Sample records for air conditioning system

  1. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  2. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions...

  3. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an engine-driven chiller is very fundamental. The electric motor: which drives the refrigerant compressor, is replaced with an engine. (Each prime mover has a shaft that rotates and transmits power.) Gas engine-driven chillers can capitalize... on the advances in compressor technology that have made electric air conditioning so attractive. The relative prices of natural gas and electricity will determine the best choice. An electric chiller may have a COP of 5.5. The gas engine chiller, because its...

  4. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  5. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a high efficient utilization of solar thermal energy. To show the today's and near future potential innovative solar cooling and air conditioning systems are discussed which are well adapted to the utilization of solar energy. The system performance...

  6. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  7. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective ...

  8. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  9. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  10. A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Ian

    A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air. Introduction Western Air is a distributor of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  11. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kessling@transsolar.com Dipl.-Ing. Matthias PELTZER Technical Director L-DCS Technology GmbH Muenchener Str. 101, 85737 Ismaning b. Munich matthias.peltzer@l-dcs.com ABSTRACT Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room... states (4). The room return air (5) is used in a latent heat recovery (6) (psychometric process see Figure 4). To illuminate the excellent system performance a typical cooling load profile for a standard office build- ing in the hot and humid climate...

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  13. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  14. Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

  15. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  16. air conditioning system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may be eliminated. Physical principals governing airflow in fan systems predict available energy savings from using premium air filters. This energy savings may offset the...

  17. air conditioning systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may be eliminated. Physical principals governing airflow in fan systems predict available energy savings from using premium air filters. This energy savings may offset the...

  18. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  19. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  20. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library development is focused on the develop- ment of models for building heating, ventilation and air

  1. Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

  2. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  3. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature field, small supply air temperature difference, large airflow, but no reheater. As the design airflow rate of air conditioning system for cleaning mainly considered to meet the need of the cleanliness class, its air exchange rate was much... above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  4. automotive air-conditioning system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  5. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  6. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold seasons, the closed middle air layer absorbs the solar energy, and becomes the buffer layer of space between the inside and outside because of the glasshouse effect. In this case, the indoor heat loss can be reduced. While during the hot... and natural climatic microenvironment for the people indoor. Considering the energy conservation and the ecological environmental protection, this system not only satisfies the aesthetic need of the architecture, but also is the need of developing...

  7. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

  8. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  9. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after the system is restarted. Moe t simply, condensation takes place when moist air flows past surfaces which have been cooled below its dewpoint. In air conditioning this occurs when the cold supply air being deli- vered into the space induces...

  10. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency Huawei Zhu Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute... conditioning system has led to extensive criticism. 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND ITS PRESENT APPLICATION ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 2...

  11. air-conditioning systems based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support...

  12. Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System Selection for Hot & Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, B. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity at Part-Load Conditions In 1996, Henderson and Rengarajan4 published a method for modeling the latent capacity degradation of DX equipment with constant blower operation. This latent degradation model provided critical information need... to match the moisture removal capacity of the selected system to the moisture load. However, the model required an iterative solution and knowledge of equipment parameters that were not readily available during design. In 1998, Henderson published a...

  13. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  14. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  15. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  16. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  17. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  18. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfy both the coldness supply in summer and the heat supply in winter basically. In fact, this system supplies a more comfortable environment for the passengers. However, compared to the advanced countries, our train air-conditionings still have...

  19. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  20. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  1. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  2. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus Yanping Zhou Jingyi..., especially for those who ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 show some interest about high-efficiency systems like VRF, it becomes of interest to compare the VRF to other systems and evaluate VRF?s performance...

  3. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    connected by lines that represent the data flow. The process is depicted with symbols as on electrical schematics and pneumatic control diagrams. Graphical diagrams are created and the detailed data is entered in background menus or screens... and control system Energy management and control system (EMCS) technology has evolved over the past three decades from pneumatic and mechanical devices to direct digital controls (DDC) or computer-based controllers and systems. Today's EMCS systems...

  4. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  5. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  6. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapid development of Intelligent Buildings (IB), the Building Automation System (BAS) has come to control and manage the equipment in the building more and more scientifically, economically and rationally, which can not only raise...

  7. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  8. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air...

  9. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  10. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  11. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  12. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

  13. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  14. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

  15. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  16. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  17. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  18. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

  19. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  20. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes...

  1. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  2. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  3. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  4. The effect of respiration heat of sorghum grain on the design of conditioned-air storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Danel Gene

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering THE EFFECT OF RESPIRATION HEAT OF SORGHUM GRAIN ON THE DESIGN OF CONDITIONED-AIR STORAGE SYSTEMS A Thesis by DANEL GENE HAILE Approved as to style and content by: C airman...

  5. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    1 ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21's engine, or battery pack in case of HEVs and EVs. This power draw is equivalent to a 1200-kg sedan driving both systems under various driving and climate conditions. #12;2 The project report should also

  6. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  7. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort...

  8. automative air-conditioning systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and try to identify the important trends. Thorsten Ohl 2002-11-05 63 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  9. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

  10. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  11. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .25 150 121.86 0.1182 1.92 200 131.55 0.0218 376.9729 1.0864 19 19 20 4.5 150 99.58 0.1013 1.57 150 107.18 0.1013 1163.561 1.6857 20 20 21 1.8 80 22.29 0.965 1.17 65 24.28 2.3884 1408.019 1.8046 21 22 23 1 80 22.29 0.5361 1.17 80 24.24 0.5361 315.0493... Wuxi, P. R. China, 214122 Shanghai? P. R. China, 200070 fxp_99@126.com Zouyun_22@126.com WeidingLong@163.com Abstract: The optimal design of air-conditioning water system is an optimization problem of functions that depend on a series...

  12. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  13. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  14. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  15. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  16. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Building Commissioning) Sept. 2014, Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example... of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air...

  17. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  18. Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Honolulu Scott Higa Engineering Project Manager Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC Abstract As a tropical island state, Hawaii has a year-round demand for air conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  2. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  3. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  4. DEST Software to Analyze System Zoning and Energy Consumption in Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Depth 6m, glass curtain wall, Beijing; 2) Depth 6m, window-wall ratio 0.5, Beijing; ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-8-2 3) Depth 8m, window-wall ratio 0.5, Harbin; 4) Depth 8m... cases were studied: 1) depth: 6m, glass curtain wall, Beijing; 2) depth: 6m, window-wall ratio 0.5, Beijing. The results were showed in Fig.3 and Fig.4. Different building envelopes condition impacted inner zone load little and distribution of inner...

  5. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  6. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to realizing Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB). 61% ?F ?F The amount of solar power Performance improvement of a building ? 30% reduction Efficiency of the air conditioning system ? 60? reduction 60% over reduction E le ct ri c P o w e r C o n su m p ti o n (K W h...-09-16 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 80 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1? 4? 1? 11 ? 1? 16 ? 1? 17 ? 1? 18 ? 1? 21 ? 1? 22 ? 1? 30 ? 1? 31 ? 2? 1? 2? 4? 2? 5? 2? 6? 2? 7? 2? 8? 2? 12...

  7. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant...

  8. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

  9. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system Rong-Jiang Ma Nan-Yang Yu PhD candidate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong... in buildings is to save energy without compromising comfort, health and productivity levels. In other words, the idea is to consume less energy while providing equal or improved building services, that is, being more energy efficient (Pérez-Lombard et al...

  10. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  11. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  12. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit operating under typical hot outdoor conditions (95 degrees F). The test was operated in a “before” - “after” manner with each before-after segment operated for twelve days and three tests were conducted - one on a new 2.5 ton system where 1.25 oz...

  13. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  14. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in designing a ventilation system is determining theto shut down the ventilation system for a period of timeperiod with the ventilation system off (e.g. , at least 6

  15. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  16. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  17. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a model with prescribed heat input into the medium, i.e. ,heat and towers. The air inlet temperature is obtained from an inputan input signal. There is also a constant effectiveness heat

  18. Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of displacement ventilation [D]. Nanjing: Nanjing University of Technology, 2004. (In Chinese) [5] Gao Xiufeng, Feng Shiyu, Yu Yongzhang, Deng Jianqiang. Experimental Study on Three-dimensional Turbulent Flow and Temperature Field in Air...

  19. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  20. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  1. air conditioning equipments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  2. air conditioning equipment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  3. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building ventilation systems." Retrieved December 15,of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S.installed in office ventilation systems on workers' health

  4. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, Europeanperformance in radiant cooling systems (Babiak, Olesen et

  5. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    described in future papers. While the high peak-cooling ratecooling load can be in the range of 10-40% higher depending on the load conditions. Future

  6. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  7. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  8. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 37.0 37.8 38.5 39.2 39.8 40.3 40.8 41.3 41.8 42.2 42.6 43.0 43.4 43.7 43.8 concerns with condensate freeze-up on cooling coil at air speed below 300 fpn, end saturated suction tenpcraturc below 30 F FAN PMR kU 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2...

  9. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  10. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

  11. air-conditioning system driven: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fie?.-Test Site - Budget Inn, System Engine Chiller Cleveland Bleyle of America, Engine Chiller Atlanta Panhandle Eastern, EngineIAbsorption Kansas City Bristol Wyndham, Engine...

