National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioning power

  1. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  2. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered...

  3. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was ...

  4. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

  5. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  7. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  8. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  9. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  10. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  11. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Research Director, PIER Demand Response Research CenterAssessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering, staffPower Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air

  12. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  13. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  14. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1990.

  15. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  16. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  17. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  18. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

  19. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  20. Enhanced Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems Toward Peak Power Reduction for an Office Building in Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghimlas, F.; Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.

    2012-01-01

    t i o n ( M W h / y ) * 1 0 6 P e a k P o w e r D e m a n d ( M W ) Years Peak power Yearly Electricity Consumption Typical?Power?Demand?Profile?for?Summer?Day 5 2 0 0 5 5 8 0 5 9 6 0 6 3 4 0 6 7 2 0... w er The focus to reduce the power demand during the peak hours Options?to?Reduce?Fossil?Fuel?Consumption? 1. Implement?energy?efficiency?and? conservation?measures?in?buildings?to? reduce?their?demand?for?electricity. 2. Generate...

  1. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  2. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  3. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT EquipmentControl of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT equipmentcontrol computer room air conditioning. The data provided

  4. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  5. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  6. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way — with heat.

  7. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards Drive Improvements As air conditioning use soared in the 1970s, the energy crisis hit. In response, lawmakers passed laws to reduce energy consumption across...

  8. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. Air-Source Heat Pumps...

  9. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  10. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  11. In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS, especially during peak hours. In addition to solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, the system includes an ice

  12. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  13. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  14. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  15. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  16. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  17. Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ................................................1. Conditions at Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 .................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 ..............................Table 1

  18. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

  19. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01

    50% relati~e humi interest in evaporative cooling offers additional dity were usually viewed as dehumidifier jobs. means to curb the rising cost of conditioning air Those above 50% were thought to be best suited to for human or product comfort.... refrigeration. I In the market place below 50% relative humidity, the chemical dehumidifier ranged through the middle 1970 era, when energy cost became a painful reality. We began to research energy reduction means, as When manufacturing areas require...

  20. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed...

  1. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  2. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  3. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  4. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  5. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system...

  6. Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to realize the optimization of the air-conditioning system operation. Although set values of air-conditioning systems are usually fixed, variable setting values are used in this study. It is possible that less energy consumption...

  7. Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Clean Air Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal power plants can meet the most stringent clean air standards. They emit little carbon dioxide, very low amounts of sulfur dioxide, and no nitrogen oxides. See Charts 1, 2, and 3 below.

  8. Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

  9. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  10. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  11. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  12. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining ...

  13. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

  14. Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Justin George

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engi- neers. cz07ventilation, and air conditioning. ksan identifier for theon the Energy Use of Air Conditioning Equipment A Thesis

  15. Thermal comfort in naturally-ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms in the tropics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Alison G

    1997-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Elliot,Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Nicol,Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE.

  16. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  17. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

  18. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  19. Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Ram Venkataraman

    Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions Rachelle L. McNeely and Ram V. Iyer Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1042 and Phillip R. Chandler U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright­Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7531 Graduate Student, Department of Mathematics

  20. 3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Welcome and thank you for choosing the 3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator text #12;Double click picture to start video Click button to view video text #12;3MTM Air-MateTM Belt

  1. Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System Selection for Hot & Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties of selecting direct expansion (DX) air conditioning systems to dehumidify conditioned spaces in hot & humid climates. It is a common opinion among designers that concerns of humidity control are best...

  2. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    outside pump circulating heat transfer fluid air make-up inside exhaust 24 Cogged V Belts A major N.C. Manufacturer Tested 2-17 Months (yr 1985) .052KWH (.13 EP) 2700 Hours...

  3. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will require more energy to cool your house. A preferable alternative is a dehumidifying heat pipe, which can be added as a retrofit to most existing systems. Types of Central Air...

  4. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  5. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  6. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger...

  7. K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant M-833Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing M-832Ambler is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution. K-7109 Agnew Hall 460 West Campus Dr M-2204 Air Conditioning Plant 344 Stanger St M-833 Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing 700 Washington St SW M-832 Ambler

  8. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  9. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  10. Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  11. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  12. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  13. Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The control system of central air-conditioning, based on PMV, not only improves thermal comfort but also reduces system energy consumption. A new thermal comfort degree softsensor model is built via use of the CMAC neural network nonlinear...

  14. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning. Modifications to the air-conditioning system and some advanced air conditioning systems are introduced, which are helpful for system optimization. In this paper, based on analysis of the characteristics of the air - conditioning system in foreign high speed...

  15. Fuel cell power conditioning for electric power applications: a summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Fuel cell power conditioning for electric power applications: a summary X. Yu, M.R. Starke, L.M. Tolbert and B. Ozpineci Abstract: Fuel cells are considered to be one of the most promising sources, multiple complications exist in fuel cell operation. Fuel cells cannot accept current in the reverse

  16. ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response for Spinning Reserve 2008 Prepared by John D...........................................................................................................4 II. Air Conditioning Temperature Effect and High SEER Ratings .................................................................................................................10 IV. Use of Building Air Conditioning Models to Predict Load

  17. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of health services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    55476 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased5-14-04 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increasedof office buildings with air-conditioning systems (e.g. ,

  18. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K. (Chicago, IL); Burra, Rajni K. (Chicago, IL); Acharya, Kaustuva (Chicago, IL)

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  19. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01

    that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat...

  20. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable...

  1. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  2. Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome ...

  3. Electronic power conditioning for dynamic power conversion in high-power space systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James Michael

    1991-01-01

    power conversion allows for improved methods of power conditioning. A block diagram of one such system that uses dynamic power conversion is shown in Fig. 4. The blocks labeled Energy Source, Primary Heat Rejection, snd User's Load are the same...ELECTRONIC POWER CONDITIONING FOR DYNAMIC POWER CONVERSION IN HIGH ? POWER SPACE SYSTEMS A Thesis by JAMES MICHAEL HANSEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  4. OMEGA Power Conditioning - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser WorkEP Power Conditioning -Power

  5. Power Characteristics of Industrial Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, C.; Kissock, K.

    2003-01-01

    common types of compressor control for small reciprocating and rotary air compressors, and derive relations for estimating compressed air output as a function of the type of control and motor loading. Using these relations, we develop a method to estimate...

  6. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  7. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  8. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response. IModeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions Chin-Yao Chang, Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, and Karanjit Kalsi Abstract-- Demand-side control is playing an increasingly

  9. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  10. POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Chris Schmidt Graduate Assistant / Project of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT The power draw to energy input, which we call the average operating efficiency, based on input power to the compressor

  11. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  12. Analysis and design of power conditioning systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2009-05-15

    -power portable sources for small electronics and laptop computers to megawatt-power applications for fuel cell power plants. The design and analysis for each power conditioner is presented in detail and the performance is verified using simulations and prototypes...

  13. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  14. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  15. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  16. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  17. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  18. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed ...

  19. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According ...

  20. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  1. 2180, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2180, Page 1 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14 in Yashar and Lee (2013); they optimized the evaporator circuitry for a rooftop air- conditioning (RTU) unit;2180, Page 2 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

  2. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain

  3. Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions Xuhui Lee* School of Forestry state of knowledge about air ¯ow under ideal conditions (neutral to slightly unstable conditions knowledge of air motion in forest vegetation is a necessary step towards a better understanding of a number

  4. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  5. The effect on hospital air-conditioning system operation of soiled system elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Air-Conditioning systems in a hospital are a crucial element in maintaining a safe and healthy environment. A clean, adequate supply of air is generally provided in the initial construction of the facility or during space remodeling. The presence of dirt or lint on the elements of the air-conditioning system reduces the available air volume and reduces the effectiveness of the heat exchanger surfaces. The ability of the air system to absorb moisture is also impaired and results in fogging and other moisture problems. This paper reviews (1) methods of identifying the condition and cleanliness of hospital air-conditioning systems; (2) methods of cleaning the elements of the hospital air-conditioning system; and (3) the effects on performance of dirt and lint in hospital air-conditioning systems.

  6. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  7. Clean Air Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,ThermalCubaParker,GeorgiaValley Geothermal Project JumpPower

  8. Power Conditioning and Control Applications for Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brushwood, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical power conditioning and control (PCC) systems are finding cost effective applications in AC motor drives, lamp ballasts and power supplies. Substantial system efficiency improvements are being realized when the appropriate PCC system...

  9. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01

    As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new...

  10. Advantages of enhanced synchronous motors in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morash, R.T. [Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new synchronous motor is a high-efficiency AC machine that has a low starting current. It may be used for conventional loads and also to start high inertia loads, delivering a constant torque during starting. Acceleration to synchronous speed can be allowed to take several minutes, if necessary, because the low starting current precludes excessive heating in the motor. Some of these motors are constructed with integral high inertia rotors that act as flywheels. These synchronous motors can ride through power sags and interruptions up to 30 seconds or more while still delivering useful load to pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors. The motors also restart instantly and resynchronize when utility power recovers. The motor can be useful in many heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) applications including those where machines and processes might otherwise be forced to shut down during momentary power interruptions.

  11. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building-thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all Team Members: Jing Cong Chen, Rong Xiang, Chen Ma, Wen Jie Li · Results demonstrate that solar air

  12. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . (Keywords: CFCs; refrigeration; air conditioning; insulation; ozone depletion) Utilisation des to this global environmental issue by signing for R22 were obtained from the Air Conditioning and the MontrealFILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air

  13. High?Penetration PV with Advanced Power Conditioning Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT) is evaluating the impacts of high photovoltaic (PV) penetration and methods to manage any impacts with improved power conditioning equipment.

  14. Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, G.

    2006-01-01

    equation model and two equation model. At present, k-? model is mostly adopted in indoor airflow[4]. Researches[5-6] obtained reliable results from applying k-? model in numerical simulation of three dimensional airflow field of air conditioning... of the task conditioning system. Key words: task air conditioning; numerical simulation; airflow; HDG; VDG; microenvironment 1. INTRODUCTION Total-volume ventilation and air conditioning of rooms are most used at present. Rooms are used...

  15. Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

  16. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  17. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  18. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  19. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  1. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  2. Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions

  3. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  4. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  5. Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one...

  6. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

  7. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance L. A-air conditions from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis database to estimate summer balance of South Cascade Glacier each error. The model relates summer balance linearly to temperature T > 0 C at 2000 m and to snow flux

  8. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  9. The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning units in residential buildings, and are using the central air-conditioning system in residential buildings. To determine the best air conditioning mode, a residential tower building with 22 layers was chosen for analysis. The advantages and disadvantages...

