National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioning systems

  1. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  2. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed...

  3. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system...

  4. Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to realize the optimization of the air-conditioning system operation. Although set values of air-conditioning systems are usually fixed, variable setting values are used in this study. It is possible that less energy consumption...

  5. Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System Selection for Hot & Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties of selecting direct expansion (DX) air conditioning systems to dehumidify conditioned spaces in hot & humid climates. It is a common opinion among designers that concerns of humidity control are best...

  6. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  7. Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The control system of central air-conditioning, based on PMV, not only improves thermal comfort but also reduces system energy consumption. A new thermal comfort degree softsensor model is built via use of the CMAC neural network nonlinear...

  8. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

  9. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger...

  10. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  11. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  12. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning. Modifications to the air-conditioning system and some advanced air conditioning systems are introduced, which are helpful for system optimization. In this paper, based on analysis of the characteristics of the air - conditioning system in foreign high speed...

  13. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    -driven water chiller. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated and tested. A field experiment unit has been operating since August, 1986, and seven field test units have been operating since April, 1987. The performance of the system has been...

  14. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  15. The effect on hospital air-conditioning system operation of soiled system elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Air-Conditioning systems in a hospital are a crucial element in maintaining a safe and healthy environment. A clean, adequate supply of air is generally provided in the initial construction of the facility or during space remodeling. The presence of dirt or lint on the elements of the air-conditioning system reduces the available air volume and reduces the effectiveness of the heat exchanger surfaces. The ability of the air system to absorb moisture is also impaired and results in fogging and other moisture problems. This paper reviews (1) methods of identifying the condition and cleanliness of hospital air-conditioning systems; (2) methods of cleaning the elements of the hospital air-conditioning system; and (3) the effects on performance of dirt and lint in hospital air-conditioning systems.

  16. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

  17. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  18. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  19. Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

  20. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According ...

  1. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain

  2. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  3. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  4. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  5. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  6. Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, G.

    2006-01-01

    equation model and two equation model. At present, k-? model is mostly adopted in indoor airflow[4]. Researches[5-6] obtained reliable results from applying k-? model in numerical simulation of three dimensional airflow field of air conditioning... of the task conditioning system. Key words: task air conditioning; numerical simulation; airflow; HDG; VDG; microenvironment 1. INTRODUCTION Total-volume ventilation and air conditioning of rooms are most used at present. Rooms are used...

  7. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  8. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01

    As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new...

  9. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  10. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  11. The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning units in residential buildings, and are using the central air-conditioning system in residential buildings. To determine the best air conditioning mode, a residential tower building with 22 layers was chosen for analysis. The advantages and disadvantages...

  12. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  13. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  14. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  15. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  16. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01

    algorithm (GA ) has special advantages in tackling this problem based on its inherent characteristics.Genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted and applied in the optimal design of air-conditioning water system in this study. A mathematical model and constrained...

  17. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  18. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  19. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  20. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  1. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  2. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  3. Critical analysis of thermodynamic cycle modeling of adsorption cooling systems for light-duty vehicle air conditioning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    -duty vehicle air conditioning applications Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Keywords: Adsorption cooling system Vehicle air conditioning Thermodynamic cycle Fully dynamic modeling a b different operating conditions for light-duty vehicles air conditioning applications. Available ACS

  4. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  5. An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning for estimation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems using on Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

  6. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  7. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01

    , Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System... 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air- conditioning systems reaches up to 12...

  8. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01

    that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat...

  10. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  11. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining ...

  12. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  13. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics...

  14. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

  16. Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ) for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration (A/C­R) applications. Adsorber beds should be specificallyAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Conversion

  17. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  18. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  19. Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one...

  20. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  1. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was ...

  2. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  3. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  4. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01

    To address the issue of the substantial energy cost and operating cost of an all-return air system for a clean room, we changed the former system to a 2nd return air system. With the newest building energy simulation program, Energy Plus, we...

  5. INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    with thermal decay and stratification. The development ofUFAD systems, room air stratification and thermal decay (Leeno thermal decay) UF – Increased stratification + common

  6. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, EuropeanIn the case of the all-air system, cooling load matches the

  7. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  8. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  9. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  10. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  11. DEST Software to Analyze System Zoning and Energy Consumption in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on how to appropriately divide system zoning by using DeST software to calculate the basis dynamic temperature and load of all rooms in an office building. Influent factors of weather conditions, building envelope...

  12. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  13. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  14. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01

    ? [k W h] E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /y e a r? 12,000 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 0 Outdoor air-conditioning unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit A Humidity Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Outdoor air-conditioning unit A Humidity... Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Developed system onventional system E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800...

  15. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1990.

  16. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    . Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning...

  17. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    2009-01-01

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  18. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  19. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  20. Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

    2006-01-01

    in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy...

  1. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    air conditioning systems used in the automotive industry are based on vapour-compression refrigeration major challenge facing the automotive industry. Currently, R-134a is being used, almost in all vehicles. Perform a literature review and describe the state-of-the-art for A/C in automotive industry, for both

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  4. Experiment on TiO2/AC Photocatalysis Technique to Eliminate Toluene in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Y.; Feng, G.; Yuan, Q.

    2006-01-01

    system to control indoor environmental conditions. The influences of the absorption characteristics of active carbon and TIO2 photocatalytic oxidation on decomposing toluene are tested. The efficiencies of three kinds of purification webs to purify high...

  5. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  6. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01

    EFFICIENCY DIAGNOSIS AND POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM AIR- CONDITIONING SYSTEM Lecturer : Rong-Jiang Ma School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University Beijing, China September 14-17, 2014 ICEBO2014 - 2014 International... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-14-09-21a Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Outline ICEBO2014 - 2014 International Conference for Enhanced Building...

  7. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  8. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  9. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  10. Influence of Fault and Optimization of PID Parameters in Building Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyoshi, K.; Akashi, Y.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    [s] APPROPRIATE 1 30 FAULT 20 30 Table 2. PID Parameters Of VWV 2-way Valve For Experiment Figure 5. Experiment Results 0 5 10 15 20 25 (a)Outside & room temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 10 20 30 40 500 60 Elapsed time[min] Room... opening deg.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 30 35 40 (c)Supply air temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 0 Supply air temp.(appropriate case) Supply air temp.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 0 20 40 60 80 100 (d...

  11. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  12. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  13. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  14. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01

    . Historic energy-use data and field-measured performance data are analyzed. The importance of certain design and operating parameters such as indoor airflow quantity, cooling coil apparatus dew-point temperature and the air-handling unit's fan operating...

  15. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    conditions, therefore, no heat transmission through buildingto the conductive heat transmission through the building3-5. Table 3 compares the heat transmission through building

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  17. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

  18. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  19. Research Positionsfor Development of Novel Green Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems for Transportation Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    in refrigeration and heat pump systems, HVAC, porous media development/characterization, transport phenomena of compact and lightweight heat exchangers for evaporator and condenser; v) Development of heatdriven storage for service vehicles; vii) Development of sustainable hybrid A/C systems featuring desiccant

  20. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    A utility monitoring project has evaluated radiant barrier systems (RBS) as a new potential demand site management (DSM) program. The study examined how the retrofit of attic radiant barriers can be expected to alter utility residential space...

  1. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01

    requirement of building up diagnosis system. (4) State trend analyses can detect the fault of diagnosis equipment beforehand, and detect the kind of fault according to the historical log. REFERENCES [1] Hui XIE. A Study On The Monitoring And Fault... REASONING METHODS OF FAULT DIAGNOSIS Conflict recognition, alternate generation, local diagnosis, restriction separating, optimal measure point and state trend analysis are used in the process of diagnosis by esoteric knowledge in AFTDT system so...

  2. Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    .9 is targeted. A.G.A. Laboratories is wor!cin~ with Thermo King Corporation to develop a 15-ton rooftop package based on Thermo King's truck-trailer refrigeration system. Thermo King has manufactured engine- driven tefrigeration systems for 48 years and has.../kw) Summor, 1985 Rator, Largo Commorclal Bulldlngr. No Taxor or Surchargor Includod L-W3211.08 Ratchet Charger Applicable SENSITIVITY TO GAS PRICE Electric Energy Cost (*/kwh) - - ~pp Sb Boas Cora Aaaumptlona: Fhrt Cort Premlum: S30/Ton Gar Englne...

