly introduced to the test section. High-resolution local fin-surface temperature distributions were obtained at several times after initiation of the transient using an imaging infrared camera. Corresponding local fin-surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were then calculated from a locally applied one-dimensional semi-infinite inverse heat conduction model. Heat transfer results were obtained over an airflow rate ranging from 1.51 x 10-3 to 14.0 x 10-3 kg/s. These flow rates correspond to a duct-height Reynolds number range of 670 6300 with a duct height of 1.106 cm and a duct width-toheight ratio, W/H, of 11.25. The test cylinder was sized such that the diameter-to-duct height ratio, D/H is 5. Results presented in this paper reveal visual and quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer distributions in the vicinity of a circular tube, a delta-winglet pair, and a combination of a circular tube and a delta-winglet pair. Comparisons of local and average heat transfer distributions for the circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Overall mean finsurface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement associated with the deployment of the winglets with the circular cylinder. At the lowest Reynolds numbers (which correspond to the laminar operating conditions of existing geothermal air-cooled condensers), the enhancement level is nearly a factor of two. At higher Reynolds numbers, the enhancement level is close to 50%.

O'Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18 12 p.m. ­ 1:00 p.m. Human Resources/Tobacco- Free! Join us for an interactive session and learn more about "AIR" (Approach, Inform, Refer, and safe campus environment. Visit Clearing the Air website (http://tobaccofree.ucr.edu/) for more

Reed, Christopher A.

376

Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems Kisup Lee* Zheng Jiang, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution systems such as Traditional Displacement Ventilation (TDV) and Under- Floor Air Distribution (UFAD

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

377

inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

Mankoff, Jennifer

378

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to severalAir Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

379

The relationship of air temperature and air volume to the rate of drying rice in sacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operation to a stoiiture content, ef 19 to, 14 per eemt. "She eaoJee w~e ~~;. ;ogpu;Ih dtiring. the '&yield, epeMMen for each test, At the end of the drying peribd, s composite simple 5 r n'ne, 'tegen fron. each ~i4r:, for;~ii~, . determ4nsMem ~8 later... ~ 0 XQO. I 1'15. h +1, 8 1%4. 5 1/0, 5 1~9&JI 1OV~ XMQ gp, ss N. , '7G gg, 65 g). , 4Q Q6. 48 QO;51 $6, 41 19. 75 (VS sLin ) 19. VT ('l. 5 'min. ) 14 62 (Ts min. ) XQ 44 , X5? x1AS a '. gutsy. Isagles fojt'~i'etige detereinstiona...

Mayfield, William Lloyd

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Corona driven air propulsion for cooling of electronics F. Yang, N.E. Jewell-Larsen, D.L. Brown, K. Pendergrass, D.A. Parker, I.A. Krichtafovitch*, A.V. Mamishev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract: The possibility of building a high voltage electrostatic air pump for cooling of microelectronics closely to increase the heat exchange surface area, resulting in narrower channels between the fins. Air viscosity in narrow channels reduces the cooling efficiency of the heat sinks. Electrostatic air propulsion

Mamishev, Alexander

383

Ion exchange purification of scandium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

384

NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating Residential Heating and Cooling Absorption Equipment U the heating mode. Both air-source and ground water source absorption heat pumps are considered, as well as air for estimating the heating and cooling seasonal performance and cost of operation of residential water chillers

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

385

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

Nizkorodov, Sergey

387

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

388

AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;AN OPTIMIZED TWO-CAPACITY ADVANCED ELECTRIC HEAT PUMP S. E. Veyo S. E. Veyo, Manager, Heat Exchange Systems Research Westinghouse Electric Corporation, R&D Center 1310 Beulah Road Pittsburgh, PA 15235 KEYWORDS: heat pump, air conditioner, electric, residential, energy, compressor, fan, blower, heat

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

389

On the maximum pressure rise rate in boosted HCCI operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with ...

Wildman, Craig B.

390

Heat transfer and combustion characteristics of a burner with a rotary regenerative heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a Rotary Regenerative Combustion (RRX) System, which is coupled with a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger and a combustion burner. This system contributes to saving energy of fuel firing industrial furnaces and decreases NO{sub x} emission. This technology can be considered as a solution of greenhouse problem. This paper, discusses a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger in comparison with the existing types of regenerative burners and reverse firing with high momentum fuel jet (with motive fluid) in the furnace. This burner is compact in size, with high fuel efficiency, low NOx emission, easy to operate, and reliable, based on the results of field tests and commercial operations. The authors can say that the RRX system is a regenerative burner of the second generation.