  10. Conditions Affecting the Relationship between Power and Identity Verification in Power Imbalanced Dyads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Jennifer 1983-

    2012-12-10

    In the present study, I look at the relationship between power and identity verification and the conditions under which this relationship can be disrupted. Specifically, I look at the role of information in disrupting power differences within...

  11. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  12. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  13. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  14. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  15. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  16. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  17. Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component)- Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Princeton Power Systems (TRL 5 6 Component) - Marine High-Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Energy Storage

  18. Critical analysis of thermodynamic cycle modeling of adsorption cooling systems for light-duty vehicle air conditioning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    -duty vehicle air conditioning applications Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Keywords: Adsorption cooling system Vehicle air conditioning Thermodynamic cycle Fully dynamic modeling a b different operating conditions for light-duty vehicles air conditioning applications. Available ACS

  19. EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE), Curtin University of Technology, WA Abstract: Variable speed wind turbine generators provide the opportunity to capture more power than fixed speed turbines. However the variable speed machine output can

  20. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergy Air Barriers

  1. The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

    1967-01-01

    the grain mass. This air must be supplied with properties which will provide a potential driving force, such as enthalpy and vapor pressure, in order for heat and moisture to be transferred. In actual practice, grain temperature is of primary concern... of the entering air since there is only one specific humidity at which the mpor pressures are equal. To maintain moisture equilibrium, the specific humidity must be considered a( one property of the air condition which is required. The other property...

  2. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  3. Power losses in electrical networks depending on weather conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhelezko, Yu. S.; Kostyushko, V. A.; Krylov, S. V.; Nikiforov, E. P.; Savchenko, O. V.; Timashova, L. V.; Solomonik, E. A. [Electric Power Research Institute (VNIIE) (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    Specific power losses to corona and to leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for 110 - 750-kV transmission lines with different phase design and pole types for different weather conditions. Consumption of electric energy for ice melting on conductors of various cross sections is evaluated. Meteorological data of 1372 weather stations in Russia are processed for a period of 10 years. The territory of the country is divided into 7 regions with approximately homogeneous weather conditions. Specific power losses to corona and leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for every region.

  4. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  5. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  6. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  7. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  8. A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over...

  9. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial ...

  10. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  11. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    , but also to provide a complete database of the airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces. Based on this analysis and the vast progress of computers and associated software, the artificial intelligent technique will be a competitor candidate...

  12. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  13. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load ...

  14. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  15. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  16. Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System......

  17. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  18. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  19. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  20. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  1. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01

    algorithm (GA ) has special advantages in tackling this problem based on its inherent characteristics.Genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted and applied in the optimal design of air-conditioning water system in this study. A mathematical model and constrained...

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  4. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Saint-Etienne France ABSTRACT Under atmospheric pressure condition and temperatures between 0°C and +12 behaviour. The experimental device is made up of a brushed surface heat exchanger in which the hydrates flow rates and pressure drops measurements. We obtain flow curves of hydrates slurries depending

  5. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  6. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  7. An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning for estimation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems using on Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

  8. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic analysis. In both cases, the profitable price point is decreased, making more markets open to profitable entry. Overall, the economic attractiveness of a nuclear power construction project is not only a function of its own costs, but a function of the market into which it is deployed. Many of the market characteristics are out of the control of the potential nuclear power plant operators. The decision-making process for the power industry in general is complicated by the short-term market volatility in both the wholesale electricity market and the commodity (natural gas) market. Decisions based on market conditions today may be rendered null and void in six months. With a multiple-year lead time, nuclear power plants are acutely vulnerable to market corrections.

  9. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    . Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning...

  10. Effect of reactor conditions on MSIV-ATWS power level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a boiling water reactor (BWR) when there is closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), the energy generated in the core will be transferred to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via steam that flows out of the relief valves. The pool has limited capacity as a heat sink and hence, if there is no reactor trip (an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) event), there is the possibility that the pool temperature may rise beyond acceptable limits. The present study was undertaken to determine how the initial reactor conditions affect the power level during an MSIV-ATWS event. The time of interest is the 20- to 30-min period when it is assumed that the reactor is in a quasi equilibrium condition with the water level and pressure fixed, natural circulation conditions and no control rod movement or significant boron in the core. The initial conditions of interest are the time of the cycle and the operating state.

  11. Central power generation versus distributed generation e An air quality assessment in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    , central generation concentrates emissions in a small area, whereas DG spreads emissions throughout an urban air basin. In contrast, conventional, centralized power plants tend to be located in remote areas by the year 2020. The intermittent nature of renewable sources like wind and solar power may require

  12. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – how muchA.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation and+ paper 6,306 Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in

  13. Some aspects of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.; Susnik, J.; Sarler, B. (Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia))

    1993-02-01

    In the summer of 1991, the Krsko nuclear power plant in Slovenia found itself in an area of military operations. This was probably the first commercial nuclear power plant to have been threatened by an attack by fighter jets. A number of never-before-asked questions had to be answered by the operating staff and supporting organizations. Some aspects of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions are described, such as the selection of the best plant operating state before the attack and the determination of plant system vulnerability and dose releases from the potentially damaged spent fuel in the spent-fuel pit. The best operating mode to which the plant should be brought before the attack is cold shutdown, and radiological consequences to the environment after the spent fuel is damaged and the water in the pit is lost are not very high. The problem of nuclear power plant safety under war conditions should be addressed in more detail in the future.

  14. Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi"cation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi to lower the Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidi"cation provides only a marginal and pressure. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; Buildings; Air

  15. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F, Second Fig ABSTRACT. Upper-air conditions archived in the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis have been used cannot be determined, so the investigation is limited to examining relative changes in those upper air

  16. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I: Present Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality­Related Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I on meteorology and air quality conditions in Cal- ifornia by dynamically downscaling Parallel Climate Model (PCM: Present Time Simulation Analysis ZHAN ZHAO Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University

  17. ASHRAE $1000 Scholarship Application (02/26/2013) The Utah Chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Jur

    of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is offering multiple $1,000 scholarships automation or controls, heating, ventilating, refrigeration or air conditioning (HVAC) principles are invited

  18. General Guidelines for the Disposal of Refrigerators, Freezers, and other Refrigeration Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    not Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in dumpsters or in common working and nonworking household refrigeration units (refrigerators, freezers, window air conditioning

  19. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  20. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  1. Self-powered automatic secondary air controllers for woodstoves and small furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A controller for automatically regulating the supply of secondary combustion air to woodstoves and small furnaces. The controller includes a movable air valve for controlling the amount of secondary air admitted into the chamber. A self powered means monitors the concentration of combustible gases and vapors and actuates the movable air valve to increase the supply of secondary air in response to increasing concentrations of the combustible gases and vapors. The self-powered means can be two fluid filled sensor bulbs, one of which has a coating of a combustion catalyst. Alternatively, the self powered means can be two metallic stripes laminated together, one of which is coated with a combustion catalyst, and when heated, causes the air valve to actuate.

  2. OMEGA EP Power Conditioning - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser WorkEP Power Conditioning - Laboratory for

  3. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  4. "Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  5. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  6. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  7. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  8. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  9. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  10. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  11. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  12. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  13. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  14. "Table HC14.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  15. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  16. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  18. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    -savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning....

  19. Project Sponsors: California Air Resources Board ADVANCED POWER & ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    's electricity generation on an hourly basis. By calculating each power plant's hourly generation, hourly

  20. Control system and method for a universal power conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Park, Sung Yeul; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2014-09-02

    A new current loop control system method is proposed for a single-phase grid-tie power conditioning system that can be used under a standalone or a grid-tie mode. This type of inverter utilizes an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter as the interface in between inverter and the utility grid. The first set of inductor-capacitor (LC) can be used in the standalone mode, and the complete LCL can be used for the grid-tie mode. A new admittance compensation technique is proposed for the controller design to avoid low stability margin while maintaining sufficient gain at the fundamental frequency. The proposed current loop controller system and admittance compensation technique have been simulated and tested. Simulation results indicate that without the admittance path compensation, the current loop controller output duty cycle is largely offset by an undesired admittance path. At the initial simulation cycle, the power flow may be erratically fed back to the inverter causing catastrophic failure. With admittance path compensation, the output power shows a steady-state offset that matches the design value. Experimental results show that the inverter is capable of both a standalone and a grid-tie connection mode using the LCL filter configuration.

  1. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  2. NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT What is Fuel Cell APU? Why use APU? To reduce overall noise levels in a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) Main Components Foundation Power source Microphones Spectrum analyzer Stack of fuel cells

  3. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  4. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01

    , Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System... 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air- conditioning systems reaches up to 12...

  5. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics...

  6. Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel David

    2012-01-01

    Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

  7. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  8. Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ) for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration (A/C­R) applications. Adsorber beds should be specificallyAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Conversion

  9. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  10. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  11. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  12. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  13. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

  14. Initial Activation and Operation of the Power Conditioning System for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newton, M A; Kamm, R E; Fulkerson, E S; Hulsey, S D; Lao, N; Parrish, G L; Pendleton, D L; Petersen, D E; Polk, M; Tuck, J M; Ullery, G T; Moore, W B

    2003-08-20

    The NIF Power Conditioning System (PCS) resides in four Capacitor Bays, supplying energy to the Master and Power Amplifiers which reside in the two adjacent laser bays. Each capacitor bay will initially house 48 individual power conditioning modules, shown in Figure 2, with space reserved for expansion to 54 modules. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Power Conditioning System (PCS) is a modular capacitive energy storage system that will be capable of storing nearly 400 MJ of electrical energy and delivering that energy to the nearly 8000 flashlamps in the NIF laser. The first sixteen modules of the power conditioning system have been built, tested and installed. Activation of the first nine power conditioning modules has been completed and commissioning of the first ''bundle'' of laser beamlines has begun. This paper will provide an overview of the power conditioning system design and describe the status and results of initial testing and activation of the first ''bundle'' of power conditioning modules.

  15. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion Gas Turbine Power Enhancement by Refrigeration of Inlet Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meher-Homji, C. B.; Mani, G.

    1983-01-01

    -'--I:~:::=+~:="'t-':::ty= 0 I---t--~~~~h;!:::::"" y~ .2 ,pa .? )/,. .(, ~-N--~-"IY;: .g Y.. I.e ,oR !?IIT/O ~ 1S'1~III!1S PREssuRE RI'1TIO 20 L , --:-3--:':5--?L..l...l.9A..l..l.lJl.....;lo.l..~? Figure 11: Effect of Bleed Air Rates (~) on ~hermal Efficiency... :-: 0.97 40 P, 147 psia P, = 15.0 psia > u c: .!!!20 o ",. EIO ~ A G; -= ~-r 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 net output work (Btu/lb-air) Figure 1: Simple Cycle; Brayton Cycle Gas Turbine and Performance Map. 411 ESL-IE-83...

