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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

Smith, S.F. (Wendel Engineers, P.C., Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the full storage mode was about equal to what could be expected through a simple rooftop efficiency upgrade, the operating costs for the Roofberg system could be much more favorable depending on the utility rate structure. The ability of Roofberg to move much of the cooling load to off-peak periods enables it to take advantage of on-peak demand charges and time-of-use electricity rates. The Roofberg system, as installed, was able to reduce the on-peak energy use of the cooling system to 35% of the on-peak energy consumption of the baseline system. A comparative analysis of a rooftop replacement and Roofberg indicated that the Roofberg system on Building 2518 would be the better economic choice over a range of demand charges and on-off peak energy prices which are typical of utility rate tariffs for commercial buildings.

Tomlinson, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Jennings, L.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Retrofit Air Preheat Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can be increased to a range of 89% to 92%. The economic justification for the addition of this equipment is presented in new total investment curves and simple payout curves for a range of fuel cost. This will enable the owner to quickly determine the preliminary feasibility and conceptual requirements for his project before proceeding with more vigorous work.

Goolsbee, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Analysis of a Retrofitted Thermal Energy Storage Air-conditioning System of a Marine Museum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal energy storage(TES) air-conditioning system is a electrical load management technology with great potential to shift load from peak to off-peak utility periods. TES is… (more)

Yu, Po-wen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate the economic attractiveness of retrofitting HVAC industrial energy recovery equipment.

Graham, E. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variable-Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer-Room Air Conditioners Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Technology Case Study Bulletin By...

8

Preliminary guidelines for condition assessment of buildings being considered for solar retrofit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report contains a general description of methods currently available for condition assessment of the structural; heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); electrical; and plumbing systems of an existing building, in order to determine the feasibility of rehabilitation for solar retrofit.

Lerchen, F.H.; Pielert, J.H.; Chen, P.T.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Retrofitting an automotive air conditioner with HFC-134a, additive, and mineral oil. Final report, October 1992-May 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a lubricant additive developed for use in retrofitting motor vehicle air conditioners. The additive was designed to enable HFC-134a to be used as a retrofit refrigerant with the existing mineral oil in CFC-12 systems. The goal of the project was to provide preliminary feasibility testing of the additive. The cooling effect of the test system retrofitted with HFC-134a and the oil additive was nearly the same as that of the original system with CFC 12 refrigerant. If lubricant additives prove to be successful, miscible lubricants may not be needed for retrofitting some automotive systems. The retrofitting procedure might be simplified and the cost to consumers might be reduced. It has not been determined if retrofitting systems with HFC-134a and oil additives is feasible for a wider range of operating conditions and types of equipment, including the applicability of orifice tube/suction accumulator systems.

Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Variable-Speed Fan Variable-Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer-Room Air Conditioners Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Technology Case Study Bulletin By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Steve Greenberg September 2013 2 Contacts Steve Greenberg Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, 90R3111 Berkeley, California 94720 (510) 486-6971 segreenberg@lbl.gov For more information on FEMP, please contact: Will Lintner, P.E., CEM Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. S.W. Washington, D. C. 20585-0121 (202) 586-3120 william.lintner@ee.doe.gov 3 Acknowledgements EPRI: Dennis Symanski, Brian Fortenbery Synapsense: Garret Smith, Patricia Nealon Vigilent: Corinne Vita

11

Air Conditioning and lungs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Conditioning and lungs Name: freeman Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: What affect does air conditioning have upon the lungs of the...

12

Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The combination of several concepts of new energy technologies may make it possible to reduce the energy needs for thermal comfort, especially cooling and dehumidification, in small sized, single-story commercial buildings. The potentials and limitations of retrofit technology for these characteristic structures have been the focus of the experience gained through the design and installation of a system adapted to a building constructed in the early 1960's. The existing split package air conditioning system was combined with a desiccant air-conditioning unit with a waste heat and solar heat reclaim component. While this retrofit system is feasible, a number of questions remain to be considered regarding the design, installation and operation of the total system. This paper focuses on the practical applications of such a hybrid system - both architectural/construction issues and the mechanical components/system considerations.

Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Title Air Leakage of US Homes: Regression Analysis and Improvements from Retrofit Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5966E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Chan, Wanyu R., Jeffrey Joh, and Max H. Sherman Date Published 08/2012 Keywords air infiltration, blower door, fan pressurization measurements, retrofit, weatherization Abstract LBNL Residential Diagnostics Database (ResDB) contains blower door measurements and other diagnostic test results of homes in United States. Of these, approximately 134,000 single-family detached homes have sufficient information for the analysis of air leakage in relation to a number of housing characteristics. We performed regression analysis to consider the correlation between normalized leakage and a number of explanatory variables: IECC climate zone, floor area, height, year built, foundation type, duct location, and other characteristics. The regression model explains 68% of the observed variability in normalized leakage. ResDB also contains the before and after retrofit air leakage measurements of approximately 23,000 homes that participated in weatherization assistant programs (WAPs) or residential energy efficiency programs. The two types of programs achieve rather similar reductions in normalized leakage: 30% for WAPs and 20% for other energy programs.

14

Movements in air conditioning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Movements in Air Conditioning is a collection of poems that explores the obstacles inherent in creating a new sense of home in a country that… (more)

Hitt, Robert D. (Robert David)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 10: Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program. The report provides information to home owners who want to make their existing homes more energy efficient by sealing leaks in the building envelope (ceiling, walls, and floors) that let in drafts and let conditioned air escape. The report provides descriptions of 19 key areas of the home where air sealing can improve home performance and energy efficiency. The report includes suggestions on how to find a qualified weatherization or home performance contractor, what to expect in a home energy audit, opportune times for performing air sealing, and what safety and health concerns to be aware of. The report describes some basic building science concepts and topics related to air sealing including ventilation, diagnostic tools, and code requirements. The report will be available for free download from the DOE Building America website. It is a suitable consumer education tool for home performance and weatherization contractors to share with customers to describe the process and value of home energy retrofits.

Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Love, Pat M.

2010-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

16

Solar air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of a hybrid solar-assisted air conditioning system that combines a vapor compression section for sensible cooling with a desiccant section for dehumidification and that uses both solar energy and condenser waste heat to drive the dehumidifier has been under way for the last two years (1981 and 1982). The results of this research are included in this report: utilizing solar energy in an economical way has proven quite difficult.

Robison, H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Building America Best Practices Series, Vol. 10 - Retrofit Techniques & Technologies: Air Sealing, A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM R Retrofit Techniques & Technologies: Air Sealing A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners PREPARED BY Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory April 12, 2010 April 12, 2010 * PNNL-19284 BUILDING AMERICA BEST PRACTICES SERIES VOLUME 10. BuiLDiNG AmERiCA BEST PRACTiCES SERiES Retrofit Techniques and Technologies: Air Sealing

18

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

19

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern… (more)

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Computer controlled air conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled air conditioning system providing for circulation of air through an air conditioned house in contact with concrete walls requiring a humidity within a critical range. The improvement consists of: a computer for processing sensed environmental input data including humidity and oxygen to produce output control signals for affecting the humidity of the air in the house; provision for an air flow circulation path through the house in contact with the concrete walls; sensing responsive to the amount of oxygen in the house for providing input signals to the computer; mixing for combining with the air in the house a variable amount of fresh atmospheric air to supply fresh oxygen; and humidity modifying means for modifying the humidity of the air flowing in the flow path responsive to the control signals.

Dumbeck, R.F.

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Air conditioning: Impact on the built environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topics discussed in this book are: Introduction. 1. Air Conditioning - An Ever Expanding Market. 2. Building Envelope Design and Air Contitioning. 3. Air Conditioning and Energy - The CIBSE Building Energy Code. 4. Thermal Storage in Air Conditioning Systems. 5. Good Practice in the Design and Construction of Air Conditioning Systems. 6. Software for Air Conditioning Load Analysis and Design. 7. Lloyd's of London - The Architecture of Air Conditioning - Prediction of the Environment.

Sherratt, A.F.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning May 30, 2012 - 8:01pm Addthis Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. What does this mean for me? Central air conditioning systems are thermostatically controlled and convenient to use. Central air conditioning systems must be installed properly to operate efficiently. Central air conditioning systems can share ductwork with your heating system. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls,

23

HVAC ENERGY EFFICIENCY CASE STUDY Evaporcool condenser air pre-cooler retrofit for air-cooled chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Figure 2. The figure shows that electricity use in the post-retrofit period is significantly lower than part wear--both lead to increased costs. It also means that cooling causes building electrical demand 280 kWh/yr-ton COOLING ENERGY & C02 SAVINGS 22% WATER USAGE 0.9 gal/day-ton #12;2 | SPEED PROGRAM CASE

California at Davis, University of

24

Byggmeister Test Home: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Foundation Retrofits Foundation Retrofits Building America Webinar November 30, 2011 Kohta Ueno Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 2 Background Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 3 Background  Space conditioning energy use for basements  Known moisture-safe solutions (previous research)  Persistent bulk water (leakage) issues  Retrofits of existing foundations  Especially uneven wall (rubble stone) foundations  "Hybrid" insulation and bulk water control assemblies Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 4 Foundations w. bulk water issues  Severe and rapid damage to interior insulation and finishes due to bulk water intrusion Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 5 Insulation Location Choices * Retrofits: interior insulation is often the only

26

Advancing Residential Energy Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To advance the market penetration of residential retrofits, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered to provide technical assistance on nine home energy retrofits in metropolitan Atlanta with simulated source energy savings of 30% to 50%. Retrofit measures included duct sealing, air infiltration reductions, attic sealing and roofline insulation, crawlspace sealing, HVAC and water heating equipment replacement, and lighting and appliance upgrades. This paper will present a summary of these measures and their associated impacts on important home performance metrics, such as air infiltration and duct leakage. The average estimated source energy savings for the homes is 33%, and the actual heating season average savings is 32%. Additionally, a case study describing expected and realized energy savings of completed retrofit measures of one of the homes is described in this paper.

Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

28

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and...

29

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

31

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

32

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

33

Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered in as many projects as are Absorption. units. Where once the only studies being analyzed were absorption vs. electric chiller operation costs. Now, the choice is: Why, Where, and How to choose between gas fired Absorption and GED chillers. WHY Absorption or Engine ? . Absorption uses the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water. . Absorption chillers are chiller/heaters Absorption chillers are manufactured by the four US major manufacturers Absorption chillers have few moving parts . Engine chillers provide "free" hot water Engine chillers retrofit with DX systems . Engine chillers use less gas per ton WHERE Do Absorption And Engine Chillers Belong? . Absorption: Office buildings, restaurants, industries, churches, universities . Engine: Hospitals, universities, hotels, apartments, industries HOW To Choose Between Absorption And Engine Chillers? Energy cost Operation and maintenance costs Equipment cost Environmental concerns Thermal requirements . Space requirements Staff experience

Phillips, J. N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Zoned heating and air conditioning system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a zoned heating and air conditioning system comprising: a central air handling system with an air heating means and an air cooling means and a blower connected to an air duct system; thermostats each have heating and cooling set points, respectively associated with and located in different zones of a building; dampers respectively associated with each building zone positioned in the air duct system. Each damper has an open position allowing air into the respective zone from the duct system and a closed position; relay means for connecting one thermostat to the air handling system upon a call for heating or cooling by one thermostat and disconnecting all other thermostats by connecting one thermostat's connections between the thermostat and air handling system. Only one thermostat is connected to the air handling system at a time and the relay means disconnects one thermostat from the air handling system after one thermostat is satisified; and damper actuating means for unlocking each damper in one building zone responsive actuated by a respective zone thermostat connected to the air handling system by the relay means. The damper actuates means including a damper solenoid for each damper located adjacent each damper and connected to a respective zone thermostat. It unlocks each damper in one building zone responsive to being actuated by the respective zone thermostat and unlocks the dampers in one building zone when one thermostat is actuated while preventing the dampers in another thermostat's building zone from unlocking.

Beachboard, S.A.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Troubleshooting the residential air conditioning system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to effectively diagnose problems in a residential air conditioning system, the technician should develop and follow a logical step-by-step troubleshooting procedure. A list of problems, along with possible causes and solutions, that a technician may encounter when servicing a residential air conditioner is presented.

Puzio, H. [Sussex County Vocational Technical School, Sparta, NJ (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Continuous Commissioning: A Valuable Partner to Retrofit Projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuous Commissioning (CC) or HVAC system optimization is not only a valuable stand-alone energy saving measure for commercial buildings, but it is also an important escort solution to retrofit projects. Energy retrofit projects typically achieve projected savings. But in cases where savings goals are not being met, optimizing HVAC system performance can be the difference in an underachieving versus a successful project. This paper presents a real-world study of pairing a CC project with an energy retrofit in a 107,000 square foot hospital building. Applying the CC strategy to an underperforming retrofit, projected energy savings were achieved and even increased. Additionally, by increasing supply air capacity, patients, staff and visitors now enjoy improved comfort conditions. This paper also explores the working relationship between an ESCO and a university research laboratory, whose combined efforts led to this remarkable turn around.

Turner, W. D.; Banks, K.; Athar, A.; Yazdani, B.; Zhu, Y.; Culp, C.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Indoor environmental quality benefits of apartment energy retrofits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor environmental quality benefits of apartment energy retrofits Indoor environmental quality benefits of apartment energy retrofits Title Indoor environmental quality benefits of apartment energy retrofits Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-6373E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Noris, Federico, Gary Adamkiewicz, William W. Delp, Toshifumi Hotchi, Marion L. Russell, Brett C. Singer, Michael Spears, Kimberly Vermeer, and William J. Fisk Journal Building Environment Volume 68 Pagination 170-178 Date Published 10/2013 Keywords Apartments; Energy; Indoor environmental quality; Retrofit; Selection Abstract Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

39

Development of an automated methodology for calibration of simplified air-side HVAC system models and estimation of potential savings from retrofit/commissioning measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation provides one methodology to determine potential energy savings of buildings with limited information. This methodology is based upon the simplified energy analysis procedure of HVAC systems and the control of the comfort conditions. Numerically, the algorithm is a tailored exhaustive search over all the independent variables that are commonly controlled for a specific type of HVAC system. The potential energy savings methodology has been applied in several buildings that have been retrofitted and/or commissioned previously. Results from the determined savings for the Zachry building at Texas A&M after being commissioned show a close agreement to the calculated potential energy savings (about 85%). Differences are mainly attributed to the use of simplified models. Due to the restriction of limited information about the building characteristics and operational control, the potential energy savings method requires the determination of parameters that characterize its thermal performance. Thus, a calibrated building is needed. A general procedure has been developed to carry out automated calibration of building energy use simulations. The methodology has been tested successfully on building simulations based on the simplified energy analysis procedure. The automated calibration is the minimization of the RMSE of the energy use over daily conditions. The minimization procedure is fulfilled with a non-canonical optimization algorithm, the Simulated Annealing, which mimics the Statistical Thermodynamic performance of the annealing process. That is to say, starting at a specified temperature the algorithm searches variable-space states that are steadier, while heuristically, by the Boltzmann distribution, the local minima is avoided. The process is repeated at a new lower temperature that is determined by a specific schedule until the global minimum is found. This methodology was applied to the most common air-handler units producing excellent results for ideal cases or for samples modified with a 1% white noise.

Baltazar Cervantes, Juan Carlos

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is also monitored, with temperature and humidity measured in all conditioned zones, attics, crawlspaces, and unconditioned basements. In some homes, heat flux transducers are installed on the basement walls to help determine the insulating qualities of the technologies and practices. EnergyGauge is used to estimate the pre-retrofit and post-retrofit home energy rating system (HERS) index and reduction in energy consumption and energy bill. In a follow-up report, data from the installed sensors will be presented and analyzed as well as a comparison of the post-retrofit energy consumption of the home to the EnergyGauge model of the post-retrofit home. Table ES1 shows the retrofits that were completed at the eight households where some or all of the recommended retrofits were completed. Home aliases are used to keep the homeowners anonymous. Some key findings of this study thus far are listed as follows. Some homeowners (50%) are not willing to spend the money to reach 30 50% energy savings. Quality of retrofit work is significantly variable among contractors which impact the potential energy savings of the retrofit. Challenges exist in defining house volume and floor area. Of the five homes that completed all the recommended retrofits, energy bill savings was not the main driver for energy retrofits. In no case were the retrofits cost neutral given a 15 year loan at 7% interest for the retrofit costs.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences? Title Does the Air-Conditioning Engineering Rubric Work in Residences? Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL...

42

A study of membrane properties on air conditioning performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Energy consumption due to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning amounts to 10-20% of global electrical energy usage. Air conditioning alone uses one trillion kilowatt hours… (more)

Boyer, Elizabeth J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Automobile air-conditioning unit. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In this study the refrigerant in the automobile air-conditioner is compressed by thermal energy in a unique compression system rather than by work in a standard compressor. The compression uses an intermittent compression process with a solid absorbent. The vapor is absorbed by an absorbent at relatively low temperature and ejected as the absorbent temperature is raised. A set of one way valves limits flow to one direction. Major contributions are heat transfer requirements, molecular sieve-refrigerant matching, minimizing non-producing mass, solving thermal fatigue and shock problems, and applying this to automobile air-conditioning. The performance study shows energy savings up to fifty percent are possible, depending on engine load. A twenty percent energy savings with the vehicle tested with the air-conditioner in operation is average. The study also showed that less fuel is used with the windows open than with the air-conditioner operating.

Schaetzle, W.J.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Rotating heat pipe for air-conditioning  

SciTech Connect

A unique rotary hermetic heat pipe is disclosed for transferring heat from an external source to an external heat sink. The heat pipe has a tapered condensing surface which is curved preferably to provide uniform pumping acceleration, the heat pipe being rotated at a velocity such that the component of centrifugal acceleration in an axial direction parallel to the tapered surface is greater than lG and so that the condensing surface is kept relatively free of liquid at any attitude. The heat pipe may be incorporated in an air conditioning apparatus so that it projects through a small wall opening. In the preferred air conditioning apparatus, a hollow hermetic air impeller is provided which contains a liquefied gaseous refrigerant, such as freon, and means are provided for compressing the refrigerant in the evaporator region of the heat pipe.

Gray, V.H.

1976-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

45

Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization. The proposed design conditions specific to the location and the application are drastically different than currently used single design conditions for all application and locations. Cooling load estimates fro two building located in Kuwait have been analyzed for the proposed and the current design conditions to highlight over- or under-sizing the air-conditioning (A/C) plant capacity. Finally, a number of recommendations are made for architects and designers to use proper design conditions to ensure year-round comfort and energy conservation.

Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings  

SciTech Connect

This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant's names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

Richardson, C.S.

1992-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy impacts of attic duct retrofits in Sacramento houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inefficiencies in air distribution systems have been identified as a major source of energy loss in US sunbelt homes. Research indicates that approximately 30--40% of the thermal energy delivered to the ducts passing through unconditioned spaces is lost through air leakage and conduction through the duct walls. Field experiments over the past several years have well documented the expected levels of air leakage and the extent to which that leakage can be reduced by retrofit. Energy savings have been documented to a more limited extent, based upon a few field studies and simulation model results. Simulations have also indicated energy loss through ducts during the off cycle caused by thermosiphon-induced flows, however this effect had not been confirmed experimentally. A field study has been initiated to separately measure the impacts of combined duct leak sealing and insulation retrofits, and to optimize a retrofit protocol for utility DSM programs. This paper describes preliminary results from 6 winter and 5 summer season houses. These retrofits cut overall duct leakage area approximately 64%, which translated to a reduction in envelope ELA of approximately 14%. Wrapping ducts and plenums with R-6 insulation translated to a reduction in average flow-weighted conduction losses of 33%. These experiments also confirmed the appropriateness of using duct ELA and operating pressures to estimate leakage flows for the population, but indicated significant variations between these estimates and measured flows on a house by house basis. In addition, these experiments provided a confirmation of the predicted thermosiphon flows, both under winter and summer conditions. Finally, average material costs were approximately 20% of the total retrofit costs, and estimates of labor required for retrofits based upon these experiments were: 0.04 person-hrs/cm{sup 2} of duct sealed and 0.21 person-hrs/m{sup 2} of duct insulated.