  3. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  4. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of health services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    55476 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased5-14-04 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increasedof office buildings with air-conditioning systems (e.g. ,

  5. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT EquipmentControl of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT equipmentcontrol computer room air conditioning. The data provided

  6. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  7. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  8. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way — with heat.

  9. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards Drive Improvements As air conditioning use soared in the 1970s, the energy crisis hit. In response, lawmakers passed laws to reduce energy consumption across...

  10. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  11. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. Air-Source Heat Pumps...

  12. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  13. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  15. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

  16. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  17. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  18. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  19. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will require more energy to cool your house. A preferable alternative is a dehumidifying heat pipe, which can be added as a retrofit to most existing systems. Types of Central Air...

  20. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  1. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  2. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Research Director, PIER Demand Response Research CenterAssessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering, staffPower Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air

  3. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed ...

  4. Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ................................................1. Conditions at Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 .................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 ..............................Table 1

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  6. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01

    50% relati~e humi interest in evaporative cooling offers additional dity were usually viewed as dehumidifier jobs. means to curb the rising cost of conditioning air Those above 50% were thought to be best suited to for human or product comfort.... refrigeration. I In the market place below 50% relative humidity, the chemical dehumidifier ranged through the middle 1970 era, when energy cost became a painful reality. We began to research energy reduction means, as When manufacturing areas require...

  7. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  8. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water...

  9. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  10. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  11. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  12. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  13. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  14. Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

  15. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  16. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  17. Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Energy consumption of HVAC systems in commercial buildings takes a great part of the total building energy consumption. Energy performance evaluation plays an important role in building energy efficiency improvement for existing buildings and new...

  18. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  19. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  20. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  1. In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS, especially during peak hours. In addition to solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, the system includes an ice

  2. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  3. Investigation of Feasibility of All-Fresh Air Supply in an All-Air System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of an all-fresh air supply in an all-air system is investigated in theory, and the problem of AHU-handling air in low efficiency in summer and winter conditions is analyzed. The air supply temperature is almost up to standards when a...

  4. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  5. Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Justin George

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engi- neers. cz07ventilation, and air conditioning. ksan identifier for theon the Energy Use of Air Conditioning Equipment A Thesis

  6. Thermal comfort in naturally-ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms in the tropics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Alison G

    1997-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Elliot,Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Nicol,Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE.

  7. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  8. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  9. Compressed Air System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  10. D0 Instrument Air System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-09-15

    The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

  11. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  12. Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Ram Venkataraman

    Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions Rachelle L. McNeely and Ram V. Iyer Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1042 and Phillip R. Chandler U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright­Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7531 Graduate Student, Department of Mathematics

  13. 2300 SYSTEM Conditioning Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    2300 SYSTEM Signal Conditioning Amplifier 2310 Instruction Manual Vishay Micro-Measurements P date of shipment. Coverage of computers, cameras, rechargeable batteries, and similar items, sold on non-rechargeable batteries and similar consumable items is limited to the delivery of goods free from

  14. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  15. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  16. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  17. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  18. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    outside pump circulating heat transfer fluid air make-up inside exhaust 24 Cogged V Belts A major N.C. Manufacturer Tested 2-17 Months (yr 1985) .052KWH (.13 EP) 2700 Hours...

  19. K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant M-833Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing M-832Ambler is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution. K-7109 Agnew Hall 460 West Campus Dr M-2204 Air Conditioning Plant 344 Stanger St M-833 Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing 700 Washington St SW M-832 Ambler

  20. Magnus air turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Thomas F. (24204 Heritage La., Newhall, CA 91321)

    1982-01-01

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling combination apparatus of the invention. A reading of the complete specification is recommended for a full understanding of the principles and features of the disclosed system.

  1. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  2. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  3. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  4. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System...

  5. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc Bauman,conventional overhead (OH) air conditioning and underfloorair distribution, air conditioning, energy, peak demand,

  6. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  7. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  8. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  9. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial ...

  10. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load ...

  11. Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System......

  12. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  13. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  14. Understanding the Basics of Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Compressed air can be a manufacturing facilities' most expensive utility. Estimates and actual measurements of compressed air systems indicate ten to thirty-five percent of all compressed air generated is lost to leakage or improper use. Proper...

  15. ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response for Spinning Reserve 2008 Prepared by John D...........................................................................................................4 II. Air Conditioning Temperature Effect and High SEER Ratings .................................................................................................................10 IV. Use of Building Air Conditioning Models to Predict Load

  16. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the SNF. The auxiliary pit is being evaluated at this time for its usefulness to support other operations that may be needed to ensure proper conditioning of the SNF and proper storage of the vessel containing the SNF. Figures I and 2 contain map locations of the Hanford Site and the HCS Annex.

  18. Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome ...

  19. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    air distribution: Thermal stratification. ASHRAE Journalstratification is increased and temperatures near the ceiling rise, this condition aggra- vates the thermalthermal decay can be a problem. Properly controlled UFAD systems produce temperature stratification

  20. Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This training is designed to help end users as well as industry solution providers learn...

  1. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered...

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  3. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response. IModeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions Chin-Yao Chang, Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, and Karanjit Kalsi Abstract-- Demand-side control is playing an increasingly

  4. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

  5. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  6. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  7. Laboratory Air Handling Unit System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    balance and moisture balance are given below for the entire building. iQ G26 + hQ G26 + hgQ G26 = rQ G26 + CQ G26 + eQ G26 + ehQ G26 + envQ G26 (1) Where Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j... jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Figure 1. Schematic diagram of air handling unit system for base system ehMMMM G26G26G26G26 ++= (2) Where Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jMM G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jMM G26 ehWWWWWW G26G26G26G26...

  8. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  9. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  10. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  11. Case Study: The Effective Use of an Extensive Logical rule Based Data Analytics Approach in Establishing Root Cause of Performance Issues in Widespread Deployments of Unitary Space Air Conditioning Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, N.

    2013-01-01

    Today a significant percentage of office spaces are air conditioned using widely deployed unitary systems, either Fan Coil Units (FCU) or Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes, to achieve high degrees of air conditioned zonal control. However establishing...

  12. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  13. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  14. "Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  15. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  16. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  17. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  18. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  19. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  20. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  1. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  2. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  3. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  4. "Table HC14.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  5. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  6. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable...

  7. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  8. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  9. 2180, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2180, Page 1 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14 in Yashar and Lee (2013); they optimized the evaporator circuitry for a rooftop air- conditioning (RTU) unit;2180, Page 2 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

  10. Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions Xuhui Lee* School of Forestry state of knowledge about air ¯ow under ideal conditions (neutral to slightly unstable conditions knowledge of air motion in forest vegetation is a necessary step towards a better understanding of a number

  11. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  12. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  13. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  14. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  15. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy use in compressed air systems accounts for typically 10% of the total industrial electricity consumption. It also accounts for close to 99% of the CO2 footprint of an air compressor and approximately 80% of the life cycle costs of a...

  16. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building-thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all Team Members: Jing Cong Chen, Rong Xiang, Chen Ma, Wen Jie Li · Results demonstrate that solar air

  17. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . (Keywords: CFCs; refrigeration; air conditioning; insulation; ozone depletion) Utilisation des to this global environmental issue by signing for R22 were obtained from the Air Conditioning and the MontrealFILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air

  18. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01

    non-uniform so that residents usually feel uncomfortable. The distribution of indoor airflow by cold air distribution is researched in this paper. We study indoor air distribution under different low temperature air supply conditions by numerical...

  19. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Problem Statement...

  20. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems This presentation was delivered at the U.S....

  1. Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability Presented at the Department of...

  2. Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure...

  3. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  4. An Integrated Air Handling Unit System for Large Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated air handling unit system (OAHU) for large commercial buildings. The system introduces outside air into the interior section and circulates the return air to the exterior section. Detailed analytical models...