  17. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 56185635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    2007-01-01

    analysis; Spatial sensitivity 1. Introduction Distributed energy resources (DER) have the potential is expected. The use of these distributed generation (DG) resources results in multiple stationary powerAtmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 5618­5635 Air quality impacts of distributed power generation

  18. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2005 Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    , and are attractive for distributed generation (DG), combined heat and power (CHP), and possibly combined cycleProceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2005 Power for Land, Sea and Air June 6-9, 2005, Reno, Nevada Paper GT2005-68927 OVERVIEW OF CREEP STRENGTH AND OXIDATION OF HEAT-RESISTANT ALLOY SHEETS AND FOILS

  19. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  20. Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhangi, Babak

    2014-07-25

    , enacted by the United States Congress. Exchanging energy between the vehicle and external sources is performed by the vehicular power conditioner (VPC). This dissertation proposes a design procedure for VPCs. The research mainly focuses on the VPC’s power...

  1. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  2. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  3. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  4. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  5. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K. (Chicago, IL); Pradhan, Sanjaya K. (Des Plaines, IL)

    2010-10-05

    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.

  6. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  7. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Air Soil Water rev3 - Copy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on darkMicroorganisms toPalladium wavy nanowires with anDale

  9. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  10. Reproducibility of the airway response to an exercise protocol standardized for intensity, duration, and inspired air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive of asthma.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofair conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofhas not been reported in subjects being evaluated with mild

  11. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  12. Shipboard condition based maintenance and integrated power system initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barber, Darrin E. (Darrin Eugene)

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Navy's continued focus on developing and implementing a robust integrated power system aboard future combatants, there has been an ever increasing effort to guarantee an electrical distribution system that ...

  13. Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beerer, Ingrid Mary

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

  14. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b , Juan Shi c to P15 g significantly reduced power generation because of a reduction in oxygen transfer due

  15. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.

  16. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004 2004 Power for Land, Sea, and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Gecheng

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004 2004 Power for Land, Sea, and Air Vienna, Austria, June 14 incidence cascade. The second order accuracy is obtained with the dual time stepping technique. The code is reached. However, the flutter exists in much 1 Copyright c ¤ 2004 by ASME #12;wider Mach number region

  17. Flight Path and Wing Optimization of Lithium-Air Battery Powered Passenger Aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    in the design of electrically-driven aircraft, particularly in the case of fuel cells and batteries.5­7 One to implement vis. a vis. fuel cells, in particular, liquid hydrogen fuel cells. However, present-day batteryFlight Path and Wing Optimization of Lithium-Air Battery Powered Passenger Aircraft J. Michael Vegh

  18. Proceedings of GT2006 ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzman, Jerry M.

    undertaken because of the need to burn liquid fuels with low emissions in gas turbines that are usedProceedings of GT2006 ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea and Air May 8-11, 2006, Barcelona WITH LIQUID FUEL INJECTION John Crane, Yedidia Neumeier, Jeff Jagoda, Jerry Seitzman, and Ben T. Zinn Georgia

  19. Proceedings of GT2005 ASME Turbo Expo 2005: Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzman, Jerry M.

    Proceedings of GT2005 ASME Turbo Expo 2005: Power for Land, Sea and Air June 6-9, 2005, Reno) plants enable combustion of coal, biomass, and other solid or liquid fuels while still maintaining high-rich mixtures; many low emissions gas-turbine approach require lean premixed combustion. There is also

  20. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  1. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  2. Co-benefits of Carbon Standards Part 1: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for Existing Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Chilukuri K.

    Co-benefits of Carbon Standards Part 1: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for existing power plants would decrease emissions of co-pollutants that contribute to local and regional air pollution standard would improve air quality and decrease the deposition of harmful pollutants. It is well

  3. Condition Indicator Analysis for the Enhancement of Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement Units and the Eastern Intercon- nection Phasor Project (EIPP) were obtained from Floyd Galvan measurement units (PMUs) can be used to enhance state estimation in electric power systems. A study and review to enhance the accuracy of measurements. In this report, the author examines how the new technology of phasor

  4. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  5. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  6. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  7. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-02-18

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

  8. SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    SOLAR ENERGY (conditionally accepted 1/2010) QUANTIFYING PV POWER OUTPUT VARIABILITY Thomas E power output variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power output

  9. Condition monitoring of motor-operated valves in nuclear power plants Pierre Granjon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Condition monitoring of motor-operated valves in nuclear power plants Pierre Granjon Gipsa of nuclear power plants. Unfortunately, today's policies present a major drawback. Indeed, these monitoring is illustrated through experimental data. 1. Introduction Nuclear power provides about 14% of the world

  10. High-Power Zinc-Air Energy Storage: Enhanced Metal-Air Energy Storage System with Advanced Grid-Interoperable Power Electronics Enabling Scalability and Ultra-Low Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Fluidic is developing a low-cost, rechargeable, high-power module for Zinc-air batteries that will be used to store renewable energy. Zinc-air batteries are traditionally found in small, non-rechargeable devices like hearing aids because they are well-suited to delivering low levels of power for long periods of time. Historically, Zinc-air batteries have not been as useful for applications which require periodic bursts of power, like on the electrical grid. Fluidic hopes to fill this need by combining the high energy, low cost, and long run-time of a Zinc-air battery with new chemistry providing high power, high efficiency, and fast response. The battery module could allow large grid-storage batteries to provide much more power on very short demand—the most costly kind of power for utilities—and with much more versatile performance.

  11. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  12. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  13. With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air quality implications of a changing climate.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air?" noting that ". . . changing climatic conditions could significantly affect the air quality in some quality implications of a changing climate. D iscussion of the potential sensitivity of air quality

  14. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  15. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  16. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  17. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D.; Rodgers, John

    2000-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  18. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    2009-01-01

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  19. Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

    2006-01-01

    in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy...

  20. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    air conditioning systems used in the automotive industry are based on vapour-compression refrigeration major challenge facing the automotive industry. Currently, R-134a is being used, almost in all vehicles. Perform a literature review and describe the state-of-the-art for A/C in automotive industry, for both

  1. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., each year over 1959^99. The rms error, 0.30mw.e. (r2 ^ 0.71), is com- parable to measurement error. The model relates summer balance linearly

  2. INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    with thermal decay and stratification. The development ofUFAD systems, room air stratification and thermal decay (Leeno thermal decay) UF – Increased stratification + common

  3. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  4. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

  7. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  8. Case Study: The Effective Use of an Extensive Logical rule Based Data Analytics Approach in Establishing Root Cause of Performance Issues in Widespread Deployments of Unitary Space Air Conditioning Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, N.

    2013-01-01

    Today a significant percentage of office spaces are air conditioned using widely deployed unitary systems, either Fan Coil Units (FCU) or Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes, to achieve high degrees of air conditioned zonal control. However establishing...

  9. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  10. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  11. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01

    To address the issue of the substantial energy cost and operating cost of an all-return air system for a clean room, we changed the former system to a 2nd return air system. With the newest building energy simulation program, Energy Plus, we...

  12. Improving the air coupling of bulk piezoelectric transducers with wedges of power-law profiles: A numerical study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications. A bulk piezoelectric transducer performs well when its impedance is of the same orderImproving the air coupling of bulk piezoelectric transducers with wedges of power-law profiles 2014 Available online 4 March 2014 Keywords: Piezoelectric transducers Air-coupled ultrasound Acoustic

  13. Solar-Powered Air Stripping at the Rocky Flats Site, Colorado - 12361

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, John A.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Site (the Site), near Denver, Colorado, is a former nuclear weapons facility that was constructed beginning in 1951. With the end of the Cold War, the Site was cleaned up and closed in 2005. Four gravity-driven groundwater treatment systems were installed during cleanup, and their continued operation was incorporated into the final remedy for the Site. All utilities, including electrical power, were removed as part of this closure, so all Site electrical power needs are now met with small solar-powered systems. The Mound Site Plume Treatment System (MSPTS) was installed in 1998 as an innovative system based on zero-valent iron (ZVI). Groundwater flow from the Mound source area containing elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily in the tetrachloroethene (PCE)-trichloroethene (TCE) family of chlorinated solvents, is intercepted by a collection trench and routed to twin ZVI treatment cells. Later, in 2005, remediation of VOC-contaminated soils at a second up-gradient source area included adding an electron donor to the backfill to help stimulate biodegradation. This reduced concentrations of primary constituents but caused down-gradient groundwater to contain elevated levels of recalcitrant degradation byproducts, particularly cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. A gravel drain installed as part of the 2005 remediation directs contaminated groundwater from this second source area to the MSPTS for treatment. This additional contaminant load, coupled with correspondingly reduced residence time within the ZVI media due to the increased flow rate, resulted in reduced treatment effectiveness. Elevated concentrations of VOCs were then detected in MSPTS effluent, as well as in surface water at the downstream performance monitoring location for the MSPTS. Subsequent consultations with the Site regulators led to the decision to add a polishing component to reduce residual VOCs in MSPTS effluent. Initially, several alternatives such as commercial air strippers and cascade aerators were evaluated; resulting cost estimates exceeded $100,000. After several simpler alternatives were considered and prototype testing was conducted, the existing effluent metering manhole was converted to house a spray-nozzle based, solar-powered air stripper, at a cost of approximately $20,000. About two-thirds of this cost was for the solar power system, which was initially designed to only provide power for 12 hours per day. Performance data are being collected and adjustments made to optimize the design, determine maintenance requirements, and establish power needs for continuous operation. Analytical data confirm the air stripper is sharply reducing concentrations of residual contaminants. (authors)

  14. Design, simulation and conditioning of the fundamental power couplers for BNL SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu W.; Altinbas, Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I. et al

    2012-05-20

    The 704 MHz SRF gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype uses two fundamental power couplers (FPCs) to deliver up to 1 MW of CW RF power to the half-cell cavity. To prepare the couplers for high-power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A room-temperature test stand was configured for conditioning FPCs in full reflection regime with varied phase of the reflecting wave. The FPCs have been conditioned up to 250 kW in pulse mode and 125 kW in CW mode. The multipacting simulations were carried out with Track3P code developed at SLAC. The simulations matched the experimental results very well. This paper presents the FPC RF and thermal design, multipacting simulations and conditioning of the BNL gun FPCs.

