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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

2

Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Conditioning ... CHEMISTS and engineers use air conditioning as a valuable tool in more than two hundred industries. ... Air conditioning is a tool with many facets. ...

MARGARET INGELS

1938-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

Zhang, Wei

5

Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response. I for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water

Zhang, Wei

6

Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

Demand response: a strategy to address residential air-conditioning peak load in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rapid growth in electricity network peak demand is increasing pressure for new investment which may be used for only a few hours a year. Residential air-conditioning is widely believed to be the prime cause of...

Robert Smith; Ke Meng; Zhaoyang Dong…

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A diffusion approximation approach to stochastic modeling of air conditioning type loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the air conditioning unit is on and off. In the followino equations, TNIN and TNAX are the lower and upper limit temperatures of the thermostat deadband and To is the outside temperature. Gi 2Gw To Tw Cw Ci $ QeXt To - outside temperature Tw - wall... temperature Ti - inside temperature Gw ? thermal conductance of wall Gi - thermal conductance of air Cw - thermal capacitance of wall Ci ? thermal capacitance of air Qe - rated capacity of cooling unit Xt - zero-one process describing the switching...

Roy, Teresa Henryka

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.25 minutes. This setting allows a maximum reduction of the demand of the condensing unit of 30%. The direct control device is part of a bi-directional power line carrier load management system. It is a three tier system consisting of a central control... lines to the central control computer (CCC). Once a week, the load survey data from the CCC was copied to a tape to be transferred to the Mesquite Data Center for analysis. A heating and cooling load calculation was performed on each house...

Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

NRELs Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DEVAP Slashes Peak Power Loads DEVAP Slashes Peak Power Loads Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-condi- tioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the elec- tricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equip- ment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up

13

A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

Gravenstreter, T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solar Heating and Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...given of the status of solar fired air conditioning...to an approach to cool storage in solar air conditioning systems...an assessment of cool storage for reducing peak electrical...rolling cylinder thermal energy storage device for compact...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

17

Natural Air-Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent research in summer air conditioning utilizing natural sources of coolness* are discussed. These systems are classified according to the sources of coolness, the modes of heat transfer and airflow, and t...

Mehdi N. Bahadori

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning May 30, 2012 - 8:01pm Addthis Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. What does this mean for me? Central air conditioning systems are thermostatically controlled and convenient to use. Central air conditioning systems must be installed properly to operate efficiently. Central air conditioning systems can share ductwork with your heating system. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls,

20

An overview of solar assisted air-conditioning system application in small office buildings in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many regions of the world especially tropical weather in Malaysia, the demand for cooling of indoor air is growing due to increasing comfort expectations and increasing cooling loads. Air-conditioning, the most common cooling mechanism for providing ... Keywords: Malaysian climatic conditions, absorption chiller, evacuated tube solar collector, high energy consumption, peak load demand, solar assisted air conditioning system, solar energy

Lim Chin Haw; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Yusof Sulaiman

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome to use than more compact...

Cohen, B. M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Energy conservation in high-rise buildings: Changes in air conditioning load induced by vertical temperature and humidity profile in Delhi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature and humidity profiles in the upper atmosphere are different from those observed by ground level meteorological stations and used to design HVAC systems for high-rise buildings. There exist correlations among solar energy, atmospheric turbidity and pollutants in urban areas, affecting the temperature and humidity profiles with variation in height. In the present study, a theoretical model is developed considering these parameters, and the HVAC load is calculated. The results are compared with the HVAC load calculated from data obtained from the meteorological station, and the comparison showed that the results differ significantly (20%) for a hypothetical 200 m high office building.

S. Sinha; Sanjay Kumar; N. Kumar

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity...

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior space to the relatively warm outside environment. An air conditioner uses a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and condenser coils are serpentine tubing surrounded by aluminum fins. This tubing is usually made of copper.