Jump, D.; Modera, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Retrofit regenerator package  

SciTech Connect

Potential fuel savings by retrofitting gas turbines with regeneration units are discussed. Thomassen U.S. is making the retrofit available.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning August 2, 2013 - 9:50am Addthis Trees can save you energy by blocking sunlight in the summer and letting...

53

Energy Efficient Retrofits and Green Building Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the recent survey more and more concern being expressed throughout the Middle East regions that the power generation companies are suffering with shortage of power during the peek hours and consequently unable to meet the power demand. Moreover, the increase in demand is also causing rise in pollution levels. Therefore, the subject of energy efficient retrofits and green building practices is becoming increasingly important. Based on the latest walkthrough energy audit it is proven that 65% of electricity is consumed by Air Conditioning System resulting average energy consumption by 250kWh/year/sqmeter of a residential complex.

Rahman, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Predicted vs. Actual Energy Savings of Retrofitted House  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports the results of actual energy savings and the predicted energy savings of retrofitted one-story house located in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The process started with modeling the house prior to retrofitting and after retrofitting. The monthly metered energy consumption is acquired from the electric company archives for seven years prior to retrofitting and recording the actual monthly energy consumption of the post retrofitting. The house model is established on DOE 2.1. Actual monthly energy consumption is used to calibrate and fine-tuning the model until the gap between actual and predicted consumption was narrowed. Then the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) are entered into the modeled house according to the changes in thermo-physical properties of the envelope and the changes in schedules and number of users. In order to account for those differences, electrical consumption attributed to A/C in summer was isolated and compared. The study followed the International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) in assessing the impact of energy conservation measures on actual, metered, building energy consumption. The study aimed to show the predicted savings by the simulated building model and the actual utility bills' analysis in air conditioning consumption and peak at monthly load due to building envelope.

Al-Mofeez, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments...

56

Retrofit '79  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In addition to a compilation of the talks presented, summaries are given of panel discussions on the commercialization of air gasifiers and on the research needs in this area. Suggestions made in response to a letter asking what government actions were needed to promote commercialization of air gasification are summarized. A directory is given of air biomass gasifiers in the US and Canada and their status (research, pilot scale, commercial, etc.). Separate abstracts were prepared for eight papers. (JSR)

None

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

Kyle, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS Kristina Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;#12;LBNL-52235 Investigation of Residential Central Air;#12;Investigation of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS i Table of Contents Acronyms

59

Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed for a high efficient utilization of solar thermal energy. To show the today's and near future potential innovative solar cooling and air conditioning systems are discussed which are well adapted to the utilization of solar energy. The system performance of each air conditioning system is evaluated under Abu Dhabi design conditions.

Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is defined as any space conditioning system that allowsor by a separate space conditioning system, but in eitherenergy use - As with any space conditioning system, a poorly

Webster, Tom

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Speaker(s): Jonas Eborn Date: August 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter The Air Conditioning library is a commercial Modelica library for the steady-state and transient simulation of air conditioning systems using both compact micro-channel heat exchangers as well as fin-and-tube type heat exchangers. Currently it is mostly used by automotive OEMs and suppliers that need high-accuracy system level models to evaluate energy efficiency of systems developed under the pressure of reduced design cycle times. The library also has applications in other areas, including aircraft cooling systems and residential air-conditioning. The Air Conditioning library contains published correlations for heat and mass transfer and

62

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of energy use in typical office and hotel buildings in Hawaii. Hawaii relies on imported fossil fuels electricity usage by 75 percent compared to conventional air conditioning systems. This renewable energy conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

Frandsen, Jannette B.

63

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

New and Underutilized Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2013 - 2:56pm Addthis The following heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies are underutilized within the Federal sector. These technologies have been...

66

2001 Consumption and Expenditures -- Electric Air-Conditioning ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Climate Zone, 2001 : 2: CE3-2c. ...

67

Modeling and construction of a computer controlled air conditioning system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As energy efficient devices become more necessary, it is desired to increase the efficiency of air conditioning systems. Current systems use on/off control, where the… (more)

Frink, Brandon S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and ready-to-use models for all relevant components of automotive air conditioning systems like condenser, evaporator, compressor, expansion devices and accumulatorreceiver...

69

Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes  

SciTech Connect

Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or incorporation into existing software tools would improve the efficiency of the process. Retrofit activity appears to be gaining market share, and this would be a potentially valuable capability with relevance to marketing, program management, and retrofit success metrics.

Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration Flow Coil Design etc. Finger Print Relationship Every evaporator is unique Unstable Region * = examples

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

71

Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofitting Doors on Open Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases William Goetzler Navigant Consulting, Inc. wgoetzler@navigant.com (781) 270-8351 April 4, 2013 BBA Refrigeration Project Team Images courtesy of REMIS AMERICA, LLC. 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Technology Overview Image from Investigation of Energy- Efficient Supermarket Display Cases. 2004, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Background and Motivation * Adding doors to open cases (retrofits) greatly reduces cold air loss - 50-80% load reduction - Load reduction = system energy savings

72

Design of Air-cooled Microchannel Condensers for Mal-distributed Air Flow Conditions .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-cooled condensers are routinely designed for a variety of applications, including residential air-conditioning systems. Recent attempts at improving the performance of these heat exchangers have… (more)

Subramaniam, Vishwanath

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences  

SciTech Connect

A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Air Conditioning Load Prediction Based on DE-SVM Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) theory, and the model to predict air conditioning load was established. In order to optimize the behavior of SVM, the DE (Differential Evolution) algorithm was introduced into classic SVM. The DE-SVM model is applied ... Keywords: Air Conditioning load, DE-SVM, Prediction

Zhonghai Chen; Yong Sun; Guoli Yang; Tengfei Wu; Guizhu Li; Longbiao Xin

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

The Feasibility Analysis of a New Air-Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new modular solar refrigeration and liquid desiccant air conditioning system composed by adsorption refrigeration system, liquid desiccant system and roof cold radiation. The feasibility and beneficial of this new system are analyzed ... Keywords: liquid desiccant, modular solar refrigeration, new air conditioning system, roof cold radiation, technical and economic feasibility analysis

Jinggang Wang; Meixia Du; Xiaoxia Gao; Jin Zhao; Zhenjiang Yin; Yi Man

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

79

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

80

Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the rapid development of Intelligent Buildings (IB), the Building Automation System (BAS) has come to control and manage the equipment in the building more and more scientifically, economically and rationally, which can not only raise the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger. In order to control and manage the air-conditioning systems effectively and take full use of energy-saving technology, we apply computer control to the system of air automation control. This paper discusses direct digital control (DDC) in the air conditioning system in buildings.

Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Neural network control for an intelligent air handler in an air-conditioning system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many commercial air-conditioning systems in hot and humid areas like Singapore are operated throughout the year. There are two main classifications for these systems: the… (more)

Zhang, Qi.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant`s names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

Richardson, C.S.

1992-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

84

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Philip...

85

Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis sets forth a novel intelligent residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that provides optimal thermal comfort and electricity cost trade-offs for a household resident… (more)

Thomas, Auswin George

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Intelligent Control of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposed a simulation-optimization energy saving strategy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems' condenser water loop through intelligent control of single speed cooling towers' components. An analysis of system components ...

Patrick Low Kie; Lau Bee Theng

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

C. Jean Bustard

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The control system of central air-conditioning, based on PMV, not only improves thermal comfort but also reduces system energy consumption. A new thermal comfort degree softsensor model is built via use of the CMAC neural network nonlinear calibration function. It can realize on-line detection of thermal comfort. At the same time it can also realize real-time control of central air-conditioning system based on PMV. Simulation results demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented method.

Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

Kenneth E. Baldrey

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Energy and Cost Savings of Retro-Commissioning and Retrofit Measures for Large Office Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the energy and cost savings of seven retro-commissioning measures and 29 retrofit measures applicable to most large office buildings. The baseline model is for a hypothetical building with characteristics of large office buildings constructed before 1980. Each retro-commissioning measure is evaluated against the original baseline in terms of its potential of energy and cost savings while each retrofit measure is evaluated against the commissioned building. All measures are evaluated in five locations (Miami, Las Vegas, Seattle, Chicago and Duluth) to understand the impact of weather conditions on energy and cost savings. The results show that implementation of the seven operation and maintenance measures as part of a retro-commissioning process can yield an average of about 22% of energy use reduction and 14% of energy cost reduction. Widening zone temperature deadband, lowering VAV terminal minimum air flow set points and lighting upgrades are effective retrofit measures to be considered.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Moser, Dave; Liu, Guopeng; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Philip Haves Edward A. Arens The presentation will describe and compare the methods of determining cooling design conditions used by ASHRAE and the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heating. A case study based on weather data for Brisbane will be used to illustrate the issues that arise. One issue is the usefulness of the 3-hourly temperature observations archived in International Weather Office records compared to the hourly observations required by the ASHRAE method. Another issue is the use of daily maxima, which have been archived for over 100 years at many Australian locations. Daily data can easily be used to find trends

93

Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

minimizing the use of air-conditioning – A research reportComfort without air -conditioning in refurbished offices –projects. Whether air conditioning is being reduced or

Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

An Exploration of Wall Retrofit Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to examine wall retrofit options including replacing the cladding, adding insulation under the cladding, and multiple sealing methods that can be used when installing replacement windows in well-built or loosely-built rough openings. These experiments included thermal measurements in a hot box and air-leakage measurements. The retrofit claddings considered included wood-lap siding, vinyl siding, and vinyl siding with an integrated and formed foam insulation. Retrofit insulations included expanded and extruded polystyrene and foil-faced polyisocyanurate in various thicknesses. Air sealing methods for replacement windows included traditional caulking, exterior trim variations, loose-fill fiberglass, low-expansion foam, self-expanding foam inserts, and specialty tape. Results were applied to a model to estimate whole-house energy impacts for multiple climates.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Room Air Conditioning Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room or window air conditioners are a common appliance in parts of the United States residential sector for providing summertime cooling. The technology is based on the same vapor compression cycle common in central air conditioning and refrigeration applications, but with all system components in one enclosure, which is generally small and comparatively inexpensive. The systems are simple and modular enough to be installed by the homeowner, and can be installed in windows without major modification, or ...

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of health services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

55476 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased5-14-04 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increasedof office buildings with air-conditioning systems (e.g. ,

Mendell, Mark J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing the actuality of the large-scale public buildings' energy consumption, we know that most of them run not only in low efficiency, but also in high energy consumption. According to the characteristics of the building, we should proceed with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system, the use of the new energy and the daily management or the method of adjustment and control, and so on , so we can make the air-conditioning system run efficiently. Analyzing and comparing the large-scale public buildings' energy consumption with each other, some pointed improvement measures are proposed further. According to the study and analysis, even though large-scale public buildings consume a great of energy, there exists a huge potential for energy conservation.

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

SciTech Connect

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Table HC4-12a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC4-12a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Table HC4-9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC4-9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

102

Table AC1. Total Households Using Air-Conditioning Equipment, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table AC1. Total Households Using Air-Conditioning Equipment, 2005 Million U.S. Households Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment (millions) Central System

103

Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Dollars per Household Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment

104

Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

Lindroos, J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning  

SciTech Connect

There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel has been developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solar air conditioning system using desiccant wheel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years. Modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. In this paper, a new design of desiccant cooling is being developed ... Keywords: air-conditioning, desiccant cooling, solar thermal energy, solid desiccant

Arfidian Rachman; Sohif Mat; Taib Iskandar; M. Yahya; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Lighting Retrofit Study  

SciTech Connect

The Lighting Retrofit Study was an effort to determine the most cost-effective methods of retrofitting several configurations of lighting systems at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We developed a test protocol to compare a variety of lighting technologies for their applicability in labs and offices and designed and constructed a novel lighting contrast potential meter to allow for comparison of lighting quality as well as quantity.

Kromer, S.; Morse, O.; Siminovitch, M.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Practices for Residential HVAC Systems”. Boston, MA. Jump,techniques for measuring HVAC grille air flows". ASHRAEPractices Guide for Residential HVAC Retrofits. LBNL 53592.

Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid wasting energy and presenting simple regulation methods, fuzzy regulation strategies for CAV systems are studied in this research. A CAV system of an office building is modeled and simulated with the Designer's Simulation Toolkit (DeST). The operating parameters are calculated based on the instantaneous load obtained from simulation. The operation of the system is divided into five stages according to different conception of “cold” or “hot” in different seasons. The relationship between the outdoor air temperature and the fresh air volume, and the supply air temperature is presented in the form of fuzzy rules. Then the building is simulated under different load conditions and the operating parameters are obtained from fuzzy reasoning. Finally, the effect of fuzzy strategies on energy consumption is analyzed and compared with the effects of the operating parameters obtained from simulation. The results show that energy consumption using a fuzzy regulation strategy is close to the energy consumption of knowing the exact load of the building, while the fuzzy regulation strategy can largely simplify the regulation of the air conditioning system.

Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Cold climate foundation insulation retrofit performance  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of foundation insulation retrofits in 15 Minnesota houses was evaluated using a before-after experimental method. Nine houses received interior retrofits; six, exterior retrofits. Foundation air leaks were sealed before the preretrofit heating season to control for inadvertent sealing during retrofit. Basement heating supply and return registers were closed in most houses for the 21-month monitoring period, and for all houses the basement was an uncontrolled zone without a thermostat. Homeowners recorded gas and electricity meter readings and furnace and water heater on-times weekly. A load vs. outdoor temperature was used to evaluate changes in energy use. The average whole-house energy savings for the interior and exterior cases were 92 and 24 therm per year, or 7.9% (range - 0.6% to 17.8%) and 3.0% (range -2.9% to 8.3%), respectively. Minimum payback periods for the interior and exterior cases were 12 and 37 years, respectively. For all houses the basement temperature increased between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, and all homeowners reported increased comfort in their basements. Average measured savings were about one-third of those predicted. The results show that the application of insulation in an uncontrolled zone produces highly variable results and has the principal effect of increasing the temperature and comfort of the basement rather than producing cost-effective whole-house energy savings.

Robinson, D.A. (Robinson Technical Services, St. Paul, MN (US)); Goldberg, L.F.; Shen, L.S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (US)); Nelson, G.D. (Energy Conservatory, Minneapolis, MN (US)); Hewett, M.J. (Center for Energy and the Urban Environment, Minneapolis, MN (US)); Noble, M.T. (Natural Resources Corp., Minneapolis, MN (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Performance assessment on continuous air monitors under real operating conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the nuclear industry, workers may be exposed to artificial radioactive aerosols. These aerosols are generally composed of particles with a diameter measuring between 0.1 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m. To protect workers in nuclear facilities, monitors that continuously measure radioactivity in the air are used. The main function of the monitor is to provide real-time measurement of activity concentration. Measurement of aerosol activity concentration can be affected by a number of factors specific to the aerosols and the instrument. The first part of the article will present the general operating principles of continuous air monitors (CAMs) and inherent measurement difficulties, as well as the main standard tests. The second section describes the experimental ICARE facility The ICARE facility generates standard artificial and natural radioactive aerosols for calibrating continuous air monitors under real operating conditions. (authors)

Monsanglant-Louvet, C.; Liatimi, N.; Gensdarmes, F. [Inst. of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN, Saclay (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A Methodology to Measure Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measured energy savings promote and sustain energy conservation retrofits by verifying the success of retrofits, determining pay-back schedules, guiding the selection of future retrofits and identifying opportunities for further savings. This dissertation develops a methodology to measure retrofit energy savings and the uncertainty of the savings in commercial buildings. The functional forms of empirical models of cooling and heating energy use in commercial buildings are derived from an engineering analysis of constant-air-volume and variable-air-volume HVAC systems. One, two, three and four parameter, temperature-dependent regression models are proposed to model baseline energy use. Retrofit savings are measured as the difference between the baseline energy use project by the models and the measured post-retrofit energy use. A hybrid ordinary least squares/autoregressive method is developed to determine the uncertainty of the predicated energy use and savings. The annual predictive ability of models based on pre-retrofit data sets of less than a full year is investigated. The energy delivery efficiency is introduced to measure the efficiency of air-side systems at meeting the net building load. A preliminary investigation of the use of artificial neural network models to measure savings is presented. The methodology is demonstrated on case study examples using software specifically developed for the analysis of commercial building energy use.

Kissock, John Kelly

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

116

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal resistance in air conditioned buildings. Effect of glass wall radiation temperature on the indoor temperature distribution of building rooms is also investigated. Heat gain through various types of glass is discussed. Optimization and testing of these types are carried out theoretically and experimentally as well. A series of experiments on different types of glass with special strips is performed.

Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

Yellott, J. I.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Service center to test solar air-conditioning system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field testing of an advanced solar-powered air-conditioning system developed under the joint Saudi Arabia-US Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of solar Energy (SOLERAS) will be conducted in Arizona over a three-phase 34-month perod. Participants in the program and their contribution are cited. The solar-Rankine alternative to conventional systems using electricity or fossil fuels. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Address 115 Washington Street - P.O. Box 516 Place Urbana, Ohio Zip 43078 Sector Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar Product Installation; Maintenance and repair Phone number 937-652-1136 Website http://fetzphc.com Coordinates 40.108862°, -83.757291° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.108862,"lon":-83.757291,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

Ruckes, John

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Golden Valley Electric Association - Commercial Lighting Retrofit...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program Golden Valley Electric Association - Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program Eligibility Commercial Savings For Appliances &...

123

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description - Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems.

124

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions valves (stuck valves, valve hunting, poorly tuned valve controllers), and fouled evaporators and condensers. Furthermore, air conditioning systems can often be adjusted to improve efficiency while continuing to meet cooling loads (adjusting system pressures, decreasing superheat setpoints). This study presents the design of a low cost device that can non-invasively measure system operating conditions, diagnose faults, estimate potential energy savings, and provide recommendations on how the system should be adjusted or repaired. Using eight external temperature measurements, the device potentially can detect and diagnose up to ten faults commonly found in HVAC systems. Steady state temperatures are compared to threshold values obtained from literature and HVAC manufacturers to detect and determine the severity of faults and subsequent reductions in coefficient of performance. Preliminary tests reveal the potential for the device to detect and diagnose common efficiency-degrading faults in HVAC systems.

Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Vehicle Transient Air Conditioning Analysis: Model Development& System Optimization Investigations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a transient air conditioning (A/C) system model using SINDA/FLUINT analysis software. It captures all the relevant physics of transient A/C system performance, including two-phase flow effects in the evaporator and condenser, system mass effects, air side heat transfer on the condenser/evaporator, vehicle speed effects, temperature-dependent properties, and integration with a simplified cabin thermal model. It has demonstrated robust and powerful system design optimization capabilities. Single-variable and multiple variable design optimizations have been performed and are presented. Various system performance parameters can be optimized, including system COP, cabin cool-down time, and system heat load capacity. This work presents this new transient A/C system analysis and optimization tool and shows some high-level system design conclusions reached to date. The work focuses on R-134a A/C systems, but future efforts will modify the model to investigate the transient performance of alternative refrigerant systems such as carbon dioxide systems. NREL is integrating its transient air conditioning model into NRELs ADVISOR vehicle system analysis software, with the objective of simultaneously optimizing A/C system designs within the overall vehicle design optimization.