  15. Power Conditioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/OPerformancePi Day PiSafety PrintableScientificJuly 16,

  16. Influence of Fault and Optimization of PID Parameters in Building Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyoshi, K.; Akashi, Y.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    [s] APPROPRIATE 1 30 FAULT 20 30 Table 2. PID Parameters Of VWV 2-way Valve For Experiment Figure 5. Experiment Results 0 5 10 15 20 25 (a)Outside & room temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 10 20 30 40 500 60 Elapsed time[min] Room... opening deg.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 30 35 40 (c)Supply air temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 0 Supply air temp.(appropriate case) Supply air temp.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 0 20 40 60 80 100 (d...

  17. Analysis and design of high frequency link power conversion systems for fuel cell power conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yu Jin

    2005-11-01

    simulations and experiments, and their trade-offs are described in detail using mathematical evaluation approach. The third study proposes a current-fed high frequency link direct dc-ac converter suitable for residential fuel cell power systems. The high...

  18. Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

    2006-01-01

    As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor...

  19. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, EuropeanIn the case of the all-air system, cooling load matches the

  20. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  1. Optimization of airport terminal-area air traffic operations under uncertain weather conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek

    2011-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Although Air Traffic Flow Management algorithms exist to schedule and route ...

  2. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  3. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01

    ? [k W h] E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /y e a r? 12,000 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 0 Outdoor air-conditioning unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit A Humidity Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Outdoor air-conditioning unit A Humidity... Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Developed system onventional system E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800...

  4. Abstract--A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures excess power prior to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    in wind speed and solar intensity make integrating wind and solar energy into the electric power grid demand. For example, wind energy tends to be more abundant at night when power demand is low. VariationsAbstract-- A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures

  5. Thermodynamics -1 Air in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a Carnot power cycle. The isothermal expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battaglia, Francine

    Fall 2014 Thermodynamics - 1 Air in a piston-cylinder assembly undergoes a Carnot power cycle at the end of the compression cycle affect the overall efficiency of the piston-cylinder Carnot power cycle for the cycle and fully describe each process occurring in the cycle including any work and/or heat interactions

  6. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    3-19 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling.17 3-51 The lighting energy consumption of a storage room is to be reduced by installing motion sensors lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  7. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01

    EFFICIENCY DIAGNOSIS AND POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM AIR- CONDITIONING SYSTEM Lecturer : Rong-Jiang Ma School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University Beijing, China September 14-17, 2014 ICEBO2014 - 2014 International... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-14-09-21a Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Outline ICEBO2014 - 2014 International Conference for Enhanced Building...

  8. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  9. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  10. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  11. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  12. Use of neural networks to identify transient operating conditions in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhrig, R.E.; Guo, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings, which can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault or problem. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of recuperation, the use of turbine reheat, and the non-consumptive use of EGS make-up water to supplement heat rejection

  14. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; A. N. Dovbnya; N. P. Dikiy; O. P. Ledenyov; Yu. V. Lyashko

    2013-06-21

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT3, in the AU1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing acoustic wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  15. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01

    . Historic energy-use data and field-measured performance data are analyzed. The importance of certain design and operating parameters such as indoor airflow quantity, cooling coil apparatus dew-point temperature and the air-handling unit's fan operating...

  16. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    conditions, therefore, no heat transmission through buildingto the conductive heat transmission through the building3-5. Table 3 compares the heat transmission through building

  17. Analysis of oscillation characteristics and optimal conditions for high power operation of Gyrotron FU CW GIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatematsu, Y. Yamaguchi, Y.; Kawase, T.; Ichioka, R.; Ogawa, I.; Saito, T.; Idehara, T.

    2014-08-15

    The oscillation characteristics of Gyrotron FU CW GIII and its wave frequency and output power dependences on the magnetic field strength, the gun coil current, and the anode voltage were investigated experimentally. The experimental results were analyzed theoretically using a self-consistent code that included the electron properties in the cavity, corresponding to the actual operating conditions in the experiments. As a result, it was found that the variation in frequency with the magnetic field strength was related to an axial profile change in the electromagnetic wave in the cavity. In addition, the optimal condition that gives the maximum output power was found to be determined by the pitch factor rather than by the electron beam radius under the given operating conditions.

  18. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel hydroxide ions (Popat et al., 2012) at the air cathode. Power production can be increased in MFCs by using-on and cast methods. PVA separators increased power with closely spaced electrodes versus spaced electrodes

  19. Use of Modal Sensitivity to Operating Conditions for Damping Control in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2011-01-04

    Small signal stability is an inherent characteristic of dynamic systems such as power systems. Pole positioning through power system stabilizers (PSS) is often used for improving damping in power systems. A well-designed PSS can be very effective in damping oscillations, especially local oscillations. However, designing PSSs for inter-area oscillations has been a very challenging task due to time-varying operating conditions affecting the characteristics of inter-area oscillations. This paper explores the sensitivity relationship between oscillations and operating conditions and employs the relationship to derive recommendations for operator’s actions to adjust operating conditions so as to improve damping. Low damping is usually considered to be a result of heavy power transfer in long distance. Studies in this paper show that this generally holds true while locations have significant impact on damping of oscillations. Therefore it is important to consider locations in deriving recommendations. This paper proposes the concept of relative modal sensitivity and presents the application of relative modal sensitivity to derive recommendations for operator’s action in damping control.

  20. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  1. Experiment on TiO2/AC Photocatalysis Technique to Eliminate Toluene in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Y.; Feng, G.; Yuan, Q.

    2006-01-01

    system to control indoor environmental conditions. The influences of the absorption characteristics of active carbon and TIO2 photocatalytic oxidation on decomposing toluene are tested. The efficiencies of three kinds of purification webs to purify high...

  2. Effect of reactor conditions on MSIV (main steam isolation valves)-ATWS power level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a boiling water reactor (BWR) when there is closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), the energy generated in the core will be transferred to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via steam flows out of the relief valves. The pool has limited capacity as a heat sink and hence, if there is no reactor trip (an ATWS event), there is the possibility that the pool temperature may rise beyond acceptable limits. The present study was undertaken to determine how the initial reactor conditions affect the power during an MSIV-ATWS event. The time of interest is during the 20-30 minute period when it is assumed that the reactor is in a quasi-equilibrium condition with the water level and pressure fixed, natural circulation conditions and no control rod movement or significant boron in the core. The initial conditions of interest are the time during the cycle and the operating state. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Air-Conditioning

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  7. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  8. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak...

  9. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

  10. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Ratio: An instantaneous measure of air conditioningenergy efficiency, especially with large power users like air conditioningair-conditioning 48V http://www.austinsales.net/products/solcool/index.ht ml Energy Efficiency

  11. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  12. Distortions of Experimental Muon Arrival Time Distributions of Extensive Air Showers by the Observation Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Haeusler; A. F. Badea; H. Rebel; I. M. Brancus; J. Oehlschlaeger

    2001-10-17

    Event-by-event measured arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) muons are affected and distorted by various interrelated effects which originate from the time resolution of the timing detectors, from fluctuations of the reference time and the number (multiplicity) of detected muons spanning the arrival time distribution of the individual EAS events. The origin of these effects is discussed, and different correction procedures, which involve detailed simulations, are proposed and illustrated. The discussed distortions are relevant for relatively small observation distances (R < 200 m) from the EAS core. Their significance decreases with increasing observation distance and increasing primary energies. Local arrival time distributions which refer to the observed arrival time of the first local muon prove to be less sensitive to the mass of the primary. This feature points to the necessity of arrival time measurements with additional information on the curvature of the EAS disk.

  13. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School..., AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Approved as to Style and Content: Chairman of Committee Head of Departm t + gkA4; August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The writer...

  14. DEST Software to Analyze System Zoning and Energy Consumption in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on how to appropriately divide system zoning by using DeST software to calculate the basis dynamic temperature and load of all rooms in an office building. Influent factors of weather conditions, building envelope...

  15. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Dikiy, N P; Ledenyov, O P; Lyashko, Yu V

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granule...

  16. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of Air Conditioning for the SCX1 Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building. Following a market survey (MS-2937/ST/LHC) carried out among 115 firms in thirteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3046/ST/LHC) was sent on 26 March 2002 to 10 firms and two consortia in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders from six firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium DEMONT (IT) - GESCO (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building for a total amount of 649 319 euros (945 426 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-40%; DE-21%; GR-21%; SE-10%; FR-8%.

  17. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  19. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  20. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  1. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow by simula- tions with the PREMIX code using the detailed kinetic mecha- nism GRI-mech. 3.0. Numerical by ASME hal-00497963,version1-6Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "ASME Turbo Expo 2010, United

  2. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA system were delivered to VPTNA and then assembly of APA engine was completed by June 2007. Functional testing of APA engine was performed and AC and AM modes testing were completed by October 2007. After completing testing, data analysis and post processing were performed. Especially, the models were instrumental in identifying some of the key issues with the experimental HVA system. Based upon the available engine test results during AC and AM modes, the projected fuel economy improvement over the NY composite cycle is 14.7%. This is close to but slightly lower than the originally estimated 18% from ADVISOR simulation. The APA project group demonstrated the concept of APA technology by using simulation and experimental testing. However, there are still exists of technical challenges to meet the original expectation of APA technology. The enabling technology of this concept, i.e. a fully flexible valve actuation system that can handle high back pressure from the exhaust manifold is identified as one of the major technical challenges for realizing the APA concept.

  3. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  4. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  5. Abstract--Power efficiency during heavy-and light-loading conditions in wireless portable applications is critical for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    and quiescent current flow during light loading conditions and (2) an adaptive PA bias-current generator1 Abstract-- Power efficiency during heavy- and light-loading conditions in wireless portable efficiency is improved with a 0.5-µm CMOS dynamically adaptive, dual-mode buck- boost power supply and bias

  6. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  7. Seventh Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan nwcouncil.org/7thplan D-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................ 17 Demand for Air Conditioning

  8. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  9. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  10. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, E

    2013-01-01

    The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.