Hirose, Yasuo; Kaji, Hitoshi; Arai, Norio

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Heat extraction from salinity-gradient solar ponds using heat pipe heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical analysis on the heat extraction process from solar pond by using the heat pipe heat exchanger. In order to conduct research work, a small scale experimental solar pond with an area of 7.0 m{sup 2} and a depth of 1.5 m was built at Khon Kaen in North-Eastern Thailand (16 27'N102 E). Heat was successfully extracted from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond by using a heat pipe heat exchanger made from 60 copper tubes with 21 mm inside diameter and 22 mm outside diameter. The length of the evaporator and condenser section was 800 mm and 200 mm respectively. R134a was used as the heat transfer fluid in the experiment. The theoretical model was formulated for the solar pond heat extraction on the basis of the energy conservation equations and by using the solar radiation data for the above location. Numerical methods were used to solve the modeling equations. In the analysis, the performance of heat exchanger is investigated by varying the velocity of inlet air used to extract heat from the condenser end of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHE). Air velocity was found to have a significant influence on the effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger. In the present investigation, there was an increase in effectiveness by 43% as the air velocity was decreased from 5 m/s to 1 m/s. The results obtained from the theoretical model showed good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

Tundee, Sura; Terdtoon, Pradit; Sakulchangsatjatai, Phrut [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Singh, Randeep; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar [Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Bundoora East Campus, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Welding of dissimilar alloys for high temperature heat exchangers for SOFC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction in the cost of balance of plant applications is one of the top priority focus areas for the successful implementation of solid oxide fuel cell technology. High temperature heat exchangers are employed to heat cathode air utilizing either hot gases coming from the anode side of the stack or other hot gases generated by external processes. In order to reduce the cost of heat exchangers, it may be necessary to apply several different materials, each in a different temperature zone, for the construction of the heat exchanger. This technique would require the joining of dissimilar materials in the construction. In this work, welding of commercial candidate dissimilar materials is explored. Filler materials were identified using equilibrium phase diagrams and thermodynamic simulation software. Autogenous welding was performed and the welding defects were characterized. Finally, experimental weld microstructures were compared to phases predicted by the simulations.

Wilson, R.D.; Hatem, J.; Dogan, O.N.; King, P.E.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for correlated quantum systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We extend the Exchange Fluctuation Theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the non-equilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semi-classical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations.

Sania Jevtic; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph; Yuji Hirono; Shojun Nakayama; Mio Murao

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

396

Low-Cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Produce prototype heat exchangers for electronics cooling and high pressure waste heat recovery power system applications Test integrity and confirm high performance of...

397

NETL's Energy Data eXchange  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

398

NETL's Energy Data eXchange  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief tour around NETL's Energy Data Exchange site, where researchers can upload data or look at data from another researcher.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

399

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Manufacturing serendipity: Chicago Innovation Exchange enhancing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Social Media Photos Videos Fact Sheets, Brochures and Reports Summer Science Writing Internship John Flavin, Executive Director of the Chicago Innovation Exchange, started a small...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity. Optional Morning Warm-up If connected to a liquid condenser bundle, the icemaking chiller can serve as a heat recovery heat pump. The chiller can freeze ice in the early morning to provide heat for morning warm-up, and use the ice... the cooling coil or drain pan re-evaporates and is delivered to occupied space during compressor off-cycles. Although heat recovery between the exhaust air and ventilation air can reduce the impact on the HVAC system, many buildings do not have central...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A conceptual design of a continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) heat exchanger for high-temperature, high-pressure applications is presented. The CFCC materials under consideration are SiC reinforced with SiC fibers manufactured using the continuous vapor infiltration process and alumina reinforced with SiC or alumina fibers manufactured using the directed metal oxidation process. These composite materials are highly resistant to high-temperature corrosive environment and possess a greater creep strength than metallic materials. Heat exchangers constructed of CFCC material may be utilized for high-temperature, high-pressure applications such as air/gas heaters in advanced energy systems and high-temperature energy recovery systems. This paper presents a design of a gas-to-air CFCC heat exchanger for the high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) in the high-performance power system (HIPPS). The 1.38 MPa (200 psia) air is heated from 760 C (1,400 F) to 982 C (1,800 F) using the combustion products at 1,650 C (3,000 F). The heat exchanger is of a cross-parallel/counter flow type in which the tube-side air flow makes a combined parallel and counter flow arrangement with a cross-flowing combustion gas in such a way that the maximum CFCC tube temperature will not exceed a 1,260 C (2,300 F) design limit. The main heat transfer mechanism from the external hot gas to the tube-side air is that of gaseous radiation for the first few rows of the tubes, followed by convective heat transfer across the remainder of the tube bundle. The design characteristics of this high-temperature, high-pressure CFCC heat exchanger with supporting thermal, flow, structural, and vibrational analyses are presented in detail in the paper.

Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Narayanan, T.V. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Shah, A.C.; Weddell, J.K. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Air drilling has some pluses for horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drilling horizontal wells with air as the circulating medium is not a common practice; however, air has come distinct advantages over drilling mud. They are: Significant increase in rate of penetration which leads to shorter drilling time. Elimination of lost circulation problems, especially in areas of very low bottom hole pressures. Continual drill stem test of potential producing formations. Minimal damage to the formation. Unfortunately, there are some disadvantages to drilling with air. Downhole motor life is shorter and less predictable. No measurement-while-drilling (MWD) system is currently available that will work consistently in air drilling environments. Hole cleaning is a problem at inclinations above 50{degree}. The horizontal section length is reduced because of the increased friction (drag) between the drillstring and borehole. The types of lithologies and targets are limited. Several horizontal wells have been successfully drilled with air or foam since 1986. At a minimum, operators drill the horizontal section with air or foam to eliminate lost circulation problems in low pressure or partially depleted reservoirs and to reduce formation damage due to drilling fluid invasion. However, problems have been encountered in drilling horizontal wells with air. Not all of the problems are unique to air drilling, but some may be exaggerated by the conditions in an air-drilled hole.

Carden, R.S. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates, Inc., Amarillo, TX (US))

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Improving air handler efficiency in residential HVAC applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In continuing the development of energy efficiency standards, consideration has turned to air handlers used for heating and air conditioning of consumer residences. These air handlers have typical efficiencies of about 10% to 15% due to poor electric motor performance and aerodynamically poor fans and fan housings. This study was undertaken to examine some of these performance issues, under carefully controlled laboratory conditions, to support potential regulatory changes. In addition, this study examined the performance of a prototype air handler fan assembly that offers the potential for substantial increases in performance. This prototype and a standard production fan were tested in a full-scale duct system and test chamber at LBNL which was specifically designed for testing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. The laboratory tests compared efficiency, total airflow, sensitivity to duct system flow resistance, and the effects of installation in a smaller cabinet. The test results showed that, averaged over a wide range of operating conditions, the prototype air handler had about twice the efficiency of the standard air handler and was less sensitive to duct system flow resistance changes. The performance of both air handlers was significantly reduced by reducing the space between the air handler and the cabinet it was installed in. Therefore any fan rating needs to be performed using the actual cabinet it will be used in.

Walker, Iain S.; Mingee, Michael D.; Brenner, Douglas E.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Performance of underfloor air distribution: Results of a field study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include easy relocation of air supply diffusers, energy savings, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13 percent higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13 percent reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C (2-4 F). This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10 percent. The occupants level of satisfaction with thermal conditions w as well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

Fisk, William; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas

2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

409

The Interest Rate Conundrum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flows and US Interest Rates, NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Laboratory Study of the Schmidt Number Dependency of Air-Water Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Sc = /D denotes the Schmidt number, the ratio of kinematic viscosity of water and the tracersA Laboratory Study of the Schmidt Number Dependency of Air-Water Gas Transfer Kerstin Richter1 of exchange hap- pens with an exponent of 1/2 and links this fraction with a physical property of the wave

Jaehne, Bernd

411

Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning Residential Buildings: Technologies, Design heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

Siegel, Jeffrey

412

Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - air surveillance air Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: air surveillance air Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE)...