Hendricks, T. J.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

REFRIGERATIONREFRIGERATION ((svsv: Kylteknik): Kylteknik) 424503 E424503 E 20102010 #7#7 --rzrz 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the top of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages. Air conditioning, cooling towers7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, gg, g Ron Zevenhoven Ã?Ã?bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

128

Passive retrofits for Navy housing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A project to assess and initiate passive solar energy retrofits to US Navy family housing is described. The current data base for Navy housing (ECOP), and its enhancement for passive solar purposes options proposed for Navy housing are explained. The analysis goals and methods to evaluate the retrofits are discussed. An educational package to explain the retrofits is described.

Hibbert, R.; Miles, C.; Jones, R.; Peck, C.; Anderson, J.; Jacobson, V.; Dale, A.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air-conditioning systems. Eight FDD schemes are built to detect the eleven pre-defined VAV faults using the qualitative and quantitative FDD approaches within the strategy at two steps. The ten hard faults, which would affect the system operation, are analyzed at Step 1. The soft fault, which would not affect the basic system operation but would impact the supervisory controls, is analyzed at Step 2. The strategy is tested and validated on typical VAV systems involving multiple faults, both in simulation and in-situ tests. A software package is developed as a BMS-assisted automatic commissioning tool based on the FDD strategy. Off-line tests were conducted in both the simulated building and the real building.

Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reducing air conditioning waste by signalling it is cool outside  

SciTech Connect

This experiment looked at the effects on residential energy consumption of providing homeowners with (1) a signalling device that indicated a conservation opportunity and (2) information feedback about their rate of energy use. The signalling device operated when the outside temperature was below 68F and the air conditioner was on. Homeowners were told that the signalling device indicated when they could cool their house effectively by opening the windows and turning off their air conditioner. Forty households were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: signalling device only, feedback only, both, neither. The results showed a significant 15.7% decrease in energy use for those households with the signalling devices. Neither the feedback nor interaction effect was significant. The advantages and disadvantages of having people in the control cycle were discussed. 4 references, 1 table.

Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

MassSAVE (Electric) - Residential Retrofit Programs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit Programs Retrofit Programs MassSAVE (Electric) - Residential Retrofit Programs < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Other Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Weatherization: $2000 Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2012 State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Weatherization: 75% Heat Pump Water Heater: $1,000 Income Eligible Customers: free home energy consultation Mulitifamily Incentives: comprehensive energy analysis, lighting upgrades, insulation, air sealing and other energy saving measures.

132

Residential Deep Energy Retrofits: Monitoring and Performance of 10  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Deep Energy Retrofits: Monitoring and Performance of 10 Residential Deep Energy Retrofits: Monitoring and Performance of 10 California Case Study Homes Speaker(s): Brennan Less Jeremy Fisher Date: August 16, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3075 Deep Energy Retrofits are residential remodeling projects, which attempt to drastically reduce energy usage and environmental impact, as well as increase occupant comfort and improve indoor air quality. With energy reduction targets ranging from 50% to 90%, these projects use similar strategies to those typically deployed in a net-zero energy home. Most Deep Retrofits include insulation upgrades, window replacement, air sealing, HVAC replacement, renewable energy technologies, and new appliances and lighting. No building system or component is overlooked. 10 of these exciting projects are being monitored in California by the Energy

133

An Evaluation of Energy-Saving Retrofits from the Texas LoanSTAR Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report discusses the LoanSTAR retrofit savings through December 1993 with an emphasis on the Constant Volume to Variable Air Volume air-handler retrofits. The report also summarizes several key findings about the LoanSTAR program which has 70 sites monitored as of December 1993.

Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.; Heneghan, T.; Sieggreen, R.; Sims, J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

Neuhauser, K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Address 51 Meadow Lane Place Northfield, Ohio Zip 44067 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Renewable Energy, Services Product Business and legal services; Energy audits/weatherization; Energy provider: power production;Energy provider: wholesale;Engineering/architectural/design;Installation;Investment/finances;Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 330-908-0281 Website http://www.weatherking1.com Coordinates 41.3340869°, -81.530299° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.3340869,"lon":-81.530299,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

138

Regression Forecasting of the Onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon with Antecedent Upper Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the recorded onset dates of the summer monsoon in southwestern India can be closely related functionally to the antecedent upper air conditions. The antecedent upper air conditions are represented by April mean values of the ...

Ernest C. Kung; Taher A. Sharif

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Table HC2.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Type of Housing ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC2.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More

140

Evaluation of air-conditioning compressor performance for assessment of load management potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential air-conditioning contributes heavily to the electrical utilities' summer peak demand. Cycling programs in which utilities turn off air-conditioning compressors a certain percentage of each hour through remotely-controlled switches can help ...

Jerry R. Harber; Aileen Henson

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Progress in Residential Retrofit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Cutting Edge: Progress in Residential Retrofit The Cutting Edge: Progress in Residential Retrofit A geographic representation of saturations of ceiling fans based on data from the RASSes. White areas indicate a lack of data for that region. Many utilities survey their customers to learn more about the buildings and the occupants in their service areas. These surveys-usually called "residential appliance saturation surveys," or RASSes-ask for the number and types of appliances present, the number of people living in the home, and sometimes personal information. The RASSes are also used to collect information about the presence of conservation measures such as wall and ceiling insulation, weatherstripping, multipane windows, and water flow restrictors. Building Energy Analysis Group researchers Alan Meier and Brian Pon gathered RASSes

142

An overview of solar assisted air-conditioning system application in small office buildings in Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many regions of the world especially tropical weather in Malaysia, the demand for cooling of indoor air is growing due to increasing comfort expectations and increasing cooling loads. Air-conditioning, the most common cooling mechanism for providing ... Keywords: Malaysian climatic conditions, absorption chiller, evacuated tube solar collector, high energy consumption, peak load demand, solar assisted air conditioning system, solar energy

Lim Chin Haw; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Yusof Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical troubleshooting is possibly the most neglected area of maintaining air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. This text explains and illustrates methods for troubleshooting the full spectrum of electrical or electronic circuits of these systems. Comprehensive sections offer coverage of electrical fundamentals, single-phase electric motors, three-phase motors, control devices, electrical control circuits, use of schematic diagrams in troubleshooting, ice makers, solid state electronics, and basic electronic controls. The author`s clear, concise coverage of controls enables one to quickly understand both how a specific type of control works, and how it is used in the system. The reader will find a wealth of useful instructions for making operational checks and troubleshooting for proper operation. The book is conveniently divided into application-specific units, making it easy to quickly find information specific to a particular job at hand.

Langley, B.C.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Solar liquid-desiccant air-conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A design for a closed, diurnal, intermittent absorption chiller for passive solar air-conditioning using liquid sorbents has been constructed and tested. LiBr-H/sub 2/O will not work with this design because of its low vapor pressure at the temperature available. The approach has possibilities using the 2 LiBr-ZrBr-CH/sub 3/OH or H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ sorbent refrigerant pairs. The use of H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ appears to be the better candidate because of the lower solution viscosity and less cycle weight, through tank volumes and collector requirements are similar. Further study of other refrigerant pairs such as S-Thiocyanate-ammonia is indicated, however, the difficulties encountered in construction and low potential coefficient of performance, and thus large collection area needed, makes commercialization of such a system doubtful in the foreseeable future.

Not Available

146

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

SciTech Connect

This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Approaching the retrofitting market successfully  

SciTech Connect

As a relatively new market, passive solar retrofitting must continue to gain public confidence and acceptance. Homeowners need the assurance that their solar investment is in the hands of a designer/builder who can successfully execute the design and construction. Credibility, through reputation and track record, is a quality that potential clients look for. Acquiring solar retrofit contracts requires a creative marketing approach by a qualified contractor. Various approaches to retrofit contracts are addressed.

Walsh, V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Measured Energy Savings from Retrofits Installed in Low-Income Housing in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is metering energy use in a Habitat for Humanity housing development. The objective is to understand the way in which energy is used in low income housing and how it can be effectively reduced. The ten homes come from a conventional housing project built by in 1993 Habitat for Humanity in Homestead, Florida. The instrumentation was installed in the homes in July of 1994 with over three years of 15-minute data collected on all sites. Data were obtained on seven electrical end-uses (air conditioning, heating, hot water, dryer, range, refrigerator, washer/freezer) as well as total. Weather conditions were also monitored as well as interior comfort conditions (temperature and humidity) and hot water consumption and window ventilation status. Baseline field data from a year of monitoring from the ten homes allowed unique insight into how energy is used in low income housing and suggested where consumption might be reduced. In April of 1997, a series of detailed retrofits were applied to eight of the ten Habitat homes. These included solar water heaters installed in seven homes. In eight homes we retrofit light features to compact fluorescent types, repaired and sealed duct air distribution systems, cleaned refrigerator coils and installed low-flow showerheads. Since each of he associated energy end-uses (including hot water consumption) is metered, we are able to assess the relative performance of each of the retrofits. We also measured of air conditioner performance and house tightness. These audits revealed numerous problems, but low-evaporator coil air flow was discovered in all homes. The paper describes the retrofit installation, audit data collected and the impact on measured energy consumption. Preliminary economics are explored.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.; Floyd, D. B.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Data Center Airflow Management Retrofit  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

though this sometimes can be the best eco- nomic solution. Investing retrofit funds in passive components such as sealing leaks under the floor, repairing duct- work, replacing...

150

Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In air-conditioning (A/C) systems with air-cooled condensers, the condensing unit has to be kept in the open for easy access to outdoor air in order to efficiently dissipate heat. During daytime, the solar radiation falling on the surfaces of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several A/C systems with ideal shade to those with ideal solar heat gain. The comparison is based on a theoretical model and data from equipment catalogs. The theoretical increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) due to shading is found to be within 2.5%. Furthermore, this small improvement in ideal efficiency decreases at higher ambient temperatures, when enhancements to efficiency are more needed. The actual efficiency improvement due to shading is not expected to exceed 1%, and the daily energy savings will be lower.

ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

How Do We Retrofit the Tough Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Do We Retrofit the Tough Buildings? Do We Retrofit the Tough Buildings? Cape Cod Style and Masonry Ken Neuhauser, Building Science Corporation Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 2 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 3 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 4 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 5 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 6 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 7 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 8 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 9 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 10 Cape Cod Style Retrofitting the Tough Buildings 29 April 2013 11 Cape Cod Style - Knee Wall

153

Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat, and solar power, is suitable for the liquid desiccant air-conditioning system. The feasibility and economical efficiency of the system are studied in this experimental research. The result shows that when the temperature of the regeneration is about 80?, the thermodynamic coefficient of the system is about 0.6, and the supply air temperature of the air-conditioning system remains stable at 21?, the air-conditioning system can meet human comfort levels.

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HV AC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of existing energy saving systems and/or materials. This is just like a doctor referring a patient for blood tests or x-rays before actually performing surgery. This way the doctor can be sure that he does the right thing. To take this analogy further - we can borrow from the medical profession and say that the first thought when retrofitting a house is to do no harm, i.e., do not make changes that could make the house worse to live in.

Walker, Iain S.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy Retrofit Guides to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Activities 179d Tax Calculator Advanced Energy Design Guides Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Buildings Performance Database Data Centers Energy Asset Score

156

Building Energy Retrofit Research: Multifamily Sector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building Energy Retrofit Research: Multifamily Sector Title Building Energy Retrofit Research: Multifamily Sector Publication Type Report Year of Publication 1985 Authors Diamond,...

157

Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A utility monitoring project has evaluated radiant barrier systems (RBS) as a new potential demand site management (DSM) program. The study examined how the retrofit of attic radiant barriers can be expected to alter utility residential space conditioning loads. An RBS consists of a layer of aluminum foil fastened to roof decking or roof trusses to block radiant heat transfer between the hot roof surface and the attic below. The radiant barrier can significantly lower summer heat transfer to the attic insulation and to the cooling duct system. Both of these mechanisms have strong potential impacts on cooling energy use as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. The pilot project involved installation of RBS in nine homes that had been extensively monitored over the preceding year. The houses varied in conditioned floor area from 939 to 2,440 square feet; attic insulation varied from R-9 to R-30. The homes had shingle roofs with varying degrees of attic ventilation. The radiant barriers were installed during the summer of 2000. Data analysis on the pre and post cooling and heating consumption was used to determine impacts on energy use and peak demand for the utility. The average cooling energy savings from the RBS retrofit was 3.6 kWh/day, or about 9%. The average reduction in summer afternoon peak demand was 420 watts (or about 16%).

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

159

Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes  

SciTech Connect

The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system is offered based on the demands of saving energy. The two systems are very similar, which is analyzed in this paper. Using actual engineering, we compute the air flow rate, cold load and energy consumption in detail, and provide some good conclusions.

Guang, L.; Li, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

Tesfatsion, Leigh

164

CASE STUDY OF DUCT RETROFIT OF A 1985 HOME AND GUIDELINES FOR ATTIC AND CRAWL SPACE DUCT SEALING  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is fully committed to research for developing the information and capabilities necessary to provide cost-effective residential retrofits yielding 50% energy savings within the next several years. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the biggest energy end use in the residential sector, and a significant amount of energy can be wasted through leaky ductwork in unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces. A detailed duct sealing case study is presented for one house along with nine brief descriptions of other duct retrofits completed in the mixed-humid climate. Costs and estimated energy savings are reported for most of the ten houses. Costs for the retrofits ranged from $0.92/ft2 to $1.80/ft2 of living space and estimated yearly energy cost savings due to the duct retrofits range from 1.8% to 18.5%. Lessons learned and duct sealing guidelines based on these ten houses, as well as close work with the HVAC industry in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee, northern Georgia, and south-central Kentucky are presented. It is hoped that the lessons learned and guidelines will influence local HVAC contractors, energy auditors, and homeowners when diagnosing or repairing HVAC duct leakage and will be useful for steering DOE s future research in this area.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Table CE3-3e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S. Households by Household Income, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli-

167

Energy studies on central and variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-conditioning is a major contributor to energy end-use in commercial buildings. Different types of airconditioning systems are installed in commercial buildings including packaged systems

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9...

169

Table CE3-1e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Dollars per Household4,a Electric Air-Conditioning Expenditures per Household ... per Household4 2001 Cooling Degree-Days per Household Total U.S. Households ...

170

Table CE3-6.1u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-6.1u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Household Member and Usage Indicators, 2001 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor:

171

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Million British Thermal Units (Btu) per Household

173

Table CE3-6.2u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-6.2u. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Square Feet and Usage Indicators, 2001 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor:

174

Active improvement of air-conditioning system energy consumption with adaptive thermal comfort approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The MSc research project aims to suggest improvements to building air-conditioning control systems, to reduce energy consumption while maintaining the comfort level of the occupants.… (more)

Muhammad Saleh, Muhammad Fadzli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Theoretical analysis of the steam pressure exchange ejector for an automotive air conditioning application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The project conducted at The George Washington University is a computer simulation and theoretical analysis of the steam pressure exchange ejector air conditioning system… (more)

Gould, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper addresses the real-time use of ambient wet bulb temperature measurements in the optimization of building air conditioning system control as a means to… (more)

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Stakeholders Using Strategy of Diversification for Taiwan's Business Transformation: Case on Air Conditioning Industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As environmental protection issue become the most hot global issues recently, Air Conditioning Industry has to face not only its own management and marketing problems,… (more)

Hung, Li-Yun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Study of a solar-assisted air conditioning system for South Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In South Africa, a significant amount of electrical energy is used for air conditioning in commercial buildings, on account of the high humidity experienced. Due… (more)

Joseph, Jerusha Sarah.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Superheat control for air conditioning and refrigeration systems: Simulation and experiments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ever since the invention of air conditioning and refrigeration in the late nineteenth century, there has been tremendous interest in increasing system efficiency to reduce… (more)

Otten, Richard J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the demonstration and testing of ClimaStat for improved rooftop air-conditioning efficiency at the March 15, 2012, Federal Technology Deployment Working Group meeting.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome to use than more compact approaches. Alternately, some form of binned weather data has been used with load and performance estimation carried out for each of the bin weather conditions. The most common binning method puts weather into bins of dry bulb temperature with mean coincident wet bulb temperatures. Mean coincident humidity terms lose the extreme humidity levels that commonly exist. This can lead one to assume that conditions will be held at all times, while in fact the humidity loads will not be met and discomfort, among other consequences, will result. Three-dimensional plots of the joint frequency results clearly illustrate problem areas. A better procedure, it will be shown, is to use a joint frequency bin data set, which puts hours of occurrence into a matrix with dry bulb ranges on one axis and humidity ratio ranges on the second axis. This form of binning is easily accomplished if a utility like BinMaker is used to generate the binned data set.

Cohen, B. M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spatial cartography of air- cooled chillers and cooling towers in the city of Paris and surroundings have); secondly the actual situation including individual air dry coolers, wet cooling towers and an urban cooling the air cooling demand. Results of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH), coupled to an urban energy

184

Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a significant factor. Engineers Involved In motor specification can help lower plant operating costs and reduce electrical energy consumption dramatically by a relatively simple technique: retrofit of existing, standard-efficiency motors with new, high efficiency models. This article demonstrates strong reasons for motor retrofit, and explains step-by step how process and manufacturing engineering personnel can fully evaluate a retrofit decision.

Evans, T. A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Retrofit Existing Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit Existing Buildings Renovation, retrofit and refurbishment of existing buildings represent an opportunity to upgrade the energy performance of commercial building assets for their ongoing life. Often retrofit involves modifications to existing commercial buildings that may improve energy efficiency or decrease energy demand. In addition, retrofits are often used as opportune time to install distributed generation to a building. Energy efficiency retrofits can reduce the operational costs, particularly in older buildings, as well as help to attract tenants and gain a market edge. The Building Technologies Office provides resources that allow planners, designers, and owners to focus on energy-use goals from the first planning

186

Chamberlain Heights Redevelopment: A Large Scale, Cold Climate Study of Affordable Housing Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

The City of Meriden Housing Authority (MHA) collaborated with affordable housing developer Jonathon Rose Companies (JRC) to complete a gut renovation of 124 residential units in the Chamberlain Heights retrofit project. The affordable housing community is made up of 36 buildings in duplex and quad configurations located on 22 acres within two miles of downtown Meriden, CT. The final post-retrofit analysis showed 40-45% source energy savings over the existing pre-retrofit conditions.

Donnelly, K.; Mahle, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta  

SciTech Connect

This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute; Stephenson, Robert [Southface Energy Institute

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fault Diagnosis of an Air-Conditioning System Using LS-SVM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes fault diagnosis of an air-conditioning system for improving reliability and guaranteeing the thermal comfort and energy saving. To achieve this goal, we proposed a technique which is model based fault diagnosis technique. Here, a ... Keywords: Air-Conditioning System, FDD, LS-SVM, Residuals generator

Mahendra Kumar; I. N. Kar

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning system, and discusses the advantages of its application.

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Performance simulation of R410A air conditioning system with variable speeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the implementation of "Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer", HCFCs especially R22 will be phased out. R410A (R32/R125,50/50wt%), as one alternative of R22, is a promising refrigerant for air conditioning ... Keywords: R410A, air conditioning, electronic expansion valve, performance, refrigerants, system simulation, variable speeds

Zaoxiao Zhang; Yongzhang Yu; Leping Zhang

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Closed-cycle Retrofit Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is investigating implications of a potential U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act 316(b) rulemaking that would establish "Best Technology Available" (BTA) based on closed-cycle cooling retrofits for facilities with once-through cooling. This report focuses on estimated costs associated with closed-cycle cooling system retrofits that include: 1) capital costs, 2) energy required to operate the closed-cycle system, 3) heat rate penalty, and 4) extended downtime required to retrof...