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  6. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  7. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  8. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  9. Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions

  10. Promising Technology: Variable-Air-Volume Ventilation System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) ventilation saves energy compared to a constant-air-volume (CAV) ventilation system, mainly by reducing energy consumption associated with fans.

  11. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  12. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  13. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance L. A-air conditions from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis database to estimate summer balance of South Cascade Glacier each error. The model relates summer balance linearly to temperature T > 0 C at 2000 m and to snow flux

  14. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  15. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

  16. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  17. OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS By TAECHEOL KIM Master of Science Oklahoma May, 2001 #12;ii OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS Thesis Approved Volume Systems ............................................. 5 1.2.2. Duct Design Methods

  18. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  19. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofSizing of the radiant system cooling equipment is highlycooling rate and air system cooling rate in this section. To

  20. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  1. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergy Air Barriers

  2. The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

    1967-01-01

    the grain mass. This air must be supplied with properties which will provide a potential driving force, such as enthalpy and vapor pressure, in order for heat and moisture to be transferred. In actual practice, grain temperature is of primary concern... of the entering air since there is only one specific humidity at which the mpor pressures are equal. To maintain moisture equilibrium, the specific humidity must be considered a( one property of the air condition which is required. The other property...

  3. Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

    1984-01-01

    conditioning system was combined with a desiccant air-conditioning unit with a waste heat and solar heat reclaim component. While this retrofit system is feasible, a number of questions remain to be considered regarding the design, installation and operation...

  4. A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over...

  5. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    , but also to provide a complete database of the airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces. Based on this analysis and the vast progress of computers and associated software, the artificial intelligent technique will be a competitor candidate...

  6. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  7. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  10. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Saint-Etienne France ABSTRACT Under atmospheric pressure condition and temperatures between 0°C and +12 behaviour. The experimental device is made up of a brushed surface heat exchanger in which the hydrates flow rates and pressure drops measurements. We obtain flow curves of hydrates slurries depending

  11. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  12. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  13. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  14. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  15. The Office Air Handling Unit versus the Two Dedicated Air Handling Unit System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    operation and control schedules. OAHU system Figure 1 shows the schematic of the OAHU system. The constant interior zone load is assumed. If the interior zone airflow ( ) is higher than the total outside air demand for the entire building... ( ), the OAHU system supplies minimum outside airflow to the building. Otherwise, the OAHU system supplies more outside air to decrease the mechanical cooling. Equation (2) and (3) present the optimal interior zone and exterior zone outside air intake...

  16. Laboratory testing of a displacement ventilation diffuser for underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Paul; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Epp, Tom

    2015-01-01

    decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: for an under floor air distribution system, Energy and of an underfloor air distribution system, Journal of Fluid 

  17. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  18. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    room air stratification and thermal comfort. INTRODUCTIONsuch as thermal decay and room air stratification, properlystratification and its implications on energy performance; 5) implications of system design and operation on thermal

  19. Makeup air systems energy-saving opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.K. (Anderson DeBartolo Pan, Inc., Tucson, AZ (US))

    1990-01-01

    Makeup air semiconductor clean spaces can vary from 1 cfm/ft{sup 2} (5.08 L/s {center dot} m{sup 2}) to 10 cfm/ft{sup 2} (50.81 L/s {center dot} m{sup 2}) and typically averages 5 cfm/ft{sup 2} (25.4 L/s {center dot} m {sup 2}). Accordingly, the energy requirements to cool, dehumidify, preheat, and/or humidify are significant and can represent 30% to 65% of the total thermal energy required to maintain a cleanroom environment. Because of high energy requirements, cost-effective means to reduce energy costs can influence unit production costs. The greatest opportunity for significant energy savings can be achieved by reducing or displacing mechanical cooling or fuel-generated heating requirements. The primary focus of this paper is to present and discuss various concepts of heat recovery, dual-temperature cooling, direct and indirect evaporative cooling, and heat rejection directed toward makeup air systems that can achieve these objectives. In addition, equipment-sizing considerations not necessarily applicable to systems that are less energy intensive or that operate continuously are explored.

  20. Transformations of Conditional Rewrite Systems (Extended Abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gramlich, Bernhard

    Transformations of Conditional Rewrite Systems Revisited (Extended Abstract) Karl Gmeiner and Bernhard Gramlich TU Wien, Austria, {gmeiner,gramlich}@logic.at We revisit known transformations for describing and classifying such transformations, discuss the major problems arising, pro- vide simplified

  1. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – how muchA.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation and+ paper 6,306 Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in

  2. Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air quality dependent ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air online 19 May 2015 Keywords: Ventilation control system Indoor air quality Indoor air pollution control Outdoor air quality Passenger health promotion Ventilation energy a b s t r a c t Indoor air quality (IAQ

  3. Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi"cation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi to lower the Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidi"cation provides only a marginal and pressure. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; Buildings; Air

  4. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F, Second Fig ABSTRACT. Upper-air conditions archived in the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis have been used cannot be determined, so the investigation is limited to examining relative changes in those upper air

  5. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I: Present Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality­Related Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I on meteorology and air quality conditions in Cal- ifornia by dynamically downscaling Parallel Climate Model (PCM: Present Time Simulation Analysis ZHAN ZHAO Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University

  6. ASHRAE $1000 Scholarship Application (02/26/2013) The Utah Chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Jur

    of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is offering multiple $1,000 scholarships automation or controls, heating, ventilating, refrigeration or air conditioning (HVAC) principles are invited

  7. General Guidelines for the Disposal of Refrigerators, Freezers, and other Refrigeration Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    not Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in dumpsters or in common working and nonworking household refrigeration units (refrigerators, freezers, window air conditioning

  8. Optimization of airport terminal-area air traffic operations under uncertain weather conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek

    2011-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Although Air Traffic Flow Management algorithms exist to schedule and route ...

  9. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  10. Guidelines for Selecting a Compressed Air System Service Provider

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    facilities in achieving greater reliability, improved quality control, and lower operating costs for their compressed air systems. The CAC encourages facilities to take a...

  11. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2008-01-01

    Air Systems, Paper #071 Energy efficiency improvements into increase industrial energy efficiency. As a result, morein use. Over time, energy efficiency decreases and the cost

  12. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  13. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  15. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  16. Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building Pressure Control in VAV Systems with Relief Air Fan Xiufeng Pang, Mingsheng Liu, PhD, P.E., Bin Zheng University of Nebraska, Lincoln—ESL 1110 So. 67 th St, Omaha, NE, 68182 Abstract Building pressure control is critical... to energy conservation and indoor air quality by preventing excessive infiltration or exfiltration. In the supply and the return/relief fan Air Handling Unit (AHU) system, better space pressurization can be achieved when return/relief fan operates...

  17. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  18. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  19. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    -savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning....

  20. Estimation of Lateral Distribution Function in Extensive Air Showers by Using AIRES Simulation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ahmed Al-Rubaiee; Ahmed Jumaah

    2013-05-25

    In this work the estimation of the lateral distribution function in Extensive Air showers was performed by using a system for air shower simulations which is called AIRES version 2.6 for different hadronic models like (QGSJET99, SIBYLL and SIBYLL1.6). The simulation was fulfilled in the high energy range (10^15-10^19 eV) for different primary particles like (gamma, protons and iron nuclei) for vertical showers. This simulation can be used to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated Extensive Air showers for charged particles that registered with different arrays.

  1. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  2. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  3. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  4. Avionics systems design for cooperative unmanned air and ground vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omelchenko, Alexander, 1968-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results of the design of avionics systems intended for use onboard unmanned air and ground vehicles, that are parts of a multi-vehicle system whose primary mission objective is to provide up-close ...

  5. Energy performance of air distribution systems part II: room air stratification full scale testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Lukaschek, Wolfgang; Dickeroff, Darryl; Bauman, Fred

    2007-01-01

    the DDR to exceed its rated airflow. Energy Performance ofEnergy Performance of UFAD Systems Part II: Room Air Stratification Full Scale Testing Airflow cfm/sf m³/(sm²) DDR

  6. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  7. Scalability of the Air Transportation System and Development of Multi-Airport Systems: A Worldwide Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnefoy, Philippe

    With the growing demand for air transportation and the limited ability to increase capacity at some key points in the air transportation system, there are concerns that in the future the system will not scale to meet demand. ...