26

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Renovations October 16, 2013 - 4:49pm Addthis Renewable Energy Options for HVAC Renovations Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP) Solar Water Heating (SWH) Biomass Passive Solar Heating Biomass Heating Solar Ventilation Air Preheating Federal building renovations that encompass the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in a facility provide a range of renewable energy opportunities. The primary technology option for HVAC renovations is geothermal heat pumps (GHP). Other options include leveraging a solar water heating (SWH) system to offset heating load or using passive solar heating or a biomass-capable furnace or boiler. Some facilities may also take

27

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Americanfor design cooling loads in Underfloor Air Distribution (for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

29

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

30

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

31

Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air-conditioning...

Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Compressed Air Load Reduction Approaches and Innovations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are assessed. It is a common practice in facilities to simply add compressor capacity when faced with supply pressure or volume deficiencies, increasing the energy consumption associated with compressed air systems in industry. Additionally, in recent years...

D'Antonio, M.; Epstein, G.; Moray, S.; Schmidt, C.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register...

34

Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rapid escalation of electricity prices has created an opportunity to re-introduce gas-fired air conditioning systems to the commercial building market. In 1985 Gas Research Institute initiated a program to develop an advanced gas engine...

Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Changing patterns of air conditioning in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Japanese air conditioning patterns have changed significantly over the past 30 years. The changes can be linked to increasing affluence and the consequent changes Japanese life patterns, but also to changes in...

Harold Wilhite; Hidetoshi Nakagami…

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Coupling Air Flow Models to Load/Energy Models and Implications for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coupling Air Flow Models to Load/Energy Models and Implications for Coupling Air Flow Models to Load/Energy Models and Implications for Envelope Component Testing and Modeling Speaker(s): Brent Griffith Date: July 30, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Dariush Arasteh Air models allow accounting for air temperature variations within a thermal zone or along the surface of an envelope component. A recently completed ASHRAE research project (RP-1222) produced a source code toolkit focused on coupling airflow models to load routines typical of whole building energy simulation. The two modeling domains are computed separately (and iteratively) with relevant temperature boundary conditions passed back and forth. One of the air models in the toolkit is a new contribution to crude/fast airflow modeling that is based on solving the Euler equation

37

Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Atlanta:application and design of underfloor air distributionfor design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) design guide. AmericanUnderfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Toolload design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD)

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ................................................1. Conditions at Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 .................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 ..............................Table 1

Cal, Mark P.

42

Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

Luke, Gregory Robert

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Honolulu Scott Higa Engineering Project Manager Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC Abstract As a tropical island state, Hawaii has a year-round demand for air conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

Frandsen, Jannette B.

44

Section 38 - HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The term HVAC is an acronym for Heating, Ventilation (and) Air Conditioning, the industry term for any of various efforts to control conditions in a building or other enclosed area to improve comfort and efficiency. A closely related section is Refrigeration, which follows this one. Some contemporary HVAC techniques have ancient roots. Early forms of central heating and solar home heating were in use in Rome in the first century A.D. The earliest use of glass in windows (as opposed to a covering of wood, cloth, or hide, or simply an opening) is also attributed to the Romans at this same time. The first known use of solar-oriented building design in North America dates back to about the year 1050; i.e., the cliff dwellings built by the Anasazi (Ancient Pueblo) people of the Colorado Plateau area. Geothermal district heating was employed as early as the 1300s, in the Auvergne region of southern France. The foundation for modern central heating was established in the 1700s, first in England and then in France. The 1800s saw significant advances in the use of water heaters, especially the first automatic storage water heater (Edwin Ruud, 1889) and the first commercial solar water heater (Clarence Kemp, 1891). In comparison with heating, cooling technology was late in developing. The first successful method of producing ice occurred in 1851, and it was not until 1902 that Willis Haviland Carrier designed the first industrial air-conditioning system. His Carrier Air Conditioning Corporation would go on to develop air-conditioning systems for stores and theaters (1924) and for residential buildings (1928). Carrier remains the global leader in air conditioner production. The first air-conditioned automobile was produced by Packard in 1939. Recent entries in this section emphasize the use of alternative energy sources in heating and cooling, such as solar, photovoltaic, geothermal, and fuel cells. These advances include the ground-source heat pump, the Trombe wall, the heat pipe, and the PV/thermal hybrid system.