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England  

SciTech Connect

Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new manufactured homes procured with minimal energy-efficiency specifications typical of existing homes in the region, and sited on the PNNL campus. The Lab Homes serve as a flexible test facility (the first of its kind in the Pacific Northwest) to rapidly evaluate energy-efficient and grid-smart technologies that are applicable to residential construction.

Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

195

MassSAVE (Gas) - Commercial Retrofit Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MassSAVE (Gas) - Commercial Retrofit Program MassSAVE (Gas) - Commercial Retrofit Program MassSAVE (Gas) - Commercial Retrofit Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Other Manufacturing Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Projects over $25,000 or involve 5 or more equipment units, customers should contact their utility Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Warm Air Furnaces with Electronic Commutated Motor (ECM): $500-$800 Condensed Unit Heaters: $7500 Condensing Boilers: $1,000 - $10,000 Infrared Heaters: $750 Condensing Water Heater: $500 On-Demand Tankless Water Heater: $500 - $800

196

Idaho Power - Easy Upgrades for Simple Retrofits Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Power - Easy Upgrades for Simple Retrofits Rebate Program Idaho Power - Easy Upgrades for Simple Retrofits Rebate Program Idaho Power - Easy Upgrades for Simple Retrofits Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Sealing Your Home Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Maximum Rebate Up to 100,000 per site per year. Program Info Funding Source Conservation Program Funding Charge State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount A/C or Heat Pumps: $25-$100/ton Economizer Control Addition: $75/ton Air-Side Economizer Repair: $250 Evaporative Coolers: $100-$300/ton

197

Baltimore Boy's Asthma Improved Through Retrofit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Baltimore Boy's Asthma Improved Through Retrofit Baltimore Boy's Asthma Improved Through Retrofit Baltimore Boy's Asthma Improved Through Retrofit October 31, 2009 - 11:32am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this mean for me? The Baltimore Green and Healthy Homes Initiative program, made possible with Recovery Act dollars, provides comprehensive health, safety, and energy efficiency upgrades to low-income families around the city. Lekquan Young rushed her 8-month-old son to the hospital when she noticed his chest looked sunken as he breathed. The doctor told her that her baby son had asthma. Today, her son is 8 years old and has suffered frequent asthma attacks at home. "There was mold within the home and the air quality wasn't good," says Lekquan, a single mom living in Baltimore, Md. The roof over the

198

New York State passive solar design and retrofit competition  

SciTech Connect

Many homeowners are faced with the problem of reducing their home energy bills. Solar and energy conservation retrofitting is a potential solution for the home energy problem, capable of significantly reducing heating, cooling, and domestic hot water energy bills. The technique used by 12 homeowners and their designers to adapt and integrate various solar and energy conservation features into 12 different projects is discussed. A variety of innovative solutions were utilized in this project and the integration of those ideas into the buildings being retrofitted is discussed. Integration of sunspaces, increased south glazing, solar domestic hot water, storage systems, air distribution systems, insulation systems, etc., is discusssed. All 12 of these designs are award winning projects submitted in response to an ERDA competitive solar retrofit announcement.

Niles, J.E.; Barron, J.J.; Cole, W.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Indoor environment quality and energy retrofits in low-income...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor environment quality and energy retrofits in low-income apartments: retrofit selection protocol Title Indoor environment quality and energy retrofits in low-income...

200

Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-On-Grade Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This measure guideline describes covers two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

Dickson, B.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new module is developed and the energy usage of the VRF system is investigated. This paper compares the energy consumption of the VRF system with that of two conventional air-conditioning systems, namely, the variable air volume (VAV) system and the fan-coil plus fresh air (FPFA) system. A generic office building is used to accommodate the different types of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Our objective is to examine the energy consumption of the VRF system applied to office buildings and make suggestions for evaluating and making decisions on HVAC systems in the early stages of building design. Simulation results show that the energy-saving potential of the VRF system is expected to achieve 22.2 percent and 11.7 percent, compared to the VAV system and the FPFA system, respectively. An energy-usage breakdown of electricity end-users in various systems is also presented.

Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit  

SciTech Connect

Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ? 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

Lyons, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Air entrainment by a plunging jet under intermittent vortex conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fluid dynamic video entry to the 2011 APS-DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion details the transient evolution of the free surface surrounding the impact region of a low-viscosity laminar liquid jet as it enters a quiescent pool. The close-up images depict the destabilization and breakup of the annular air gap and the subsequent entrainment of bubbles into the bulk liquid.

Kim, Kevin Jin; Li, Kevin; Kiger, Ken T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Grupe Homes Enters the Whole-House Retrofit Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article for HomeEnergy Magazine, a trade magazine on energy efficient home construction, retrofitting, remodeling, and research, describes retrofit projects by Grupe Homes of Sacramento, California, a production builder who has worked with DOE's Building America program on energy-efficient home demonstration projects. In this project, The article is a case study of Grupe's decision to enter the energy efficient remodeling market when new home sales lagged due to the economic slowdown starting in late 2007. The article also describes an energy-efficient retrofit of of a 22-year-old, 3-bedroom home in California’s Central Valley done in 2009 by Grupe. The home is Grupe's first retrofit and was done according to the criteria of Home Performance with ENERGY STAR, a national program from the EPA and DOE that promotes a comprehensive, whole-house approach to making energy-efficiency improvements. Grupe's staff were trained through the California Building Performance Contractors Association and passed the Building Performance Institute test to learn how to conduct extensive energy audits of existing houses as well to perform the energy efficient retrofits. In the retrofit home, they did extensive air sealing, replaced and added insulation, and replaced inefficient HVAC equipment and leaky can lights. They cut air leakage from 2478 to 1115 cfm 50, a 55% reduction. A Building America case study on this project was distributed at the EEBA (Energy and Environmental Building Alliance) Annual Conference in Denver, Colorado, Sept 28-30, 2009. The Home Energy article was published in the March/April 2010 issue.

Hefty, Marye G.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one of the fastest economic and energy consumption growth rates in the world. The work reported here is aimed at estimating the conservation potential derived from good design and control of air conditioning systems in commercial buildings.

Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used. Temperature sensors are located at different locations inside the conditioned space in order to sense dry bulb temperatures, relative humidity to compare it with standard ASHRAE comfort values. The present investigation indicates that the radiant cooling system not only improves the indoor air quality but also reduces the building energy consumption in the conditioned space.

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

September 10, 2013 What is Seawater Air Conditioning (SWAC)?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sewage savings through the elimination of cooling towers SWAC Solutions Waikiki SWAC (25,000 tons) Fossil conditioning systems · Cold seawater is pumped to cooling plant · The cold temperature of the seawater

208

Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Smith, Travis [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Laboratory Testing of the Heating Capacity of Air-Source Heat Pumps at Low Outdoor Temperature Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-source heat pump systems offer an alternative to the common heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) configuration of single split unitary air conditioners with gas heating. In simple terms, heat pumps are traditional air conditioning units with the added capability of running in reverse as required by the building load. Thus, where the traditional air conditioning unit has an indoor evaporator to remove heat from the space and an outdoor condenser to reject heat to the ambient environment, ...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type found in the Philip Burton Federal Building.

Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

PSNH - Small Business Retrofit Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Business Retrofit Program PSNH - Small Business Retrofit Program Eligibility Commercial Savings For Other Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Commercial Weatherization...

213

Retrofitting Vegas: Implementing Energy Efficiency in Two Las Vegas Test Homes  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, the state of Nevada received nearly forty million dollars in Neighborhood Stabilization Funds from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The purpose of this funding was to stabilize communities that have suffered from foreclosures and abandonment. In an effort to provide guidance to local officials and maximize how effectively this NSP funding is utilized in retrofitting homes, CARB provided design specifications, energy modeling, and technical support for the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA) team and its local partners - Better Building Performance, Nevada Energy Star Partners Green Alliance, and Home Free Nevada - for two retrofit test homes. One home was to demonstrate a modest retrofit and the other a deep energy retrofit. Through this project, CARB has provided two robust solution packages for retrofitting homes built in this region between the 1980s and early 1990s without substantially inconveniencing the occupants. The two test homes, the Carmen and Sierra Hills, demonstrate how cost-effectively energy efficient upgrades can be implemented in the hot, dry climate of the Southwest. In addition, the homes were used as an educational experience for home performance professionals, building trades, remodelers, and the general public. In-field trainings on air-sealing, HVAC upgrades, and insulating were provided to local contractors during the retrofit and BARA documented these retrofits through a series of video presentations, beginning with a site survey and concluding with the finished remodel and test out.

Puttagunta, S.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

"Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Coolling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

215

"Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 "

216

Table CE3-4c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-4c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Type of Housing Unit, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit

217

A Historical Look at the Invention of Air-conditioned Comfort...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney Comfort air conditioning is largely an American development which grew out of the need for the...

218

Heavy Precipitation Events in New Jersey: Attendant Upper-Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first of an anticipated multipart study of atmospheric conditions occurring before and during heavy precipitation events in New Jersey, representative of the mid-Atlantic region, is presented. Upper-air data parameters were analyzed for 81 ...

Robert P. Harnack; Kirk Apffel; Joseph R. Cermak III

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Table CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-1c. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Consumption in U.S. Households by Climate Zone, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone1 RSE Row

220

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry NOTICE Due to the current lapse of federal funding, Berkeley Lab websites are...

222

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Table CE3-10e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE3-10e. Electric Air-Conditioning Energy Expenditures in U.S. Households by Midwest Census Region, 2001 RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region

224

Exterior Insulation and Overclad Retrofits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exterior Insulation & Overclad Exterior Insulation & Overclad Retrofits Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 - Austin, TX Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 | Austin, TX 2  Incredible practical experience:  New construction - nearly a century  Retrofit applications - many decades Exterior Insulation Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 | Austin, TX 3 1980s ON - a "weird" builder Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 | Austin, TX 4 1990s ON - a "good" builder Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 | Austin, TX 5 2000s ON - a "typical" builder Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting March 2, 2012 | Austin, TX 6

225

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Design of an atrium for a passive-solar retrofit of an office buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has proposed to retrofit one of its administrative office buildings with a solar atrium. A 334 m/sup 2/ courtyard will be enclosed with a roof-mounted system of clerestory windows to maximize winter solar gain. This sunspace will thermally buffer the adjoining offices and also will preheat air supplied to the building's conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The use of the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program in the design of the solar atrium is described. The results of a series of simulations are reported detailing the tradeoffs inherent in the selection of an optimal glazing area, the maintenance of acceptable comfort levels within the sunspace, and intergration of passive-solar devices with the conventional HVAC system. Potential energy savings are also discussed.

Peterson, J.L.; Hunn, B.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

HVAC Technology Report: A Review of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technology and Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many of us, roughly 95 percent of our time is spent indoors. To enable humans to spend this much time inside, mechanical equipment is necessary to provide space conditioning to control the temperature (heating and cooling), ventilation, humidity, and indoor air quality. This report introduces the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry to EPRI member utility employees. The document describes the most common technologies and applications and provides an overview of industry statisti...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

229

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water system, it can be divided into direct return system pass-by control, direct return system terminal control, reversed return system pass-by control and reversed return system terminal control. The results indicate that reversed return system terminal control has the best hydraulic stability.

Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To address the issue of the substantial energy cost and operating cost of an all-return air system for a clean room, we changed the former system to a 2nd return air system. With the newest building energy simulation program, Energy Plus, we simulated and compared the summer energy consuming conditions of the two systems. Results prove the superiority of the 2nd return air system, and the validity of the simulation. Also, the air system energy performance in summer was illustrated with typical meteorological hour-to-hour data.

Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate of the outlets varies greatly, and the coefficient of uniformity is 129.1% and 111.6% respectively of the two systems. Air distribution in the lobby is bad and thermal comfort is poor. Moreover, sharp reduction of return air makes portions of fresh air increase, which will lead to high energy consumption. Reconstruction is carried out to improve the thermal environment with the assistance of the CFD method. First, the original system is simulated by CFD method to verify the CFD method and propose modification suggestions. Then air conditioning load and air rate of the lobby is recalculated and duct redesigned. Simulation results show that the air distribution and thermal comfort of the improved scheme can meet the design requirement. The reconstructed system has been running for about two years and has shown good performance.

Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air-conditioned spaces. The present evaluation study defines the current status, future requirements, and expectations. It has been found that, the experimental investigations should be considered in the new trend of studies, not to validate the numerical tools only, but also to provide a complete database of the airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces. Based on this analysis and the vast progress of computers and associated software, the artificial intelligent technique will be a competitor candidate to the experimental and numerical techniques. Finally, the researches that relate between the different designs of the HVAC systems and energy consumption should concern with the optimization of airside design as the expected target to enhance the indoor environment.

Khalil, E. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Fluorescence emission induced by extensive air showers in dependence on atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particles of extensive air showers (EAS), mainly electrons and positrons, initiate the emission of fluorescence light in the Earth's atmosphere. This light provides a calorimetric measurement of the energy of cosmic rays. For reconstructing the primary energy from an observed light track of an EAS, the fluorescence yield in air has to be known in dependence on atmospheric conditions, like air temperature, pressure, and humidity. Several experiments on fluorescence emission have published various sets of data covering different parts of the dependence of the fluorescence yield on atmospheric conditions. Using a compilation of published measurements, a calculation of the fluorescence yield in dependence on altitude is presented. The fluorescence calculation is applied to simulated air showers and different atmospheric profiles to estimate the influence of the atmospheric conditions on the reconstructed shower parameters.

Keilhauer, Bianca

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Supply Fan Control for Constant Air Volume Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since terminal boxes do not have a modulation damper in constant volume (CV) air handling unit (AHU) systems, zone reheat coils have to be modulated to maintain the space temperature with constant supply airflow. This conventional control sequence causes a significant amount of reheat and constant fan power under partial load conditions. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) can be installed on these constant air volume systems. The fan speed can be modulated based on the maximum zone load. This paper present the procedure to control the supply fan speed and analyzes the thermal performance and major fan energy and thermal energy savings without expensive VAV retrofit through the actual system operation.

Cho, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Next Step Toward Widespread Residential Deep Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of deep energy retrofits warrants additional training to successfully manage multiple improvements that will change whole house air, heat, and moisture flow dynamics. The home performance contracting industry has responded to these challenges by aggregating skilled labor for assessment of and implementation under one umbrella. Two emerging business models are profiled that seek to resolve many of the challenges, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats described for the conventional business models.

McIlvaine, J.; Saunders, S.; Bordelon, E.; Baden, S.; Elam, L.; Martin, E.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Retrofit Existing Buildings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit Existing Buildings Retrofit Existing Buildings Photo of the Denver skyline with Wells Fargo Center building in the center of the image and the Rocky Mountains in the background. Renovation, retrofit and refurbishment of existing buildings represent an opportunity to upgrade the energy performance of commercial building assets for their ongoing life. Often retrofit involves modifications to existing commercial buildings that may improve energy efficiency or decrease energy demand. In addition, retrofits are often used as opportune time to install distributed generation to a building. Energy efficiency retrofits can reduce the operational costs, particularly in older buildings, as well as help to attract tenants and gain a market edge. The Building Technologies Office provides resources that allow planners,

238

Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning. It establishes functions of the fin structure parameters such as height,spacing and thickness of the fin when the volume of fin is the smallest under unit temperature difference and unit quantity of heat. It uses a genetic algorithm to optimize the model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe. The calculation result shows that the method of genetic algorithm is effective.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed to be used in conditioning the governmental offices during the working hours in the weekdays when both the sunshine and the need for air-conditioning reach their maximum levels at the same instance. Solar adsorption refrigeration devices have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials. For these reasons, the research activities are of increasing interest in this aspect in order to provide optimum solutions for the crucial points that impede making these systems capable to meet the criteria for commercialization.

Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Like a moving building, a train's outer meteorologic parameter will change a lot with the local meteorologic parameter on the way. In this paper, we put forward the design method of the typical design period and some dynamic energy-saving ways to solve the problem. These methods consider the dynamic changes of the outer environment when the train is moving, which will supply the theoretical basis for the calculation of the dynamic load and real-time running and regulation of the train's air-conditioning. Modifications to the air-conditioning system and some advanced air conditioning systems are introduced, which are helpful for system optimization. In this paper, based on analysis of the characteristics of the air - conditioning system in foreign high speed passenger cars and demands for its acceleration, developing trends for air - conditioning systems for high speed passenger cars are pointed out and some advice is put forward. Above all, we should not only satisfy the comfort need of the passengers, but also succeed in saving energy.

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we show that the air-conditioning usage in residential buildings in Beijing grows rapidly in relation to the development of civil construction. More and more people are not satisfied with the current style of only using split air-conditioning units in residential buildings, and are using the central air-conditioning system in residential buildings. To determine the best air conditioning mode, a residential tower building with 22 layers was chosen for analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of the central air-conditioning system and the residential multi-unit air-conditioning equipment system and the LiBr absorption chiller were compared based on calculating the first-cost and the annual cost (according to providing cooling 90 days annually). The predicted results show the economical feasibility of using the refrigerating units in air-conditioning systems in Beijing region, and point out the developing directions for the future.

Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data  

SciTech Connect

Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residences are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to the capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacity differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. Characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent that occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners. The findings of this research indicate that cooling equipment historically has often but not always been oversized beyond industry-recommended levels. However, some occupants in homes with undersized, properly sized, and, in rare occasions, even oversized cooling equipment appear to suffer because the cooling equipment cannot always provide adequate cooling. Key findings are summarized.

Lucas, R.G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor waste air surface becomes problematic, leading to the degradation of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator's performance or even the shutdown of equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to have a detailed investigation on the operational characteristics of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator under frosting in order to guide its application. This paper first reports on the development of a detailed model for the channel wheel heat exchanger, which is the core part of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator under frosting conditions. The model developed, first seen in open literature, consists of a frosting sub-model and a channel wheel heat exchanger sub-model. This is followed by reporting an evaluation of the operational characteristics of a frosted channel wheel heat exchanger under different ambient conditions using the model developed. These include frost formation on the surface of the channel wheel heat exchanger, and impacts on the operational performance of the channel wheel fresh air ventilator. Furthermore, the interval of defrosting is obtained, which provides the basis for the adoption of effective defrosting measures, and thus increasing the channel wheel fresh air ventilator's energy efficiency and operating reliability.

Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

248

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

249

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving thermal comfort and saving energy, a combined system is presented in this paper. It combines an evaporative cooling system with ceiling cooling, in which the evaporative cooling system handles the entire latent load and one part of the sensible loads, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils of ceiling cooling system can be ground water, tap water or the cooled water from cooling towers in the summer. This new air-conditioning system and existing all- outdoor air evaporative cooling system are applied to a project in the city of Lanzhou. Energy consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort of both systems are then compared. It is concluded that the new system occupies less building space, reduces energy consumption, improves indoor human thermal comfort and saves initial investment.

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – how muchA.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation and+ paper 6,306 Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................. 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment.................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................................ 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a Heat Pump................................................. 53.5 1.1 3.5 5.7 4.9 With a Heat Pump......................................................

252

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Use of seawater for air conditioning at Waikiki Convention Center. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

A large part of operating costs of a hotel in Hawaii is the cost of energy for air conditioning. Buildings can be constructed to use energy more efficiently by using many methods, however, some of these methods conflict with other concerns, aesthetics for example. Thus the process of designing and building an energy efficient hotel often involves trade-offs between energy efficiency and other objectives. The method proposed herein to reduce energy costs is to introduce seawater, pumped from the deep ocean at a temperature of approximately six degrees celsius, directly to heat exchangers which cool the chilled water circulating in the building air conditioning system. The energy required to run the system would be reduced to only the cost of the seawater pumps, the fans and controls. The savings would be in the operating costs of the seawater pumps versus the cost to the compressors of a conventional air conditioning system.