  8. Scalability of the air transportation system and development of multi-airport systems : a worldwide perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnefoy, Philippe A

    2008-01-01

    With the growing demand for air transportation and the limited ability to increase capacity at some key points in the air transportation system, there are concerns that in the future the system will not scale to meet demand. ...

  9. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  11. Improved Air Volume Control Logic for VAV Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Claridge, D. E.; Sakuri, Y.; M. Liu

    2000-01-01

    In a VAV (variable air volume) system, the set point of the static pressure (usually measured at 213 downstream of the main supply air duct) is maintained by modulating the fan speed or inlet guide vane position. The set point of the static pressure...

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  13. Iterative Optimal and Adaptive Control of a Near Isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    /expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the one in the Com- pressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [2], [5]. In the proposed CAES system, high pressure (20-30MPa) compressed air is stored

  14. Decision support systems for automated terminal area air traffic control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararas, John Demetrios

    1982-01-01

    This work studies the automation of the terminal area Air Traffic Management and Control (ATM/C) system. The ATM/C decision-making process is analyzed and broken down into a number of "automation functions". Each of these ...

  15. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    many facilities. Almost every industrial plant, from a small machine shop to an immense pulp and paper mill, has some type of compressed air system. In many cases, the compressed...

  16. Ground facilities for a VTOL intercity air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen Edward

    1970-01-01

    Introduction: This study covers the design of ground facilities, or metroports, for a future form of short haul intercity air transportation, the VTOL Airbus system as described by previous M.I.T. Flight Transportation ...

  17. Concepts studies for future intracity air transportation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint DOT-NASA Civil Aviation Research and Development Policy Study.; United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Flight Transportation Laboratory

    1970-01-01

    Summary: This report is concerned with describing the possible application of future air transportation systems within urban areas of the United States. The planning horizon extends to 1995 and the report focuses on the ...

  18. The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    it suitable for solvent recovery. Thi s unit util i zes ai r foil beari ngs. to recover the heat for useful purposes. It is easy Over the past several years they have sold. these for the air cycle system to return the solvent lean uni ts to condense... CYCLE SOLVENT RECOVERY SYSTEM Bryce J. Fox 3M Company St. Paul, ABSTRACT The required temperature and technique for condensing common industrial solvents from the exhaust air of drying ovens is explained. ?:The benefits of the Air Cycle...

  19. Air Pollution Accountability and Compliance Tracking System (A-PACT System)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Pollution Accountability and Compliance Tracking System (A-PACT System) Andrew Keller and emissions regulations for aircraft at major airports. The proposed Air Pollution Accountability regulatory authorities in making their decisions. (Abstract) Keywords-air pollution; aviation; data mining I

  20. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarry, B.T. [Keen Engineering Co., Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  1. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moncelle, Michael E. (Bloomington, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  2. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  3. Compressed Air System Control Strategies; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Understand your system require- ments by developing a pressure and a demand profile before investing in...

  4. Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    during its lifetime. In addition, plant personnel did not inspect the system's condensate traps regularly. These traps were of a type that clogged easily, which prevented the...

  5. Reproducibility of the airway response to an exercise protocol standardized for intensity, duration, and inspired air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive of asthma.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofair conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofhas not been reported in subjects being evaluated with mild

  6. Modeling of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Buhl, Fred; Daly, Allan

    2008-01-01

    P. Linden, 2008. “The EnergyPlus UFAD Module. ” ProceedingsProject: Special Version of EnergyPlus for York Test RoomSystems using the EnergyPlus Simulation Software. ” Master’s

  7. Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beerer, Ingrid Mary

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

  8. Simulation of the secondary air system of aero engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutz, K.J.; Speer, T.M. (MTU Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Muenchen GmbH, Munich (Germany))

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes a computer program for the simulation of secondary air systems. Typical flow system elements are presented, such as restrictors, tappings, seals, vortices, and coverplates. Two-phase flow as occurring in bearing chamber vent systems is briefly discussed. An algorithm is described for the solution of the resulting nonlinear equations. The validity of the simulation over the engine operation envelope is demonstrated by a comparison with test results.

  9. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air...

  10. Advantages of enhanced synchronous motors in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morash, R.T. [Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new synchronous motor is a high-efficiency AC machine that has a low starting current. It may be used for conventional loads and also to start high inertia loads, delivering a constant torque during starting. Acceleration to synchronous speed can be allowed to take several minutes, if necessary, because the low starting current precludes excessive heating in the motor. Some of these motors are constructed with integral high inertia rotors that act as flywheels. These synchronous motors can ride through power sags and interruptions up to 30 seconds or more while still delivering useful load to pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors. The motors also restart instantly and resynchronize when utility power recovers. The motor can be useful in many heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) applications including those where machines and processes might otherwise be forced to shut down during momentary power interruptions.

  11. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  13. High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    High Altitude Unmanned Air System for Atmospheric Science Missions A. S´obester , S. J. Johnston and processing atmospheric observations across a range of altitudes. We consider the aeronautical a specified block of airspace. I. The Need for Wide Altitude Range Atmospheric Observations The ability

  14. Experimental comparison of zone cooling load between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    be used for radiant system cooling load, which should beKeyword Radiant Cooling System, Cooling load, Air system,guidance on radiant system cooling load prediction and

  15. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH), Four Pipe Fan Coil Unit (FC), Four Pipe Induction Unit (FI), and Single Zone (SZ) Systems, Revised June 2002 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), ...

  18. Saving Energy in Industrial Compressed Air Systems: Issues and Obstacles in DSM Program Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trojanowski, D.; Parfomak, P.

    1993-01-01

    Compressed air systems are among the most common and least efficient electrical end uses in industrial plants. Over 50% of plants use compressed air systems. According to various estimates, between 20% and 35% of the energy used in these systems...

  19. System transition : dynamics of change in the US air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L. (Aleksandra Ludmila), 1979-

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Transportation System is currently facing a number of challenges including an increasing demand for travel and growing environmental requirements. In order to successfully meet future needs, the system will need ...

  20. Feedback Model of Air Transportation System Change: Implementation Challenges for Aviation Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L.

    The U.S. air transportation system faces substantial challenges in implementing new aviation information systems to meet future demand. These challenges need to be understood and addressed in order to successfully meet ...

  1. With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air quality implications of a changing climate.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air?" noting that ". . . changing climatic conditions could significantly affect the air quality in some quality implications of a changing climate. D iscussion of the potential sensitivity of air quality

  2. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  3. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K. (Chicago, IL); Burra, Rajni K. (Chicago, IL); Acharya, Kaustuva (Chicago, IL)

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  4. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  5. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  6. Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air temperature is the most important control parameter in air conditioning systems. It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor...

  7. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  8. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  9. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    the effect of heating and cooling system inefficiencies onwith inefficient heating and cooling systems in CaliforniaForced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems May 2002 Walker, I. ,

  10. A diagnostic system for air brakes in commercial vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar Ram

    2007-09-17

    ............. 14 4 The S-cam foundation brake ....................... 15 5 A schematic of the drum brake ..................... 16 6 A schematic of the experimental setup ................. 24 7 A sectional view of the treadle valve .................. 26 8 A layout... the disc brake and the drum brake. In this dissertation, the main focus will be restricted to air brake systems that use S-cam drum foundation brakes. A. Background and motivation The safety of vehicles operating on the road depends amongst other things...

  11. Method and system for monitoring environmental conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulesz, James J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lee, Ronald W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-16

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. At least one software agent is capable of changing the operation of at least one of the controllers in response to the detection of an anomaly by a sensor.

  12. Temporal Conditions and Integrity Constraints in Active Database Systems \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Ouri E.

    to specify conditions that involve both, events and database states, and their evolution over time. BasicallyTemporal Conditions and Integrity Constraints in Active Database Systems \\Lambda A. Prasad Sistla, for specifying conditions and events in the rules for active database sys­ tem. This language permits

  13. Compressed Air System Optimization Improves Production and saves energy at a Satellite Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    In 2001, a compressed air improvement project was implemented following an audit on the compressed air system at Boeing Satellite Systems (formerly Hughes Space & Communications Company) in Los Angeles, California.