Cutler J. Cleveland; Christopher Morris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed...

Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning Address 115 Washington Street - P.O. Box 516 Place Urbana, Ohio Zip 43078 Sector Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar Product Installation; Maintenance and repair Phone number 937-652-1136 Website http://fetzphc.com Coordinates 40.108862°, -83.757291° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.108862,"lon":-83.757291,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

47

Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system...

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

Ribes, Aurélien

50

STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS CECSTATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS CEC-CF-6R-MECH-08 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units

51

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

52

Augmented air supply for fuel cell power plant during transient load increases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a fuel cell power plant, a system for supplying air to an oxygen side of the cells in the plant is described comprising: (a) conduit means for feeding air to the oxygen side of the plant; (b) a constant speed blower connected to the conduit means for blowing an air stream into the conduit means at a constant velocity; (c) a motorized control valve in the conduit means between the blower and the oxygen side, the control valve being adjustable to vary the amount of air flowing to the oxygen side; (d) branch conduit means opening into the conduit means for providing an air flow path from the blower to the oxygen side which bypasses the control valve; (e) fast acting valve means in the branch conduit means, the fast acting valve means being relatively instantly transformable from a closed condition to an open condition and return, and the fast acting valve means being normally in the closed condition; (f) flow meter means in the conduit means for measuring amounts of oxygen flowing from the control valve from the control valve and the fast acting valve means to the oxygen side; (g) current monitoring means connected to a loaf line from the power plant for monitoring load changes imposed upon the cells in the power plant; and (h) microprocessor means for controlling operation of the system, the microprocessor means being operably connected to the current monitoring means, to the flow meter means, to the fast acting valve means and to the control valve.

Beal, D.W.; Scheffer, G.W.

1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

53

Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Name Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning Address 51 Meadow Lane Place Northfield, Ohio Zip 44067 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Renewable Energy, Services Product Business and legal services; Energy audits/weatherization; Energy provider: power production;Energy provider: wholesale;Engineering/architectural/design;Installation;Investment/finances;Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 330-908-0281 Website http://www.weatherking1.com Coordinates 41.3340869°, -81.530299° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.3340869,"lon":-81.530299,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

54

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Using Modelica for Physical Modeling of Air-Conditioning Systems Speaker(s): Jonas Eborn Date: August 23, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter The Air Conditioning library is a commercial Modelica library for the steady-state and transient simulation of air conditioning systems using both compact micro-channel heat exchangers as well as fin-and-tube type heat exchangers. Currently it is mostly used by automotive OEMs and suppliers that need high-accuracy system level models to evaluate energy efficiency of systems developed under the pressure of reduced design cycle times. The library also has applications in other areas, including aircraft cooling systems and residential air-conditioning. The Air Conditioning library contains published correlations for heat and mass transfer and

55

New Method Gives Precise Control in Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Niagara "Controlled Humidity Method" is a new system of air conditioning giving complete control of temperature and relative humidity, holding constant conditions or varying them at the will of the user. ... A condition of 15 grains o f moisture per pound of air at 85 dcg. ...

1950-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

56

New Method Gives Precise Control in Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

•The Niagara "Controlled Humidity Method" is a new system of air conditioning giving complete control of temperature and relative humidity, holding constant conditions or varying them at the will of the user. ... A condition of 15 grains of moisture per pound of air at 85 deg. ...