Williams, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cogeneration as a retrofit strategy  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the retrofitting of cogeneration in industrial plants. The paper describes a cost analysis, feasibility analysis, prime movers, induction generation, developing load profile, and options and research. The prime movers discussed include gas turbines, back-pressure turbines, condensing turbines, extraction turbines, and single-stage turbines. A case history of an institutional-industrial application illustrates the feasibility and benefits of a cogeneration system.

Meckler, M. [Meckler Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the port of Oakland Title Effects of diesel particle filter retrofits and accelerated fleet turnover on drayage truck emissions at the port of Oakland Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Dallmann, Timothy R., Robert A. Harley, and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 45 Issue 24 Pagination 10773-10779 Abstract Heavy-duty diesel drayage trucks have a disproportionate impact on the air quality of communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. In an attempt to mitigate this impact, the state of California has mandated new emission control requirements for drayage trucks accessing ports and rail yards in the state beginning in 2010. This control rule prompted an accelerated diesel particle filter (DPF) retrofit and truck replacement program at the Port of Oakland. The impact of this program was evaluated by measuring emission factor distributions for diesel trucks operating at the Port of Oakland prior to and following the implementation of the emission control rule. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were quantified in terms of grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of fuel burned using a carbon balance method. Concentrations of these species along with carbon dioxide were measured in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks as they drove by en route to the Port. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 ± 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first year of the program, a significant reduction in the fleet-average NOx emission factor (41 ± 5%) was observed, most likely due to the replacement of older trucks with new ones.

256

A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Severe capacity problems are experienced by electric utilities during hot summer afternoons. Several studies have found that, in large part, electric peak loads can be attributed to residential airconditioning use. This air-conditioning peak depends primarily on two factors: (i) the manner in which the homeowner operates his air-conditioner during the hot summer afternoons, and (ii) the amount by which the air-conditioner has been over-designed. Whole-house and air-conditioner electricity use data at 15 minute time intervals have been gathered and analyzed for 8 residences during the summer of 1991, six of which had passed the College Station Good Cents tests. Indoor air temperatures were measured by a mechanical chart recorder, while a weather station located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over-sizing and homeowner intervention contributes to peak electricity use for newer houses in College Station, Texas.

Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Indoor Air Quality Observations in Public Schools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigations of indoor air qmlity or indoor environment problems were accomplished in seven different Texas schools. The schools were located in hot and humid climates. Comfort and mildew were the most frequent complaints. In all cases, the air-conditioning system maintenance and operation was a primary factor in the problem cause and solution. The significance of problems investigated cculd have been minimized had the symptoms been addressed when they were reported the first time. Preventive maintenance and better housekeeping of air-conditioning systems in Texas schools will improve the indoor environment. Schools are encouraged to be more aggressive in preventive maintenance and plan for indoor air quality and energy efficiency in school air-conditioning retrofits.

McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established. The performance of the novel control strategy is investigated. Simulation of the controlling air temperature, on which the novel strategy is adopted, was carried out based on MATLAB in the VAV system. In order to show that the novel control strategy outperforms conventional PID control, a comparison is made between the performance of conventional PID and the novel nonlinear feedback control strategy. The results show that nonlinear feedback control strategy outperforms a conventional PID control system in terms of celerity, stability and other aspects.

Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Wind Turbine Retrofits: An Overview and Economic Analysis of Onshore Retrofit Options Available for Wind Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of some of the most promising retrofits available to turbine owners today. The retrofits discussed are those offered by original turbine manufacturers and by third parties; the retrofits deal with rotor blades, pitch and yaw systems, gearboxes and other drive train components, electrical generators, power converters, controls, sensors and monitoring equipment, and others.From the many retrofits discussed, six that showed material near-term potential were ...

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

260

Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion device. Results are presented here for a series of tests in which the various commonly occurring degraded conditions were simulated on a test bench. At present, very little information is available which quantifies the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of systemwide maintenance programs. This report also discuss the development of a diagnostic procedure based on measurement of refrigerant and air side temperatures.

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Corrosion Behavior of Interconnect Candidate Alloys under Air//Simulated Reformate Dual Exposure Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, perform in a very challenging dual environment, as they are simultaneously exposed to a reducing fuel (either hydrogen or a hydrocarbon fuel) on one side and air on the other side at elevated temperatures. Thus candidate metals or alloys for the interconnect applications must demonstrate excellent surface stability under the SOFC operating conditions. Following previous studies which led to an improved understanding of the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys under air/hydrogen dual exposure conditions, PNNL recently investigated the behavior of Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr base interconnect candidate alloys in an air/simulated reformate dual environment. This paper reports and discusses the findings of this work.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles  

SciTech Connect

In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Evaporative and Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way-with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. Desiccants are an example of a thermally activated technology (TAT) that relies on heat instead

264

Residential Deep Energy Retrofits: Monitoring and Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Retrofits are residential remodeling projects, which attempt to drastically reduce energy usage and environmental impact, as well as increase occupant comfort and improve...

265

Golden Valley Electric Association - Commercial Lighting Retrofit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Golden Valley Electric Association - Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program (Alaska) This is the approved revision of this page, as well...

266

OTEC- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers a commercial lighting retrofit program that provides rebates for commercial businesses that change existing lighting to more energy...

267

Long-Range Transport of Air Pollution under Light Gradient Wind Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-range transport of air pollution on clew days under light gradient wind conditions is investigated from an analysis of all days with high oxidant concentrations in 1979 at locations in central Japan that are far from pollutant sources. ...

Hidemi Kurita; Kazutoshi Sasaki; Hisao Muroga; Hiromasa Ueda; Shinji Wakamatsu

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Investigation of air supply conditions in the room of a B11type gas appliance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Hungary, the prevalently used "B11" type gas appliances equipped with atmospheric burner and they have a draught hood beyond the outlet of the appliance. For the appropriate adjustment of the gas boiler to the conditions of the building, ... Keywords: CFD method, air supply, chimney, design requirements, gas appliances, numerical modelling

Lajos Barna; Róbert Goda

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Engineering-industry, secondary: Econometrics. 1 Introduction The electric power mid-term loads forecasting: Estimated annual temperature sensitive electricity load components 3 Mid-term load forecasting StatisticalAir-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

A heuristic predictive logic controller applied to hybrid solar air conditioning plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows the development of a heuristic predictive logic controller (HPLoC) applied to a solar air conditioning plant. The plant uses two energy sources, solar and gas, in order to warm up the water. The hot water feeds a single-effect absorption ...

Darine Zambrano; Winston García-Gabín; Eduardo F. Camacho

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: University of Riyadh. Solar air conditioning. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Task conditioning aims to provide each occupant with personalized clean air direct to the breathing zone. The microenvironment of a typical office workplace, consisting of two desktop task conditioning systems (a Horizontal Desk Grill (HDG) and Vertical Desk Grill (VDG)) were studied by numerical simulation. Numerical simulation by k- 3-D turbulent flow was separately conducted to study the influence of supply velocity on the microenvironment of these two desktop task conditioning systems. Three task conditioning velocities were studied. Temperature and velocity distribution, Draught Rating (DR) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) of the room and workstation were applied to study the performance of task air conditioning. Results show that the performances of HDG and VDG are almost the same. Results also show that task conditioning can provide excellent working environment when supply velocity is well designed. The supply velocity of task conditioning can be set between 0.8-1.0 m/s. However, task conditioning may cause draught, and engineers should seriously consider this problem. The results can provide important references for design and optimization of the task conditioning system.

Zheng, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

News From the D.C. Office: Integrated Chiller Retrofits-Sharing Experience  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. 3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. News From the D.C. Office Integrated Chiller Retrofits: Sharing Experience Makes "Cool Sense" A recent issue of the Center for Building Science News [Spring 1996, p.2] described the opportunities for significant energy savings from replacing older, inefficient chillers. These savings can be increased greatly if building owners and managers approach the chiller replacement not just as a requirement, but also as an opportunity-that of investing in other energy-saving measures that reduce cooling loads and lead to the downsizing of the chiller and related equipment. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute estimates that 80,000 existing chillers using CFC refrigerants need to be replaced or converted to use HCFC or HFC refrigerants. Of these, about 20,000 will be replaced or

275

Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect

A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

Cautley, D.; Viner, J.; Lord, M.; Pearce, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Total environmental warming impact (TEWI) calculations for alternative automative air-conditioning systems  

SciTech Connect

The Montreal Protocol phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has required manufacturers to develop refrigeration and air-conditioning systems that use refrigerants that can not damage stratospheric ozone. Most refrigeration industries have adapted their designs to use hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) or hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants; new automobile air- conditioning systems use HFC-134a. These industries are now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants on global warming. Automobile air-conditioning has three separate impacts on global warming; (1) the effects of refrigerant inadvertently released to the atmosphere from accidents, servicing, and leakage; (2) the efficiency of the cooling equipment (due to the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to power the system); and (3) the emission of C0{sub 2} from burning fuel to transport the system. The Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) is an index that should be used to compare the global warming effects of alternative air-conditioning systems because it includes these contributions from the refrigerant, cooling efficiency, and weight. This paper compares the TEWI of current air-conditioning systems using HFC-134a with that of transcritical vapor compression system using carbon dioxide and systems using flammable refrigerants with secondary heat transfer loops. Results are found to depend on both climate and projected efficiency of C0{sub 2}systems. Performance data on manufacturing prototype systems are needed to verify the potential reductions in TEWI. Extensive field testing is also required to determine the performance, reliability, and ``serviceability`` of each alternative to HFC-134a to establish whether the potential reduction of TEWI can be achieved in a viable consumer product.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy-savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning.

Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A systems approach to retrofitting residential HVAC systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofit Guide for Military Family Housing: Energy-EfficientPractices Guide includes references to DOE’s Home Energyguide the user to specific retrofit packages that maximize retrofit energy

McWilliams, J.A.; Walker, I.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air-conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics via a project example.

Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Conditioning, & Electric Power Machinery 29(1): 1-4 Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: DemandUSA Solutions for summer electric power shortages: Demand

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many cases the single most important energy conservation measure that can be taken is to turn equipment off when it is not needed. In the case of air conditioning, this generally means turning it off when occupants leave and turning it back on in time to have the space comfortable when they return. In humid climates special problems are often encountered when a system is restarted after a period of shutdown. The temperature and humidity in the space rises during the period of shutdown. Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning systems during this recovery period and makes recommendations for system designers.

Todd, T. R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Pages that link to "CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program (Texas)" CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program...

285

Changes related to "CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program (Texas)" CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program...

286

EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings An...

287

Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webinar Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webinar August 22, 2013 1:00PM...

288

Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assembliesessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such...

289

Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room and an ordinary wall room, which are cooled by an air-conditioner. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to test the temperature field and heat flow fluctuation in these rooms. Through analyzing the data tested, we found that the mean temperature of PCW is lower than that of ordinary wall room by 1 to 2?, and PCW can lower the heat flow by 4.6W/m2. Combining phase change material with the building envelope can lower the indoor temperature, make the room thermally comfortable, and cut down the turn-on-and-off frequency of the air-conditioner and the primary investment and operating costs. It alleviates the urgent need for electricity.

Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Retrofitting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

communication skills and learn ways to explain the weatherization process to the homeowner. House as a System Trainees will understand the concept of weatherization, common...

291

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit Guides Retrofit Guides Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides Photo of the cover of the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) were created to help decision makers plan, design, and implement energy improvement projects in their facilities. With energy managers in mind, they present practical guidance for kick-starting the process and maintaining momentum throughout the project life cycle. These guides are primarily reference documents, allowing energy managers to consult the particular sections that address the most pertinent topics.. Useful resources are also cited throughout the guides for further information. Each AERG is tailored specifically to the needs of a specific building type, with an emphasis on the most effective

292

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more efficiently than with the air-cooled (AC) condensers. This fact was behind the idea of a field study conducted in one of the major hospital in Kuwait during a summer season to investigate the performance of WC and AC systems in terms of peak power and energy consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less than that of the AC system, respectively. The maximum reduction in the power demand coincided with the peak power demand period of the utilities i.e. between 14:00 and 17:00 hr, thereby offering a maximum advantage of peak power saving.

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Commissioning of the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House  

SciTech Connect

Commissioning of instrumentation and limited short-term testing have been completed on a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. This house is intended to be used as a laboratory in which several different methods of space conditioning distribution will be evaluated. This report provides background on the project, including specifications of the house and models used in its development, along with models to be evaluated through its operation.

Stecher, D.; Imm, C.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Influencing Factors on Energy Consumption of Air Conditioning System in Railway Passenger Station Based on Orthogonal Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Orthogonal experiment was used to analyze the energy consumption of air conditioning system, which belongs to four typical passenger stations in four regions, including severe cold region, cold region, hot summer and cold winter region, hot summer and ... Keywords: Railway Passenger Station, Orthogonal Experiment, Air Conditioning Energy Consumption, Energy Conservation

Weiwu Ma; Liqing Li; Suoying He; Jia Cheng; Guijie Huang; Chenn Q. Zhou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Specialist Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The people responsible for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) in the nuclear power industry are known by various titles--HVAC specialist, HVAC component engineer, HVAC system manager, and HVAC system engineer, to name a few. Although HVAC duties and responsibilities are often spread across several departments, such as maintenance, operations, engineering, and procurement, it is up to the HVAC specialist to ensure that HVAC system and component health and reliability are maintained. This re...

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

Exploratory Research on MEMS Technology for Air-Conditioning and Heat-Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiple refrigerant channels are essential for improving system efficiency in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. A study was conducted to study the use of micro-electrical-mechanical- systems (MEMS) and micro device technologies to improve current vapor compression refrigeration cycles. The first step toward realizing this goal, and the focus of this report, is to determine how to better control multi-channel evaporators by reducing refrigerant maldistribution among channels.

1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

Performance Assessment of a Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) technology uses smart integrated controls, variable speed drives, and refrigerant piping to provide energy efficiency, flexible operation, ease of installation, low noise, zone control, and comfort through all-electric technology. This report describes and documents the construction, performance, and application of a heat pump air conditioning system that uses VRF technology8212the Daikin VRV system. This variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system is manufactured by Daikin I...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

299

Impact of cool storage air-conditioning in commercial sector on power system operation in Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The results are presented from an investigation into the potential application for cool storage air-conditioning, and the resultant beneficial impact on power system operation in Thailand is discussed. Field assessment through interviews with decision makers in the identified customer groups produces results that show good potential for cool storage application. Results from a computer program used to calculate power production cost and other characteristics show that substantial benefits would also accrue to the generating utility.

Surapong, C.; Bundit, L. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment........................... 17.8 3.2 4.7 3.6 5.5 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment........................................ 93.3 7.7 21.4 23.7 18.5 21.9 Use Cooling Equipment......................................... 91.4 7.6 21.0 23.4 17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it........................ 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System...................................................... 65.9 4.8 12.3 15.1 14.9 18.7 Without a Heat Pump......................................... 53.5 4.7 11.5 11.6 12.3 13.6 With a Heat Pump..............................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it...................... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System................................................... 65.9 15.3 22.6 10.7 9.9 7.3 Without a Heat Pump....................................... 53.5 12.5 17.9 8.7 8.2 6.3 With a Heat Pump............................................ 12.3

302

Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As utility costs have risen despite political campaign promises and energy conserving measures implemented by the utility companies such as alternative fuel use (coal and nuclear), co-generation, etc., homeowners have begun to search for effective methods of reducing their electricity bills. In some cases homeowners are faced with utility bills That are approaching the cost of their mortgage payments. For those with fixed incomes, such as the elderly or those looking forward to retirement in the near future, this has become an alarming reality. Virtually every homeowner would like to reduce his utility bill but the question is, what items should he address in order to have a significant impact on his electricity costs? According to Houston Lighting h Power Company, 50% of an electricity bill can be attributed to the air conditioning system, and another 15-20% to the hot water heating system. Therefore, to dramatically reduce utility costs one should look first at these two "energy gulpers" and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating.

Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption of HVAC systems in commercial buildings takes a great part of the total building energy consumption. Energy performance evaluation plays an important role in building energy efficiency improvement for existing buildings and new buildings. It is also the basis for the retrofitting measure evaluation for existing buildings and the control improvement evaluation of new buildings for building energy performance contracts. In this study, the energy performance evaluation of a super high-rising commercial office building in construction is presented. Alternative control strategies are proposed to improve the energy efficiency based on the current measurements of the original design as well as additional metering instruments as requested. These control strategies mainly involve optimal chiller sequencing control, cooling tower sequencing control, optimal water pressure differential set-point control, AHU supply air static pressure reset control and DCV-based fresh air control, etc. To assess the economic feasibility, the benchmark electricity consumption and the optimal electricity consumption using alternative controls strategies are estimated using dynamic simulations. The results show that the electricity savings using the alternative control strategies can cover the costs of an additional metering system and related software and hardware in about one year.

Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technical Assistance Program Technical Assistance Program Residential Retrofit Program Design Guide May 2011 This work has been performed by the Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC) and Energy Futures Group (EFG), under the Contract No. 4200000341 with Oak Ridge National Laboratory which is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract with the US Department of Energy No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. This document was prepared in collaboration with a partnership of companies under this contract. The partnership is led by the Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), and includes the following companies: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Energy Futures Group (EFG), Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnership (NEEP), Natural

306

Building Technologies Office: Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Retrofit Guides Retrofit Guides Photo of the cover of the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) help building owners and managers as well as design and construction professionals plan, design, and implement energy efficiency upgrades in commercial buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) were created to help decision makers plan, design, and implement energy improvement projects in their facilities. With energy managers in mind, they present practical guidance for kick-starting the process and maintaining momentum throughout the project life cycle. These guides are primarily reference documents, allowing energy managers to consult the particular sections that address the most pertinent topics.. Useful resources are also cited throughout the guides for further information. Each AERG is tailored specifically to the needs of a specific building type, with an emphasis on the most effective retro-commissioning and retrofit measures identified by experts familiar with those unique opportunities and challenges. The guides present a broad range of proven practices that can help energy managers take specific actions at any stage of the retrofit process, resulting in energy savings for many years to come.

307

Laboratory Testing of Aerosol for Enclosure Air Sealing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Space conditioning energy use can be significantly reduced by addressing uncontrolled infiltration and exfiltration through the envelope of a building. A process for improving the air tightness of a building envelope by sealing shell leaks with an aerosol sealing technology is presented. Both retrofit and new construction applications are possible through applying this process either in attics and crawlspaces or during rough-in stage.

Harrington, C.; Modera, M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Energy Efficiency Upgrades for Little Rock Air Force Base  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little Rock Air Force Base (LRAFB), in partnership with the local utility, Entergy Services, Inc., has reduced energy costs and used savings from investments in high-efficiency equipment to maintain and improve the condition of base housing and other facilities. Three projects were completed, with over $10 million invested. Major accomplishments include replacing air-to-air heat pumps with high-efficiency ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) in more than 1,500 base housing units, lighting modifications to 10 buildings, upgrade of HVAC equipment in the base's enlisted club, and energy-efficient lighting retrofits for LRAFB's flight simulator.

Goldman, C.; Dunlap, M.A.

2000-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

309

Retrofitting CO{sub 2} capture  

SciTech Connect

Retrofitting existing fossil-fueled plants with the first available carbon dioxide capture technologies could play an important role in paving the way for development of lower-cost, reliable carbon capture and storage systems. EPRI research is helping utilities better understand the engineering challenges and economic consequences. Studies are being conducted on retrofitting five different plants with advanced amine PCC technologies. Other studies include: process optimization studies; valuing operating flexibility; CO{sub 2} capture for CTCC plants; and assessing the impact of climate policy on retrofitting investment.

Weisel, J.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes  

SciTech Connect

Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process on AddThis.com...