  14. The integration of Automatic Speech Recognition into the Air Traffic Control system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson Joakim

    1990-01-01

    Today, the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system relies primarily on verbal communication between the air traffic controllers and the pilots of the aircraft in the controlled airspace. Although a computer system exists that ...

  15. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D.; Rodgers, John

    2000-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  16. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., each year over 1959^99. The rms error, 0.30mw.e. (r2 ^ 0.71), is com- parable to measurement error. The model relates summer balance linearly

  17. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

  19. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based on System Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2008-01-01

    plan, formulate energy efficiency goals and adopt energyGO-102004-1926 [3] Energy Efficiency and Market Potential ofImproving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based

  1. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals...

  2. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  3. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions forOptimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions forOptimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for

  4. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  5. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  6. Tracing Freshwater Anomalies Through the Air-Land-Ocean System: A Case Study from the Mackenzie River Basin and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinlun

    Tracing Freshwater Anomalies Through the Air-Land-Ocean System: A Case Study from the Mackenzie, Seattle, WA 98195 USA 3Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, National Snow and Ice-E and precipitation, recycled summer precipitation, and dry sur- face conditions immediately prior to the water year

  7. Performance Evaluation of Radiant Cooling System Integrated with Air System under Different Operational Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khare, Vaibhav [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Khan, Yasin [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building using a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. The energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.

  8. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA), Gentile; Ann C. (Dublin, CA), Marzouk; Youssef M. (Oakland, CA), Hale; Darrian J. (San Jose, CA), Thompson; David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  9. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-25

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  10. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-04

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  11. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    potential to use an air-side economizer, and through a lowpotential to use an air-side economizer, and through a low

  12. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  13. Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

    2006-01-01

    As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor...

  14. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  16. Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2002-01-01

    the indoor air quality, This paper presents modeling, optimization procedures and optimal airflow control sequences....

  17. Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several...

  18. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  19. Tuned intake air system for a rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, W.D.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine for an outboard board motor. It comprises a plenum chamber attached to the rear of the engine; and the plenum chamber including an inner wall attached to the exhaust manifold; an inlet conduit connecting the cooling air exit passage and the inlet air opening; an outlet conduit connecting the outlet air opening and the combustion air inlet; and the outlet conduit terminating in a combustion air outlet in the inner wall of the plenum chamber.

  20. An Analysis of the Dynamics of the US Commercial Air Transportation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Ryan

    Major trends in the airline industry are analyzed to highlight key dynamics that govern the US domestic air transportation system. The hypothesis is that air travel supply and demand equilibriums, a reliance on outside ...

  1. Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Compressed Air Management Program: A Performance Assessment Approach to Improving Industrial Compressed Air System Operation and Maintenance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qualmann, R. L.; Zeller, W.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Compressed Air Management Program (CAMP) provides Pacific Gas and Electric's (PG&E's) large industrial customers with measurement-based performance assessments of their compressed air systems. Under this program, the customer's system...

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical ManufacturingOperations -- Part I: Motors, Drives and Compressed Air Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chien; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet,Eric

    2006-04-01

    In Part I of this two-part series, we focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in the U.S. spend nearly $1 billion each year for the fuel and electricity they need to keep their facilities running (Figure 1, below). That total that can increase dramatically when fuel supplies tighten and oil prices rise, as they did last year. Improving energy efficiency should be a strategic goal for any plant manager or manufacturing professional working in the drug industry today. Not only can energy efficiency reduce overall manufacturing costs, it usually reduces environmental emissions, establishing a strong foundation for a corporate greenhouse-gas-management program. For most pharmaceutical manufacturing plants, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is typically the largest consumer of energy, as shown in Table 1 below. This two-part series will examine energy use within pharmaceutical facilities, summarize best practices and examine potential savings and return on investment. In this first article, we will focus on efficient use of motors, drives and pumps, both for process equipment and compressed air systems. Part 2, to be published in May, will focus on overall HVAC systems, building management and boilers.

  3. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    3-19 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling.17 3-51 The lighting energy consumption of a storage room is to be reduced by installing motion sensors lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  4. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based onSystem Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2007-06-01

    Industrial electric motor systems consume more than 600billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China selectricity use. The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimizing motor systems results in an improvement of 20-25 percent,which is well-supported by experience in both the U.S. and China.Compressed air systems in China use 9.4 percent of all electricity.Compressed air use in China is growing rapidly, as new industrial plantsare built and the production processes of existing plants expand andchange. Most of these systems, whether existing or new, are not optimizedfor energy efficiency. This paper will present a practitioner'sperspective on theemergence of compressed air auditing services inChina, specifically as it pertains to Shanghai and surrounding areas.Both the methodology used and the market development of these compressedair system services will be addressed. Finally, the potential for energysaving opportunities will be described based on highlights from over 50compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai EnergyConservation Service Center, both during the United Nations IndustrialDevelopment Organization (UNIDO) China Motor System Energy ConservationProgram, and after this training program was completed.

  5. Improving Compressed Air System Efficiency- Know What You Really Need 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrell, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Compressed air is often the most expensive utility in an industrial facility, and cost-effective efficiency opportunities in both the production and use of compressed air are often ignored by facility operators. Leaks, inappropriate uses...

  6. Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lied, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

  7. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  8. Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach for collision risk estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach explore the possibility of using air traffic complexity metrics to accelerate the Interacting Particle to assess the performance and impact of, e.g., possible modifications of the current air traffic management

  9. An Advanced Economizer Controller for Dual Duct Air Handling Systems - with a Case Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Heating penalty is expected when economizers are applied to dual-duct air handling systems. The heating penalty can even be higher than the cooling savings when the hot air flow is higher than the cold air flow. To avoid the excessive heating...

  10. An Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    are important for predicting pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). NAAQS pollutants, include CO, NO2, PM2.5, PM10, O3, and SO2, are considered deleterious to public health and airAn Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems 1

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertossi, Leopoldo

    Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental InformationENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

  12. MAQS: A Personalized Mobile Sensing System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dick, Robert

    -Fi fingerprints; (2) an air exchange rate based IAQ sensing method, which measures general IAQ using only CO2MAQS: A Personalized Mobile Sensing System for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring Yifei Jiang , Kun Li,omkar}@umich.edu, § dickrp@eecs.umich.edu ABSTRACT Most people spend more than 90% of their time in- doors; indoor air

  13. System implementation for US Air Force Global Theater Weather Analysis and Prediction System (GTWAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simunich, K.L.; Pinkerton, S.C.; Michalakes, J.G.; Christiansen, J.H.

    1997-03-01

    The Global Theater Weather Analysis and Prediction System (GTWAPS) is intended to provide war fighters and decision makers with timely, accurate, and tailored meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) information to enhance effective employment of battlefield forces. Of critical importance to providing METOC theater information is the generation of meteorological parameters produced by numerical prediction models and application software at the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC), Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. Ultimately, application-derived data will be produced by the regional Joint METOC Forecast Units and by the deployed teams within a theater. The USAF Air Staff contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for assistance in defining a hardware and software solution using off-the-shelf technology that would give the USAF the flexibility of testing various meteorological models and the ability to use the system within their daily operational constraints.

  14. Compressed Air System Upgrade Generates Significant Energy Savings at a Steel Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    In 1996, U.S. Steel completed a project in which the main compressed air system at their Edgar Thomson plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania was overhauled.

  15. Compressed Air Audits: A Holistic Approach -Addressing the Air System as a Whole 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaver, D.

    2011-01-01

    energy savings. The quality and comprehensiveness of manufacturing facilities, and therefore audits, vary widely and it is important to consider experience. Compressed Air Technologies has audited nearly 200 manufacturing facilities since our inception...

  16. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  17. Using System Pressure Control to Improve the Compressed Air System at Goulds Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caropolo, B.; Sember, P.; Glace, P.