  12. Research Positionsfor Development of Novel Green Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems for Transportation Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    compression A/CR featuring Liion batteries and regenerative auxiliary power systems; iv) Development visit: http://www.sfu.ca/~mbahrami/index.html To apply, please email Dr. Majid Bahrami (mbahrami

  13. VFD Technology's Energy Conservation Application at Metro Ventilation Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shenzhen metro has been applied the VFD control technique and close loop negative control logic to adjust and control the temperature and humidity of public area and conserve the energy on HVAC system of children palace station and Fumin station...

  14. Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1985, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a program with Tecogen, Inc., to develop a nominal 150-ton gas-fueled engine-driven water chiller for commercial buildings. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated, and operated...

  15. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  16. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS CEC/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units being full of ice. Verify that the system is operates properly in the Idle mode (i.e., the compressor

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as possible improvements. Only one of these modifications provided improved results. This modification requires measuring the duct pressure relative to the house at either every pressure station within the Delta-Q test or at the extremes of the house pressure range involved in the Delta-Q test. If the pressures are only measured at the extremes, then calculated pressures at the other pressure stations are obtained via interpolation. Using these pressures reduced the bias in the Delta-Q test by about one-third.

  18. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  19. air conditioning desarrollo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 36 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based...

  20. air conditioning installations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 2010-01-01 98 Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait Texas A&M University -...

  1. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001EnergyNewsletterAdvocateInnovations inEnergyAir

  2. air ingress conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  3. air conditioning devices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  4. air conditioning conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  5. air conditioning problemas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre for a total amount of 2 375 280 euros (3 654 277 Swiss francs) not subject to revision, with options for additional chillers, chilled water coils and sound attenuation, for an additional amount of 539 053 euros (829 312 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 2 914 333 euros (4 483 589 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  7. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

  8. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air...

  9. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  10. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  11. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  12. Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These control strategies mainly involve optimal chiller sequencing control, cooling tower sequencing control, optimal water pressure differential set-point control, AHU supply air static pressure reset control and DCV-based fresh air control, etc. To assess...

  13. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  14. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  15. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

  16. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  17. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water units and water heaters is developed in [7] using detailed physical models. In all the aforementioned for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water

  18. air suspension system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  19. air suspension systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based on the heating and air-conditioning system...

  20. Making Compressed Air System Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    . The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added... specification, selection and installation process will follow. BACKGROUND For more than 100 years compressed air has been used throughout industry as a safe and reliable utility. The generation of this utility is performed by an air compressor. The first...

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  2. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  3. Comfort, perceived air quality, and work performance in a low-power task-ambient conditioning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui Ph.D; Kim, DongEun; Arens, Edward A; Buchberger, Elena; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    way that when the spot cooling supply fan is on, it deliversnozzle. When the spot cooling supply fan is off, the localducted supply of cool air (called the spot cooling line) to

  4. Off-peak air conditioning; A major energy saver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, the mission given to manufacturers is changing to include saving energy (kWh). Until now, saving energy was ignored because the utilities were happy to fill their night valley to reach a higher load factor. There also was a general feeling that making ice was much less efficient than standard air conditioning, and that anyone saying otherwise was a dreamer. This article discusses the energy savings based on the more prevalent ice storage technology, the similar suction temperatures of the various types of ice storage, and how storage is applied. Included are baseload power generation, partial storage with chiller priority, using air cooled condensers when making ice at night, colder duct air, heat recovery, central rooftop systems, smart controls, electric/gas combinations, supply side transmission and distribution losses, and cooling of air entering gas turbine generators during peak conditions.

  5. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  6. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  7. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos Laboratory NastasiPASTCentral Air Conditioning

  8. Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, D.

    of evaroration, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are rroviding low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly rlants with little or no internal 10iids. . The eva[lorative roof cooling...

  9. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside ...

  10. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  11. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  12. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  13. air-conditioned office buildings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian,...

  14. air-conditioning units part: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  15. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  16. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of parameters. That makes this process become more cumbersome and complex. But generally speaking, although the OTI method is a self-contained system, it is limited to concrete analysis of a specific issue, without common applicable procedure. So to a... in conjunction with a building-management system to identify abnormal utility consumption and notify building operators in real time, we think, the outlier detection is only the first step that studies energy efficiency and energy conservation of the system...

  17. The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -conditioning has many merits such as clean, safety, high COP, longevity of service, low price and maintenance easily. But it also has weak aspects, for example, its power consumption is higher, which has became the main hidden trouble of electric network..., stability of running, service life, maintenance, price, and so on. There are 3 kinds of common water chilling units, which are the centrifugal compressor chiller? the ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency...

  18. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature variations of solar collector arrays, heat storage tank and adsorption chillers as well as refrigerating output variations of the system. Experimental results show that adsorption chillers have the advantages of low driving temperature, stability...

  19. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  20. Investigation of Feasibility of All-Fresh Air Supply in an All-Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of an all-fresh air supply in an all-air system is investigated in theory, and the problem of AHU-handling air in low efficiency in summer and winter conditions is analyzed. The air supply temperature is almost up to standards when a...

  1. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  2. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  3. Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M in December, 2009 18 .......................................4. Predicted Pavement Conditions Assuming No Maintenance 18 ...............Table 5. Predicted Pavement Conditions (PCI) Assuming no Maintenance After 2010

  4. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

  5. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  6. air conditioning technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  7. air conditioning technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  8. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  9. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  10. Compressed Air System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  11. D0 Instrument Air System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

  12. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  13. Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems Kisup Lee* Zheng Jiang, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution systems such as Traditional Displacement Ventilation (TDV) and Under- Floor Air Distribution (UFAD

  14. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  15. Magnus air turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Thomas F. (24204 Heritage La., Newhall, CA 91321)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling combination apparatus of the invention. A reading of the complete specification is recommended for a full understanding of the principles and features of the disclosed system.

  16. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  17. Fuel Cell Systems Air Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Management Honeywell TIAX UTC Mechanology, LLC · Turbocompressor for PEM Fuel Cells · Hybrid-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors - ATMI · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems ­ Honeywell · Gallium

  18. 2300 SYSTEM Conditioning Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    2300 SYSTEM Signal Conditioning Amplifier 2310 Instruction Manual Vishay Micro-Measurements P date of shipment. Coverage of computers, cameras, rechargeable batteries, and similar items, sold on non-rechargeable batteries and similar consumable items is limited to the delivery of goods free from

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  20. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  1. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  2. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartmentAnnounce Results ofCentral Air

  3. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  4. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  5. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  6. air conditioning energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Parameshwaran; R. Karunakaran; S. Iniyan; A. Samuel 7 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  7. Development and Verification for the Control Method Using Surplus Pressure of Primary Pumps in Chiller Plant Systems for Air Conditioning which Adopts Primary/Secondary Piping Systems PPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsushita, N.; Fujimura, M.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary/secondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and the flow difference returns to a chiller via decoupler, which is common to primary flow loop...

  8. Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Automatic Controls Evaporator Load Superheat MSS Curve MSS curve depends on Load Evaporator Temperature Air, stable superheat over full capacity range ensures best COP under all conditions MSS Curve Superheat Curve

  9. air defense system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. Much is now known about the post-September Wang, Hai 377 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems Texas A&M University -...

  10. air defense systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. Much is now known about the post-September Wang, Hai 377 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems Texas A&M University -...

  11. air conditioning absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditioning absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Gas Powered Air Conditioning...

  12. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven Unitary  Air?Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment”.  Air Conditioning &  Air?source Heat Pump Equipment.  Air?apply to the air handlers of heat pumps and electric 

  13. Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

  14. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  15. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  16. Condition Monitoring System for Reinforced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    containing dissolved ionic species such as chlorides. Since concrete is a porous material, with timeCondition Monitoring System for Reinforced Concrete Structures PROBLEM THIS TECHNOLOGY SOLVES: Patent pending concrete condition monitoring system providing `real-time' information on temperature

  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the SNF. The auxiliary pit is being evaluated at this time for its usefulness to support other operations that may be needed to ensure proper conditioning of the SNF and proper storage of the vessel containing the SNF. Figures I and 2 contain map locations of the Hanford Site and the HCS Annex.

  18. A systems analysis of scheduled air transportation networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan, William M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work establishes the conditions for airline system design building from submodels of smaller aspects of air transportation. The first three sections develop submodels which then are combined in extensive numerical ...

  19. Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This training is designed to help end users as well as industry solution providers learn...

  20. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although...

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  2. Performance assessment on continuous air monitors under real operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monsanglant-Louvet, C.; Liatimi, N.; Gensdarmes, F. [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN, Saclay (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the nuclear industry, workers may be exposed to artificial radioactive aerosols. These aerosols are generally composed of particles with a diameter measuring between 0.1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. To protect workers in nuclear facilities, monitors that continuously measure radioactivity in the air are used. The main function of the monitor is to provide real-time measurement of activity concentration. Measurement of aerosol activity concentration can be affected by a number of factors specific to the aerosols and the instrument. The first part of the article will present the general operating principles of continuous air monitors (CAMs) and inherent measurement difficulties, as well as the main standard tests. The second section describes the experimental ICARE facility The ICARE facility generates standard artificial and natural radioactive aerosols for calibrating continuous air monitors under real operating conditions. (authors)

  3. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  4. THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE; APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PREV AIR SYSTEM, AN OPERATIONAL SYSTEM FOR LARGE SCALE AIR QUALITY FORECASTS OVER EUROPE Author ABSTRACT Since Summer 2003, the PREV'AIR system has been delivering through the Internet1 daily air quality forecasts over Europe. This is the visible part of a wider collaborative project

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning automatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust air... conditions. Because of these external demands, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... monitors include a remote alarm signal andor automatic...