  11. Data base on batteries, power-conditioning equipment, and photovoltaic arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M; Morse, T

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compile an up-to-date comprehensive data base for research, design, and development of photovoltaic systems, primarily in the areas of applications and battery technology, and secondarily in the area of power conditioning and photovoltaic array technology. This volume contains the data base used to develop the end-use scenarios and identify the R and D needed for batteries to be used in photovoltaic power systems. In addition to its specific application to the present study, this data base is intended to provide state-of-the-art information to manufacturers of the various components of photovoltaic power systems, system designers, and researchers in this field. An extensive literature search was conducted to obtain technical data on batteries, power conditioners, and photovoltaic arrays. The data obtained from published technical literature and direct communication with manufacturers and developers are compiled. Principles of operation, types of systems, performance characteristics, test data, and cost data are included for each of the components. (WHK)

  12. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  13. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  14. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  15. Aging and condition monitoring of electric cables in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lofaro, R.J.; Grove, E.; Soo, P.

    1998-05-01

    There are a variety of environmental stressors in nuclear power plants that can influence the aging rate of components; these include elevated temperatures, high radiation fields, and humid conditions. Exposure to these stressors over long periods of time can cause degradation of components that may go undetected unless the aging mechanisms are identified and monitored. In some cases the degradation may be mitigated by maintenance or replacement. However, some components receive neither and are thus more susceptible to aging degradation, which might lead to failure. One class of components that falls in this category is electric cables. Cables are very often overlooked in aging analyses since they are passive components that require no maintenance. However, they are very important components since they provide power to safety related equipment and transmit signals to and from instruments and controls. This paper will look at the various aging mechanisms and failure modes associated with electric cables. Condition monitoring techniques that may be useful for monitoring degradation of cables will also be discussed.

  16. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    The Effects of Integrating Wind Power on Transmission SystemH. On methodology for modelling wind power impact on powerwith Large Amounts of Wind Power; VTT Working Paper 82,

  17. Comment on "Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power” Andrew Mills, ? , †due to wind and solar power. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

  18. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  19. Independence Power and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independence Power and Light (IPL) offers rebates to residential customers for purchasing new, energy efficient appliances. Rebates are available on central air conditioning systems, heat pumps,...

  20. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of the SOFC stack subsystem (SOFCSS), the power-electronics subsystem (PES), and the BOPS. Such an approach leads to robust and comprehensive electrical, electrochemical, thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, and geometric models of the SOFSS, PES and application loads, and BOPS. A comprehensive methodology to resolve interactions among SOFCSS, PES and application loads and to investigate the impacts of the fast- and slow-scale dynamics of the power-conditioning system (PCS) on the SOFCSS has been developed by this team. Parametric studies on SOFCSS have been performed and the effects of current ripple and load transients on SOFC material properties are investigated. These results are used to gain insights into the long-term performance and reliability of the SOFCSS. Based on this analysis, a novel, efficient, and reliable PES for SOFC has been developed. Impacts of SOFC PCS control techniques on the transient responses, flow parameters, and current densities have also been studied and a novel nonlinear hybrid controller for single/parallel DC-DC converter has been developed.

  1. Optimization of a solar powered absorption cycle under Abu Dhabi's weather conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Alili, A.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Kubo, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    In order for the solar absorption air conditioners to become a real alternative to the conventional vapour compression systems, their performance has to be improved and their total cost has to be reduced. A solar powered absorption cycle is modeled using the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) program and Typical Meteorological Year 2 data of Abu Dhabi. It uses evacuated tube collectors to drive a 10 kW ammonia-water absorption chiller. Firstly, the system performance and its total cost are optimized separately using single objective optimization algorithms. The design variables considered are: the collector slope, the collector mass flow rate, the collector area and the storage tank volume. The single objective optimization results show that MATLAB global optimization methods agree with the TRNSYS optimizer. Secondly, MATLAB is used to solve a multi-objective optimization problem to improve the system's performance and cost, simultaneously. The optimum designs are presented using Pareto curve and show the potential improvements of the baseline system. (author)

  2. Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air concentration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Estimation of the caesium-137 source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using during the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. In Winiarek et al. (2012b source term from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using a consistent joint assimilation of air

  3. Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/5922_1646830,001500250000000... 1 of 2 3/10/2006 7:45 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit : HindustanTimes.com http 1 Front » Story Air pollution: Coal based power plants major culprit HT Correspondent Kanpur, March that coal based thermal power plants are the main source for air pollution. The fact came to the fore during

  4. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  5. Effect of power oscillations on suppression pool heating during ATWS (Anticipated Transients Without Scram) conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Nine selected Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) have been simulated on the BNL Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA), to determine how power and flow oscillations, similar to those that did or could have occurred at the LaSalle-2 boiling Water Reactor (BWR), could affect the rate of Pressure Suppression Pool heating. It has been determined that the pool can reach its temperature limit of 80{degree}C in 4.3 min. after Turbine Trip without Bypass, if the feedwater pumps are not tripped. The pool will not reach its limit, if Boron is injected, even when oscillations are encountered. Simultaneous turbine and recirculation pump trips, introduced under stable conditions, can lead to instability. 2 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, MAY 2001 273 State Estimator Condition Number Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, MAY 2001 273 State Estimator Condition Number empirical results using the IEEE RTS-96 and IEEE 118 bus systems that validate the formulas. I. INTRODUCTION approximations with actual condition numbers for two IEEE test cases, using a state estimation software developed

  7. Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Yu

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388­399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur/uncertainty of the fuel cell system, and the measurement noise. In this research, we propose a model-based condition

  8. An air-breathing, portable thermoelectric power generator based on a microfabricated silicon combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marton, Christopher Henry

    2011-01-01

    The global consumer demand for portable electronic devices is increasing. The emphasis on reducing size and weight has put increased pressure on the power density of available power storage and generation options, which ...

  9. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  10. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solutions when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for selecting air conditioning cold/heat sources. The focus of the study is on heating and cooling using conventional...

  11. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  12. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel, E-mail: lal81@pitt.edu, E-mail: boyan@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ''fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ''transfer function'' for initial conditions T{sub ?}(k), P{sub ?}(k) = P{sup BD}{sub ?}(k)T{sub ?}(k), implying a modification of the ''consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k{sub 0}: r(k{sub 0}) = ?8n{sub T}(k{sub 0}) [T{sub T}(k{sub 0})/T{sub R}(k{sub 0})]. We obtain T{sub ?}(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields T{sub ?}(k) = 1+A{sub ?}k{sup ?p}cos [2??k/H{sub sr}+?{sub ?}], with 1.5?conditions. These corrections lead to both a suppression of the quadrupole and oscillatory features in both P{sub R}(k) and r(k{sub 0}) with a period of the order of the Hubble scale during slow roll inflation. The results are quite general and independent of the specific inflationary potentials, depending solely on the ratio of kinetic to potential energy ? and the slow roll parameters ?{sub V}, ?{sub V} to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of ? and the values of ?{sub V}; ?{sub V} corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and the oscillations in r(k{sub 0}) as a function of k{sub 0} could be observable if the modes corresponding to the quadrupole and the pivot scale crossed the Hubble radius very few (2–3) e-folds after the onset of slow roll. We comment on possible impact on the recent BICEP2 results.

  13. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  14. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  15. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  16. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  17. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All potential as a tech- nology for sustainable bioenergy production due to their ability to generate

  18. Effects of post-LOCA conditions on a protective coating (paint) for the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyola, V.M.; Womelsduff, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    When corrosion protection of steel cannot be achieved by galvanizing due to size, use, or other restrictions, the steel is frequently protected by the application of a suitable corrosion-inhibiting paint. A widely accepted corrosion inhibiting coating is one in which finely powdered zinc metal is dispersed in an organic polymer matrix and applied to steel as a paint. This system is often used with a non-zinc bearing topcoat for enhanced protection. We have studied the oxidation of zinc in a zinc-rich coating used in the nuclear power industry and have measured the rates of hydrogen generation from these coatings due to zinc oxidation at temperatures of up to 175/sup 0/C. The results suggest that the real-time rates of hydrogen generation are considerably higher than previously believed. A second concern involves the generation of debris or solid reaction products which could cause plugging or fouling of the recirculation pumps, spray nozzles, and/or heat exchangers. Coatings are observed to fail at post-LOCA conditions which are well within the limits predicted by Design Basis Accident analysis. The failures involve cracking and/or delamination of the topcoat and production of solid corrosion products involving the zinc-rich primer. 22 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2012-01-01

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  20. On the structurization of coal dust precipitations and their influence on aerodynamic resistance by granulated mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2012-07-02

    The processes of structurization of dust precipitations in granulated filtering mediums, formed by the monolithic glass spherical granules with the diameters of 2mm and 3mm, are re-searched. The distinctions between the distributions of filtered coal dust masses in the air filters with cylindrical granules and the air filters with spherical granules, are found. The influences by the filtered dust masses on the air resistance of both the air filters with the cylindrical granules and the air filters with the spherical granules are described. The conclusions on a possibility of the use of various chemical adsorbents with different geometric forms and volumetric dimensions to improve the filtering properties of granulated filtering mediums in air filters at nuclear power plants are formulated.

  1. Development of models for series and parallel fan variable air volume terminal units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, James C., Jr

    2007-09-17

    Empirical models of airflow output and power consumption were developed for series and parallel fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical design pressure conditions. A testing procedure and experimental setup were developed to test...

  2. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  4. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  5. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  6. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning or fluorinated greenhouse gases (air conditioning units, refrigeration units etc.) 2. Several approved

  7. Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1 DOEEnergy Air-Cooled

  8. Demand Forecast Advisory Committee in Preparation for the Seventh Power Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products, electric motors, commercial water heaters, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies Ceiling Fan Light Kits Residential & Commercial Clothes

  9. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  10. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  11. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  12. The Clean Air Act's Impact on Environmental Regulation and Electric Power Conservation and Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley, H.

    1993-01-01

    are possible. The utility has the freedom to choose its compliance strategy. The previous discussion on supply side power generation shows the dependence of environmental pollution control on technological development. Demand side measures... concludes by stressing the need for more utilities, states, and consulting firms to get involved in the program. If utilities were allowed to make a profit on decreasing energy use, then conservation would be emphasized as a market strategy. This alone...

  13. Analysis of the Window Side Thermal Environment Formed by Air Barrier Technique in Winter Conditions and Its Economy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Jia, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    The air barrier technique applies airflow through a window fan to decrease the heat load of a window surface and avoid dewfall in winter and decrease heat radiation from the window surface in summer. This paper uses numerical simulation to predict...

  14. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water...