414

Sticking with air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

Coker, S.N. [Entergy (US). Independence Plant

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

416

Control Dewar Subcooler Heat Exchanger Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calculations done to size the control dewar subcooler were done to obtain a sufficient subcooler size based on some conservative assumptions. The final subcooler design proposed in the design report will work even better because (1) It has more tubing length, and (2) will have already subcooled liquid at the inlet due to the transfer line design. The subcooler design described in the 'Design Report of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid for the Fermilab D0 Detector Upgrade' is the final design proposed. A short description of this design follows. The subcooler is constructed of 0.50-inch OD copper tubing with 1.0-inch diameter fins. It has ten and one half spirals at a 11.375-inch centerline diameter to provide 31 feet of tubing length. The liquid helium supply for the solenoid flows through the subcooler and then is expanded through a J-T valve. The subcooler spirals are immersed in the return two phase helium process stream. The return stream is directed over the finned tubing by an annulus created by a 10-inch pipe inside a 12-inch pipe. The transfer line from the refrigerator to the control dewar is constructed such that the liquid helium supply tube is in the refrigerator return stream, thereby subcooling the liquid up to the point where the u-tubes connect the transfer line to the control dewar. The subcooler within the control dewar will remove the heat picked up in the helium supply u-tube/bayonets. The attached subcooler/heat exchanger calculations were done neglecting any subcooling in the transfer line. All heat picked up in the transfer line from the refrigerator storage dewar to the control dewar is absorbed by the supply stream. The subcooler was sized such that the two phase supply fluid is subcooled at 1.7 atm pressure and when expanded through a JT valve to 1.45 atm pressure it is at a saturated liquid state. The calculations apply during steady state operation and at a flow rate of 16 g/s. The analysis of the heat exchanger was broken into two parts relating to the heat transfer mode taking place. The first part is considered the condensing part in which the helium supply stream is changed from two phase fluid to one phase liquid. The second part is the subcooling part where the liquid temperature is lowered, i.e.. subcooled. A summary of the calculations and results appears on the next page. The raw calculations follow the summary.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

418

Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

Graham, E. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

420

Thermodynamic Efficiency of Heat Exchange Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is defined for heat exchange devices. The efficiency can be simply written in terms of the mean absolute temperature levels of the two fluids exchanging heat, and an appropriate environment temperature. It is also shown that for a given ratio of hot to cold...

Witte, L. C.; Shamsundar, N.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

Lee, S.; King, W.

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

423

Speed control with end cushion for high speed air cylinder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high speed air cylinder in which the longitudinal movement of the piston within the air cylinder tube is controlled by pressurizing the air cylinder tube on the accelerating side of the piston and releasing pressure at a controlled rate on the decelerating side of the piston. The invention also includes a method for determining the pressure required on both the accelerating and decelerating sides of the piston to move the piston with a given load through a predetermined distance at the desired velocity, bringing the piston to rest safely without piston bounce at the end of its complete stroke.

Stevens, Wayne W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Solbrig, Charles W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

425

Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

426

Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

427

Compressed Air Energy Storage System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the

Farzad A. Shirazi; Mohsen Saadat; Bo Yan; Perry Y. Li; Terry W. Simon

428

Metal-air battery assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to evaluate the present technical status of the zinc-air, aluminum/air and iron/air batteries and assess their potential for use in an electric vehicle. In addition, this report will outline proposed research and development priorities for the successful development of metal-air batteries for electric vehicle application. 39 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

Sen, R.K.; Van Voorhees, S.L.; Ferrel, T.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Making Compressed Air System Decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spawned an entire industry dedicated to manufacturing equipment designed to remove moisture, lubricant, particulate and vapor contaminants from compressed air. Purification equipment, such as air dryers and filters, are used alone or in combination... to reduce the amount of contaminants in the compressed air to the desired purity. All compressed ESL-IE-96-04-32 Proceedings from the Eighteenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 17-18, 1996 air purification equipment requires...

Porri, R. E.

430

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

Hollowell, C.D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Review: Integrating Climate, Energy and Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate, Energy and Air Pollution By Gary Bryner with RobertEnergy, and Air Pollution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MITClimate, Energy, and Air Pollution provides a well-

Toohey, David E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-470E-201 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For example, Air Pollution and Health Studies in theAssessment of Air Pollution and Health is illustrative inReview: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing

Bucher, Scott

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

436

Air Observe System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

438

Air cathode structure manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Air Pollution Socio-Economic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