  6. Laboratory Air Handling Unit System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    balance and moisture balance are given below for the entire building. iQ G26 + hQ G26 + hgQ G26 = rQ G26 + CQ G26 + eQ G26 + ehQ G26 + envQ G26 (1) Where Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j... jQQ G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jQQ G26 Figure 1. Schematic diagram of air handling unit system for base system ehMMMM G26G26G26G26 ++= (2) Where Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jMM G26 Ge5 = = 2 1 , j jMM G26 ehWWWWWW G26G26G26G26...

  7. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  8. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won [Texas Transportation Institute; Zietsman, Josias [Texas Transportation Institute; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza [Texas Transportation Institute; Li, Wen-Whai [University of Texas, El Paso; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas, El Paso; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Kranendonk, Laura [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  9. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  10. Intelligent Systems Software for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    classes of vehicles including autonomous underwater vehicles, autonomous ground vehicles, and unmanned airIntelligent Systems Software for Unmanned Air Vehicles Gregory L. Sinsley , Lyle N. Long , Albert F describes a software architecture for mission-level control of autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAVs

  11. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load control device using a power...

  12. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  13. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  14. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  15. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  16. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  17. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  18. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  19. Optimization of supply air temperature reset schedule for a single duct VAV systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Wenshu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single duct variable air volume (SDVAV) system, the supply air temperature is usually set as a constant value. Since this constant setpoint is selected to satisfy the maximum cooling load conditions, significant reheat will occur once...

  20. Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph@mit.edu Phone: +1-617-253-7714, Fax: +1-617-2536152 Abstract Most ventilation and air conditioning systems. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow

  1. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HETAC, “High Efficiency Thermal Air Conditioning”, http://Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association,variable air volume air conditioning system for buildings”,

  2. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  3. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  4. air vehicle systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and reliable compressed air system... of compressed air requirements and selection of the compressor and purification equipment are only the first two steps in the compressed air...

  5. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  6. Prototyping of a real size air-conditioning system using a tetra-n-butylammonium bromide semiclathrate hydrate slurry as secondary two-phase refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    semiclathrate hydrate slurry as secondary two-phase refrigerant ­ Experimental investigations and modelling). Abstract Among innovative processes developed in the field of refrigeration systems, technologies) is used as secondary refrigerant. The production of the slurry can be smoothed over day and night. Upon

  7. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  8. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CA.   CEC (2008b).  Residential Alternative Calculation Standard for Air Handlers in Residential Space Conditioning of Standards Options for Residential Air Handler Fans.   

  9. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in compressed air systems accounts for typically 10% of the total industrial electricity consumption. It also accounts for close to 99% of the CO2 footprint of an air compressor and approximately 80% of the life cycle costs of a...

  10. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e.g., DOE's EnergyPlus building energy simulation program, http://www.energyplus.gov ).

  11. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all collector size is a critical limiting factor of solar air conditioners · High driving temperatureInvestigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building

  12. air quality conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico Manohar, Rajit 71 Predicting Air Quality: Current Status...

  13. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  14. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washinton D.C. , Air Conditioning Contractors of America.Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE 2009a.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE 2009b.

  15. Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

    at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure...

  16. Stability limit of room air temperature of a VAV system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kamimura, Kazuyuki [Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Building System Div.; Kasahara, Masato; Kimbara, Akiomi; Kurosu, Shigeru [Oyama National Coll. of Technology (Japan); Murasawa, Itaru; Hashimoto, Yukihiko [Tonets Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Engineering Project Dept.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To control heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, it has been necessary to accept an analog system controlled mainly by proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) action. However, when conventional PID controllers are replaced with new digital controllers by selecting the same PID parameters as before, the control loops have often got into hunting phenomena, which result in undamped oscillations. Unstable control characteristics (such as huntings) are thought to be one of the crucial problems faced by field operators. The PID parameters must be carefully selected to avoid instabilities. In this study, a room space is simulated as a thermal system that is air-conditioned by a variable-air-volume (VAV) control system. A dynamic room model without infiltration or exfiltration, which is directly connected to a simple air-handling unit without an economizer, is developed. To explore the possible existence of huntings, a numerical system model is formulated as a bilinear system with time-delayed feedback, and a parametric analysis of the stability limit is presented. Results are given showing the stability region affected by the selection of control and system parameters. This analysis was conducted to help us tune the PID controllers for optimal HVAC control.

  17. An Integrated Air Handling Unit System for Large Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an integrated air handling unit system (OAHU) for large commercial buildings. The system introduces outside air into the interior section and circulates the return air to the exterior section. Detailed analytical models...

  18. air conditioning engineers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each...

  19. air conditioning engineering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each...

  20. air conditioning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  1. air conditioning deactivation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  2. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte...

  3. air-conditioning equipment lorentz: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Smart School Symposium Heating...

  4. Duct Systems in large commercial buildings: Physical characterization, air leakage, and heat conduction gains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fabricators of heating, ventilation, and air conditioningof Building Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and

  5. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based on System Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    50 compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghai50 compressed air system energy audits completed by Shanghaiof compressed air energy audits conducted by the Shanghai

  6. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  7. Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

  8. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  9. Compressed Air Systems Audits - Why? And How?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, H. L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Secondly, join us in the definition of compressed air as a system, the totality of which is comprised of the Supply Side and the Demand Side. The Supply Side is the compressors and their controls, receivers (primary storage tanks), aftercoolers, filters... and dryers, and ends at the Compressor Room door. The Demand side is all of the distribution piping system, and all of the end uses of the compressed air, including leaks The function of the audit (be it walk-through, assessment or full audit...

  10. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  11. air systems command: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management Geosciences Websites Summary: pollution issues and control technology Hands-on knowledge of state-of-the-art air...

  12. Air Conditioner Efficiency Under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarnath, A.

    94304 E-mail: aamarnath@epri.com Phone: (650) 855-1007 Energy efficient residential air conditioning is important to utilities and their customers. In almost all parts of the U.S., an air conditioner for a dwelling has a high peak demand... energy efficiency programs; ? Actively engage in the USDOE standards proceedings through technical input from collaborative organizations like EPRI and EEI; ? Support emerging technology procurement of air conditioning equipment that is super...

  13. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  14. air drilling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an advanced gas engine... Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D. 1988-01-01 40 Compressed Air Energy Savings: SAV-AIR Monitor and Control System and the PNW Compressed Air Challenge...

  15. air coil system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an advanced gas engine... Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D. 1988-01-01 40 Compressed Air Energy Savings: SAV-AIR Monitor and Control System and the PNW Compressed Air Challenge...

  16. air bag system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an advanced gas engine... Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D. 1988-01-01 46 Compressed Air Energy Savings: SAV-AIR Monitor and Control System and the PNW Compressed Air Challenge...

  17. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  18. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  19. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofof radiant heating and cooling systems versus air systems,Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design, in: Proceedings

  20. Understanding the Basics of Compressed Air Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, D. J.

    compressed air loss to 5% of total compressed air generated. POTENTIAL SAVINGS CALCULATION Calculation to determine potential savings: % wasted hp x connected hp x .746 (kWhlM1p) x S/kWh x .90(system efficiency 8000 (operating hours/yr) $/yr...(potential savings) Example: (10 (wasted hpl x 750 hp x .746 x $.05 x 8000 = S24,867/yr .90 Calculation to determine full load cost: bhp x .746 x S/kWh x opt:rating hours motor eff. 3M Company St. Paul, MN Example: (500 cfm, 125 bhp, S.05/kWh, 8000...

  1. Compressed Air Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space DataEnergyCompressed Air Systems Compressed Air

  2. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control the cooling system in the data center, energyfor input to the data center cooling system devices. Goal 2:for input to the data center cooling system devices. See

  3. air conditioning plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: The primarysecondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and...

  4. air conditioning plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: The primarysecondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and...

  5. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda: TheAof Energy Air

  6. System Effects of High Efficiency Filters in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Flow in Residential Air Conditioning Systems. ASHRAErefrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

  7. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et al. [2004], PRs allow a more appropriate estimate of the increase in each outcome associated with the risk factor of air-conditioning. The increase in prevalence was roughly estimated as [100* (crude PR * adjusted OR/crude OR)-100] %. Based on the data in Table 2 of Preziosi et al. [ 2004], estimates for the increased prevalence associated with air-conditioned offices include increases of 120% in otorhinolaryngology visits, and 40% in sickness absence. If these associated increases represented valid causal relationships, it would indicate enormous costs for employers and for society associated with air-conditioning systems, from increased health care and for reduced workplace productivity from sickness absence, in addition to a large burden of disease on workers.