  15. Calculated in-air leakage spectra and power levels for the ANSI standard minimum accident of concern. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This document represents Phase I of a two-phase project. The entire project consists of determining a series of minimum accidents of concern and their associated neutron and photon leakage spectra that may be used to determine Criticality Accident Alarm compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3. The inadvertent assembly of a critical mass of material presents a multitude of unknown quantities. Depending on the particular process, one can make an educated guess as to fissile material. In a gaseous diffusion cascade, this material is assumed to be uranyl fluoride. However, educated assumptions cannot be readily made for the other variables. Phase I of this project is determining a bounding minimum accident of concern and its associated neutron and photon leakage spectra. To determine the composition of the bounding minimum accident of concern, work was done to determine the effects of geometry, moderation level, and enrichment on the leakage spectra of a critical assembly. The minimum accident of concern is defined as the accident that may be assumed to deliver the equivalent of an absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad at a distance of 2 meters from the reacting material within 60 seconds. To determine this dose, an analyst makes an assumption and choose an appropriate flux to dose response function. The power level required of a critical assembly to constitute a minimum accident of concern depends heavily on the response function chosen. The first step in determining the leakage spectra was to attempt to isolate the effects of geometry, after which all calculations were conducted on critical spheres. The moderation level and enrichment of the spheres were varied and their leakage spectra calculated. These spectra were then multiplied by three different response functions: the Henderson Flux to Dose conversion factors, the ICRU 44 Kerma in Air, and the MCNP Heating Detector. The power level required to produce a minimum accident of concern was then calculated for each combination.

  16. POEM: Power-efficient Occupancy-based Energy Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    is electrical energy [1]. Of this total, 50% of the energy consumed in buildings is used for heating, air-conditioningPOEM: Power-efficient Occupancy-based Energy Management System Varick L. Erickson Elect. Eng for Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Current HVAC systems only condition based

  17. Condition Data Aggregation with Application to Failure Rate Calculation of Power Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Ames, IA 50011-1040, USA {jpathak, jiangy, honavar, jdm}@iastate.edu Abstract Cost-effective equipment substation equipment condition data collected from distributed data resources, some of which may be local to the substation, to develop Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) which transform the condition data into failure

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - MiniBooNE Air Wire Chamber.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on darkMicroorganismsnow widelySmall Ice Crystals duringBARTOSZEK

  19. Exxon Mobil QuestAir Plug Power Ben Gurion University Hydrogen JV | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion FlumeEvent PlanningBirdsmethodEnergy

  20. Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser for Power Plants and other applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein Khalil Hussein Khalil Director of the Nuclear

  1. Enhanced engine mechanical efficiency through tailoring of lubricant formulations to localized power cylinder wall conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracey, Ian P

    2015-01-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were performed on an internal combustion engine power cylinder wall's lubricating oil film in order to assess the possibility of tailoring engine lubricants to specific engine configurations ...

  2. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  3. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc Bauman,conventional overhead (OH) air conditioning and underfloorair distribution, air conditioning, energy, peak demand,

  4. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  5. Comment on"Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power" and Supporting Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Milligan, Michael; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-03-18

    Katzenstein and Apt investigate the important question of pollution emission reduction benefits from variable generation resources such as wind and solar. Their methodology, which couples an individual variable generator to a dedicated gas plant to produce a flat block of power is, however, inappropriate. For CO{sub 2}, the authors conclude that variable generators 'achieve {approx} 80% of the emission reductions expected if the power fluctuations caused no additional emissions.' They find even lower NO{sub x} emission reduction benefits with steam-injected gas turbines and a 2-4 times net increase in NO{sub x} emissions for systems with dry NO{sub x} control unless the ratio of energy from natural gas to variable plants is greater than 2:1. A more appropriate methodology, however, would find a significantly lower degradation of the emissions benefit than suggested by Katzenstein and Apt. As has been known for many years, models of large power system operations must take into account variable demand and the unit commitment and economic dispatch functions that are practiced every day by system operators. It is also well-known that every change in wind or solar power output does not need to be countered by an equal and opposite change in a dispatchable resource. The authors recognize that several of their assumptions to the contrary are incorrect and that their estimates therefore provide at best an upper bound to the emissions degradation caused by fluctuating output. Yet they still present the strong conclusion: 'Carbon dioxide emissions reductions are likely to be 75-80% of those presently assumed by policy makers. We have shown that the conventional method used to calculate emissions is inaccurate, particularly for NO{sub x} emissions.' The inherently problematic methodology used by the authors makes such strong conclusions suspect. Specifically, assuming that each variable plant requires a dedicated natural gas backup plant to create a flat block of power ignores the benefits of diversity. In real power systems, operators are required to balance only the net variations of all loads and all generators, not the output of individual loads or generators; doing otherwise would ensure an enormous amount of unnecessary investment and operating costs. As a result, detailed studies that aggregate the variability of all loads and generators to the system level find that the amount of operating reserves required to reliably integrate variable resources into the grid are on the order of 10% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generators, even when upto25%of gross demand is being met by variable generation. The authors implicit assumption that incremental operating reserves must be 100% of the nameplate capacity of the variable generation, and be available at all times to directly counter that variability, excludes the option of decommitting conventional units when the load net of variable generation is low. In real power systems, generation response to wind variation can typically be met by a combination of committed units, each operating at a relatively efficient point of their fuel curves. In the Supporting Information, we conceptually demonstrate that the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} efficiency penalty found by the authors can be significantly reduced by considering the unit commitment decision with just five plants. Real systems often have tens to hundreds of plants that can be committed and decommitted over various time frames. Ignoring the flexibility of the unit commitment decision therefore leads to unsupportable results. Anumber of analyses of the fuel savings and CO{sub 2} emission benefits of variable generation have considered realistic operating reserve requirements and unit commitment decisions in models that include the reduction in part load efficiency of conventional plants. The efficiency penalty due to the variability of wind in four studies considered by Gross et al. is negligible to 7%, for up to a 20% wind penetration level. In short, for moderate wind penetration levels, 'there is no evidence available to

  6. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  8. A study on the maximum power transfer condition in an inductively coupled plasma using transformer circuit model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Do; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Correlations between the external discharge parameters (the driving frequency ? and the chamber dimension R) and plasma characteristics (the skin depth ? and the electron-neutral collision frequency ?{sub m}) are studied using the transformer circuit model [R. B. Piejak et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 1, 179 (1992)] when the absorbed power is maximized in an inductively coupled plasma. From the analysis of the transformer circuit model, the maximum power transfer conditions, which depend on the external discharge parameters and the internal plasma characteristics, were obtained. It was found that a maximum power transfer occurs when ??0.38R for the discharge condition at which ?{sub m}/??1, while it occurs when ???(2)?(?/?{sub m})R for the discharge condition at which ?{sub m}/??1. The results of this circuit analysis are consistent with the stable last inductive mode region of an inductive-to-capacitive mode transition [Lee and Chung, Phys. Plasmas 13, 063510 (2006)], which was theoretically derived from Maxwell's equations. Our results were also in agreement with the experimental results. From this work, we demonstrate that a simple circuit analysis can be applied to explain complex physical phenomena to a certain extent.

  9. Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air...

  10. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of Colburn j-factor) associated with deployment of the winglets with circular as well as oval tubes. In general, toe-in (common flow up) type winglets appear to have better performance than the toe-out (common flow down) type winglets. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. During the course of their independent research, all of the researchers have established that about 10 to 30% enhancement in Colburn j-factor is expected. However, actual increase in heat transfer rate from a heat exchanger employing finned tubes with winglets may be smaller, perhaps on the order of 2 to 5%. It is also concluded that for any specific application, more full-size experimentation is needed to optimize the winglet design for a specific heat exchanger application. If in place of a circular tube, an oval tube can be economically used in a bundle, it is expected that the pressure drop across the tube bundle with the application of vortex generators (winglets) will be similar to that in a conventional circular tube bundle. It is hoped that the results of this research will demonstrate the benefits of applying vortex generators (winglets) on the fins to improve the heat transfer from the air-side of the tube bundle.

  11. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Air LiAison officer Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) operations. Provides Command and Control, and Execution of Air, Space, and Cyber power. Primary advisor and advocate to the Ground Force Commander ensuring effective Air, Space, and Cyber power integration with US

  12. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  15. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01

    sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration under ContractReport prepared for Bonneville Power Administration, #85544.Report to Bonneville Power Administration D.T. Grimsrud,

  16. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    REPORT: TEST RESULTS FOR A COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT WITHTEST RESULTS FOR A COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT WITH OXIDATIONfired natural gas, combined cycle power plants, however,

  17. Field Study of Exhaust Fans for Mitigating Indoor Air Quality Problems: Final Report to Bonneville Power Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, David T.

    2009-01-01

    by Bonneville Power Administration under Contract No. DE-for Bonneville Power Administration, #85544. Jardinier, P. (to Bonneville Power Administration D.T. Grimsrud, September

  18. Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christopher Martin

    1985-01-01

    result of an accident with the severity of those postulated in WASH-1400. These changes are nearly impossible to predict and even more difficult to quantify. For the purposes of this study, calculations will primarily be restricted to individual...IMPROVED ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES AND RISK FACTORS FOR A NUCLEAR PONER PLANT UNDER ACCIDENT CONDITIONS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER MARTIN NEVER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  19. Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, James Bonner

    1997-01-01

    was equipped with the ability to use either a short-tube orifice (STO) or a thermal expansion valve (TXV). The degraded conditions studied include low evaporator airflow, high and low-charge, and a blocked condenser coil. The work presented in this thesis...

  20. Gas cleanup for combined cycle power generation using a hot gas conditioning catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Gebhard, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass gasification provides the potential to efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for power generation or synthesis gas (syngas) applications. Biomass as the feedstock for the process is uniquely suited to this application because it provides the means to increase the nation`s energy security, and also, to potentially provide a more stable agricultural industry. An important side benefit of the use of biomass is the effective minimization of the primary greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by providing a means to close-loop the CO{sub 2} cycle. However, high molecular weight hydrocarbon constituents (tar) in the product gas from gasification can complicate the downstream uses of the gas. This paper discusses both the development of a low cost, disposable catalyst system that can eliminate these heavy hydrocarbons from the gas and the use of the catalyst in conjunction with the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems.