1950-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

57

Influences of ambient air speed and internal heat load on the performance of solar chimney in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar chimney is a combination of solar assisted stack and wind driven ventilation where air in the solar chimney expands under heating from solar irradiance and being relatively lighter, rises out from the chimney outlets, drawing the cooler air into the building through the fenestrations. This pull effect is complemented further by the push effect from the outdoor ambient wind. The study of solar chimney system within the zero energy building in tropical Singapore aims to determine the effects of ambient air speed and internal heat load on the thermal environment of the solar chimney ducts and classroom’s interior. Experimental and computational results show that high ambient air speed greater than 2.00 m/s improves the air speed within the solar chimney ducts; both low and high ambient air speeds are found to improve the classroom’s interior air speed. However, the significance of ambient air speed drops when solar irradiance is greater than 700 W/m2. Furthermore, under the tropical weather conditions of high solar irradiance and low ambient air speed, cross ventilation performs better compared to solar chimney; hence, solar chimney is recommended to be employed under zero ambient air speed. Lastly, results show that the influences of internal heat load on the air temperature and speed within solar chimney ducts as well as classroom’s interior are limited.

Alex Yong Kwang Tan; Nyuk Hien Wong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Field testing of air-to-water heat pump...

59

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pressure Ratio Net Power Test Apparatus Available Turbocompressors Turbine and Compressor Wheels Mounted to Shaft Turbocompressor Mounted. to Exhaust Line Total System Test Rig Full Throttle Performance Curves Subscript 'c' Corrected Results 13 13... an automotive air cycle unit which employed a rotary- vaned compressor. The prototype unit developed. cooling over various engine speeds because of the compressor being a positive displacement type which developed fairly high pressures on the order of 40 psia...

Holley, James Andrew

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger...

Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Borhan, Y.A. [Gulf Engineering Co., Safat (Kuwait)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residences are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to the capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacity differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. Characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent that occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners. The findings of this research indicate that cooling equipment historically has often but not always been oversized beyond industry-recommended levels. However, some occupants in homes with undersized, properly sized, and, in rare occasions, even oversized cooling equipment appear to suffer because the cooling equipment cannot always provide adequate cooling. Key findings are summarized.

Lucas, R.G.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Air-Conditioning Systems Simulate World-Wide Climates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air-Conditioning Systems Simulate World-Wide Climates ... WEATHER conditions equivalent to those in any part of the world can be simulated in a four-compartment test box set up at State College, Penna., by the U. S. Department of Agriculture's Regional Pasture Research Laboratory in its work to develop better pastures. ... Three heavily insulated doors permit access to each compartment; an inner door keeps conditioned air in the box from rushing out when the main door is opened. ...

1941-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

65

Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-4-1 Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index Hui Li Qingfan Zhang Associate professor...

Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:to design and operate underfloor air distribution (UFAD)DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Philip Haves Edward A. Arens The presentation will describe and compare the methods of determining cooling design conditions used by ASHRAE and the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heating. A case study based on weather data for Brisbane will be used to illustrate the issues that arise. One issue is the usefulness of the 3-hourly temperature observations archived in International Weather Office records compared to the hourly observations required by the ASHRAE method. Another issue is the use of daily maxima, which have been archived for over 100 years at many Australian locations. Daily data can easily be used to find trends

70

Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the ...

Enric Valor; Vicente Meneu; Vicente Caselles

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Study of thermoelectric technology for automobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical study was conducted to determine the feasibility of employing thermoelectric (TE) cooling technology in automobile air conditioners. The study addressed two key issues -- power requirements and availability of thermoelectric materials. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of TE air conditioners and to analyze power consumption. Results show that the power required to deliver a cooling capacity of 4 kW (13,80 Btu/h) in a 38{degree}C (100{degree}F) environment will be 9.5 kW electric. Current TE modules suitable for air conditioning are made of bismuth telluride. The element tellurium is expected to be in short supply if TE cooling is widely implemented for auto air conditioning; some options available in this regard were studied and presented in this paper.

Mathiprakasam, B.; Heenan, P. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fault tolerant control of outdoor air and AHU supply air temperature in VAV air conditioning systems using PCA method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a fault tolerant control method to control the outdoor air ventilation and AHU supply air temperature, which concerned indoor air quality and humidity, respectively to satisfy ASHRAE Standard in VAV systems. The principal component analysis method, joint angle method, and compensatory reconstruction are used to detect, isolate, and reconstruct the fault, respectively for fault tolerant control. They are tested and evaluated in a simulation environment under the condition of temperature and flow sensors with fix bias faults.