  8. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption Tunisian electricity consumption (the residential sector represents 68% of this class of consumers). Nevertheless, with the Tunisian electricity consumption context, models elaborating which take account weather

  10. air-conditioning applications final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surroundings by the reflection, is used... Liu, P.; Li, D. 2006-01-01 23 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  11. air-conditioning direct-fired double-effect: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the basis... Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X. 2006-01-01 30 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  12. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  13. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  14. Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  15. Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  16. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  17. Advances in the development of energy efficient technologies: Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coony, J.E. [Boston Pacific Co., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to and/or enhancement of air conditioning from mechanical chillers. SWAC pumps cold sea water from the appropriate ocean depths (50 to 3,000 feet depending on the climate and local characteristics) to the shore where it replaces (by direct cooling) or enhances (through use as condenser water) large mechanical chillers found in coastal facilities. SWAC direct cooling uses less than twenty per cent of the electricity of a mechanical chiller and uses no refrigerants whatsoever. Indirect cooling also offers substantial energy savings. Both systems dispense with the need for a cooling tower. Technical advances over the last twenty years in corrosion resistant alloys (titanium or aluminum), bio-fouling deterrence, and deep ocean pipeline deployment allow SWAC installations to use reliable, off-the-shelf technology. SWAC works in a variety of climates (existing installations are in Hawaii and Halifax, Nova Scotia), giving it significant domestic and international potential. Economy-of-scale advantages make it attractive to district cooling schemes.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  20. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  1. September 10, 2013 What is Seawater Air Conditioning (SWAC)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    customer electrical consumption by up to 40% Aligns with Hawaii Clean Energy Initiatives Substantial water · Letters of Intent for 42% of Waikiki SWAC design load Customers · City, State, & Federal agency conditioning usage #12;Why SWAC in Waikiki? Electrical rates are near the highest in the U.S. Hawaii relies

  2. air conditioning hvac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In...

  3. Compressed Air Energy Savings: SAV-AIR Monitor and Control System and the PNW Compressed Air Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, K. J.; Annen, B.; Scott, S.

    year in compressed air energy costs. Their system included three older oil-flooded screw compressors two 25-horsepower (HP) and one 75 -HP. Although 100-HP ofcompressor was running continuously, it was having trouble providing enough air... such as improperly installed or leaking distribution lines, outdated or inadequate controls, and excess compressor capacity. But efficiency improvements and speed controls could save over [7%. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) compressed air systems consumed 4...

  4. Desiccants: Benefits for the Second Century of Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGahey, K.; Harriman, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desiccant technology now stands where mechanical cooling stood in the 1930's. Desiccant systems have been used by industrial engineers to achieve productivity and energy benefits which far outweigh their installed cost. Now, with lower cost...

  5. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  6. air cooling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used... Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 8 Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants...

  7. air cooling systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used... Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 8 Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants...

  8. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  9. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ventilation, and air conditioning LBNL: Ernest Orlandoventilation and air conditioning system of a universityheating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a

  10. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  11. A comparison between the use of natural air and air containing ozone in conditioning farm products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Lambert Henry

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    eo 3 at ead of' test 1 El!teen sdautes aEter starts TA 3L' lV . 'UIPAFr G. '' " 'Ys". LTI Jk' DU""D ". . 0/0 OF, IfX VTAAF, AX& r 8;ING AIR Test No, Average Tsnpssntu rap Dsg Average 'relative duwiditys Psr . "snt Average Teapsrat urse... 95m 5 93+0 98, 0 97i5 96 2 98 0 96+ 5 91 5 95+3 98iO 9V 0 92vO 95 6 102~3 98+ 5 98 5 99i7 102, 8 96 3 100, 1 99o7 92K 94+0 95+1 93. 1 91m 5 94 2 92 8 92sg 91. 3 91. 3 91e6 91, 4 92, 5 92eO 89e3 91 2 69 0 69 0 60...

  12. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... of thermostat, and the relationship between room temperature set point and return air temperature. The Role Of Thermostat Traditional pneumatic thermostat is a proportional (P) type controller. It senses the space temperature changes and produces...

  13. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... understand how this reset scheme responds to building load change, thus resulting in supply air temperature reset, it is helpful to explain the role of thermostat. In the following section, we explain the way how the thermostat works, the type...

  14. Optimization of airport terminal-area air traffic operations under uncertain weather conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Although Air Traffic Flow Management algorithms exist to schedule and route ...

  15. A laboratory for instruction and research in air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Ray Allison

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    complicated due to the combination of many simple units into elaborate assemblies. The functional relation- ship of condmnsers, compressors, cooling towersp evaporators, air distri- bution systems~ controls, snd other parts of an installation are often...

  16. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  17. NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL research determines optimal HVAC system design for proper air mixing and thermal comfort in homes. As U.S. homes become more energy efficient, heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems to optimize overall space conditioning system design in both heating and cooling modes. Potential Impact

  18. Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, B. M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are fairly high. Offices that have a lot of sensible heat generation due to lighting and office equipment tend to be high, maybe greater than 0.9. (Other applications, like ice rinks that have internal cooling, can be low or even negative, and do... ratio ranges on the second axis. This form of binning is easily accomplished if a utility like ~in~aker~~ is used to generate the binned data set. INTRODUCTION The factors which should be considered in the specification of heating and air...

  19. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  20. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  1. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Systems, Paper #071 Energy efficiency improvements into increase industrial energy efficiency. As a result, morein use. Over time, energy efficiency decreases and the cost

  2. air void system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    18 Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: with individual functions, with the ventilation coil optimized for moisture removal and the...

  3. air transportation system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traffic Control 26 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  4. air transport system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traffic Control 26 Environmental policymaking for air transportation : toward an emissions trading system. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Aviation is at a turning...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: National Air Space radar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Space radar system Sandia Develops Tool to Evaluate Wind-TurbineRadar Impacts On December 3, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News, News & Events,...

  6. Cooperative Control of Air Flow for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuai, Liu; Lihua, Xie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a variable air volume HVAC system,” Energy, vol. 21, no.Global optimization for overall HVAC systems-part I problemGlobal optimization for overall HVAC systems-part II problem

  7. air operating permit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Distribution System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system...

  8. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  9. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène have promising application in refrigeration thanks to their large cooling capacity and their storage Because it is nowadays necessary to phase out CFCs or HCFCs fluids from the refrigeration industry

  10. Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room...

  11. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of transfer of energy. Typical applications in this category are motive applications, such as driving pneumatic tools and cylinders, operating instruments, pneumatic actuation and other such processes. - Active air, where the compressed air takes..., for ease. 3. MINIMIZING THE COSTS OF USAGE OF COMPRESSED AIR Within the factory, similar rules as for distribution would apply. Older factories must have their piping thoroughly checked for leakage in the pipelines. Tools such as ultrasonic leak...

  13. Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Effectiveness in Residential Forced Air Distributions Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump, D.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power for air conditioning, heat pumps and electricwith 13 air conditioners, eight heat pumps (one house hadPre Post * A C : air conditioning, HP : heat pump, GF : gas

  14. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  15. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  16. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enthalpies at six locations were calculated using the refrigerant property calculation program developed by Kartsounes[26]. Air-side enthalpy, humidity and specific volume were calculated by a psychrometric program developed at the Energy Systems Laboratory... procedure based on measurement of refrigerant and air side temperatures. n TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 E LITERATURE REVIEW 3 Service and failure patterns 3 Degradation studies 4 HI MODEL DEVELOPMENT 6 Theory of operation 6 Degraded...

  17. Compressed Air Audits: A Holistic Approach -Addressing the Air System as a Whole 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaver, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is not the paramount issue. Independent auditors should have no obvious or hidden agenda. CAT compressed air audit services are in essence, holistic. The analysis of your facility compressed air and gases systems is all-inclusive and consists of an engineered...

  18. Estimation of Lateral Distribution Function in Extensive Air Showers by Using AIRES Simulation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ahmed Al-Rubaiee; Ahmed Jumaah

    2013-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the estimation of the lateral distribution function in Extensive Air showers was performed by using a system for air shower simulations which is called AIRES version 2.6 for different hadronic models like (QGSJET99, SIBYLL and SIBYLL1.6). The simulation was fulfilled in the high energy range (10^15-10^19 eV) for different primary particles like (gamma, protons and iron nuclei) for vertical showers. This simulation can be used to reconstruct the type and energy of the particle that generated Extensive Air showers for charged particles that registered with different arrays.

  19. Conserve Energy by Optimizing Air Compressor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, V. A.

    is the compressed air plant(s), cating air compressors with one 60-hp and one 30-hp which many times include compressors, ancillary screw compressor; (2) the repiping of the existing equipment, and/or an operating sequence that is screw compressors cooling water...

  20. Major: Ecological Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    1 Major: Ecological Systems Design, Air Quality Control and Waste Management · Being able to solve control technologies · Knowledge in waste management and technologies Module 1: Ecological Systems Design quality control and biogas Waste management and air quality control Examples for combination of Modules

  1. Energy efficiency improvements in Chinese compressed air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee; Li, Li; Li, Yuqi; Taranto, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system pressure problem because VSD compressors are able toproblems, the enterprise should first consider whether the existing array of compressorsproblems When enterprises focus their attention on their compressed air system, it is mainly on the compressors.