  1. Late-Phase Melt Conditions Affecting the Potential for In-Vessel Retention in High Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; K. Y. Suh; F. B.Cheung; S. B. Kim

    2004-05-01

    If cooling is inadequate during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident. In such a case, concerns about containment failure and associated risks can be eliminated if it is possible to ensure that the lower head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel. Accordingly, in-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt as a key severe accident management strategy has been adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and planned for some advanced light water reactors. However, it is not clear that currently proposed external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) without additional enhancements can provide sufficient heat removal to assure IVR for high power reactors (i.e., reactors with power levels up to 1500 MWe). Consequently, a joint United States/Korean International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) has been launched to develop recommendations to improve the margin of success for in-vessel retention in high power reactors. This program is initially focussed on the Korean Advanced Power Reactor—1400 MWe (APR1400) design. However, recommendations will be developed that can be applied to a wide range of existing and advanced reactor designs. The recommendations will focus on modifications to enhance ERVC and modifications to enhance in-vessel debris coolability. In this paper, late-phase melt conditions affecting the potential for IVR of core melt in the APR1400 were established as a basis for developing the I-NERI recommendations. The selection of ‘bounding’ reactor accidents, simulation of those accidents using the SCDAP/RELAP5-3D© code, and resulting late-phase melt conditions are presented. Results from this effort indicate that bounding late-phase melt conditions could include large melt masses (>120,000 kg) relocating at high temperatures (3400 K). Estimated lower head heat fluxes associated with this melt could exceed the maximum critical heat flux, indicating additional measures such as the use of a core catcher and/or modifications to enhance external reactor vessel cooling may be necessary to ensure in-vessel retention of core melt.

  2. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  3. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  4. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz

    2012-11-27

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  5. Development of a Laboratory Verified Single-Duct VAV System Model with Fan Powered Terminal Units Optimized Using Computational Fluid Dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Michael A.

    2011-10-21

    Single Duct Variable Air Volume (SDVAV) systems use series and parallel Fan Powered Terminal Units to control the air flow in conditioned spaces. This research developed a laboratory verified model of SDVAV systems that ...

  6. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  7. Analysis of S. 1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003; S. 843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003; and S. 366, the Clean Power Act of 2003

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake analysis of S.843, the Clean Air Planning Act of 2003, introduced by Senator Thomas Carper; S.366, the Clean Power Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James Jeffords; and S.1844, the Clear Skies Act of 2003, introduced by Senator James M. Inhofe. The EIA received this request on March 19, 2004. This Service Report responds to his request.

  8. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy - case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

    2009-03-15

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study. 15 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  10. $500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -fired boilers and a steam heating system, and supplements the remaining campus heating and cooling system$500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now provided more efficiently

  11. Effect on the condition of the metal in A K-300-3.5 turbine owing to multicycle fatigue from participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedeva, A. I.; Zorchenko, N. V.; Prudnikov, A. A.

    2011-09-15

    The effect on the condition of the rotor material owing to multicycle fatigue caused by variable stresses during participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation is evaluated using the K-300-23.5 steam turbine as an example. It is shown that during normalized primary frequency regulation the safety factor is at least 50, while during automatic secondary regulation of frequency and power there is essentially no damage to the metal.

  12. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part II: Present versus Future Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    results to infer potential air pollution changes in California. Changes in both the meteorological fields of stagnation days (NNSD) integrating all stagnation events, during which most of the air pollution episodes will be stronger in the future for the two main air pollution seasons (i.e., summer and winter). Increases

  13. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Windsor Conference - Air Conditioning and the Low CarbonA. , Thomas, PC (2010). Air conditioning, comfort and energyAmerica's Romance with Air- Conditioning. Washington, D.C.

  14. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    the energy efficiency of air conditioning products isbetween the energy efficiency of air conditioning productsthe air conditioning testing facilities of energy efficiency

  15. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  16. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy Facilities By E-mail: YouAbsorption heat pumpsstory home

  17. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. FossilMethodsDepartment ofAmerica's

  18. Sandia Energy - Extreme Conditions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Conditions Modeling Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Technology Development Extreme Conditions Modeling Extreme Conditions ModelingAshley...

  19. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (US); Rodgers, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  20. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    and Ownership of Air Conditioning Appliances,” Journal ofNow let’s talk about air conditioning. 29. How many of theAir Conditioning

  1. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    and Ownership of Air Conditioning Appliances,” Journal ofAir Conditioning Now let’s talk about air conditioning. 29. How many of the

  2. The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loadsThe world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use

  3. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption 2005-2030 Consumption (TWh) IND INDO SAS-PAS BRASAS-PAS BRA MEA Figure 4 Air Conditioner Saturation by Region 2005-

  4. THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER PLANTS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    limitation for design and operation of the first wall, divertor, and other special components. Power plants. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating treatment of plasma facing components and the scrape-off layer plasma in ARIES power plant studies

  5. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  6. Comparison of hard x-ray production from various targets in air using a short pulse kHz laser with photon production from a high power multifilament laser beam from the same targets in air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledingham, K W D; McCanny, T; Melone, J J; Spohr, K; Schramm, U; Kraft, S D; Wagner, A; Jochmann, A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much interest in the production of hard X-rays from various targets using a kHz short pulse laser at intensities above 1014Wcm-2 (A). Most of these studies have been carried out in vacuum and very many fewer studies have been carried out in air. Recently this lack has been partially addressed with the development of femtosecond laser micromachining. Another similar although apparently unconnected field (B) deals with the channelling of high power laser beam in filaments after passage through long distances in air. This has been largely driven by the construction of a mobile terawatt laser beam (Teramobile) for atmospheric studies. The laser beams in these two cases (A and B) have very different pulse energies (mJ against J) although the filaments in (B) have similar energies to (A) and are clamped at intensities less than 1014 Wcm-2. This paper has been written to compare the production of hard X-rays in these two cases. The conclusion is interesting that a focused sub T...

  7. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevilla, J.; Welch, J.; ,

    2010-11-17

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about {+-}2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  8. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  9. The Ohio State University Air Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Bunny

    The Ohio State University Air Science Approved by the College of Arts and Sciences Air Science Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 292-5441 http://afrotc.osu.edu/ A Minor in Air Science is for students who seek. The Air Science Minor curriculum: 14 hours Air Science 2001 The Evolution of Air & Space Power I (1 sem

  10. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  11. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    resources in a clean manner is coal gasification. Integrated gasification combine cycle (IGCC) power plants utilize coal gasification technology to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide based synthesis gas (syngas of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering University Park, PA, USA ABSTRACT Demand for clean energy has increased

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 25, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2010 1823 Season-Dependent Condition-Based Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Yu

    ]. Despite the vast capacity of wind power reserve, the share of wind energy still remains a small portion-Based Maintenance for a Wind Turbine Using a Partially Observed Markov Decision Process Eunshin Byon, Student Member the marketability of wind power. We consider a multi-state deteriorating wind turbine subject to failures of several

  13. Abstract--Relay misoperations play an important role in cascading blackouts. Power swing and out-of-step conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Abstract--Relay misoperations play an important role in cascading blackouts. Power swing and out in the way that the power grid is operated. The major blackouts in the US, such as Midwest and Northeast blackout on August 14, 2003 and Western blackouts on July 2 and August 10, 1996, are the results of heavy

  14. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  15. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  16. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  17. Influence of the laser beam size on the length of a filament formed by high-power femtosecond laser radiation in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Kabanov, A M; Matvienko, G G; Golik, S S

    2014-05-30

    The single-filamentation regime of GW femtosecond laser beams of millimetre diameter, propagating in atmospheric air under collimated and tight focusing, has been theoretically and experimentally (at wavelengths of 800 and 400 nm) investigated. The influence of the initial size of the light beam on the spatial characteristics of the filamentation region is systematically analysed. The filamentation length for collimated beams with the same initial power is found to nonmonotonically depend on the initial beam radius. In this case, the filament start point is displaced, and the longitudinal continuity of the related plasma channel is lost. For tightly focused beams, the observed filament length barely depends of the initial beam radius, provided that the peak intensity remains constant. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  18. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  19. Cold air distribution in office buildings: technology assessment for califonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Borgers, T.; LaBerge, P.; Gadgil, A.

    1993-01-01

    for sunm~er air conditioning with ice storage. ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thermal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air conditioning,

  20. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    for summer air conditioning with ice storage." ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thennal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air-conditioning,

  1. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  2. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. ?, NO. ?, SEPTEMBER 2013 1 Mean-Conditional Value-at-Risk Optimal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Warren B.

    -at-Risk Optimal Energy Storage Operation in the Presence of Transaction Costs Somayeh Moazeni, Member, IEEE the formulation and solution of an optimal energy storage management problem under risk consideration and transaction costs of trading energy with the power grid. The price evolves as a stochastic process, capable

  4. An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Bobby

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1967 Fh)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HORIZONTAL METAL PIATE UNDER FROSTING... Sketch ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 Photographs of Frost Formation e ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ 23 - 26 LIST OF CURVES 13 - 14 Temperature and Concentration Boundary Layer Profile ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 59 15 ? 16 Accumulation of Frost Grosth vs. Time...

  5. Experiments of a twenty cell PEFC operating under fault conditions with diode by-pass circuit for uninterrupted power delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    behaviour of a 500W, twenty cell Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) stack operated under fault condition-up that reproduces the electrical coupling in series of two fuel cells. The results allow the evaluation of the by the capability of the reverse diode to electrically isolate a fuel cell stack under fault. The proposed

  6. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    caused by office's thermal Environment, J. Archit. Plann.Standard 55- 2010. Thermal environment conditions for humanindoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and

  7. Air ingression calculations for selected plant transients using MELCOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of MELCOR calculations have been completed studying the effects of air ingression on the consequences of various severe accident scenarios. One set of calculations analyzed a station blackout with surge line failure prior to vessel breach, starting from nominal operating conditions; the other set of calculations analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions. Both sets of analyses were for the Surry plant, a three-loop Westinghouse PWR. For both accident scenarios, a basecase calculation was done, and then repeated with air ingression from containment into the core region following core degradation and vessel failure. In addition to the two sets of analyses done for this program, a similar air-ingression sensitivity study was done as part of a low-power/shutdown PRA, with results summarized here; that PRA study also analyzed a station blackout occurring during shutdown (refueling) conditions, but for the Grand Gulf plant, a BWR/6 with Mark III containment. These studies help quantify the amount of air that would have to enter the core region to have a significant impact on the severe accident scenario, and demonstrate that one effect, of air ingression is substantial enhancement of ruthenium release. These calculations also show that, while the core clad temperatures rise more quickly due to oxidation with air rather than steam, the core also degrades and relocates more quickly, so that no sustained, enhanced core heatup is predicted to occur with air ingression.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building: _________________________________________________________ File Number: ________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building in relation to indoor air quality. Page 1 of 14 Needs Attention Not ApplicableOKComponent Comments Outside Air Screen Unobstructed? General condition? Size of mesh? (1 /2" minimum) Outside Air Dampers Operation

  9. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con private label do not comport with the...

  10. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air...

  11. Reduction of air in-leakage and flue gas by-passing in the penthouse of Duke Power-Marshall Unit No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Rush, T.