Xinqiao Jin; Zhimin Du

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning system driven Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(3-0-3) Summary: and design of air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration systems; including consideration of vapor... ME 4321 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning...

74

LiCl dehumidifier/LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, S.M.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

75

LiCl dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system. 4 figs.

Ko, S.M.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

77

Energy audit case studies II—air conditioning (cooling) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses a novel methodology for determination of the efficiencies of each segment in a centralized air conditioning (A/C) plant. The methodology is useful analytical tool in energy audit where it can be used for decision support for evolution of energy conservation measures and techno-economic evaluation of the various options. The procedure is applied to three A/C plants of capacity range from 50 to 500 TR. Losses in chilled air ducts and cycling losses in the refrigerant circuit are identified to be the major causes for decrease in the efficiency and capacity under rating of the systems. Effective controls and insulation of air ducts: have been shown to be the most cost effective solutions to improve the energy efficiency of the A/C plants. The generalized experimental data on overall performance of sixteen A/C plants is also provided.

M Siddhartha Bhatt

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

79

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Title Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-59293 Year of Publication 2006 Authors Hotchi, Toshifumi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and William J. Fisk Keywords market sectors, technologies Abstract Mock Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) events were implemented in a Target retail store in the San Francisco Bay Area by shutting down some of the building's packaged rooftop air-handling units (RTUs). Measurements were made to determine how this load shedding strategy would affect the outdoor air ventilation rate and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the sales area. Ventilation rates prior to and during load shedding were measured by tracer gas decay on two days. Samples for individual VOCs, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were collected from several RTUs in the morning prior to load shedding and in the late afternoon. Shutting down a portion (three of 11 and five of 12, or 27 and 42%) of the RTUs serving the sales area resulted in about a 30% reduction in ventilation, producing values of 0.50-0.65 air changes per hour. VOCs with the highest concentrations (>10 μg/m3) in the sales area included formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. Substantial differences in concentrations were observed among RTUs. Concentrations of most VOCs increased during a single mock CPP event, and the median increase was somewhat higher than the fractional decrease in the ventilation rate. There are few guidelines for evaluating indoor VOC concentrations. For formaldehyde, maximum concentrations measured in the store during the event were below guidelines intended to protect the general public from acute health risks.

80

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Title Indoor Air Quality Impacts of a Peak Load Shedding Strategy for a Large Retail Building Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2006 Authors Hotchi, Toshifumi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Mock Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) events were implemented in a Target retail store in the San Francisco Bay Area by shutting down some of the building's packaged rooftop air-handling units (RTUs). Measurements were made to determine how this load shedding strategy would affect the outdoor air ventilation rate and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the sales area. Ventilation rates prior to and during load shedding were measured by tracer gas decay on two days. Samples for individual VOCs, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, were collected from several RTUs in the morning prior to load shedding and in the late afternoon. Shutting down a portion (three of 11 and five of 12, or 27 and 42%) of the RTUs serving the sales area resulted in about a 30% reduction in ventilation, producing values of 0.50-0.65 air changes per hour. VOCs with the highest concentrations (>10 μg/m3) in the sales area included formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, toluene and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane. Substantial differences in concentrations were observed among RTUs. Concentrations of most VOCs increased during a single mock CPP event, and the median increase was somewhat higher than the fractional decrease in the ventilation rate. There are few guidelines for evaluating indoor VOC concentrations. For formaldehyde, maximum concentrations measured in the store during the event were below guidelines intended to protect the general public from acute health risks