  2. A diagnostic system for air brakes in commercial vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar Ram

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the development of a model-based diagnostic system for air brake systems that are widely used in commercial vehicles, such as trucks, tractor-trailers, buses, etc. The performance of these brake ...

  3. Efficiency of compressed-air systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program undertaken by this contract is intended to quantify the current state of knowledge in American industry concerning the energy efficient design and operation of industrial compressed air systems and system components. Since there is no standard reference for designers and operators of compressed air systems which provides guidelines for maximizing the energy efficiency of these systems, a major product of this contract was the preparation of a guidebook for this purpose.

  4. Controlling Energy-Efficient Buildings in the Context of Smart Grid: A Cyber Physical System Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tempera- ture control of air-conditioning systems concerningventilat- ing, and air conditioning system with thermal loadRefrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers, 1989. [78

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  6. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  7. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  8. Monitoring System Used to Optimize Compressed Air System Efficiency, Cut Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, W. A.

    feeders, and major equipment and systems including compressed air. For the compressed air system, monitored data included compressor amps, electrical demand and consumption, pressure and airflow. The resulting UtiliTRACK® reports and graphs showed a...

  9. Scalability of the air transportation system and development of multi-airport systems : a worldwide perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnefoy, Philippe A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the growing demand for air transportation and the limited ability to increase capacity at some key points in the air transportation system, there are concerns that in the future the system will not scale to meet demand. ...

  10. Scalability of the Air Transportation System and Development of Multi-Airport Systems: A Worldwide Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnefoy, Philippe

    With the growing demand for air transportation and the limited ability to increase capacity at some key points in the air transportation system, there are concerns that in the future the system will not scale to meet demand. ...

  11. How the Number and Placement of Sensors Controlling Room Air Distribution Systems Affect Energy Use and Comfort 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Arens, E.; Webster, T.; Shi, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of sensor number and placement on the energy needed to condition a typical office using several likely variants of an underfloor air distribution system (UFAD). The study uses an empirical-based room stratification...

  12. Model-Based Hierarchical Optimal Control Design for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Pinto, Alessandro; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Re- frigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1989. [16]ventilating, and air conditioning system with thermal loadand cooling loads in air conditioning practice. The walls

  13. The Office Air Handling Unit versus the Two Dedicated Air Handling Unit System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both analytical and the numerical methods have been developed to compares the energy performance of the OAHU systems and the two-AHU (TAHU) system. The OAHU system saves up to 1.85 kilojoules heating energy for each kilogram air supplied...

  14. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUt1t1ARY Mechanical ventilation systems usually provide aof any 02 based ventilation system is that a ventilationwith type of ventilation system~ weather conditions, and

  15. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  16. STABILITY CONDITIONS IN PIECEWISE SMOOTH DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Samuel

    -fold singularities. More specifically, we are interested in discussing stability problems of such systems around of those of Asymptotic and Lya- punov stability respectively. For technical reasons they will be presented in Subsection 2.6. Our main results exhibit conditions for the A- and L- stability of a two-fold singularity

  17. A Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khedo, Kavi K; Mungur, Avinash; Mauritius, University of; Mauritius,; 10.5121/ijwmn.2010.2203

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensor networks are currently an active research area mainly due to the potential of their applications. In this paper we investigate the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) for air pollution monitoring in Mauritius. With the fast growing industrial activities on the island, the problem of air pollution is becoming a major concern for the health of the population. We proposed an innovative system named Wireless Sensor Network Air Pollution Monitoring System (WAPMS) to monitor air pollution in Mauritius through the use of wireless sensors deployed in huge numbers around the island. The proposed system makes use of an Air Quality Index (AQI) which is presently not available in Mauritius. In order to improve the efficiency of WAPMS, we have designed and implemented a new data aggregation algorithm named Recursive Converging Quartiles (RCQ). The algorithm is used to merge data to eliminate duplicates, filter out invalid readings and summarise them into a simpler form which significantly reduce the amount of dat...

  18. Improving Compressed Air System Efficiency- Know What You Really Need

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrell, R. E.

    ($17,000/year saved) by reducing air use without reducing production. Another, by monitoring air production and energy requirements of the system, selected a properly sized 75 hp compressor to replace a worn-out 250 hp compressor and paid for the new...

  19. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  20. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constituted 17.2% of the total failure. The failure rates of compressors was 13.5% and outdoor fans was about 11.5%. Lewis surveyed 492 large HVAC dealers to compile information on heat pump service life [5]. He discovered that refrigerant leaks were the major... valve increases. PREDICTION OF DEGRADED CONDITIONS There are several steady state simulation programs which are available to predict the design conditions of air conditioners and heat pumps [20, 21]. The ORNL and NIST models are popular and extensively...

  1. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  2. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  3. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps,and Validation of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat PumpC.W. (1994). Room Air Conditioner System Modeling, Air

  4. air control system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a b s t r a c t This paper Li, Perry Y. 38 Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration...

  5. Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimal airflow control method and procedure have been developed for laboratory air handing unit (LAHU) systems using linear optimization theories. The optimal airflow control minimizes the thermal energy consumption and the cost, and improves...

  6. Decision support systems for automated terminal area air traffic control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararas, John Demetrios

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work studies the automation of the terminal area Air Traffic Management and Control (ATM/C) system. The ATM/C decision-making process is analyzed and broken down into a number of "automation functions". Each of these ...

  7. air injection systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E. (Robert Ernest), 1961- 2003-01-01 216 THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-COOLED ABSORPTION CHILLER CONCEPT AND ITS INTEGRATION IN CHP SYSTEMS . Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  8. Evaluating passenger delays in the US domestic air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umang, Nitish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental component of any National Airspace System (NAS) performance evaluation is the cost impact of air traffic delays, and more generally capacity limitations, on the traveling passengers. In previous research it ...

  9. air system analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combined in extensive numerical ... Swan, William M. 1979-01-01 5 Compressed Air System Analysis and Retrofit for Energy Savings Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: This case...

  10. Performance of Supply Airflow Entrainment for Particles in an Underfloor Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, C.; Li, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comfort conditions and energy conservation. However, the supply air outlet of UFAD system is set on the floor, such that the supply airflow may entrain the dust particles settled on the floor or suspended near the floor. This creates problems that need...

  11. A diagnostic system for air brakes in commercial vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar Ram

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. It is appropriate to point out that, in an appraisal of the future needs of the trucking industry [16], the authors, who represent a broad spectrum of the trucking industry, call for the development of improved methods of brake inspections. 6 B. Objectives... States railway industry, air brake systems were initially introduced during the nineteenth century. Before the introduction of the air brake system, railway cars were retarded mainly by mechanical means (for example, by levers, chains and other linkages...

  12. Feedback air-fuel control system for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.

    1991-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes improvement in combination with a Stirling engine having an air-fuel ratio control and an exhaust gas emission outlet. The improvement comprises an oxygen sensor in communication with the exhaust gas emission outlet for generating an output signal representative of the oxygen content in the outlet; a sensor signal conditioning unit for adapting the output signal to a conditioned input signal for a microprocessor; and a microprocessor controlled pilot for adjusting the air-fuel control in response to the control input signal.

  13. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  14. Estimating Energy Savings in Compressed Air Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, C.; Kissock, J. K.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are frequently overestimated because the methods used to estimate savings neglect to consider important factors such as compressor control and type, storage, and multiple compressor operation. In this paper, a methodology is presented for modeling air... compressor performance and calculating projected energy savings from easily obtainable performance data such as full-load power, no-load power, rated capacity, average fraction full-load power or average fraction rated capacity. The methodology...

  15. Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, James Bonner

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of conditions resulting in inefficient operation as reported by Neal from a survey of 10 residential air-conditioning units (Neal 1986, 1987). Problem Refri erant over-char e Refri erant under-char e Eva orator airflow inade uate Ev orator airflow too hi... wheel Freon char e Com onent Condition ratin Poor to Fair Poor to Fair Poor to Fair Return-air lenum Condensate s stem Su 1 air ducts Eva orator Coils Filter Controls Poor to Fair Poor to Avera e Fair to Avera e Fair to Good Fair to Good...

  16. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, 1791of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Simulation Modelsfor Rating Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,

  17. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains engineering calculations for four (4) air-side, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  18. Integration of air separation membrane and coalescing filter for use on an inlet air system of an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moncelle, Michael E. (Bloomington, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intake air separation system suitable for combustion air of an internal combustion engine. An air separation device of the system includes a plurality of fibers, each fiber having a tube with a permeation barrier layer on the outer surface thereof and a coalescing layer on the inner surface thereof, to restrict fluid droplets from contacting the permeation barrier layer.

  19. Assessment of organic compound exposures, thermal comfort parameters, and HVAC system-driven air exchange rates in public school portable classrooms in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shendell, Derek Garth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioningexposures and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  20. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  1. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls Xuejin Wang Jing Hong Deying Li School of Building.... The formula used to calculate the heat transfer ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 thermal response factors are as follows: 0j = ? ? ? = ??+= 1 i )e1(BK)0(Y i ? ? Tab.1 New energy...