    1998-01-01

    controller that will optimally schedule the set points of multiple compressor systems in response to demand for air in the plant has been undertaken at Goulds Pumps in Seneca Falls, New York. The project is cosponsored by the New York State Energy Research...

  18. A study of time-dependent responses of a mechanical displacement ventilation (DV) system and an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system : building energy performance of the UFAD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jong Keun

    2010-01-01

    climates, annual electricity consumption of UFAD is alwaysso the cooling electricity consumption has become importantsummers, the electricity consumption for air conditioning

  19. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.

  20. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  1. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Air-Conditioning

  2. Compressed Air System Analysis and Retrofit for Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, C.; Nutter, D.

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, high quality compressed air is a key component of that objective. The compressed air used in the manufacturing process at this facility is held to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) class 2 air quality standards.... The compressor room contained two wet storage tanks, with a total capacity of 1,800 gallons. A heated desiccant dryer with associated filters was also located in the compressor room. Dry air was sent into the plant to a 2,000 gallon dry storage tank, which...

  3. Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

  4. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  5. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak...

  6. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

  7. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    before proper dehumidification occurs, making the area feel "clammy" and uncomfortable. Central air-conditioning systems need to be sized by professionals. Explore our Energy...

  8. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  9. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Distortions of Experimental Muon Arrival Time Distributions of Extensive Air Showers by the Observation Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Haeusler; A. F. Badea; H. Rebel; I. M. Brancus; J. Oehlschlaeger

    2001-10-17

    Event-by-event measured arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) muons are affected and distorted by various interrelated effects which originate from the time resolution of the timing detectors, from fluctuations of the reference time and the number (multiplicity) of detected muons spanning the arrival time distribution of the individual EAS events. The origin of these effects is discussed, and different correction procedures, which involve detailed simulations, are proposed and illustrated. The discussed distortions are relevant for relatively small observation distances (R < 200 m) from the EAS core. Their significance decreases with increasing observation distance and increasing primary energies. Local arrival time distributions which refer to the observed arrival time of the first local muon prove to be less sensitive to the mass of the primary. This feature points to the necessity of arrival time measurements with additional information on the curvature of the EAS disk.

  11. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School..., AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Approved as to Style and Content: Chairman of Committee Head of Departm t + gkA4; August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The writer...

  12. Two-Baryon Systems with Twisted Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zohreh Davoudi

    2014-11-07

    I derive the most general quantization condition for energy eigenvalues of two interacting baryons in a finite cubic volume when arbitrary twisted boundary conditions are imposed on their finite-volume wavefunctions. These quantization conditions are used, along with experimentally known scattering parameters of two-nucleon systems in the coupled 3S1-3D1 channels, to demonstrate the expected effect of a selection of twisted boundary conditions on the spectrum of the deuteron. It is shown that an order of magnitude reduction in the finite-volume corrections to the deuteron binding energy arise in moderate volumes with a proper choice of boundary conditions on the proton and the neutron, or by averaging the result of periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions. These observations mean that a sub-percent accuracy can be achieved in the determination of the deuteron binding energy at (spatial) volumes as small as ~(9[fm])^3 in upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus with physical light-quark masses. The results reviewed in this talk are presented in details in Ref. [1].

  13. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of Air Conditioning for the SCX1 Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building. Following a market survey (MS-2937/ST/LHC) carried out among 115 firms in thirteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3046/ST/LHC) was sent on 26 March 2002 to 10 firms and two consortia in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders from six firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium DEMONT (IT) - GESCO (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building for a total amount of 649 319 euros (945 426 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-40%; DE-21%; GR-21%; SE-10%; FR-8%.

  14. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  16. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  17. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Chao Yong Eric J. Barth.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu ABSTRACT A high pressure combined air-fuel injection system is designed and tested for an experimental free the compressor's reservoir, and high pressure fuel to mix and then inject into a combustion chamber. This paper

  18. Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

    2004-09-30

    The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

  19. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  20. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  1. Identification of Communication and Coordination Issues in the U. S. Air Traffic Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davison, Hayley

    Today’s air traffic control system is approaching the point of saturation, as evidenced by increasing delays across the National Airspace System (NAS). There exists an opportunity to enhance NAS efficiency and reduce ...

  2. Recovering Energy with a Compressed Air System Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nipper, J.

    2014-01-01

    ESL-IE-14-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 ? Air Leak Surveys ? Nitrogen Leak Surveys ? Gas Leak Surveys ? Steam Leak Surveys ? Steam Trap Surveys ESL-IE-14... Chemical Energy’s Air and Steam leak surveys have helped clients all over the world shut down air compressors and boilers, resulting in saving our customers of dollars annually. Estimated Annual Savings Identified: $227,171,069.09 ESL-IE-14...

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and...

  4. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables heating, ventilation, and air conditioning integrated energy system

  5. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    and cost [ 1]. Fuel cell applications in automobiles arete d M fuel cell systems for vehicle applications, Journalof the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply

  6. Hollow-Fiber Membrane Compressed Air Drying System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the support of a NICE3 grant, a new hollow-fiber membrane for dehydrating gases has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. The membrane has 5 times higher water vapor permeation...

  7. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  8. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  9. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency...

  10. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  11. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I, on October 23, 2014.

  12. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing Building America Webinar: High Performance Space...

  13. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  14. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  15. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, E

    2013-01-01

    The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.

  16. "Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,51.7,43.9,2.5,0.7,1.6,3.1 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,41.1,34.8,2.1,0.5,1.2,2.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,10.6,9.1,0.4,"Q",0.3,0.6...

  17. "Table HC4.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  18. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,51.7,43.9,2.5,0.7,1.6,3.1 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,41.1,34.8,2.1,0.5,1.2,2.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,10.6,9.1,0.4,"Q",0.3,0.6...

  19. 2631, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at very low ambient temperatures. Oil injected into the compression chamber at the beginning injected oil mass fraction, especially at low ambient temperatures. Therefore, oil injection allows, the pressure ratio across the compressor in a heat pump system operating at very low ambient temperatures

  20. DRAFT: NONLINEAR CONTROLLER DESIGN WITH BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION FOR A NOVEL COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    regulation and gen- erator power tracking for a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system, a nonlinear major benefits of CAES systems are their low cost and long operation life. A novel CAES system has been factor of the system defined based on the generator size. Two main challenges in the proposed CAES system

  1. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  2. Designing the Future Energy System for Cleaner Air: A National Laboratory Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cale, J.

    2014-01-01

    of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. James Cale, Ph.D., Group Manager Distributed Energy Systems Integration (DESI) Power Systems Engineering Center... National Renewable Energy Laboratory Designing the Future Energy System for Cleaner Air: A National Laboratory Perspective ESL-KT-14-11-23 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 2DOE and National Laboratories 2...

  3. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  4. Energy performance of air distribution systems part II: room air stratification full scale testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Lukaschek, Wolfgang; Dickeroff, Darryl; Bauman, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Load components and solar) one at a time to determine impactto calibrate the solar gain term for one and two bank solarour testing to one setpoint, two solar load conditions with

  5. OLAF ---A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jörg

    OLAF --- A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air Polluting.2 The Air Dispersion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3 Ecology and Chemokinetics 17 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3 Meteorological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.4 Pollutant Data

  6. Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System. 1 Ayrton Bryan program under grant number 0754990 Introduction Ammonia (NH3) is an important atmospheric pollutant to retrieve ammonia spectra and derive nadir profiles. AIRPACT (Air Indicator Report for Public Awareness

  7. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  8. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  9. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in the United States and proposing a civil penalty of 231,090 for sales...