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Study of solar-assisted thermoelectric technology for automobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical study was conducted to determine the feasibility of employing solar energy assisted thermoelectric (TE) cooling technology in automobile air conditioners. The study addressed two key issues -- power requirements and availability of thermoelectric materials. In this paper a mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of TE air conditioners and to analyze power consumption. Results show that the power required to deliver a cooling capacity of 4 kW (13,680 Btu/h) in a 38 C (100 F) environment will be 9.5 kW electric. Current TE modules suitable for air conditioning are made of bismuth telluride. The element tellurium is expected to be in short supply if TE cooling is widely implemented for auto air conditioning; some options available in this regard were studied and presented in this paper. The photovoltaic (PV) cells, assumed to cover the roof area of a compact car can only generate about 225 W. However, this is more than enough to power a fan to provide air ventilation to the car interior which significantly reduces the peak cooling load when the car is parked in bright sunlight.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathiprakasam, B.; Heenan, P. [Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

Yellott, J. I.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Nanofriction Mechanisms Derived from the Dependence of Friction on Load and Sliding Velocity from Air to UHV on Hydrophilic Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines friction as a function of the sliding velocity and applied normal load from air to UHV in a scanning force microscope (SFM)...

A. Opitz; S. I.-U. Ahmed; M. Scherge; J.A. Schaefer

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning units part Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fans... : Use of mechanical equipment such as refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans... -handling units and mechanical, compressed air, and electric ......

86

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control routine to adjust setpoints for supply air temperaturecontrol routine to adjust setpoints for supply air temperaturesupply air temperature is provided. The fan-speed control

Bell, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Figure 5 Server rack Inlet Air Temperature (8 Figure 6 Server-rack Leaving Air Temperature (Rack .

Bell, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A novel air-conditioning system for proactive power demand response to smart grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Power demand response is considered as one of the most promising solutions in relieving the power imbalance of an electrical grid that results a series of critical problems to the gird and end-users. In order to effectively make use of the demand response potentials of buildings, this paper presents a novel air-conditioning system with proactive demand control for daily load shifting and real time power balance in the developing smart grid. This system consists of a chilled water storage system (CWS) and a temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) air-conditioning system, which can significantly reduce the storage volume of the chilled water tank and effectively enable a building with more flexibility in changing its electricity usage patterns. The power demand of the proposed air-conditioning system can be flexibly controlled as desired by implementing two types of demand response strategies: demand side bidding (DSB) strategy and demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) strategy, in respond to the day-ahead and hour-ahead power change requirements of the grid, respectively. Considerable benefits (e.g., energy and cost savings) can be achieved for both the electricity utilities and building owners under incentive pricing or tariffs. A case study is conducted in a simulation platform to demonstrate the application of the proposed system in an office building.

Chengchu Yan; Xue Xue; Shengwei Wang; Borui Cui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning maintenance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... : Use of mechanical equipment...

92

Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building-thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all conditioning can reduce energy consumption, only if paired with a suitable system · Conventional office air

93

Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

Guang, L.; Li, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.

Tang, H.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Minichiello, J.C. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Olson, D.E. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new...

Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air-conditioned...

Khalil, E. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

100

Analysis of efficiency of control of operation conditions of air gas cooling devices at compressor stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on calculations of energy consumption by air gas cooling devices, an analysis has been made of the efficiency of the methods of control of temperature conditions of the transported gas. Two types of air ...

A. V. Krupnikov; A. D. Vanyashov; I. A. Yanvarev

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Realisable 10-year reductions in European energy consumption for air conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarises the results of a study to identify and quantify the potential impact of measures and policies to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning in European countries over a 10-year period. The market penetration of air conditioning in Europe has increased steadily over several decades. On a “business as usual” basis, its energy consumption would increase by over 50% by 2020. Measures to restrict this increase are therefore important, but the savings potential straddles several overlapping areas which are subject to different constraints including those imposed by the replacement rates of systems and products, and the refurbishment rates of existing buildings. This work reported in this paper is based on the use of information from a variety of sources in a highly disaggregated model to assess the “realisable” savings over a 10-year period, taking into account relevant constraints. The paper summarises results at a European level, focussing on those cases that generate the greatest realisable savings. Savings are possible in three areas: improved equipment and system efficiency, reduced cooling loads, and more effective operation. The cases that offer the largest savings provide the basis for recommendations for policy measures, often using existing policy instruments. In addition, areas where further work is needed are identified. More detailed results and information about the study and additional recommendations can be found at http://www.bre.co.uk/searchresults.jsp?category=5&q=energy+management [1].