    1995-12-31

    After a year of operation, the penthouse was inspected and found to be {open_quotes}lightly dusted{close_quotes} with barely sufficient accumulation to show footprints. This is contrasted with previous five foot deep ash dunes. The savings in maintenance repairs are estimated at $65,000 for vacuuming that was not required, and $80,000 in maintenance personnel weld repairs. The history of repairs was such that vacuuming and weld repair costs were predictable, and before the IOSMEMBRANE{reg_sign} installation, always expected as recurring maintenance costs. The heat rate improvement of reducing air in-leakage is well known, and significant. The principal quantified savings are in reduced maintenance costs, more expedient repairs (reduced cool down time for repairs in the penthouse), and safety. The heat rate improvements, though not quantified yet, are expected to be significant. The success of the ISOMEMBRANE{reg_sign} on Unit No. 4 has resulted in similar plans for Unit No. 3 and other units in the Duke Power system.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section of a multi-section cathode air heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saito, Kazuo; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-17

    The multi-section cathode air heat exchanger (102) includes at least a first heat exchanger section (104), and a fixed contact oxidation catalyzed section (126) secured adjacent each other in a stack association. Cool cathode inlet air flows through cool air channels (110) of the at least first (104) and oxidation catalyzed sections (126). Hot anode exhaust flows through hot air channels (124) of the oxidation catalyzed section (126) and is combusted therein. The combusted anode exhaust then flows through hot air channels (112) of the first section (104) of the cathode air heat exchanger (102). The cool and hot air channels (110, 112) are secured in direct heat exchange relationship with each other so that temperatures of the heat exchanger (102) do not exceed 800.degree. C. to minimize requirements for using expensive, high-temperature alloys.

  13. Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

  14. Utilization of CO2 as cushion gas for porous media compressed air energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    of compressed air energy storage electric power systems.RH, Compressed Air Energy Storage: Theory, Resources, andmedia compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES): theory and

  15. Background for Terrestrial Antineutrino Investigations: Radionuclide Distribution, Georeactor Fission Events, and Boundary Conditions on Fission Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon; Dennis A. Edgerley

    2005-01-31

    Estimated masses of fissioning and non-fissioning radioactive elements and their respective distributions within the Earth are presented, based upon the fundamental identity of the components of the interior 82% of the Earth, the endo-Earth, with corresponding components of the Abee enstatite chondrite meteorite. Within limits of existing data, the following generalizations concerning the endo-Earth radionuclides can be made: (1) Most of the K-40 may be expected to exist in combination with oxygen in the silicates of the lower mantle, perhaps being confined to the upper region of the lower mantle where it transitions to the upper mantle; (2) Uranium may be expected to exist at the center of the Earth where it may undergo self-sustaining nuclear fission chain reactions, but there is a possibility that some non-fissioning uranium may be found scattered diffusely within the core floaters which are composed of CaS and MgS; and, (3) Thorium may be expected to occur within the core floaters at the core-mantle boundary, although its presence as well at the center of the Earth cannot be ruled out. Results of nuclear georeactor numerical simulations show: (1) The maximum constant nuclear fission power level is 30 terawatts; (2) U-235 comprises 76 percent of present-day georeactor fission, U-238 comprises 23 percent; and, (3) Thorium can neither be fuel nor converted into fuel for the georeactor.

  16. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  17. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Hester, J.C.; Harriz, J.T.; Ritz, G.J.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop standardized air blown fixed bed gasification hot gas cleanup integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) systems.

  18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the SNF. The auxiliary pit is being evaluated at this time for its usefulness to support other operations that may be needed to ensure proper conditioning of the SNF and proper storage of the vessel containing the SNF. Figures I and 2 contain map locations of the Hanford Site and the HCS Annex.

  19. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  20. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  1. Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part 2: Case Demonstration for a Typical Climate System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Zheng, K.; Wu, L.; Wang, Z.; Johnson, C.

    2007-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, the theoretical models, integrating the fan airflow, fan head, air leakage factors, are developed to analyze the impacts of the static pressure reset on both pressure dependent and pressure independent terminal boxes...

  2. Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part I: Theoretical Model and Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Feng, J.; Wang, Z.; Wu, L.; Zheng, K.; Pang, W.

    2007-01-01

    pressure reset has also applicable advantages over the existing constant static pressure set point and two typical reset methods. This paper present the theoretical models to express the impacts of static pressure reset on fan airflow, fan head, air leakage...

  3. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (‘source categories’) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm – 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  4. Minimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Minimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram University minimization in a data center accounting for both the information technology equipment and the air conditioning an average of 13% power saving for different data center utilization rates compared to a baseline task

  5. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jason; Bernstein, Robert; White, II, Gregory Von; Glover, Steven F.; Neely, Jason C.; Pena, Gary; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Zutavern, Fred J.; Gelbard, Fred

    2015-03-01

    In a submerged environment, power cables may experience accelerated insulation degradation due to water - related aging mechanisms . Direct contact with water or moisture intrusion in the cable insulation s ystem has been identified in the literature as a significant aging stressor that can affect performance and lifetime of electric cables . Progressive reduction of the dielectric strength is commonly a result of water treeing which involves the development of permanent hydrophilic structures in the insulation coinciding with the absorption of water into the cable . Water treeing is a phenomenon in which dendritic microvoids are formed in electric cable insulation due to electrochemic al reactions , electromechanical forces , and diffusion of contaminants over time . These reactions are caused by the combined effect s of water presence and high electrical stress es in the material . Water tree growth follow s a tree - like branching pattern , i ncreasing in volume and length over time . Although these cables can be "dried out," water tree degradation , specifically the growth of hydrophilic regions, is believed to be permanent and typically worsens over time. Based on established research , water treeing or water induced damage can occur in a variety of electric cables including XLPE, TR - XLPE and other insulating materials, such as EPR and butyl rubber . Once water trees or water induced damage form, the dielectric strength of an insulation materia l will decrease gradually with time as the water trees grow in length, which could eventually result in failure of the insulating material . Under wet conditions or i n submerged environments , several environmental and operational parameters can influence w ater tree initiation and affect water tree growth . These parameters include voltage cycling, field frequency, temperature, ion concentration and chemistry, type of insula tion material , and the characteristics of its defects. In this effort, a review of academic and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics, nuclear systems, and statistics. An objective of this research program is to perform a l iterature

  6. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    Williams, Compressed air energy storage: Theory, resources,for the compressed air energy storage technology by thefor compressed air energy storage power generation, Japan

  7. A Low-Power Mobile Sensing Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabal

    2009-01-01

    power from a vehicle’s electrical system, like this air qualitypower from a vehicle’s electrical system, like this air quality

  8. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  9. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  10. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  12. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  13. Investigative Tools and Techniques for Indoor Air Quality Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, S. R.; Quinn, C. B.; Henderson, J. E.; Vickery, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air quality problems are diverse and often complex. Adverse indoor air quality problems can exist which create symptomatic conditions for building occupants. Often, the exact cause, or causes, of the substandard indoor air quality are unknown...

  14. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01

    non-uniform so that residents usually feel uncomfortable. The distribution of indoor airflow by cold air distribution is researched in this paper. We study indoor air distribution under different low temperature air supply conditions by numerical...

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals...

  16. Management of Power Demand through Operations of Building Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A. I.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Naqib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.

    2009-01-01

    In hot summers, the demand for electrical power is dominated by the requirements of the air-conditioning and lighting systems. Such systems account for more than 80% of the peak electrical demand in Kuwait. A study was conducted to explore...

  17. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application). The experiments and simulations focused on the air-cooled Ballard Nexa fuel cell. The experimental

  18. Investigation of Feasibility of All-Fresh Air Supply in an All-Air System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of an all-fresh air supply in an all-air system is investigated in theory, and the problem of AHU-handling air in low efficiency in summer and winter conditions is analyzed. The air supply temperature is almost up to standards when a...

  19. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  20. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    , and HFC-245ca. HCFC-22 is also scheduled for phase-out, and three alternatives for HCFC-22 have been identified: HFC-134a, a near-azeotropic mixture of R32/Rl25, and a zeotropic mixture of R32/R125/R134a. Performance test results, future potential energy...

  1. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    -driven water chiller. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated and tested. A field experiment unit has been operating since August, 1986, and seven field test units have been operating since April, 1987. The performance of the system has been...

  2. Membrane Based Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof EnergyPresentation:Dais Analytic Corporation - Odessa,

  3. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating

  4. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers atDay 12:was createdNobelInnovations

  5. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchersOctober 22,Plant | Department of EnergyCentral

  6. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS PolicyandHigh

  7. Policy on University Closure or Class/Examination Cancellation Adverse conditions such as winter storms or power outages will, from time to time, require the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotze, Heike K.

    such as winter storms or power outages will, from time to time, require the University to reduce or restrict its of individual units' operations. For example, a power outage may not affect all campuses

  8. High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 , Linda Hembeck1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 emissions2 3;2 hot summer days due to high electricity demand. Between 1997 and 2011, power23 plant emissions of NOx greater59 electricity demand for air conditioning. Singh and Sloan [2005] reported that60

  9. 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The power plant operates steadily. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes are zero. Properties The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs

  10. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases. Check out our Energy...

  11. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    before proper dehumidification occurs, making the area feel "clammy" and uncomfortable. Central air-conditioning systems need to be sized by professionals. Explore our Energy...

  12. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  13. Air Capture Introduction and Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    largely eliminated centralized sources of CO2 emissions, especially at coal and natural gas power plants buildings and vehicles, which prove expensive to reduce by other means. It can be useful in niche CO2 first." It is much cheaper to capture CO2 from the flue gas of a coal power plant than from ambient air

  14. Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets

  15. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency...

  16. Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air temperature is the most important control parameter in air conditioning systems. It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor...

  17. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  18. Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, Stephen D., Wasiolek, Piotr; Rodgers, John

    1999-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  20. Portable air monitoring laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehntholt, D.J.; Beltis, K.J.; McCullough, J.E.; Valentine, J.R. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. was contracted by the US Army to design, fabricate, test and deliver a series of portable air monitoring laboratories which could be used to detect trace levels of toxic chemicals on board cargo ships. The labs were designed to be completely self-sufficient, containing all supplies necessary for a 75-day mission, and to operate under rugged conditions. They were used to monitor for parts-per-billion concentrations of chemical agents in air and to provide information equivalent to high quality fixed laboratory analyses. The mission was successfully completed; independent design awards were received for the laboratories, and they were subsequently diverted to other uses.