  2. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the cold air distribution system in detail. The detailed analysis includes the air quality, comfort index, initial cost, life cost, static recycle period, and dynamic recycle period. The advantages and trends of super cold air distribution systems...

  3. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F to investigate changes in precipitation and snowfall over the Patagonia ice- fields during 1960-99. Apparently

  4. Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR / OMD2 project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct. For comparison purposes, deterministic designs were first obtained air conditioning duct. The uncertainties affect the pipe shape. The mean response, expressed in terms

  5. Literature Review on Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ..................................................... 6 3.5. Task Ventilation Systems ................................................................................. 7 3.6. Recommendations from Experiences.............................................................. 8 IV. SUMMARY... transactions and journal papers are main sources about the UFAD systems. (More than 100 papers found) Elsevier Literature Search Engine: Keyword: Displacement Ventilation (26 papers found) Keyword: UnderFloor Air Distribution (2 papers found) Center...

  6. Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability.

  7. Systematic method for the condition assessment of central heating plants in Air Force Logistics Command. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starmack, G.J.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC), facing decreasing funds and aging utility systems, needed a method to objectively rate its central heating plants. Such a rating system would be used to compare heating plants throughout the command to identify potential problem areas and prioritize major repair projects. This thesis used a Delphi questionnaire to gather opinions from heating plant experts in order to identify and prioritize components considered most critical to overall plant operation. In addition, the experts suggested measurements which could be used to evaluate component conditions. By combining expert opinions and reading from technical literature, component model rating schemes were developed for AFLC's steam and high temperature hot water plants. Based on measurements and observations of critical components in the plant, a score between 0 and 100 is assigned to each component (for example, condensate piping, deaerator, etc.), each plant subsystem (distribution system, water treatment system, etc.), and to the plant as a whole. These component model rating schemes and the resultant overall condition index scores will enable AFLC to focus their management attention and allocate needed resources to the plants in greatest need of repair.

  8. Brewster Angle Microscopy Study of Model Lung Surfactant Systems at the Air-Water and Air-Physiological Buffer Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewster Angle Microscopy Study of Model Lung Surfactant Systems at the Air-Water and Air. Olesik #12;Copyright by Hardy Zingalaoa Castada 2010 #12;ii ABSTRACT The lungs have the ability to function normally due to its physiological and molecular components. In the lungs, air is delivered

  9. Cooperative Control of Air Flow for HVAC Systems Shuai Liu1,2, Yushen Long1, Lihua Xie1 and Alexandre M. Bayen3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooperative Control of Air Flow for HVAC Systems Shuai Liu1,2, Yushen Long1, Lihua Xie1 for building heating, ven- tilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. The strategy consists in two level and the HVAC system parameters. I. INTRODUCTION In recent years, energy saving and environment protection have

  10. Field Test of Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air with Two Residential Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Anderson, R.; Barley, D.; Rudd, A.; Townsend, A.; Hancock, E.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform distribution of outside air is one way to ensure that residential dilution ventilation systems will provide a known amount of fresh air to all rooms.

  11. Simulation of the secondary air system of aero engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutz, K.J.; Speer, T.M. (MTU Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Muenchen GmbH, Munich (Germany))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a computer program for the simulation of secondary air systems. Typical flow system elements are presented, such as restrictors, tappings, seals, vortices, and coverplates. Two-phase flow as occurring in bearing chamber vent systems is briefly discussed. An algorithm is described for the solution of the resulting nonlinear equations. The validity of the simulation over the engine operation envelope is demonstrated by a comparison with test results.

  12. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chart and the pipeline performance chart. Don?t choose the oversize flux and the oversize delivery lift pumps. If the oversize model of the pumps is chosen, most of the valves in the outlet conduit will be semi-open, which can increase...

  13. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  14. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  15. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  16. ESTIMATING ENERGY SAVINGS IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    ESTIMATING ENERGY SAVINGS IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS Chris Schmidt Project Engineer Energy Industrial Assessment Center Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT energy savings must be calculated in order to justify the cost of implementing the savings opportunity

  17. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH), Four Pipe Fan Coil Unit (FC), Four Pipe Induction Unit (FI), and Single Zone (SZ) Systems, Revised June 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  18. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  19. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  20. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School... temperatures a cryogenic pump wss necessary. The sire of the pump was computed on the basis of maintaining a one degree Fahrenheit drop of the coolant temperature through the supply systms. The greatest heat load on the supply system being 3718 BTU per hour...

  1. air system workshop: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution NOx PC Lab: Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) PSE PC Lab - Ability of catalytic converters to reduce air pollution -...

  2. air distribution system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by bringingArnold Schwarzenegger Governor AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR Board, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and San...

  3. air distribution systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by bringingArnold Schwarzenegger Governor AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR Board, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and San...

  4. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  5. System transition : dynamics of change in the US air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L. (Aleksandra Ludmila), 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Transportation System is currently facing a number of challenges including an increasing demand for travel and growing environmental requirements. In order to successfully meet future needs, the system will need ...

  6. Iterative Optimal and Adaptive Control of a Near Isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Gas compression and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Com- pressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been

  7. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air in refrigeration equipment and mobile air conditioners, or as the blowing agent in foam insulations. When again accounted for _ 40 %of the potential risk to the environment. Refrigeration, mobile air

  8. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  9. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  10. Air flow characteristics of dry and liquid loaded packed and fluidized systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millsap, George Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acknowledgnent s List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Description of s Fluidised Bed Obgectives Application 1 2 3 Description of Apparatus Test Procedure Preparation of Bed Material Beds With Upward Flow of Air Beds With Upward Flow of Air... obgectives of thi ~ investigation were: (1) to deternine the air flow-pressure drop relationships in a dry bed of unifornly sised spherical particles in both the packed and fluidised regines of air flow; (3) to deternine under the sane air flow conditions...

  11. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    credit for different air distribution methods can be given.Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential4   Distribution metric

  12. Methods for air cleaning system design and accident analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes methods, in the form of a handbook and five computer codes, that can be used for air cleaning system design and accident analysis. Four of the codes were developed primarily at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and one was developed in France. Tools such as these are used to design ventilation systems in the mining industry but do not seem to be commonly used in the nuclear industry. For example, the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook is an excellent design reference, but it fails to include information on computer codes that can be used to aid in the design process. These computer codes allow the analyst to use the handbook information to form all the elements of a complete system design. Because these analysis methods are in the form of computer codes, they allow the analyst to investigate many alternative designs. In addition, the effects of many accident scenarios on the operation of the air cleaning system can be evaluated. These tools originally were intended for accident analysis, but they have been used mostly as design tools by several architect-engineering firms. The Cray, VAX, and personal computer versions of the codes, an accident analysis handbook, and the codes' availability will be discussed. The application of these codes to several design operations of nuclear facilities will be illustrated, and their use to analyze the effect of several accident scenarios also will be described.

  13. Electric, Gas, and Electric/Gas Energy Options for Cold-Air HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is distributed at 53" to 58OF from the central plant via integrated sprinkler piping. FICUs, illustrated in Figure 1, sensibly cool recirculated air as required, mix it with the 40°F ventilation air, and supply the mixed air at a constant volume. Figure 1.... Key: 80 1. Outside air enlaring enthalpy wheel, 91'FDE. 76'FWB. 2. Outside air leaving enlhalpy wheel. BI'FDB, 68qr. 3. Primary air leaving supply fan. 8SFDB. 68gr. 4. Primary air leaving ice cail. 4UFDB. 36qr.. sat. 5, Room condition. 7SFDE. 4O...

  14. Sensitivity of forced air distribution system efficiency to climate, duct location, air leakage and insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Location, Air Leakage and Insulation Iain S. Walker Energy4 Duct Insulation, Location and Leakageinsulation

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - air-distribution systems interactions Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system designer does not know how to design the best air distribution method for an ice rink. Ice rink... of the effectiveness of ventilation system and air distribution method....

  16. FUJIFILM Hunt Chemicals U.S.A. Achieves Compressed Air System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FUJIFILM Hunt Chemicals U.S.A. Achieves Compressed Air System Energy-Reduction Goals with a Three-Phased Strategy FUJIFILM Hunt Chemicals U.S.A. Achieves Compressed Air System...

  17. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  18. Hvac systems as a tool in controlling indoor air quality: A literature review. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samfield, M.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). One conclusion of the review is that HVAC systems very often contribute to the indoor air pollution because of (1) poor system maintenance, (2) overcrowding or the introduction of new pollution-generating sources with buildings, and (3) the location of outdoor air near ambient pollution sources. Another conclusion is that failure to trade off between energy conservation and employee productivity may result in increased IAQ problems. The report contents are based on literature survey covering the years 1988 through 1993, involving 60 references, 32 of which are cited in the report.

  19. Condition Assessment and Fault Prognostics of Microelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    monitoring, Condition assessment, Fault detection, Fault diagnostics, Fault prognostics. Corresponding, batteries, etc.) to complete machines (wind turbines, electrical motors, machining tools, etc.). SeveralCondition Assessment and Fault Prognostics of Microelectromechanical Systems K. Medjaher , H. Skima

  20. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nodal model for displacement ventilation and chilled ceiling2002. Displacement ventilation in non- industrial premises.ceiling/displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning

  1. Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air temperature under partial load conditions. More thannecessarily true for all the partial load range, and it mustsystem works with partial loads. Figure 9-1 Configuration#1.