Minnesota, University of

440

The Role of Filtration in Maintaining Clean Heat Exchanger Coils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of the study was to investigate the role of filtration in maintaining clean heat exchanger coils and overall performance. Combinations of 6 different levels of filtration (MERV 14, 11, 8, 6, 4, and no filter) and 4 different coils (an eight-row lanced-fin coil, HX8L), (an eight-row wavy-fin coil, HX8W), (a four-row lanced-fin coil, HX4L) and (a two-row lanced-fin coil, HX2L) were tested at 4 different air velocities (1.52, 2.03, 2.54,3.05 m/s (300, 400, 500, 600 ft/min)). The fouled conditions were obtained after injection of 600 grams of ASHRAE standard dust upstream of the filter/coil combination. This magnitude of dust is representative of a year of normal operation for an air conditioning system. The air-side pressure drops of the coils and filters and air-side heat transfer coefficients of the coils were determined from the measurements under the clean and fouled conditions. Depending upon the filter and coil test, the coil pressure drops increased in the range of 6%-30% for an air velocity at 2.54 m/s (500 ft/min). The impact was significantly greater for tests performed without a filter. The largest relative effect of fouling on pressure drop occurs for coils with fewer rows and having lanced fins. Coils with a greater number of rows can hold more dust so that a fixed amount of dust has a relatively smaller impact. The impact of fouling on air-side heat transfer coefficients was found to be relatively small. In some cases, heat transfer was actually enhanced due to additional turbulence caused by the presence of dust. The experimental results for pressure drops and heat transfer coefficients were correlated and the correlations were implemented within computer models of prototypical rooftop air conditioners and used to evaluate the impact of fouling on cooling capacity and EER. The equipment cooling capacity is reduced with fouling primarily because of a decrease in air flow due to the increase pressure drop rather than due to changes in h eat transfer coefficient. In most cases, the EER was reduced with fouling primarily due to increased fan power. However, the changes in EER were relatively small, in the range of 1%-9% (10%). For most cases, equipment having low efficiency filters had higher EER after fouling than equipment with high efficiency filters, because the high efficiency filter caused significantly higher pressure drops than the low efficiency filters. The extra filter pressure drop outweighed the reduced coil pressure drop after fouling. The impact of fan efficiency curves was also investigated in the study. The energy penalty associated with high efficiency filters was reduced considerably with higher efficiency fans. There is an energy penalty associated with the use of high efficiency filtration. However, the primary reason for selecting high efficiency filters for a particular application would be improved air quality. For HX8L, the quantity of dust passing through the coil with a MERV4 filter was approximately 30 times the dust passing the coil with a MERV14 filter. Without an upstream filter, the quantity of dust passing through the coil was approximately 60 times the value for a MERV14 filter.

Li Yang; James E. Braun; Eckhard A. Groll

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2002-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

442

Oxidation Behavior of Mo-Si-B Alloys in Wet Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multiphase composite alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system are candidate materials for ultra-high temperature applications. In non load-bearing uses such as thermal barrier coatings or heat exchangers in fossil fuel burners, these materials may be ideally suited. The present work investigated the effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of Mo-Si-B phase assemblages. Three alloys were studied: Alloy 1 = Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub x} (T1)- MoSi{sub 2}- MoB, Alloy 2 = T1- Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} (T2)- Mo{sub 3}Si, and Alloy 3 = Mo- T2- Mo{sub 3}Si. Tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100C in controlled atmospheres of dry air and wet air nominally containing 18, 55, and 150 Torr H{sub 2}O. The initial mass loss of each alloy was approximately independent of the test temperature and moisture content of the atmosphere. The magnitude of these initial losses varied according to the Mo content of the alloys. All alloys formed a continuous, external silica scale that protected against further mass change after volatilization of the initially formed MoO{sub 3}. All alloys experienced a small steady state mass change, but the calculated rates cannot be quantitatively compared due to statistical uncertainty in the individual mass measurements. Of particular interest is that Alloy 3, which contains a significant volume fraction of Mo metal, formed a protective scale. All alloys formed varying amounts of subscale Mo and MoO{sub 2}. This implies that oxygen transport through the external silica scale has been significantly reduced. For all alloys, water vapor accelerated the growth of a multiphase interlayer at the silica scale/unoxidized alloy interface. This interlayer is likely composed of fine Mo and MoO{sub 2} that is dispersed within a thin silica matrix. Alloy 3 was particularly sensitive to water accelerated growth of this interlayer. At 1100 C, the scale thickness after 300 hours increased from about 20 mm in dry air to nearly 100 mm in wet air.

M. Kramer; A. Thom; O. Degirmen; V. Behrani; M. Akinc

2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

443

Performance of underfloor air distribution in a fieldsetting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) is a new method of supplying heated or cooled air throughout a building. Reported advantages of UFAD include energy savings and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). We measured several aspects of the performance of an UFAD system installed in a medium-size office building. The measured air change effectiveness was very close to unity, which is comparable to that measured in buildings with typical overhead air distribution. The pollutant removal efficiency for carbon dioxide was 13% higher than expected in a space with well-mixed air, suggesting a 13% reduction in exposures to occupant generated pollutants. The increase in indoor air temperatures with height above the floor was only 1 to 2 C. This amount of thermal stratification could reduce the sensible energy requirements for cooling of outdoor air by approximately 10%. The occupant's level of satisfaction with thermal conditions was well above average and this high satisfaction rating could possibly be due, in all or part, to the use of a UFAD system. The results of this study provide some evidence of moderate energy and IAQ-related benefits of UFAD. Before general conclusions are drawn, the benefits need to be confirmed in other studies.

Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.P.; Chao, C.; Wan, M.P.; Zagreus, L.; Webster, T.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibration in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers. In the nuclear industry, steam generators are often affected by this problem. However, flow-induced vibration is not limited to nuclear power plants, but to any type of heat exchanger used in many industrial applications such as chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning. Specifically, shell and tube type heat exchangers experience flow-induced vibration due to the high velocity flow over the tube banks. Flow-induced vibration in these heat exchangers leads to equipment breakdown and hence expensive repair and process shutdown. The goal of this research is to provide accurate measurements that can help modelers to validate their models using the measured experimental parameters and thereby develop better design criteria for avoiding fluid-elastic instability in heat exchangers. The research is divided between two primary experimental efforts, the first conducted using water alone (single phase) and the second using a mixture of air or steam and water as the working fluid (two phase). The outline of this report is as follows: After the introduction to fluid-elastic instability, the experimental apparatus constructed to conduct the experiments is described in Chapter 2 along with the measurement procedures. Chapter 3 presents results obtained on the tube array and the flow loop, as well as techniques used in data processing. The project performance is described and evaluated in Chapter 4 followed by a discussion of publications and presentations relevant to the project in Chapter 5, while the conclusions and recommendations for future work are presented in Chapter 6.

Catton, Ivan; Dhir, Vijay K.; Alquaddoomi, O.S.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Adinolfi, Pierangelo

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

445

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Exchange effects in magnetized quantum plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics including the Coulomb exchange interaction to magnetized quantum plasmas. We consider a number of wave phenomenon under influence of the Coulomb exchange interaction. Since the Coulomb exchange interaction affects longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal waves we focus our attention to the Langmuir waves, Trivelpiece-Gould waves, ion-acoustic waves in non-isothermal magnetized plasmas, the dispersion of the longitudinal low-frequency ion-acoustic waves and low-frequencies electromagnetic waves at $T_{e}\\gg T_{i}$ . We obtained the numerical simulation of the dispersion properties of different types of waves.

Trukhanova, Mariya Iv

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Application of a Rule-Based Model to Estimate Mercury Exchange for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, 1664 N Virginia Street, MS 370 interacting factors, including Hg concentration and speciation in the soil, light, temperature, soil moisture-canopy exchange mod- eled as functions of temperature and solar radiation, and transpiration rates

Weisberg, Peter J.

449

Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydraulic Properties of Rice and the Response of Gas Exchange to Water Stress1 Volker Stiller*, H.R.L.) We investigated the role of xylem cavitation, plant hydraulic conductance, and root pressure-specific photosynthetic rate, leaf diffusive conductance, and soil-leaf hydraulic conductance that were associated

Stiller, Volker

450

Air Risk Information Support Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

Effective Rate Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

452

Electrically Controlled Anion Exchange Based on Polypyrrole and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Controlled Anion Exchange Based on Polypyrrole and Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite for Perchlorate Removal . Electrically Controlled Anion Exchange Based on Polypyrrole and Carbon...

453

Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery using mixed radiant and convective heat transfer Light weight and economical exhaust heat exchanger for waste heat recovery...

454

Exploration Best Practices and the OpenEI Knowledge Exchange...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Exchange Webinar Exploration Best Practices and the OpenEI Knowledge Exchange Webinar slide presentation by Katherine Young, Timothy Reber and Kermit Witherbee on April 11, 2012....

455

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board...

456

Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014 | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Calls Fall 2014 Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014 Better Buildings Residential Network, Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Fall 2014. Lessons Learned: Peer...

457

Better Buildings Residential Network: Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Better Buildings Residential Network: Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Better Buildings Residential Network: Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls Better Buildings Residential...

458

2012 National Trainers' Exchange for Department of Energy Safety...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

TN. Over 100 participants attended the Trainers' Exchange to share and exchange best practices and techniques on how to create more effective and empowering training. The...