  10. ESTIMATING ENERGY SAVINGS IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    energy savings must be calculated in order to justify the cost of implementing the savings opportunity. It is important to calculate projected energy and cost savings as accurately as possible. Unfortunately, savings is presented for modeling air compressor performance and calculating projected energy savings from easily

  11. Applying Twisted Boundary Conditions for Few-body Nuclear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Körber; Thomas Luu

    2015-11-20

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite-volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twists angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length $L\\approx8-14$ fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogue of `i-periodic' twist angles that eliminate the leading order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  12. Applying Twisted Boundary Conditions for Few-body Nuclear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Körber, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite-volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twists angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length $L\\approx8-14$ fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogue of `i-periodic' twist angles that eliminate the leading order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  13. The regeneration efficiency improvement of the reverse pulse air regenerating DPF system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Yukihito; Hattori, Isao; Kasai, Yoshiyuki [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the system modification through the improvement of pulse air penetration into the DPF cell channels in respect to the development of a wall-flow type diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with reverse pulse air regeneration for diesel vehicles. In this system, regeneration becomes more difficult with low exhaust gas temperatures and increased DPF volume. The pressure increase in the DPF cell channels was monitored as a parameter of pulse air penetration when reverse pulse air was injected into the DPF. By maximizing the pressure increase, the pulse air injection system was modified. The modification includes various changes in the air pipe arrangement and the air injecting time. The ratio of the length to the diameter of the DPF was also evaluated in relation to the regeneration efficiency. In this study, the high aspect ratio, i.e. small diameter and long DPF, showed better regeneration efficiency. The results of this study indicate that this system can be enlarged with the above modification despite low exhaust gas temperatures.

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    optimal control of nonlinear dynamical systems [25, 26, 27].constrained nonlinear switched dynamical systems,” in Hybridwe focus on nonlinear switched dynamical systems. These

  16. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    H. Peng, Control of Fuel Cell Power Systems, Springer, 2004.May 2002, pp.3117-3122. te d M fuel cell systems for vehicleHutchenreuther, Control of a Fuel Cell Air Supply Module (

  17. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  18. Compressed Air System Project Improves Production at a Candy Making Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    The H.B. Reese Company successfully completed an upgrade of this compressed air system at its facility in Hershey, PA. The plant took two compressors offline while increasing throughput and quality.

  19. Avionics and control system development for mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sanghyuk, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A flight control system was developed to achieve mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a part of the Parent Child Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (PCUAV) project at MIT and the Draper Laboratory. A lateral ...

  20. Complexity within the Air Force acquisition system gaining insight from a theory of collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marticello, Daniel Nicholas, Jr

    2012-01-01

    Joseph Tainter's theory of societal collapse is applied in an examination of the U.S. Air Force's aircraft acquisition system in order to gain insight into the enterprise's lagging performance. Theories of collapse at both ...

  1. Literature Review on Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-10

    : Controlling Stratification (Bauman, 2003) According to ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 (ASHRAE 1992), the vertical air temperature differences in interior zone is limited to 5 ?F. Recent laboratory experiments show the thermal stratification performance of UFAD... increased to 6.8 ?F, exceeding the limit of 5 ?F. To improve energy performance (reduce airflow) while maintaining thermal comfort (avoiding excessive stratification), the middle profile at a flow rate of 0.6 cfm/ft 2 could be a reasonable target...

  2. Promising future energy storage systems: Nanomaterial based systems, Zn-air and electromechanical batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, R.; Richardson, J.

    1993-10-01

    Future energy storage systems will require longer shelf life, higher duty cycles, higher efficiency, higher energy and power densities, and be fabricated in an environmentally conscious process. This paper describes several possible future systems which have the potential of providing stored energy for future electric and hybrid vehicles. Three of the systems have their origin in the control of material structure at the molecular level and the subsequent nanoengineering into useful device and components: aerocapacitors, nanostructure multilayer capacitors, and the lithium ion battery. The zinc-air battery is a high energy density battery which can provide vehicles with long range (400 km in autos) and be rapidly refueled with a slurry of zinc particles and electrolyte. The electromechanical battery is a battery-sized module containing a high-speed rotor integrated with an iron-less generator mounted on magnetic bearings and housed in an evacuated chamber.

  3. Energy performance of air distribution systems part II: room air stratification full scale testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Lukaschek, Wolfgang; Dickeroff, Darryl; Bauman, Fred

    2007-01-01

    and M. Shi, 2002. “Thermal Stratification Performance ofthermal plume is different than for internal loads, the stratificationstratification performance of UFAD systems under cooling operation is based on the interaction between warm thermal

  4. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waite, Darrell; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P.; Ceckler, William H.

    2015-06-30

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hydrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  5. System and method for conditioning a hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waite, Darrell M; Arnold, Richard; St. Pierre, James; Pendse, Hemant P; Ceckler, William H

    2013-12-17

    A system and method for hardwood pulp liquid hydrolysate conditioning includes a first evaporator receives a hardwood mix extract and outputting a quantity of vapor and extract. A hydrolysis unit receives the extract, hyrolyzes and outputs to a lignin separation device, which separates and recovers a quantity of lignin. A neutralization device receives extract from the lignin separation device and a neutralizing agent, producing a mixture of solid precipitate and a fifth extract. The solid precipitate is removed from the fifth extract. A second evaporator removes a quantity of acid from the fifth extract in a vapor form. This vapor may be recycled to improve total acid recovery or discarded. A desalination device receives the diluted extract, separates out some of the acid and salt and outputs a desalinated solution.

  6. Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution in a Manufacturing System Jan, 1, 2005 Technical Report SOPTL-05-01 Missouri University of Science models that can be used for controlling pollution in a manufacturing system. The models are developed

  7. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices. Introduction Residential air conditioning is responsible. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy

  8. Want Some Money Back from your Compressed Air System? Check Out These Top 10 Areas to Look 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ormer, H.

    2004-01-01

    calculate the most effective and efficient answer: • Use a separate air compressor and system to supply dedicated air to the process • Use a booster compressor or hydraulic booster to supply high-pressure air. See Fig. 6 • Use storage... of blow off air to the process and generate a savings of a 15 cfm compressed air per ¼-inch blow off. Vacuum Generators / Air Operated BACKGROUND In order to create a vacuum, some kind of air pump or vacuum pump is required to evacuate the volume...

  9. Real-time condition assessment of RAPTOR telescope systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Chris; Taylor, Stuart; Wren, James; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2010-11-30

    The RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) observatory network consists of several robotic astronomical telescopes primarily designed to search for astrophysical transients called a gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although intrinsically bright, GRBs are difficult to detect because of their short duration. Typically, they are first observed by satellites that then relay the coordinates of the GRB to a ground station which, in turn, distributes the coordinates over the internet so that ground based observers can perform follow-up observations. Typically the ground based observations begin after the GRB has ended and only residual emiSSion (the 'afterglow') is left. However, if the satellite relays the GRB coordinates quickly enough, a 'fast' robotic telescope on the ground may be able to catch the GRB in progress. The RAPTOR telescope system is one of only a few in the world to have accomplished this feat. In order to achieve these results, the RAPTOR telescopes must operate autonomously at a high duty-cycle and in peak operating condition. Currently the telescopes are maintained in an ad hoc manner, often in a run-to-failure mode. The RAPTOR project could benefit greatly from a structural health monitoring (SHM) system, especially as more complex units are added to the suite of telescopes. This paper will summarize preliminary results from an SHM study performed on one of the RAPTOR telescopes. Damage scenarios that are of concern and that have been previously observed are first summarized. Then a specific study of damage to the telescope drive mechanism is presented where the data acquisition system is first described. Next, damage detection algorithms are developed with LANL's new publically available software SHMTools and the results of this process are discussed in detail. The paper will conclude with a summary of future planned refinemenls of the RAPTOR SHM system.

  10. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  11. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  12. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  13. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  14. Optimizing Electric Humidifier Operation with an Air Side Economizer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shami, U. F.

    1996-01-01

    Air side economizer cycle is a control scheme that is often used in WAC systems to reduce cooling energy consumption by introducing variable quantities of ambient air into a conditioned space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling...

  15. Implementation of the Laboratory Air Handling Unit Systems (LAHU) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2003-01-01

    The LAHU system has been designed, installed, and commissioned in a large university research building. This paper provides detailed information about the demonstration project, including the specific LAHU system mechanical design, optimal airflow...

  16. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solutions when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for selecting air conditioning cold/heat sources. The focus of the study is on heating and cooling using conventional...