  2. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  3. Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

  4. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K. (Chicago, IL); Burra, Rajni K. (Chicago, IL); Acharya, Kaustuva (Chicago, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  5. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system Xingxing Kuang & Jiu Jimmy negative air pressure can be generated in the vadose zone during pumping. The negative air pressure. The initial water-table depth has a significant effect on the generated negative air pressure. The shallower

  6. STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems (Page 1 of 4) Project Name CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC-MECH-3A (Revised 08

  7. Raytheon: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2003, Raytheon Company upgraded the efficiency of the compressed air system at its Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Massachusetts, to save energy and reduce costs. Worn compressors and dryers were replaced, a more sophisticated control strategy was installed, and an aggressive leak detection and repair effort was carried out. The total cost of these improvements was $342,000; however, National Grid, a utility service provider, contributed a $174,000 incentive payment. Total annual energy and maintenance cost savings are estimated at $141,500, and energy savings are nearly 1.6 million kWh. This case study was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program.

  8. Improving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based on System Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanghai, Hongbo Qin; McKane, Aimee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plan, formulate energy efficiency goals and adopt energyGO-102004-1926 [3] Energy Efficiency and Market Potential ofImproving Energy Efficiency of Compressed Air System Based

  9. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    terminal unit (TU) cooling design supply air temperature (due to the low supply airflow at low cooling load conditioncontrol the cooling air flow rate or reheated supply air to

  10. Screening systems adapt to changing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Prep plants are installing larger screening systems and synthetic media is meeting those challenges. The largest manufacturer of synthetic screen media is Polydeck located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The company's primary product lines include modular polyurethane and rubber screen panels and the frame systems to support the media. The modular approach overcomes a wear problem in one area of the deck common on Banana screens and facilitates maintenance. A rubber formation used in 1- x 2-pt screen panels called the Flexi design is softer and allows more vibration than standard urethane panels. The Maxi screen panel design combined with the PipeTop II frame makes the system highly versatile. 1 photo.

  11. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  12. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  13. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  14. About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    a customer say, `you installed my first air conditioner - yourself!'" Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercialAbout Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercial ­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company

  15. Method and system for monitoring environmental conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulesz, James J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lee, Ronald W. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting the occurrence of anomalies includes a plurality of spaced apart nodes, with each node having adjacent nodes, each of the nodes having one or more sensors associated with the node and capable of detecting anomalies, and each of the nodes having a controller connected to the sensors associated with the node. The system also includes communication links between adjacent nodes, whereby the nodes form a network. At least one software agent is capable of changing the operation of at least one of the controllers in response to the detection of an anomaly by a sensor.

  16. A MultiAir / MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency A MultiAir MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  17. Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor...

  18. air-conditioned domestic buildings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer, the outer layer and the air layer between them. To make the best of the solar energy, the low emissivity glass, which can reduce the harmful effect to the surroundings by...

  19. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  20. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  1. Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several...

  2. INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units (Page 1 of 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air being full of ice. Verify that the system is operates properly in the Idle mode (i.e., the compressor in the Ice Melt mode (i.e., it starts discharging and that the compressor is off). Yes No 8 Force

  3. Moltox™ Chemical Air Separation System-A Progress Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Brown, W. R.; Dunbobbin, B. R.; Massey, R. G.

    MOLTOX~* CHEMICAL AIR SEPARATION SYSTEM - A PROGRESS REPORT Donald C. Er1ckson Energy Concepts Co. Annapo11s, Maryland W111iam R. Brown and Br1an R. Dunbobb1n A1r Products and Chem1ca1s, Inc. Allentown, Pennsy1van1a Robert G. Massey U....S. Department of Energy Wash1ngton, D.C. ABSTRACT A new low energy route to tonnage oxygen product1on, the HOLTOX~ system, 1s now commenc1ng p110t plant test1ng. The process, 1ts h1story, and potent1a1 app11cat10ns will be descr1bed, 1n add1t1on...

  4. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  5. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA), Gentile; Ann C. (Dublin, CA), Marzouk; Youssef M. (Oakland, CA), Hale; Darrian J. (San Jose, CA), Thompson; David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  6. System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan. The fan is aspecify the VAV box cooling design supply air temperature (the underfloor supply plenum (thereby, reducing room cooling

  8. Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    provided rebates to residential customers for purchasing high efficiency air conditioners and heat pumps. The rebates have helped increase the demand for higher efficiency air conditioning units. However, even the most efficient system will not perform... quanm the effect of air leakage in the return air duct from a hot attic space on the high-temperature performance of air conditioners and heat pump systems. Air conditioner performance is quantified in terms of capacity, Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER...

  9. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the manufacturer for a specific indoor and outdoor temperatures. Once the full charge was determined, the unit was subjected to 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% undercharging and 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% overcharging of refrigerant by mass. The fully charged tests were... CONDITION All tests were performed on a split system central air conditioner provided by the Trane company. To determine the proper amount of refrigerant charge needed in the system and the unit's corresponding performance, charging specifications...

  10. Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lied, C. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

  11. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room cooling load, room air setpoint, and supply air temper-distribution of room cooling load into the supply plenum orof room cooling load between the underfloor supply plenum

  12. air heating system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  13. air treatment system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  14. air systems metodologia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  15. air flotation system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  16. air heating systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  17. air foil system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  18. air sampling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  19. air force systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a piece of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method used 10 U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer...

  20. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling energy efficiency ratio for split-system air conditioners is not well characterized. This research

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertossi, Leopoldo

    ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental Information planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

  2. Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach for collision risk estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Air traffic complexity and the interacting particle system method: An integrated approach explore the possibility of using air traffic complexity metrics to accelerate the Interacting Particle to assess the performance and impact of, e.g., possible modifications of the current air traffic management

  3. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  4. Electric, Gas, and Electric/Gas Energy Options for Cold-Air HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and incorporated into HVAC design for medium-to-large buildings, it is possible to structure system arrangements that reduce energy operating costs very significantly compared to conventional all-air VAV systems and also to all-air VAV ice thermal storage systems...

  5. Sensitivity of Forced Air Distribution System Efficiency to Climate, Duct Location, Air Leakage and Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Air Leakage and Insulation Iain S. Walker Energy Performance of Buildings Group Indoor Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Duct Insulation, Location and Leakage Examples............................................................... 4 Figure 2. Sheet metal ducts in a basement insulated with asbestos

  6. Compressed Air Audits: A Holistic Approach -Addressing the Air System as a Whole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaver, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy savings. The quality and comprehensiveness of manufacturing facilities, and therefore audits, vary widely and it is important to consider experience. Compressed Air Technologies has audited nearly 200 manufacturing facilities since our inception...

  7. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  8. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed to drop as sales increase to $4674.50 for a 10-ton unit (i.e. the original cost difference is halved), the life-cycle costs improve. A grid of first cost, annual maintenance cost and electricity price is enumerated and the results presented in the report show the sensitivity of life cycle cost to these three financial parameters in each of eight different climates.

  9. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home7 Air-Conditioning Usage

  10. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

  11. A study of time-dependent responses of a mechanical displacement ventilation (DV) system and an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system : building energy performance of the UFAD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jong Keun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climates, annual electricity consumption of UFAD is alwaysso the cooling electricity consumption has become importantsummers, the electricity consumption for air conditioning

  12. Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

  13. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 th AIVC Conference “Ventilation Strategies and MeasurementAir Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, U.K. 1985REFERENCES ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor

  14. The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, B. J.

    compressor wheeland a turbi ne wheel are mounted on opposite ends of a common shaft. A counter flow heat exchanger serves to precool the turbine inlet air by heat exchange with the colder turbine exhaust air. This also reheats the cold exhaust air before... it is returned to the oven. Drive energy may be supplied with a gear drive to the shaft or by furnishing the compressor with solvent laden air precompressed to about 10-12 psig. The ai r is compressed to about 2 atmospheres (15-20 psig) before expansion...

  15. Compressed Air System Analysis and Retrofit for Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, C.; Nutter, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Therefore, high quality compressed air is a key component of that objective. The compressed air used in the manufacturing process at this facility is held to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) class 2 air quality standards.... The compressor room contained two wet storage tanks, with a total capacity of 1,800 gallons. A heated desiccant dryer with associated filters was also located in the compressor room. Dry air was sent into the plant to a 2,000 gallon dry storage tank, which...

  16. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  17. Measure Guideline: Implementing a Plenum Truss for a Compact Air Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Measure Guideline presents the steps to implement a compact duct system inside an attic bulkhead (plenum truss) of a one-story, slab-on-grade (SOG) home. In a compact duct design, ductwork runs are reduced in length to yield a smaller and more compact duct system. Less energy will be lost through ductwork if the ducts are contained within the thermal enclosure of the house. These measures are intended for the production builder working to meet the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) requirements and keep the ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house. This measure of bringing the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment and ductwork within the thermal enclosure of the house is appropriate for the builder wishing to avoid cathedralizing the insulation in the attic space (i.e., locating it at the underside of the roof deck rather than along the attic floor) or adding dropped soffits.