459

Enhanced Component Performance Study: Air-Operated Valves 19982012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of air-operated valves (AOVs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). Results (beta distributions for failure probabilities upon demand and gamma distributions for rates) are used as inputs to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission standardized plant analysis risk models of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The AOV failure modes considered are failure-to-open/close, failure to operate or control, and spurious operation. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the AOV results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified in two areas: AOV operation demands less than or equal to 20 demands per year and greater than 20 demands.

T. E. Wierman

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Reducing Air Compressor Work by Using Inlet Air Cooling and Dehumidification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These compressors can account for a significant portion of a manufacturing facility?s electric consumption and any increase in efficiency can lead to economic benefits. Air compressors are sensitive to ambient conditions, as evidenced by the fact... fall as low as 20% below their 4 rated generation capacity (standard ISO power output at 59?F ambient) when temperatures are over 95?F. Further, warmer days result in increased electric power demand due to the need for household cooling. In order...

Hardy, Mark James

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Adaptive systems for foreign exchange trading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Cambridge, and Dr Mark Austin and Dr Stacy Williams, both of HSBC Global Markets, outline the results- niques in foreign exchange markets for a number of years. Over 18 months a joint project with HSBC Global

Fernandez, Thomas

463

Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous LithiumAir Batteries:...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous LithiumAir Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous LithiumAir Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

465

Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Configuring Entourage 2008 w/ Exchange Web Services. Note: These instruction assume that the Exchange Web Services (EWS) Update , also known as Entourage 13.0, has already been

Blackwell, Keith

466

Integrated Approach to Revamping Heat Exchangers Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geometry configurations for a given set of process conditions. Develop simulation model (in Aspen Plus) incorporating rigorous heat exchanger (Aspen Hetran) models for the 1) Validate existing preheat train performance & evaluate the existing and de...-bottlenecked cases de-bottlenecked performance Initiate pinch analysis (using Aspen Pinch) directly 2) Determine feasible energy saving from (Aspen Plus) simulation results Heat exchanger network pinch analysis (using Aspen Pinch) incorporating rigorous (Aspen...

Glass, K. E.; Dhole, V.; Wang, Y.

467

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimised if the temperature driving force is maximised. The design should therefore seek to minimise the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept... Reboiler not always possible (e.g. one part of a unit may be running at reduced load). Result: installed steam driven unit required to ensure integrity or heat recovery not used. Low temperature driving force Operation at low temperature driving force...

Polley, G. T.

468

Exchange Visitors Program | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitors Program Exchange Visitors Program The

469

The measured energy impact of air leakage on a house  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+mC. &(1 ? e) (3. 13) 2p and, we have UA( 7'mdoor 7'ouldoor ) Auolor solar = ( power (3 14) Asplar is deduced from the test in which the house has no air leakage, i e. , when UA = UAp In this case, A~ala~ =17Ap fu (3 ?) 7 ? 7' uuloor ouuioor where j...) & power i. e. , UAp- Ti udoor ? Touidoor ? f u 7 solar (3. 18) 21 Then UA can be determined as o&rer + VAtkfi (sol&rr UA = To&door 7 oai&ioor (3 19) 3. 2. 3. Infiltration Heat Exchange Effectiveness, IIIEE and energy saving ratio, ttc...

Vaidya, Shilpa Arvind

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

Butcher, T.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

473

Safeguarding indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

QKD with finite resources: secret key rates via Rnyi entropies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A realistic Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over R\\'enyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.

Silvestre Abruzzo; Hermann Kampermann; Markus Mertz; Dagmar Bru

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

476

Directly connected heat exchanger tube section and coolant-cooled structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling apparatus for an electronics rack is provided which includes an air-to-liquid heat exchanger, one or more coolant-cooled structures and a tube. The heat exchanger, which is associated with the electronics rack and disposed to cool air passing through the rack, includes a plurality of distinct, coolant-carrying tube sections, each tube section having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet, one of which is coupled in fluid communication with a coolant loop to facilitate flow of coolant through the tube section. The coolant-cooled structure(s) is in thermal contact with an electronic component(s) of the rack, and facilitates transfer of heat from the component(s) to the coolant. The tube connects in fluid communication one coolant-cooled structure and the other of the coolant inlet or outlet of the one tube section, and facilitates flow of coolant directly between that coolant-carrying tube section of the heat exchanger and the coolant-cooled structure.