  17. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  18. Transition-metal-hydrogen systems at extreme conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheler, Thomas Herbert

    2013-07-01

    The application of extreme conditions offers a general route for the synthesis of materials under equilibrium conditions. By finely tuning the thermodynamic variables of pressure and temperature one can manipulate matter ...

  19. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  20. Combustion air intake system for wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisiminger, L.D.

    1982-02-23

    Hinged doors are provided on the front of a stove for sealably closing across a large opening through which logs can be loaded into a firebox within the stove. A cylindrical draft chamber is formed on an exterior surface of one or each of the doors. A draft cap is rotatable on a threaded stud which is coaxially secured in the cylindrical draft chamber. The draft cap includes an annular flange forming a sliding close-tolerance fit with an interior cylindrical wall of the draft chamber so that the cap can be rotated to vary the size of the draft chamber to selectively restrict the flow of air from a source through the draft chamber to the firebox whenever the doors are closed.

  1. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  2. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  3. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for Processing Legacy Wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.

    2000-08-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS.

  4. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (US); Rodgers, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  6. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  7. The Micro Craft iSTAR Micro Air Vehicle: Control System Design and Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotkowitz, Michael C.

    The Micro Craft iSTAR Micro Air Vehicle: Control System Design and Testing Larry Lipera i 2000. This paper describes the vehicle, control system, and ground and flight-test results. Presented at the American Helicopter Society 57th Annual forum, Washington, DC, May 9-11, 2001. Copyright 2001

  8. Model of the Air System Transients in a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochersberger, Kevin

    Model of the Air System Transients in a Fuel Cell Vehicle by John P. Bird Thesis submitted W. Ellis January 30, 2002 Blacksburg, Virginia Keywords: Fuel Cell, System Modeling, Simulation, Fuel Cell Vehicle #12;1 Abstract This thesis describes a procedure to measure the transient effects

  9. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  10. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  11. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  12. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

  13. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a large, complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge to the Joint Economic Committee of the US Senate, domestic air traffic delays in 2007 cost airlines over $19

  14. Research Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    is important because of the high costs of delays and pollution today, as well as the projected doubling in airResearch Statement of Hamsa Balakrishnan The air transportation system is a complex, global system that transports over 2.1 billion passengers each year. Air traffic delays have become a huge problem

  15. High?Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT) is evaluating the impacts of high photovoltaic (PV) penetration and methods to manage any impacts with improved power conditioning equipment.

  16. Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

  17. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System AHRIAdvocate Ex Parte Memo 2.5.15 Meeting U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Program: A National Strategy for Energy Efficient Industrial Motor-Driven...

  18. Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew H.

    2003-06-10

    A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

  19. Major: Ecological Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Laboratory: Computer exercises (Pfister) · Regionalized environmental assessment of global power plants of Warsaw, Poland · Environmental Impact of Virtual Meetings including Rebound Effects · Carbon Footprint · Evaluation of future designs of treatment and recycling plants and waste management systems Skills after

  20. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Denmark, 2007. [31] DOE, EnergyPlus Engineering Reference, (2011). [32] DOE, EnergyPlus Energy Simulation Software,system were developed in EnergyPlus v7.1 for comparison. All

  1. Method and apparatus for operating a self-starting air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heinrich, Charles E. (Mentor, OH)

    1983-12-06

    A self-starting, fuel fired, air heating system including a fuel burner fired vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser and heating the air. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with a method and apparatus which on start-up prevents the vapor generator's vapor output from being conducted to the turbine until a predetermined pressure differential has been achieved. However, after the vapor flow is once permitted, it cannot again be prevented until after the fuel burner has been shut off and restarted.

  2. Predictability of European air quality: Assessment of 3 years of operational forecasts and analyses by the PREV'AIR system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    , is proved to improve ozone forecasts, especially when photochemical pollution episodes occur. The PREV'AIR and laws regarding the pollutants of utmost importance in relation to human health, air pollution is still- ments are still needed to manage and control the impacts of air pollution on health. [3] Facing

  3. OPERATION OF FUSION REACTORS IN ONE ATMOSPHERE OF AIR INSTEAD OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, J. Reece [UT Plasma Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2100 (United States)

    2009-07-26

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  5. Alternate Air Delivery Systems for Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, M.

    1996-01-01

    Carter & Burgess first began using triple deck multi-zone units, in place of traditional VAV systems, on the Texas State Capitol restoration. Since the completion of that project design in early 1991, our firm has now used triple deck multi...

  6. Clean air. Safe, congestion-free highways and transit systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Energy Data Book, ORNL is helping consumers and officials make informed choices. ORNL modeling by domestic, renewable energy. More time to enjoy life. #12;3 Through partnerships with government, industry technologies and control systems for improved efficiency and emissions control. Energy ORNL researchers

  7. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  8. Getting Ready for the Challenges for the Air Traffic Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) C.W. Johnson,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Chris

    as EUROCONTROL's Spec-0102 on the Use of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Operational Air Traffic Outside-1- Getting Ready for the Challenges for the Air Traffic Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems's 08-01: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operations in the U. S. National Airspace System, as well

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  10. Analysis of the Design of an HVAC System in a Public Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, P.; Shao, Z.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Based on an example of the design of air conditioning system for a public building, this paper analyzes the characteristics of similar buildings, and introduces the air conditioning system, ventilating system, and the fire control system...

  11. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning or fluorinated greenhouse gases (air conditioning units, refrigeration units etc.) 2. Several approved

  12. Three-wheel air turbocompressor for PEM fuel cell systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehg, Tim; Gee, Mark; Emerson, Terence P.; Ferrall, Joe; Sokolov, Pavel

    2003-08-19

    A fuel cell system comprises a compressor and a fuel processor downstream of the compressor. A fuel cell stack is in communication with the fuel processor and compressor. A combustor is downstream of the fuel cell stack. First and second turbines are downstream of the fuel processor and in parallel flow communication with one another. A distribution valve is in communication with the first and second turbines. The first and second turbines are mechanically engaged to the compressor. A bypass valve is intermediate the compressor and the second turbine, with the bypass valve enabling a compressed gas from the compressor to bypass the fuel processor.

  13. Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

    2005-02-17

    -1 EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER...

  14. ALTERNATE HIGH EFFICIENCY PARTICULATE AIR (HEPA) FILTRATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bishop; Robert Goldsmith; Karsten Nielsen; Phillip Paquette

    2002-08-16

    In Phase IIA of this project, CeraMem has further developed and scaled up ceramic HEPA filters that are appropriate for use on filtration of vent gas from HLW tanks at DOE sites around the country. This work included procuring recrystallized SiC monoliths, developing membrane and cement materials, and defining a manufacturing process for the production of prototype full sizes HEPA filters. CeraMem has demonstrated that prototype full size filters can be manufactured by producing 9 full size filters that passed DOP aerosol testing at the Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility. One of these filters was supplied to the Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC) for process tests using simulated HLW tank waste. SRTC has reported that the filter was regenerable (with some increase in pressure drop) and that the filter retained its HEPA retention capability. CeraMem has also developed a Regenerable HEPA Filter System (RHFS) design and acceptance test plan that was reviewed by DOE personnel. The design and acceptance test plan form the basis of the system proposal for follow-on work in Phase IIB of this project.

  15. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  16. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  17. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  18. Moltox™ Chemical Air Separation System-A Progress Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Brown, W. R.; Dunbobbin, B. R.; Massey, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Wash1ngton, D.C. ABSTRACT A new low energy route to tonnage oxygen product1on, the HOLTOX~ system, 1s now commenc1ng p110t plant test1ng. The process, 1ts h1story, and potent1a1 app11cat10ns will be descr1bed, 1n add1t1on to recent results... of the p110t plant test program. Future development needs and plans for commerc1a11zat10n w111 be outlined. INTRODUCTION More than 300,000 TID of large tonnage cryogen1c oxygen plant capac1ty was bu11t 1n the 1960's and 1970's. The two-th1rds st111...

  19. Shipboard condition based maintenance and integrated power system initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, Darrin E. (Darrin Eugene)

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Navy's continued focus on developing and implementing a robust integrated power system aboard future combatants, there has been an ever increasing effort to guarantee an electrical distribution system that ...

  20. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.