313

A Methodology for Identifying Retrofit Energy Savings in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measured energy savings resulting from energy conservation retrofits in commercial buildings can be used to verify the success of the retrofits, determine the payment schedule for the retrofits, and guide the selection of future retrofits. This paper presents a structured methodology, developed for buildings in the Texas LoanSTAR program, for measuring retrofit savings in commercial buildings. This methodology identifies the pre-retrofit construction and post-retrofit periods, normalizes energy consumption data, and quantifies the uncertainty associated with the measured savings. A case study from the Texas LoanSTAR program is presented as an example.

Kissock, K.; Reddy, A.; Claridge, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Air- Vehicle Air- Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range Preprint September 2000 * NREL/CP-540-28960 R. Farrington and J. Rugh To Be Presented at the Earth Technologies Forum Washington, D.C. October 31, 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published

315

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners  

SciTech Connect

A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cost-effective Lighting Retrofits: Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facility managers and energy engineers contemplating a lighting retrofit are confronted with a confusing array of product and system options. This paper presents my experience in trial and final installations. Also presented is a commonsense approach to calculating savings.

Fisher, M. D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Florida house aglow with lighting retrofit  

SciTech Connect

In a residential lighting retrofit, how much energy can be saved with current technology? The Florida Solar Energy Center decided to find out by retrofitting every lamp in a Miami home. Most lighting studies focus on average lighting energy use or on how much energy can be saved by retrofitting large numbers of homes. However, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) was interested in finding out how much lighting energy we could save in a single house. One house with high utility bills and extensive interior lighting was picked, throughly monitored, and retrofitted every light possible. The study also helped determine what sort of monitoring is most useful, and how residents respond to efficient lighting. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Parker, D.; Schrum, L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NETL: Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Control Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE) Project No.: DE-FE0007528 Spray Jet Array for Neustream-C Nozzle Technology Spray Jet Array for Neustream-C Nozzle...

322

Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments  

SciTech Connect

This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be assessed but did not account for weather variation. From this statistical analysis, 18 study participants were selected and interviewed. The participants completed an in-home interview covering a range of topics, including changes in occupancy and additional changes to the homes that may have affected energy use. The goal of the interviews was to identify factors that may have contributed to unusual energy performance. These factors were identified by their frequency of occurrence in outperforming or underperforming homes, or simply by identifying factors that had the largest impact on overall savings. The motivations and levels of satisfaction with the outcomes of the upgrades were covered in detail, as well as extensive discussions of behaviors pertaining to thermal control, lighting, water, and appliance use. Most of cases studied achieved substantial energy savings, although it was more common for the projected savings to be greater than the demonstrated savings. Two factors that played a very large role in savings variation were 1) changes in occupancy and 2) fenestration improvements outside of the incentive programs. Motivation for pursuing the upgrades (e.g., environmental sustainability vs. comfort or cost savings) did not seem to play any role in achieving savings. Participants generally were more concerned with maintaining aesthetics through lighting than comfort through heating or cooling. They also seemed more likely to turn the lights off when leaving a room than to turn the heat off when leaving the home.

Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure and control by “PLC” and the software of “Kingview”, the whole year's operating results of this system was tested and analysed. The results indicate this system can keep the indoor air temperature range at 26±2°C and the relative humidity range being 50-70% under the low electricity cost on the whole year in the south of China region when the special solar air heater can offer flux air heating up to 60°C. In this paper some ideas are offered in order to facilitate the availability for air-conditioning using low grade energy, for example, solar energy and surplus or waste heat energy in the industrial process.

Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Simulation of the Post-Retrofit Thermal Energy Use for the Perry-Castaneda Library Building with the Use of Simplified System Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several state owned buildings with dual-duct constant volume (DDCV) systems are being retrofitted with energy efficient variable air volume (VAV) systems as part of Texas LoanSTAR Program. One method of determining the energy savings resulting from energy conserving retrofits relies on the use of a model for the daily whole building consumption, Epre, in the pre-retrofit configuration. Epre is typically a function of primary influencing parameters such as ambient temperature, humidity, building internal gains and others (Figure 1). Following the retrofit, the energy saved, E,av is determined using measured daily consumption, Emea3 as shown in Figure 1. This method is being used in the Texas LoanSTAR monitoring and analysis program for buildings that have adequate pre-retrofit monitored data. Unfortunately, in the Perry-Castaneda Library (PCL) building, the retrofits were completed before the monitoring instrumentation was installed. Therefore, no pre-retrofit monitored data are available for this building. Hence another method to estimate savings is needed. Such a method was developed and tested (Katipamula and Claridge 1991). This method was based on the use of the ASHRAE TC 4.7 simplified energy analysis procedure (SEAP). It involved developing one model each for the VAV (post-retrofit system) and the DDCV (pre-retrofit system) systems.

Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D. E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Simulation of the Post-Retrofit Thermal Energy Use for the University Teaching Center (UTC) Building with the Use of Simplified System Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several state owned buildings with dual-duct constant volume (DDCV) systems have been retrofitted with energy efficient variable air volume systems (VAV) as part of the Texas LoanSTAR Program. One method of determining the energy savings resulting from energy conserving retrofits relies on the use of a model for the daily whole building consumption, Epre, in the pre-retrofit configuration. Epre is typically a function of primary influencing parameters such as ambient temperature, humidity, building internal gains and others (Figure 1). Following the retrofit, the energy saved, Esav is determined using measured daily consumption, Emea3 as shown in Figure 1. This method is being used in the Texas LoanSTAR monitoring and analysis program for buildings that have adequate pre-retrofit monitored data (Kelly et al., 1992). Unfortunately, in the University Teaching Center (UTC) the retrofits were completed before the monitoring instrumentation was installed. Therefore, no pre-retrofit monitored data are available. Hence another method to estimate savings was needed. Such a method was developed and tested on a large engineering center (Katipamula and Claridge 1991). This method was based on the use of the ASHRAE TC 4.7 simplified energy analysis procedure (SEAP). It involved developing one model each for the VAV (post-retrofit system) and the DDCV (pre-retrofit system) systems.

Katipamula, S.; Claridge, D. E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Main Generator Excitation System Upgrade/Retrofit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upgrading or replacing even a portion of the excitation system of a generator can provide increased reliability and availability while simultaneously decreasing operational and maintenance costs. However, the upgrade or retrofit of an excitation system is a major cost involving some degree of implementation, installation, or performance risk. This report provides lessons learned, experiences, practices and solutions from plants that have installed excitation system retrofits and upgrades. This informatio...

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Group Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit for 30% Energy Savings: Washington, D.C. (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

None

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

329

Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

How refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning service technicians learn from troubleshooting (Dissertation ABstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to understand how refrigeration, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (RHVAC) service technicians (techs) learned from troubleshooting. This understanding resulted in instructional and curricular strategies designed to help community colleges prepare vocational students to learn more effectively from informal workplace learning. RHVAC techs were studied because they increasingly learn their trade skills through a combination of formal schooling and informal workplace learning, though many still learn their trade almost exclusively in the workplace. Even those with formal training require considerable workplace experience to become fully competent. Troubleshooting is a major job function for RHVAC service techs, and troubleshooting

Denis F. H. Green

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Desiccant solar air conditioning in tropical climates: II-field testing in Guadeloupe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the experimental investigation of a solar desiccant air conditioning device exposed to the sun in Guadeloupe to test that adaptability of a silicagel compact bed, the most simple technology, in a tropical climate. It has been shown that it is possible to make use of solar flat plate collectors with a balancing water tank, to produce heat for the regeneration of a solid desiccant as silicagel, with solar energy. Second, the compact bed system proposed gives the foreseen cooling power, but considerable losses appear, particularly in the sorption process, which is not close enough to the reversible adiabatic one.

Dupont, M.; Celestine, B.; Beghin, B. (Solar Energy Lab., Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building  

SciTech Connect

As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Retrofit Savings for Brazos County  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the energy and dollar savings for the period May 2000 - April 2001 for 10 of the Brazos County facilities that have been retrofit. The electricity use saved was 555,170 kWh and the demand was 1062 kW, which is equivalent to a $31,743 dollars savings, $24,650 from electricity use and $7,093 from the electric demand. These savings represent a 60.8% of the audit-estimated savings and a 93.7% of the audit-estimated savings if just the positive one were taken in account. The savings have improved somewhat from the previous report that included the billing periods for January to August 1999. The savings for the earlier period were 48.0% of the audit-estimated savings that means compared with 60.8% for the current period. In general has been an improvement in the energy saving in most of the facilities. The cases where are observed negative savings are the Minimum Security Jail, where is known that the area was increased significantly, the Arena Hall, where the modeling can be normalized due to kind of use of this facility, and the Road and bridges Shop, which looks to be operated more time in this period.

Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Shao, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Transformation of Sulfur Species during Steam/Air Regeneration on a Ni Biomass Conditioning Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sulfur K-edge XANES identified transformation of sulfides to sulfates during combined steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. This catalyst was tested over multiple reaction/regeneration/reduction cycles. Postreaction catalysts showed the presence of sulfides on H2S-poisoned sites. Although H2S was observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst, and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. Following the oxidative regeneration, the subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides, indicating the difficulty and sensitivity in achieving complete sulfur removal during regeneration for biomass-conditioning catalysts.

Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Kuhn, J. N.

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Measuring retrofit savings in commercial buildings with pre-retrofit utility billing data and post-retrofit sub-metered data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methodologies to measure energy and dollar savings resulting from energy conserving retrofits in commercial buildings when both pre-retrofit and post-retrofit monitored data are available at an hourly or daily level have already been developed by several researchers. However there are many occasions when hourly or daily energy consumption data are available only for the post-retrofit period. This thesis presents a methodology for measuring retrofit savings on such occasions by establishing a pre-retrofit baseline model of energy consumption based on pre-retrofit monthly utility billing data and sub-metered daily or hourly post-retrofit data. The procedure consists of two basic parts. The first part normalizes energy use for temperature dependency using post-retrofit sub-metered hourly data, the second part accounts for scheduling effects and develops a pre-retrofit baseline model using pre-retrofit utility bills. In this way, the method explicitly accounts for both scheduling and weather effects in developing a baseline for pre-retrofit energy consumption. The methodology is first tested with data from a LoanSTAR site where both pre- and post-retrofit data are available. It is then illustrated with two other LoanSTAR sites where only post-retrofit sub-metered data and pre-retrofit monthly utility billing data are available. This thesis also employs the direct utility bill comparison method to measure retrofit savings, and extends it to include a simple temperature comparison and compares results on a monthly and annual basis with the method developed herein.

Liu, Yue

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

"Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

338

"Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

339

"Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.1,1.4,10.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,23.5,39.3,13.9 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,23.4,38.9,12.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q",0.5,1 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7

340

"Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

"Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

342

The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality–Related Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I: Present Time Simulation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the impacts of climate change on meteorology and air quality conditions in California by dynamically downscaling Parallel Climate Model (PCM) data to high resolution (4 km) using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) ...

Zhan Zhao; Shu-Hua Chen; Michael J. Kleeman; Mary Tyree; Dan Cayan

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Numerical Simulations of Air–Sea Interaction under High Wind Conditions Using a Coupled Model: A Study of Hurricane Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a coupled atmosphere–ocean wave modeling system is used to simulate air–sea interaction under high wind conditions. This coupled modeling system is made of three well-tested model components: The Pennsylvania State University–...

J-W. Bao; J. M. Wilczak; J-K. Choi; L. H. Kantha

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable increase in the capital cost of the AC system for an improvement in PR from its base case as well. Furthermore, effectiveness of better PR of AC system for peak load management has been analyzed for Kuwait as a case study. It is found that up to 5,752 MW in reduction in peak load demand and savings of KD 2,301 million in capital expenditures are possible for the years between 2001 and 2025 if the PR of AC systems are improved to 1.2 kW/RT from its present level of 2.0 kW/RT. Also, it is estimated that extent of increase in capital cost of AC system by 106 % is justified for reducing the expenditure for new power plants. The paper will be useful for the energy planner and policy makers in the countries of Arabian Peninsula with huge demand for air-conditioning.

Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

School Bus Retrofit School Bus Retrofit Grant Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Grant Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type School Bus Retrofit Grant Program The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers the Clean Diesel

347

Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Retrofit Retrofit Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Program on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type School Bus Retrofit Program The goals of the Connecticut Clean School Bus Program are to: 1) establish grants for municipalities and local and regional school boards to reimburse

348

Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects Title Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5893E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Sanders, Mark D., Kristen Parrish, and Paul A. Mathew Publisher LBNL Abstract This guide provides an introduction and overview to the retrofit process and then dives deeper into the key activities that an owner can influence most in the retrofit process: (1) Selecting Your Project Team, (2) Benchmarking Your Building, and (3) Financing Your Energy Efficiency Projects* Building Energy Retrofit Overview will provide you a simple explanation of the retrofit process, the project stages and the players involved.

349

Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

School Bus Retrofit School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement The Illinois Department of Education will reimburse any qualifying school

350

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcalá; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordón; Antonio González; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor. By means of testing data analysis, it is indicated that several problems such as unsuitable operation schedule of the chiller, low COP, irrational matching of pump and motor, unbalanced conditions of chilled water flow, and low working stability and efficiency ratio of the pump are existent. The paper presents suggestions for improvement with relevance based on the induction and analysis of system fault found in measurements.

Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Structural analysis of porous rock reservoirs subjected to conditions of compressed air energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Investigations are described which were performed to assess the structural behavior of porous rock compressed air energy storage (CAES) reservoirs subjected to loading conditions of temperature and pressure felt to be typical of such an operation. Analyses performed addressed not only the nominal or mean reservoir response but also the cyclic response due to charge/discharge operation. The analyses were carried out by assuming various geometrical and material related parameters of a generic site. The objective of this study was to determine the gross response of a generic porous reservoir. The site geometry for this study assumed a cylindrical model 122 m in dia and 57 m high including thicknesses for the cap, porous, and base rock formations. The central portion of the porous zone was assumed to be at a depth of 518 m and at an initial temperature of 20/sup 0/C. Cyclic loading conditions of compressed air consisted of pressure values in the range of 4.5 to 5.2 MPa and temperature values between 143 and 204/sup 0/C.Various modes of structural behavior were studied. These response modes were analyzed using loading conditions of temperature and pressure (in the porous zone) corresponding to various operational states during the first year of simulated site operation. The results of the structural analyses performed indicate that the most severely stressed region will likely be in the wellbore vicinity and hence highly dependent on the length of and placement technique utilized in the well production length. Analyses to address this specific areas are currently being pursued.

Friley, J.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical power that commonly occur around 15:00 h. The working hours for these building are generally between 07:00 and 14:00 h and their peak demand exceeds 600 MW. The smart operation strategies implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT) between 13:00 and 14:00 h and time-of-day control (TDC) after 14:00 h. Also de-lamping was carried out in some of the buildings to readjust the higher than recommended illumination levels. This paper presents the achievements of implementing these smart operations strategies in Justice Palace Complex (JPC) as a case study. The peak load of this building was 3700 kW. The achievements are summarized as an all time saving of 22 kW by de-lamping, an additional saving of 27 kW through TDC of lighting, direct savings between 13:00 and 22:00 h by closing supply and return air fans of 52 air-handling units with a connected load 400 kW, and an additional saving of 550 kW during the same period by optimizing the cooling production and distribution. In conclusion project achieved an overall reduction in power demand of around 20% between 13:00 to 17:00 h and reduction ranging from 7% to 15% between 17:00 to 20:00 h.

Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying  

SciTech Connect

Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

Andrew Lowenstein

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy--ORNL/TM-2009/021  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

021 021 Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy February 2009 Prepared by Kevin Norman Shean Huff Brian West DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900 E-mail info@ntis.gov Web site http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange

357

New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

SciTech Connect

Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

Ushimaru, Kenji.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Financing Residential Retrofits | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Financing Residential Retrofits Financing Residential Retrofits Financing Residential Retrofits June 25, 2010 - 3:32pm Addthis Rancho Cucamonga, east of Los Angeles, received a $1.6 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block grant from the U.S. Department of Energy last year, using money authorized by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Among the city's many uses of the Recovery Act funds are two different programs intended to encourage more energy efficient homes. One, the Home Improvement Loan Program, targets low-income residents who'd like to make major repairs or improvements in their homes. The other is the Energy Efficiency Reimbursement Program, open to any city resident who purchases and installs an energy efficient appliance. "I think we wanted to have the biggest impact we could and assist the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Financing Residential Retrofits | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Financing Residential Retrofits Financing Residential Retrofits Financing Residential Retrofits June 25, 2010 - 3:32pm Addthis Rancho Cucamonga, east of Los Angeles, received a $1.6 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block grant from the U.S. Department of Energy last year, using money authorized by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Among the city's many uses of the Recovery Act funds are two different programs intended to encourage more energy efficient homes. One, the Home Improvement Loan Program, targets low-income residents who'd like to make major repairs or improvements in their homes. The other is the Energy Efficiency Reimbursement Program, open to any city resident who purchases and installs an energy efficient appliance. "I think we wanted to have the biggest impact we could and assist the

362

Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report B. Sparn, K. Hudon, L. Earle, C. Booten, and P. C. Tabares-Velasco National Renewable Energy Laboratory G. Barker and C. E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54009 October 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report B. Sparn, K. Hudon, L. Earle, C. Booten, and P. C. Tabares-Velasco National Renewable Energy Laboratory G. Barker and C. E. Hancock

363

Retrofit Legislation at the Urban Level  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Retrofit Legislation at the Urban Level Retrofit Legislation at the Urban Level In March, the city of Berkeley, California, passed new legislation that should serve as a model for local policies intended to keep energy dollars within the community while protecting the environment. The Commercial Energy Conservation Ordinance (CECO) is based on a similar ordinance that has been law since 1989 in San Francisco, Berkeley's neighbor across the Bay. San Francisco is currently the only other city in the world to have this type of legislation. As part of the Berkeley Municipal Code, CECO requires commercial buildings to undergo energy conservation retrofits when they are sold or substantially renovated. CECO was designed with the participation of LBL's Kristin Heinemeier, who also works with the Berkeley

364

Result of recent weatherization retrofit projects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) have conducted studies in their respective service areas in order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of certain conservation retrofits. Twenty houses in Walnut Creek, California, underwent an infiltration reduction program, similar to house doctoring. Ten of these houses also received additional contractor-installed measures. BPA retrofitted 18 houses at its Midway substation in central Washington. Retrofits made to the houses included: attic and crawlspace insulation, foundation sill caulking, storm windows and doors, increased attic ventilation, and infiltration reduction. Energy consumption and weather data were monitored before and after each set of retrofits in both projects. Leakage measurements were made by researchers from the Energy Efficient Buildings Program using blower door fan pressurization, thereby allowing calculation of heating season infiltration rates. An energy use model correlating energy consumption with outside temperature was developed in order to determine improvements to the thermal conductance of the building envelope as a result of the retrofits. Energy savings were calculated based on the results of the energy use model. As a check on these findings, the Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA) load calculation program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory provided a theoretical estimate of the savings resulting from the retrofits. At Midway, storm windows and doors were found to save the most energy. Because the Midway houses were not very leaky at the beginning of the experiment, the infiltration reduction procedures were less effective than expected. In the Walnut Creek project, the infiltration reduction procedures did decrease the leakiness of the test houses, but the effect upon energy savings was not great.

Dickinson, J.B.; Lipschutz, R.D.; O'Regan, B.; Wagner, B.S.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Clean Diesel Retrofit Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Diesel Retrofit and Idle Reduction Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

366

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

369

NREL Job Task Analysis: Retrofit Installer Technician (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

A summary of job task analyses for the position of retrofit installer technician when conducting weatherization work on a residence.