  18. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  19. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  20. Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

  1. 2416, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 12-15, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    evaporators defrost more often than fin-and-tube heat pump units, operating under similar conditions understanding of the heat and mass transfer characteristics of coils during frosting and defrosting transient-15, 2010 Experimental Investigation of Frost Growth on Microchannel Heat Exchangers Ehsan Moallem1

  2. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    .1). ?? , is the area of orifice opening and ?? is the coefficient of discharge of the expansion valve at that specific condition. Coefficient of discharge is a dependent on the EEV geometry and the thermal?fluid properties of the refrigerant flowing through... Area of application of bulb pressure ?2 Area of application of evaporator pressure ?? External surface area of the TEV bulb ??? Area of heat conduction between the refrigerant and the bulb ?? Area of opening for refrigerant flow in expansion...

  3. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables heating, ventilation, and air conditioning integrated energy system

  4. Metering Air Compressor Systems for Efficiency: A Progress Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air compressors have energy efficiency quantified as SCFM/BHP. However, this efficiency fluctuates over a broad range based on the loading of the compressor. When multiple compressors operate with varying loads, as in a central plant, the overall...

  5. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is little radiative heat transfer and little impact on thereturn air extrac- tion and heat transfer to the plenum. ItUFAD is often used and heat transfer out of the room through

  6. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  7. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 6950 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada V6T 1Z4)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  8. Saving Energy in Industrial Compressed Air Systems: Issues and Obstacles in DSM Program Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trojanowski, D.; Parfomak, P.

    contained compressed air systems.(I) Air compressors are generally driven by electric motors, often in large sizes and often operating continuously throughout the day. As a result, compressors can account for a substantial fraction of the electricity... consumption and peak demand in a given facility. A study by North Carolina A&T University found that air compressors accounted for as much as 49 % of base energy consumption, and up to 58% of peak electrical demand, in the facilities they audited.(2...

  9. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  10. Energy analysis of a personalized ventilation system in a cold climate: influence of the supplied air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.a chair-based personalized ventilation system. Building andedged-mounted task ventilation system. Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (

  11. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.

  13. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  14. Two-Baryon Systems with Twisted Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zohreh Davoudi

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    I derive the most general quantization condition for energy eigenvalues of two interacting baryons in a finite cubic volume when arbitrary twisted boundary conditions are imposed on their finite-volume wavefunctions. These quantization conditions are used, along with experimentally known scattering parameters of two-nucleon systems in the coupled 3S1-3D1 channels, to demonstrate the expected effect of a selection of twisted boundary conditions on the spectrum of the deuteron. It is shown that an order of magnitude reduction in the finite-volume corrections to the deuteron binding energy arise in moderate volumes with a proper choice of boundary conditions on the proton and the neutron, or by averaging the result of periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions. These observations mean that a sub-percent accuracy can be achieved in the determination of the deuteron binding energy at (spatial) volumes as small as ~(9[fm])^3 in upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus with physical light-quark masses. The results reviewed in this talk are presented in details in Ref. [1].

  15. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,51.7,43.9,2.5,0.7,1.6,3.1 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,41.1,34.8,2.1,0.5,1.2,2.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,10.6,9.1,0.4,"Q",0.3,0.6...

  16. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  17. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in reduction in peak load demand and savings of KD 2,301 million in capital expenditures are possible for the years between 2001 and 2025 if the PR of AC systems are improved to 1.2 kW/RT from its present level of 2.0 kW/RT. Also, it is estimated that extent...

  18. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  19. NGATS ATM-Airportal Project Reference Material (External Release) Next Generation Air Transportation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NGATS ATM-Airportal Project Reference Material (External Release) Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) Air Traffic Management (ATM) - Airportal Project Reference Material May 23, 2007 Manager NASA Mike Madson Project Scientist NASA #12;NGATS ATM-Airportal Project Reference Material

  20. THE SCIENCE-POLICYINTERFACE:Using The Entire Scientific Toolbox To Enhance the Air Quality Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quality Management System The preceding chapters demonstrate the significant progress made during the last as an initial step to aid policy makers in designing and evaluating future management strategies. 5.1 THE AIR-QUALITY air-quality management processes, certain elements are common to each. These common elements

  1. Optimize the Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule for a Single-Duct VAV System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to electrical power, etc. The influence of those parameters on optimal supply air temperature reset schedules has been briefly evaIuated in this paper. System operators should keep these factors in mind when they develop the optimal supply air temperature...

  2. DRAFT: NONLINEAR CONTROLLER DESIGN WITH BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION FOR A NOVEL COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    are the pump/motor displacements inside the hydraulic transformer and the liquid piston air compressor regulation and gen- erator power tracking for a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system, a nonlinear/expander. While the pump/motor inside the liquid piston has a low band- width, the other pump/motor inside

  3. Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method usedLBNL 40587 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution systems Vol. 104 Part 1 Field measurements of interactions between furnaces and forced air distribution

  4. A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compressor use. This is advantageous in that it simplifies the experimental hardware requirements in projects of the sort undertaken here. (b) The base loads, i.e., the minimum electric load due to refrigerator, lights and other equipment which run all... to their customers to various incentives and load control programs, and the use of thermal storage systems (George, 1988). The Bryan Municipal Utility in Bryan, TX has a program which offers a rebate of $200 to any homeowner who installs an AC with a Seasonal Energy...

  5. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  6. TESTING OF AIR-FLOW WINDOWS FOR EVALUATION AND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehm, R.F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRESSURE: TAPS RETURN** REFERENCE** Return-Air ConditioningMakeup-Air Conditioning Energy a.Through Glass Return-Air Conditioning Energy Makeuo-Air

  7. Development of Temperature and Humidity-Based Indicators for Diagnosing Problems in Low Tonnage, Split System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, J. B.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of meeting a given cooling load; and equipment safety, or the ability to maintain equipment longevity by avoiding equipment-life-reducing conditions such as compressor slugging (no superheat) or lack of compressor cooling (high superheat) or seal...DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY-BASED INDICATORS FOR DIAGNOSING PROBLEMS IN LOW TONNAGE, SPLIT SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS Jim Watt Jeff Haberl, P.E., PhD. Dennis O'Neai, P.E., PhD. CES/Way International, Inc. Energy Systems Laboratory Energy...

  8. Hanford spent nuclear fuel hot conditioning system test procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the test procedures for cold testing of the prototype Hot Conditioning System (HCS) at the 306E Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the detailed design package prior to procurement of the process equipment. The current scope of testing in this document includes a fabricability study of the HCS, equipment performance testing of the HCS components, heat-up and cool-down cycle simulation, and robotic arm testing.

  9. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  10. The regeneration efficiency improvement of the reverse pulse air regenerating DPF system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichikawa, Yukihito; Hattori, Isao; Kasai, Yoshiyuki [NGK Insulators, Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the system modification through the improvement of pulse air penetration into the DPF cell channels in respect to the development of a wall-flow type diesel particulate filter (DPF) system with reverse pulse air regeneration for diesel vehicles. In this system, regeneration becomes more difficult with low exhaust gas temperatures and increased DPF volume. The pressure increase in the DPF cell channels was monitored as a parameter of pulse air penetration when reverse pulse air was injected into the DPF. By maximizing the pressure increase, the pulse air injection system was modified. The modification includes various changes in the air pipe arrangement and the air injecting time. The ratio of the length to the diameter of the DPF was also evaluated in relation to the regeneration efficiency. In this study, the high aspect ratio, i.e. small diameter and long DPF, showed better regeneration efficiency. The results of this study indicate that this system can be enlarged with the above modification despite low exhaust gas temperatures.

  11. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, P.W. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I, on October 23, 2014.

  14. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M. [International Air Technologies, Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Rymkevich, A.A. [St. Petersburg Academy of Refrigeration and Food Technology (Russian Federation). Dept. of Refrigeration Machines and Air-Conditioning Systems

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  15. Complexity within the Air Force acquisition system gaining insight from a theory of collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marticello, Daniel Nicholas, Jr

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joseph Tainter's theory of societal collapse is applied in an examination of the U.S. Air Force's aircraft acquisition system in order to gain insight into the enterprise's lagging performance. Theories of collapse at both ...

  16. Avionics and control system development for mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sanghyuk, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flight control system was developed to achieve mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a part of the Parent Child Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (PCUAV) project at MIT and the Draper Laboratory. A lateral ...

  17. Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Emissions of crustal material in air quality forecast systems: Use of satellite observations) Natural (dust, fires, volcanos) Meteorology: Transport, turbulence Clouds and radiation, precipitations Chemistry-transport model Gas and particles concentrations Use of model outputs: Analysis Direct: model vs

  18. Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), which turned this inefficient, humid lecture hall into a comfortable learning environment. This case study also explores other possibilities to solve the humidity control problem with single-duct, single-zone constant air volume systems....

  19. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems Based79-3 Automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, result in

  20. Analysis of a hybrid UFAD and radiant hydronic slab HVAC system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Paul; Lee, Kwang Ho; Webster, Thomas; Bauman, Fred

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling systems,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers HVAC & R Research,