Chainer, Timothy J; Coico, Patrick A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

478

A study on an air-water Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-phase two-component Stirling engine using an air-water mixture as a working fluid is presently constructed and tested. This choice of working fluid, instead of usually adopted gases such as hydrogen and helium, is aimed to realize a high volumetric efficiency by high heat transfer coefficients of evaporation and condensation in the heat exchangers. Based upon the results of the performance test of the engine, the effects of the air-water mixture ratio and the heat input are mainly studied and discussed. It is concluded that using a condensable working fluid is an effective measure to improve the performance of the Stirling engine for a comparatively low temperature heat source.

Akayawa, H.; Hirata, M.; Kasayi, N.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown, failure, and...

480

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes for combustion environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in an air plus water vapor and a N2/O2/CO2 plus water vapor environment. Temperatures ranged from 200? to 700?C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature and process environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Eden, David A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air exchange rate" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

483

Oklahoma Clean Air Act (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes the authority for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to administer programs to maintain and monitor air quality across Oklahoma. The Department monitors...

484

Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

485

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

486

Subantarctic Mode Water formation : air-sea fluxes and cross-frontal exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Front in the southeast Pacific Ocean, with mean profilesCO2 in the Pacific ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16.surface layer in the Pacific ocean. J. Geophysical Research-

Holte, James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

Golbraikh, Ephim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Subantarctic Mode Water formation : air-sea fluxes and cross-frontal exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

remote sensing data. The Kelly latent and sensible heatRemote Sensing Obser- vations (J-OFURO), Kelly, OAFlux, and the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE). The heat

Holte, James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Subantarctic Mode Water formation : air-sea fluxes and cross-frontal exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

doi:10.1029/2000GL011601. Beal, L. M. , Chereskin, T. K. ,and later for the Agulhas by Beal et al. (2006). Studies ofthe PV gradient. Similarly, Beal et al. (2006) found that a

Holte, James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Application of high temperature air heaters to advanced power generation cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments in ceramic composite materials open up the possibility of recuperative air heaters heating air to temperatures well above the feasible with metal tubes. A high temperature air heater (HTAH) has long been recognized as a requirement for the most efficient MHD plants in order to reach high combustor flame temperatures. The application of gas turbines in coal-fired plants of all types has been impeded because of the problems in cleaning exhaust gas sufficiently to avoid damage to the turbine. With a possibility of a HTAH, such plants may become feasible on the basis of air turbine cycles, in which air is compressed and heated in the HTAH before being applied to turbine. The heat exchanger eliminates the need for the hot gas cleanup system. The performance improvement potential of advanced cycles with HTAH application including the air turbine cycle in several variations such as the DOE program on ``Coal-Fired Air Furnace Combined Cycle...,`` variations originated by the authors, and the MHD combined cycle are presented. The status of development of ceramic air heater technology is included.

Thompson, T R [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)] [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Boss, W H; Chapman, J N [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.] [Tennessee Univ., Tullahoma, TN (United States). Space Inst.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Control in Waste Air Biotrickling Filters by Protozoan Predation Huub H. J. Cox, Marc A as a means of biomass control. Wet biomass for- mation in 23.6-L reactors over a 77-day period was reduced in the biotrickling filter enriched with protozoa. The lower rate of biomass accumulation after the addi- tion

495

Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Short GRBs: Rates and luminosity function implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compare the luminosity function and rate inferred from the BATSE short hard bursts (SHBs) peak flux distribution with the redshift and luminosity distributions of SHBs observed by Swift/HETE II. The Swift/HETE II SHB sample is incompatible with SHB population that follows the star formation rate. However, it is compatible with a distribution of delay times after the SFR. This would be the case if SHBs are associated with the mergers of double neutron star (DNS) systems. DNS may be ``primordial'' or can form dynamically by binary exchange interaction in globular clusters during core collapse. The implied SHB rates that we find range from \\sim 8 to \\sim 30h_(70)^3 Gpc^(-3)yr^(-1). This rate is a much higher than what was previously estimated and, when beaming is taken into account, it is comparable to the rate of neutron star mergers estimated from statistics of binary pulsars. If GRBs are produced in mergers the implied rate practically guarantees detection by LIGO II and possibly even by LIGO I.

Dafne Guetta

2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

497

Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wang, L.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20C air at a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80°C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20°C air at a pressure of 90kPa. The valve is opened, and air flows into the tank. Determine the final temperature of the air in the tank and the mass of air that enters the tank if the valve is left

Huang, Haimei

499

Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the impacts on air pollution and health of urban areaas a proxy for air pollution health effects (Bennett etFuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The

Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z