Kurnik, C.; Woodley, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an average of 6.2% per year, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS) system is one of the available techniques that can be utilized to reduce peak electricity demand of buildings when national electricity consumption is at its highest level. This paper demonstrates that the use of CWTS system reduces the peak power demand and energy consumption of AC systems for design day conditions by 36.7% - 87.5% and 5.4% - 7.2%, respectively. This reduction depends on selected operating strategies as compared with conventional AC system. Furthermore, results show that the annual energy consumption of CWTS systems decreases by between 4.5% and 6.9% compared with conventional systems, where chillers and pumps significantly contribute to this reduction.

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

Wetter, Michael

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Regression analysis of residential air-conditioning energy consumption at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy consumption of a house air conditioner located at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, is modeled as a function of weather parameters and total (global) solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The selection of effective parameters that significantly influence energy consumption is carried out using general stepping regression methods. The problem of collinearity between the regressors is also investigated. The final model involves parameters of total solar radiation on a horizontal surface, wind speed, and temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. However, the model coefficients are functions of relative humidity and/or temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. Model adequacy is examined by the residual analysis technique. Model validation is carried out by the data-splitting technique. The sensitivity of the model indicates that relative humidity and temperature difference strongly influence the cooling energy consumption. It was found that an increase in relative humidity from 20% to 100% can cause a 100% increase in cooling energy consumption during the high cooling season.

Abdel-Nabi, D.Y.; Zubair, S.M.; Abdelrahman, M.A.; Bahel, V. (Energy Systems Group, Div. of Energy Resources, Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Numerical Simulations of the Meteorological and Dispersion Conditions during an Air Pollution Episode over Athens, Greece  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study a summer air pollution episode from 6 to 8 August 1994 over Athens, Greece, is investigated through advanced atmospheric modeling. This episode was reported from the air quality monitoring network, as well as from research aircraft ...

V. Kotroni; G. Kallos; K. Lagouvardos; M. Varinou; R. Walko

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Frequency Monitoring and Simulation Analysis for Historical Structures Being Retrofitted  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many historical structures now need to be retrofitted to meet the requirements of fast developing cities. To ensure the safety of a historical masonry building during its retrofitting, natural frequency of the structure was measured through ambient vibrating ... Keywords: Historical masonry building, Retrofit, Monitoring, Simulation

Chao Wang, Bin Peng, Peng Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

On Target: A Complicated and Successful Energy Retrofit Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lone Star Gas Corporate headquarters, in Dallas, Texas, consists of a five building, 355,000 square foot office complex with buildings ranging in age from 14 - 60 years old between 20,000 - 100,000 square feet (SF), and with multiple HVAC systems served by two central plants. The company was facing the inevitable increase in electric utility costs knowing that two reactors at a new construction nuclear power plant would be coming on line over during the next five years. By taking a proactive stance, a six month detailed energy audit commenced after a thorough internal energy analysis was conducted. The result of the audit was a multi-year $1.7 million retrofit project encompassing nearly 20 major items would be implemented over three years. Total energy and cost avoidance savings were calculated to yield a simple pay back of 1.5 years and a cash pay out of 3.5 years. Total energy reductions of 32% were achieved and the predicted economics realized. The various projects involved the application of nearly 18,000 square feet of window tinting, a total facility relamping and efficiency improvement project, installation of more efficient filtration systems, installation of control valves on the chillwater system, installation of a building automation system, installation of a plate heat exchanger for hydronic free-cooling, isolation of after-hours and 24-hour cooling loads on a separate loop, isolation and conversion of 24-hour steam requirements to reduce excess boiler capacity and run time, improvement of return air systems, the replacement and increase of cooling tower capacity, implement a preventive maintenance program, and improved operating procedures that focused on demand side management without thermal storage. The combined results of these single projects enabled the facility to remove and not replace 25% of the physical plant cooling equipment (one single-effect steam absorber) upon reaching the end of its expected life. Project costs and avoided savings were tracked monthly throughout the three year period. Additional energy and cost avoidance tracking for two more years was completed. In five years, a positive cash flow of more than $550,00 is only 9% less than the original projection. Improved employee comfort and enhanced space conditions have returned significant benefits to the work force of nearly one thousand people occupying this facility.

Kimball, M. A.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

377

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

378

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

"Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

"Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

382

Upgrading of the Air-conditioning of the Computer Room in the Computer Centre for the LHC era  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Built in the beginning of 1970's, the Computer Centre air-conditioning and cooling systems were designed to be modular and easily adaptable to the unpredictable future needs of computing. The infrastructure of LHC-computing that will be housed in the existing Computer Room with its five Computing farms and over 11000 PC's increases the requirements of cooling and air-conditioning power to a new level. The nominal thermal loads from the equipment rise from the current design maximum of 1MW to estimated maximum of 2MW in the future. This paper presents calculations and proposes solutions to meet the new nominal requirements. The air-conditioning system must also be able to cope with a situation of power cut in the main supply. A calculation of the temperature evolution during the power cut and a justified operation strategy for this scenario is also presented.

Lindroos, J

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A Research Program for Promising Retrofit Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-fired power plants. A coal plant flue gas is more difficult to handle because of the pollutants it contains-fitting of Coal-Fired Power Plants for Carbon Capture Howard Herzog March 23, 2009 #12;1. Background. It is a difficult enough task on new coal-fired plants, but even a greater challenge for retro-fitting existing

384

Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates  

SciTech Connect

This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

Frozyna, K.; Badger, L.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Energy Efficiency Retrofits for U.S. Housing: Removing the Bottlenecks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dryer from Electric Dryer *Air Sealing involves reduction inCost Gas Dryer# Air Duct Sealing* Sealing** Yearly Savingsventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), (2) sealing and

Bardhan, Ashok; Jaffee, Dwight; Kroll, Cynthia; Wallace, Nancy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Puget Sound Energy - Commercial Retrofit Energy Efficiency Grant Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puget Sound Energy - Commercial Retrofit Energy Efficiency Grant Puget Sound Energy - Commercial Retrofit Energy Efficiency Grant Program Puget Sound Energy - Commercial Retrofit Energy Efficiency Grant Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Grant Program Rebate Amount Up to 70% of installed cost of qualifying retrofit projects or up to 50% of qualifying lighting upgrades. Provider Puget Sound Energy PSE can provide a custom retrofit grant for any energy-efficiency project

388

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis of coordinative optimization control for variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow to obtain better power savings is put forward. According to typical meteorological year data, hourly air conditioning load of whole year for every typical room has been calculated with the transmission function method. In order to guarantee each typical room, the highest cooling load rate is used as an input parameter for optimization calculation. Based on the surface cooler check model, the smallest energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization chilled water temperature and chilled water flow were carried out. The case study for a commercial building in Guangzhou showed that the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is lower by 17% only with employment of variable water flow regulation by pump frequency conversion. In the case of optimization control with coordinative control of variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow, the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is reduced by 22% in presence of remarkable power saving effects. Increasing the chilled water temperature will reduce the dehumidified capability of the air cooler, and the indoor relative humidity will increase. The simulation showed that the adjustment optimized process meets the comfort of each typical room. The lower the cooling load rate is, the more obvious the effect of power-saving is. The highest power-saving rate appears in December, which is 36.7%. Meanwhile, the least rate appears in July, which is only 14.5%.

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium About the Consortium FAQs

390

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Diesel Vehicle Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicle Retrofit and Improvement Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

391

Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: btech.lbl.gov/tools/resem/resem.htm Cost: Free Language: English References: Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model[1] Logo: Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model RESEM, the Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model, is a PC-based tool designed to allow Department of Energy (DOE) Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) staff and participants to reliably determine the energy savings directly caused by ICP-supported retrofit measures implemented in a

392

FLASTAR: Measured Savings of a Comprehensive Energy Retrofit in a Florida Elementary School  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the final results for the pilot demonstration of the Florida Public Building Loan Concept. This loan program was intended to provide low cost funds to eligible public entities for upgrade of building energy systems. The site was an elementary school in Central Florida which served as the pilot project to demonstrate energy savings in public buildings similar to that achieved by the Texas LOANSTAR program (Verdict et.al., 1990). Termed FLASTAR (Florida Alliance for Saving Taxes and Resources), the study entailed the comprehensive metering of a test site to demonstrate energy savings potential. Over twenty channels of weather and submetered energy data have been collected since April 12.1995. Annual billed energy consumption for the 41.000 square foot facility was approximately 775,000 kWh (60 kBtu/ft^2) or $55,200 in the base year (1994). During the summer of 1995, replacement of aging chillers resulted in 30% reduction to cooling energy use. The second retrofit was occupancy sensor controls for classroom and office lighting which were installed in December 1995. However, post retrofit data showed that metered lighting energy use actually increased after the occupancy sensors were installed. Our data, and that of other projects. suggests that the occupancy sensor retrofit may have increased lighting on-times. Previously school personnel practiced responsible manual switching. but then came to depend on automatic control after the retrofit. The final project retrofit saw an energy management system (EMS) added in the summer of 1996. The system provided direct digital control @DC) of the school chiller, air handlers and packaged direct expansion (DX) roof-top cooling systems. The EMS equipment reduced chiller energy use by a further 16% and air handling and DX system energy consumption by 30%. The project retrofits were found to reduce overall school energy use by approximately 15% or 120.000 kWh per year. The annual energy savings totaled $4,600 at current energy prices, although the retrofits did not significantly impact facility peak load.

Sherwin, J. R.; Parker, D. S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Air-Source Heat Pumps for Residential and Light Commercial Space Conditioning Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technology brief provides the latest information on current and emerging air-source heat pump technologies for space heating and space cooling of residential and light commercial buildings. Air-source heat pumps provide important options that can reduce ownership costs while reducing noise and enhancing reliability and customer comfort. The tech brief also describes new air-source heat pumps with an important load shaping and demand response option.

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

The determinants of the governance of air conditioning maintenance in Australian retail centres.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Retail centres are a visible sign of developed capitalist societies and make an appreciable contribution to these economies. For the firms involved in supplying air… (more)

Bridge, Adrian J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Use of an atrium for the passive-solar retrofit of an office building: design and installation experience  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A clerestory window system has been installed over a courtyard in an existing two-story office building/museum at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, thus creating an atrium. This atrium serves as a passive solar heating and daylighting system for the building and provides new display space for the museum. The retrofit consists of a roof-mounted clerestory window system with night insulating shutters which: forms an atrium that provides new museum space, buffers the former courtyard walls and windows, preheats ventilation air for the entire building, and provides daylighting and heating for the new museum space. The passive system is coupled to the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of the surrounding building by inducing fresh-air makeup through the solar-tempered atrium; heating, cooling, and daylighting are addressed in the design. The design process, the use of the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program during design, and the construction of the atrium are described.

Hunn, B.D.; Peterson, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Bayesian Analysis of Savings from Retrofit Projects  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of savings from retrofit projects depend on statistical models, but because of the complicated analysis required to determine the uncertainty of the estimates, savings uncertainty is not often considered. Numerous simplified methods have been proposed to determine savings uncertainty, but in all but the simplest cases, these methods provide approximate results only. The objective of this paper is to show that Bayesian inference provides a consistent framework for estimating savings and savings uncertainty in retrofit projects. We review the mathematical background of Bayesian inference and Bayesian regression, and present two examples of estimating savings and savings uncertainty in retrofit projects. The first is a simple case where both baseline and post-retrofit monthly natural gas use can be modeled as a linear function of monthly heating degree days. The Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO 2007) defines two methods of determining savings in such cases: reporting period savings, which is an estimate of the savings during the post-retrofit period; and normalized savings, which is an estimate of the savings that would be obtained during a typical year at the project site. For reporting period savings, classical statistical analysis provides exact analytic results for both savings and savings uncertainty in this case. We use Bayesian analysis to calculate reporting period savings and savings uncertainty and show that the results are identical to the analytical results. For normalized savings, the literature contains no exact expression for the uncertainty of normalized savings; we use Bayesian inference to calculate this quantity for the first time, and compare it with the result of an approximate formula that has been proposed. The second example concerns a problem where the baseline data exhibit nonlinearity and serial autocorrelation, both of which are common in real-world retrofit projects. No analytical solutions exist to determine savings or savings uncertainty in this situation, but several simplified formulas have been proposed. We model the data using a 5-parameter model with first-order autoregressive errors, and use Bayesian inference to develop distributions for the model parameters and for the reporting period savings, which allows us to determine the savings uncertainty. We find the energy savings to be about 5% lower than the result obtained by ignoring the autocorrelation. In addition, the Bayesian analysis finds the savings uncertainty to be narrower than the approximate uncertainty calculated using the simplified formula. These results show that Bayesian inference can be used to determine savings and savings uncertainty for a wide variety of real-world problems.

Im, Piljae [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Guide for the Retrofitting of Open Refrigerated Display Cases...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pressure regulator HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning LED Light-emitting diode NSF NSF International (originally National Sanitation Foundation) OEM Original...

398

Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process  

SciTech Connect

This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an independent evaluation of an energy retrofit of 4,003 family housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana, under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Replacement of the heating, cooling, and water heating systems in these housing units with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) anchored the retrofit; low-flow shower heads and compact fluorescent lighting were also installed, as well as attic insulation where needed. Statistically valid findings indicate that the project will save 25.8 million kWh, or 32.5% of the pre-retrofit whole-community electrical consumption, and 100% of the whole-community natural gas previously used for space conditioning and water heating (260,000 therms) in a typical meteorological year. At the end-use level, the GHPs were found to save about 42% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption for heating, cooling, and water heating in housing units that were all-electric in the pre-retrofit period. This report also demonstrates an improved method of predicting energy savings. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-retrofit energy use data collected in the field, the method predicted actual energy savings on one of the electric feeders at Fort Polk with a very high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of this model was in turn dependent on data-calibrated models of the geothermal heat pump and ground heat exchanger that are described in this report. In addition this report documents the status of vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (BHEx) design methods at the time this project was designed, and demonstrates methods of using data collected from operating GHP systems to benchmark BHEx design methods against a detailed engineering model calibrated to date. The authors also discuss the ESPC`s structure and implementation and how the experience gained here can contribute to the success of future ESPCs.

Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Performance assessment and improvement of an existing air conditioning system of a supermarket: a case study on bi-lo supermarket  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bi-Lo Supermarket in this study is located in sub-tropical coastal area in Queensland, Australia. The main objective of air conditioning in any building or supermarket is to provide comfort to the occupants and patrons of the conditioned space, an objective ... Keywords: air conditioning systems, design principles, performance improvement, supermarket

M. Hansen; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Application of Pinch Technology in Refinery Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews the application of pinch technology in the identification of the most attractive retrofit prospects in typical refineries. In the first part of the paper, methodology is described to identify attractive inter-unit heat integration opportunities as well as attractive process-utility system integration (co-generation). An example of an atmospheric pipestill-alkylation unit integration evaluation is given using both composite stream and Grand composite stream methods. In the second part of the paper, the application of pinch technology in a typical intra-unit heat integration problem is given. It is explained how inefficiencies in an APS crude preheat train are identified, and a typical small retrofit project is described.

Thomas, W. R.; Siegell, J. H.; Sideropoulos, T.; Robertson, J. L.; Papoulias, S. A.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Occupant-in-Place Energy Efficiency Retrofit in a Group Home for 30% Energy Savings in Climate Zone 4  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency retrofits (EERs) face many challenges on the path to scalability. Limited budgets, cost effectiveness, risk factors, and accessibility impact the type and the extent of measures that can be implemented feasibly to achieve energy savings goals. Group home retrofits can face additional challenges than those in single family homes - such as reduced access (occupant-in-place restrictions) and lack of incentives for occupant behavioral change. This project studies the specification, implementation, and energy savings from an EER in a group home, with an energy savings goal of 30%. This short term test report chronicles the retrofit measures specified, their projected cost-effectiveness using building energy simulations, and the short term test results that were used to characterize pre-retrofit and post-retrofit conditions. Additionally, the final report for the project will include analysis of pre- and post-retrofit performance data on whole building energy use, and an assessment of the energy impact of occupant interface with the building (i.e., window operation). Ultimately, the study's results will be used to identify cost effective EER measures that can be implemented in group homes, given constraints that are characteristic of these buildings. Results will also point towards opportunities for future energy savings.

Moore, M.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey on Electricity Consumption Characteristics of Homethe stakes for energy consumption are high, as we hope atAir Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas… (more)

Lee, Kyoung Ok

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect

To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Experience with 113 Retrofit Insulation Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have surveyed 113 plants for thirteen clients. The results of 21 recent surveys at today's average fuel price, show an average project scope generation of $151,000 while saving about 5MMBTU/hour with a 72% DCF rate of return. The size of the retrofit project generated, or scope, is of course sensitive to the fuel price. This is an important consideration because of the variability of fuel price. A study of the effect of fuel price on project scope generation and on return has been made using sophisticated computer programs designed for this purpose. These results indicate that scope generation may vary from $50,000 for $3.00 fuel up to $80,000 for $6.00 fuel. When this happens, the project return will increase from 100% up to 165% per year. The main problem that we have found with retrofit insulation surveys is the processing of detail in existing plants. The solution is the preparation or selection of the right system for approaching the problem utilizing computer programs. The time required to generate systematic approaches to insulation surveys and the generation of retrofit projects are sizable. The continued heat losses while studying the project are also significant. Thus, the heat losses suffered while deciding how to insulate can be sufficient to pay for an insulation survey.

Webber, W. O.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

HEAT PUMP AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM ANALYSIS BASED ON VARIABLE SPEED COMPRESSOR.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mechanical Engineering M.S.E. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ambient air temperatures on the heat pump performance using a variable speed compressor.… (more)

Zhang, Hao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

Hassan, Yassin

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Building Technologies Office: Renovate and Retrofit Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renovate and Retrofit Commercial Buildings for Energy Efficiency Renovate and Retrofit Commercial Buildings for Energy Efficiency Photo of the Denver skyline with Wells Fargo Center building in the center of the image and the Rocky Mountains in the background. A local law firm upgraded one floor of their offices in the Wells Fargo Center (center) in Denver as part of Commercial Building Partnerships. Renovation, retrofit and refurbishment of existing buildings represent an opportunity to upgrade the energy performance of commercial building assets for their ongoing life. Often retrofit involves modifications to existing commercial buildings that may improve energy efficiency or decrease energy demand. In addition, retrofits are often used as opportune time to install distributed generation to a building. Energy efficiency retrofits can reduce the operational costs, particularly in older buildings, as well as help to attract tenants and gain a market edge.

413

Residential Retrofits in the Southeast: A Performance Update  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Retrofits in Residential Retrofits in the Southeast: A Performance Update Roderick K. Jackson Ph.D Oak Ridge National Laboratory for Building America Stakeholder Meeting 3/1/2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Project Goals 1. Can we retrofit existing homes to achieve energy savings of more than 30% 2. Can we cost effectively retrofit existing homes to achieve energy savings of more than 30% 3. Will homeowners pay for retrofits that achieve energy savings of more than 30% 4. Will reality (i.e. utility bills) match the projected energy savings * In the event any of the answers to questions 1-4 is NO, what are obstacles to YES 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Project Overview Nine homes received retrofits with projected source energy

414

Building Media, Inc. (Du Pont) (Building America Retrofit Alliance) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Media, Inc. (Du Pont) (Building America Retrofit Alliance) Media, Inc. (Du Pont) (Building America Retrofit Alliance) Jump to: navigation, search Name Building Media, Inc. (Du Pont) (Building America Retrofit Alliance) Place Wilmington, DE Website http://www.prweb.com/releases/ References Building America Retrofit Alliance Press Release[1] BMI Website[2] DuPont Website[3] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Incubator Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Building Media, Inc. (Du Pont) (Building America Retrofit Alliance) is a company located in Wilmington, DE. References ↑ "Building America Retrofit Alliance Press Release" ↑ "BMI Website"

415

Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes temperature variations of solar collector arrays, heat storage tank and adsorption chillers as well as refrigerating output variations of the system. Experimental results show that adsorption chillers have the advantages of low driving temperature, stability and long working time with high efficiency. Under representative working conditions in summer, the average refrigerating output of solar powered air-conditioning system is 15.31kW during operation of 8 hours; moreover, the maximum attains 20kW. Correspondingly, the average system COP is 0.35, and the average solar COP is 0.15. The solar fraction in summer is concluded to be 71.73%. In addition, the variations of solar-powered air-conditioning system performance with ambient parameters (solar radiant intensity and ambient temperature) and operating parameters (temperatures and flow rates) are analyzed.

Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Experimental study of the performance of a laminar flow silica gel desiccant packing suitable for solar air conditioning application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental study of the performance of a low pressure drop silica gel desiccant packing has been carried out. The packing is in the form of narrow passages lined with a single layer of small silica gel particles. A near optimum particle size of 0.25 mm, and a range of passage widths of 1.46 to 3.75 mm were chosen based on the predictions of a computer simulation model. A test chamber was constructed with sufficient thermal insulation to allow close to adiabatic conditions for the 12 cm x 12 cm cross section of packing. Step change adsorption and desorption tests were performed for various plate spacings, air flow rates, air inlet conditions, and gel initial water contents. Air outlet moisture content and temperature, as well as pressure drop were measured. The experimental results were compared with predictions of the computer simulation model: This model is based on gas side controlled heat and mass transfer, with the small solid side mass transfer resistance incorporated in a crude manner, and heat transfer into the packing handled as a lumped thermal capacitance. Reasonable agreement was obtained between theoretical prediction and experiment. The match was found to improve with increased passage width. The discrepancies are chiefly attributed to an excessive air bypass, and to inaccurate accounting for heat transfer from the sides of the unit. Use of the computer code for prototype scale design purposes is recommended.

Biswas, P.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Effective method for MHD retrofit of power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Retrofitting existing power plants with an open-cycle MHD system has been re-examined in light of recent developments in the heat and seed recovery technology area. A new retrofit cycle configuration has been developed which provides for a direct gas-gas coupling; also, the MHD topping cycle can be decoupled from the existing plant for either separate or joint operation. As an example, the MHD retrofit concept has been applied to Illinois Power Company's Vermilion Station No. 1, a coal-fired power plant presently in operation. Substantial increases in efficiency have been demonstrated and the economic validity of the MHD retrofit approach has been established.

Berry, G.F.; Dennis, C.B.; Johnson, T.R.; Minkov, V.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

419

City of Los Angeles - Green Building Retrofit Requirement | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Green Building Retrofit Requirement Green Building Retrofit Requirement City of Los Angeles - Green Building Retrofit Requirement < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Energy Standards for Public Buildings Provider Los Angeles Department of Water and Power In April 2009, Los Angeles enacted [clkrep.lacity.org/onlinedocs/2006/06-1963_ord_180633.pdf Ordinance 180636], known as the Green Building Retrofit Ordinance. This ordinance was later amended by Ordinance 182259. The law requires all city-owned

420

CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program (Texas...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon CPS Energy - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program (Texas) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

SEF of Central Eastern Pennsylvania Small Business Lighting Retrofit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon SEF of Central Eastern Pennsylvania Small Business Lighting Retrofit (PPL Territory) (Pennsylvania) This is the approved revision of this page,...

422

Columbia River PUD - Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program (Oregon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Columbia River PUD - Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program (Oregon) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as...

423

Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SmartMarket Report Produced with support from Energy Efficient Business Case for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit and Renovation Funding provided by U.S. Department of Energy...

424

Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance Grocery Stores In collaboration with: Prepared by: National Renewable...

425

Residential photovoltaic worth : an assessment of retrofit vs. new construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper characterizes the basic differences between photovoltaic retrofit and new construction applications. It quantifies the tradeoffs forced by rooftop area constraints, special array mounting costs, maintenance ...

Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Retrofit of Existing Residential Building: a Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are about 42 billion square meters of existing buildings in China. The energy efficiency of existing buildings directly relates to the energy consumption of the building sector. The retrofit of existing residential building began in the 1990s in Heilongjiang. The Sino-Canada demonstration project and Sino-France demonstration project of retrofitting existing residential buildings were carried out in 1997 and 2004, respectively. The retrofit method and energy conservation potential of the envelope and heating system of northern existing buildings are analyzed in this paper, combining the experiences of retrofitting existing residential buildings in Heilongjiang. The software was compiled to aid the design of the envelope retrofit in Heilongjiang and to analyze the working situation in existing residential building heating systems. The imbalance of the indoor temperature and the quantity of heating loss from opening the window in different retrofit projects are presented. The emphasis on energy efficiency retrofit of the envelope of existing residential buildings should be placed on the wall in northern region. It is possible to reduce about 50 percent of energy consumption of buildings by insulating the wall. The external insulation is suitable for retrofitting existing buildings, and the moisture transfer should be considered at the same time. To insure actual reduction in energy consumption, the heating system should be retrofitted when the envelope is insulated.

Zhao, L.; Xu, W.; Li, L.; Gao, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Energy Retrofits-Eleven California Case Studies Brennan Less, Jeremy Fisher and Iain Walker Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-6166E Disclaimer This...

428

NETL: CCPI - TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2004) Environmental Reports TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control, Environmental Assessment PDF-847KB (Sept 2003) PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS Concrete...

429

Microsoft Word - CCS_PC_retrofit_r10.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF THE COSTS OF RETROFITTING WITH CO 2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY DOENETL-402102309 January 4, 2011 NETL Contact: Christopher Nichols Office of Strategic Energy Analysis and Planning...

430

Measured Effects of Retrofits - A Refrigerant Oil Additive and a Condenser Spray Device - On the Cooling Performance of a Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 15-year old, 3-ton single package air-to-air heat pump was tested in laboratory environmental chambers simulating indoor and outdoor conditions. After documenting initial performance, the unit was retrofitted with a prototype condenser water-spray device and retested. Results at standard AM cooling rating conditions (95°F outdoor dry bulb and 80167 OF indoor dry bulb/wet bulb temperatures) showed the capacity increased by about 7%, and the electric power demand dropped by about 8%, resulting in a steady-state EER increase of 17%. Suction and discharge pressures were reduced by 7 and 37 psi, respectively. A refrigerant oil additive formulated to enhance refrigerant-side heat transfer was added at a dose of one ounce per ton of rated capacity. and the unit was tested for several days at the same 95°F outdoor conditions and showed essentially no increase in capacity, and a slight 3% increase in steady-state EER. Adding more additive lowered the EER slightly. Suction and discharge pressures were essentially unchanged. Our short-term testing showed that the condenser-spray device was effective in increasing the cooling capacity and lowering the electrical demand on an old and relatively inefficient heat pump, but the refrigerant additive had little effect on the cooling performance of our unit Sprayer issues to be resolved include the effect of a sprayer on a new, high-efficiency air conditioner/heat pump, reliable long-term operation, and economics.

Levins, W. P.; Sand, J. R.; Baxter, V. D.; Linkous, R. S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study describes various concepts for more cost-effective cooling solutions in data centers, while keeping in mind that the reliability of computing systems and their respective cooling systems is always a key criterion.

432

A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for an effective tuning of fuzzy logic controllers in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the use of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to develop smartly tuned fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, energy performance, stability and indoor comfort ... Keywords: Fuzzy logic controllers, Genetic tuning, HVAC systems, Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, Linguistic 2-tuples representation, Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, Rule selection

María José Gacto; Rafael Alcalá; Francisco Herrera

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Large HVAC Codes and Standards Update 2000: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents EPRI activities in the year 2000 related to building codes and standards. The following activities are covered: attendance at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) meetings and participation in technical committee and subcommittee meetings related to ASHRAE Standard 90.l; review of relevant U.S Department of Energy (DOE) appliance standards; review of developments of other building energy code organizations; and participation in the E...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

434

Energy audits reveal significant energy savings potential in India`s commercial air-conditioned building sector  

SciTech Connect

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began its Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year (1991--1997) project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities for both the supply of energy and its efficient end use. The end-use component of EMCAT aims for efficient energy utilization by industries and other sectors such as the commercial sector. A specific task under the end-use component was to conduct energy surveys/audits in high energy-use sectors, such as air-conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that could improve energy utilization. This article presents results of pre-investment surveys that were conducted at four commercial air-conditioned facilities in 1995. The four facilities included two luxury hotels in New Delhi, and one luxury hotel and a private hospital in Bombay. Energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) were explored in three major energy-using systems in these buildings: air-conditioning, lighting, and steam and domestic hot water systems.

Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C. [Resource Management Associates of Madison, Inc., WI (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

A smart GUI based air-conditioning and lighting controller for energy saving in building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will concentrate on the algorithm and control strategies where the air-conditioners and lighting system can be controlled using microcontroller; a microcontroller is chosen due to its low cost and high flexibility. Conceptually, the controller ... Keywords: energy saving control system, graphic LCD, graphical user interface (GUI), microcontroller

M. F. Abas; N. MD. Saad; N. L. Ramli

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A thermal comfort levels investigation of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioned office  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate thermal comfort levels of a naturally ventilated and air-conditioner office. Field experiments conducted in an office room in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) used survey questionnaires and physical measurements. ... Keywords: PMV, mechanically ventilation, naturally ventilated, neutral temperature, objective study, subjective approach, thermal comfort

R. Daghigh; N. M. Adam; K. Sopian; A. Zaharim; B. B. Sahari

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Bulk Turbulent Air–Sea Flux Algorithm for High-Wind, Spray Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sensible and latent heat can cross the air–sea interface by two routes: as interfacial fluxes controlled by molecular processes right at the interface, and as spray fluxes from the surface of sea spray droplets. Once the 10-m wind speed over the ...

Edgar L. Andreas; P. Ola G. Persson; Jeffrey E. Hare

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Dehumidification Performance of Unitary Rooftop Air Conditioning Systems: K-Mart Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying various HVAC options--including heat pipe heat exchangers, reduced airflow, low temperature air, and modified fan operation--reduced the average relative humidity of a K-Mart store on the Mississippi coast during the hot humid summer season to below 50 percent. This demonstration will help utilities recommend the best practices for their retail customers.

1996-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

439

RETROFIT RAMP-UP SELECTED PROJECTS* Austin, Texas ($10 Million): The Austin Climate Protection Retrofit Program will accelerate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RETROFIT RAMP-UP SELECTED PROJECTS* RETROFIT RAMP-UP SELECTED PROJECTS* Austin, Texas ($10 Million): The Austin Climate Protection Retrofit Program will accelerate energy and water efficiency and integrated renewable energy improvements in private and commercial properties in the City of Austin and Austin Energy's service territory. The project will focus on alternative financing options for property owners, including new financing mechanisms, interest rate buy downs, and on-bill repayment. Boulder County, Colorado ($25 Million): Boulder County is partnering with the city of Denver, Garfield County, the Governor's Energy Office, Xcel Energy and others to launch the Colorado Retrofit Ramp-Up Program that will stimulate economic growth and investment in

440

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning retrofits" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Closing Gaps in Modeling Multifamily Retrofits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building America Technical Update Meeting Denver, Colorado April 30, 2013 Jordan Dentz, The Levy Partnership., Inc. Closing Gaps in Modeling Multifamily Retrofits Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Overview * Multifamily modeling inputs (BA House Simulation Protocols) * Important multifamily measures * Other MF gaps Vital to meet 50% goals and therefore important to include in Building America's multifamily modeling capabilities Model Inputs * Heating set point * Cooling set point * Behavior assumptions 3 Heating Set Point - Central Systems * House simulation protocol assumes 71°F * Overheating is common * Approach: adjust modeled heating set point - how much? * Average heating season indoor temperature was 76°F in a sample of 18 buildings (ARIES 2013a)

442

Derivation of a merging condition for two interacting streamers in air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simulation of the interaction of two simultaneously propagating air streamers of the same polarity is presented. A parametric study has been carried out using an accurate numerical method which ensures a time-space error control of the solution. For initial separation of both streamers smaller or comparable to the longest characteristic absorption length of photoionization in air, we have found that the streamers tend to merge at the moment when the ratio between their characteristic width and their mutual distance reaches a value of about 0.35 for positive streamers, and 0.4 for negative ones. Moreover it is demonstrated that these ratios are practically independent of the applied electric field, the initial seed configuration, and the pressure.

Bonaventura, Zdenek; Bourdon, Anne; Massot, Marc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Home Energy Article: A Systems Approach to Retrofitting Residential HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Retrofitting a Residential HVAC System, Lawrence Berkeleyducts. New downsized ducts and HVAC equipment. The ducts areto Retrofitting Residential HVAC Systems J.A. McWilliams and

McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigated 40 typical air conditioned buildings in Changsha in 2005, including 15 hotel buildings, 6 commercial buildings, 5 office buildings, 6 hospital buildings and 8 synthesis buildings. On this basis we analyze the relation between types of cold and heat sources and the HVAC area of the buildings. Meanwhile the economical and feasible types of cold and heat sources are pointed out, i.e., oil boilers and gas boilers for heat source, and centrifugal and screw water chillers for cold source based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water-source heat pump will likely be applied. Based on the analysis of energy consumption and energy bills, we determine the feasible measures for energy conservation including the aspects of design, operation and management. Among them, special attention should be paid to energy metering and running time of air conditioning systems in civil buildings in Changsha.

Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A bio-refinery is a processing facility that produces liquid transportation fuels and/or value-added chemicals and other products. Because of the dwindling resources and escalating prices of fossil fuels, there are emerging situations in which the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost-effective strategies for enhancing production and for incorporating biomass into the process. Energy and mass integration approaches were used to induce synergism and to reduce cost by exchanging heat, material utilities, and by sharing equipment. Cost-benefit analysis was used to guide the decision-making process and to compare various production routes. Ethanol production from two routes was used as a case study to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach and the results were bio-refinery has become more attractive then fossil-refinery.

Cormier, Benjamin R.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

six buildings had cooling towers, of which 46 were cleanedor poor condition of cooling tower was associated with aunscheduled cleaning of cooling towers was associated with

Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

NYSEG (Electric) - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NYSEG (Electric) - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program NYSEG (Electric) - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program NYSEG (Electric) - Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info Funding Source System Benefits Charge State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Assessment: Free Lighting Retrofit: 70% of cost Provider RG&E and NYSEG NYSEG offers a lighting incentive program designed to serve small business customers with a demand of 100 kilowatts (kW) or less. These small business customers may schedule a free energy assessment and then receive a 70% discount on the installed cost of recommended lighting measures. Eligible lighting measures include the retrofitting of fluorescent fixtures,

448

Tillamook County PUD - Dairy Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tillamook County PUD - Dairy Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program Tillamook County PUD - Dairy Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program Tillamook County PUD - Dairy Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Provider Tillamook County PUD Tillamook PUD offers the Dairy Lighting Retrofit Program for its agricultural members to save energy on lighting in eligible barns/facilities. Tillamook PUD completes a lighting audit of the facility to calculate the energy savings and rebate amount. Incentives are provided for the replacement of existing mercury vapor, incandescent, and T12 fluorescent fixtures with new ORION AG9000 3-lamp T8 fluorescent fixtures. This rebate is available for retrofits only, new construction is not

449

DEEP RESIDENTIAL RETROFITS - USING LESS AND LIVING BETTER  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEEP RESIDENTIAL RETROFITS - USING LESS AND LIVING BETTER DEEP RESIDENTIAL RETROFITS - USING LESS AND LIVING BETTER Speaker(s): Iain Walker Date: December 11, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 (This is a repeat of the Nov. 18 ME EET Seminar on campus) There are currently thousands of federal, state and utility programs starting up throughout he nation to retrofit existing homes. Most of these programs have moderate savings goals on the order of 20%, but to really make an impact and make the nations housing stock sustainable we need savings of 70% or more. This requires fundamental changes in the way we think about retrofits. We need better diagnostics to determine how houses perform - both before and after retrofitting, we need better ways of simulating home performance so we can make better decisions about what to do to a home to

450

Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects* | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects* Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects* Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects* Brief descriptions of retrofit ramp projects throughout the nation including: Austin, Texas; Boulder County, Colorado;Camden, New Jersey;Chicago;Cincinnati,Ohio;Greensboro, North Carolina;Indianapolis, Indiana;Kansas City, Missouri;Los Angeles County, California;Lowell, Massachusetts;State of Maine;State of Maryland;State of Michigan;State of Missouri;Omaha, Nebraska;State of New Hampshire;New York State Research and Development Authority;Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;Phoenix, Arizona;Portland, Oregon;San Antonio, Texas;Seattle, Washington;Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance;Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Ohio;Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation Retrofit Ramp-Up Selected Projects*

451

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

452

EPRI's Pulverized Coal Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Retrofit Study Summary (Supplemental Project Funders' Issue)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is currently examining the feasibility of retrofitting post-combustion capture (PCC) of CO2 to existing pulverized coal (PC) and/or circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power plants for five different "host" participants. Knowledge gained from previous CoalFleet ultra-supercritical (USC) PCC design studies is being applied directly to specific site conditions, plant design, and operating data provided by each host utility participant. This overall project intends t...

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

EPRI's Pulverized Coal Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Retrofit Study Summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is currently examining the feasibility of retrofitting post-combustion capture (PCC) to existing pulverized coal (PC) and/or circulating fluidized-bed power plants, for five different "host" participants. Knowledge gained from previous ultra supercritical (USC) PCC design studies by CoalFleet is being applied directly to specific site conditions, plant design, and operating data provided by each host utility participant. This overall project aims to highlight ...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

State-of-the-Art Thermal Energy Storage Retrofit at a Large Manufacturing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper will describe the existing conditions, strategic planning, feasibility study, economic analysis, design, specification, construction, and project management for the 2.9 megawatt “full shift” chilled water thermal energy storage retrofit project currently underway at Texas Instruments’ 1,142,000 square foot Electro-Optics manufacturing facility in Dallas, Texas. A subsequent paper will describe commissioning, operation, maintenance, and savings resulting from the project.

Fiorino, D.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

An Engineering and Economic Assessment of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Retrofit to Intermountain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is examining the feasibility of retrofitting post-combustion capture (PCC) to existing pulverized coal (PC) and/or circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power plants for five host participants. Knowledge gained from previous CoalFleet ultrasupercritical (USC) PCC design studies is being applied directly to specific site conditions, plant designs, and operating data provided by each host utility participant. This project highlights the technical and economic issues a...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Impact evaluation of the energy retrofits installed in the Margolis high-rise apartment building, Chelsea housing authority  

SciTech Connect

As part of a joint demonstration effort involving HUD, DOE, a local public housing authority and Boston Edison, an evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits was conducted for a tall, residential, low-income building located in Boston. The thirteen story building underwent window, lighting, and heating system control renovations in December, 1992. The success of these retrofits was determined using monthly and hourly whole-building consumption data along with a calibrated DOE-2.1D energy simulation model. According to the model developed, post-retrofit conditions showed reductions in annual energy consumption of 325 MWh and in peak demand of 100 kW. These savings resulted in an annual energy cost savings of $28,000. Over 90% of energy and cost savings were attributed to the window retrofit. Interaction of the reduction in lighting capacity with the building`s electric resistance heating system reduced the potential for energy and demand savings associated with the lighting retrofit. Results from the hourly simulation model also indicate that night setbacks controlled by the energy management system were not implemented. An additional 32 MWh in energy savings could be obtained by bringing this system on-line, however peak demand would be increased by 40 kW as the morning demand for space heat is increased, with a net loss in cost savings of $2,500.

Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.; MacDonald, J.M.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In northern China, there are a large number of space buildings divided in inner zone and exterior zone based on usage requirements. The exterior zone needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer, while the inner zone needs to be cooled both in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy consumption for this kind of system.

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group