Roger Hitchin; Christine Pout; David Butler

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

103

Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used in Schools Efficiency Metrics for HVAC Equipment Historical Perspective on Efficiency · Weather data is not the same, and has a big impact on building loads as well as the performance of HVAC;School Load Data Metrics · Using the ASHRAE 90.1 benchmark buildings models I have developed

California at Davis, University of

104

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning hvac Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems play an important role in providing comfort in residential, commercial... of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Batterman S. and Burge H. 1995. "HVAC...

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning systems based Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INVENTION, APPLICATION NO. 61297,958 OF 25 JAN 2010 Summary: for Efficient Heating, Cooling, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning BY MILIVOJE M. KOSTIC, SYCAMORE, IL......

106

New Development of Simulation Methods on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development status of classical simulation technology and application status of artificial intelligence on refrigeration and air conditioning equipments were introduced. The new concept of intelligence simulat...

Cao Wensheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioned domestic buildings Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water chillers will contain more than 3 kg. If information... , air conditioning and heat pump technology. However, certain fire protection equipment that contains F......

108

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

109

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply temperature setpoints, operation of blinds at peak conditions, impact of occupant control, andcontrols the AHU fan. In both UFAD and OH systems, supply air temperature (

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

New standards for mechanical loading of HV air switches to reduce operating problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problems inherent in dealing with mechanical forces upon switch terminals of high voltage air disconnect switches could be reduced substantially if proposed new mechanical loading standards were adopted, says Donald L. Lott of Siemens-Allis' Power Switching division. The result would be longer, more reliable service life. Simply stated, current standards do not take into consideration the bending moment exerted on the switch terminal pad, which can lead to improper alignment, misoperation and high stress on terminal pads. Lott says that mechanical loadings on terminal pads of HV substation air disconnect switches dictate the location of bus or cable support insulators and expansion connectors for rigid bus. While horizontal and vertical (weight of the conductor) forces are usually considered in design criteria, the bending moment caused by rigid bus sag is not taken into consideration when span lengths are long. Yet, he warns, this force often may be the most significant and can influence the location of the bus support insulators. The proposed standards would incorporate the effect of such bending moments.

Not Available

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry ( 12 °C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70 % and molds by > 80 %). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80 % R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occured. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 ?m therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80 % R. H. (mean of 3 days), e. g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

Martin Möritz; Hans Peters; Bettina Nipko; Hennin Rüden

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte Memo.pdf More Documents & Publications 3rd Semi-Annual Report to...

114

Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Outside air temperature and the absolute air humidity are predicted by the Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model [1],[2]. The solar radiation on a horizontal surface... of the error margin Energy Consumption (set value A) Energy Consumption (set value B) ESL-IC-08-10-55 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 J VAV unit is also operated under...

Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

115

Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Task conditioning aims to provide each occupant with personalized clean air direct to the breathing zone. The microenvironment of a typical office workplace, consisting of two desktop task conditioning systems (a Horizontal Desk Grill (HDG...

Zheng, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one...

Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Di Liu; Li-Qun Liu; Xiao-Chuan Pan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène

Boyer, Edmond

119

The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.- ...... '. .................................... 21 .............................................. Design Method No: 3 21 Effects of Conditioned-air Storage on Grain Quality ........................................................... II! Insect Control...,~ of controlled storage environments for bulk yain are discussed. The initial vapor pressure of tile moisture in the grain and the partial pressure of !lie vapor in the conditioned air circulating through llle grain mass were found to be very important tl...

Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Residential Load Management Program and Pilot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yifeng Wu Honglin Wang Doctoral Candidate Associate Professor Master Master Master Master School of Municipal & Environmental Eng, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P.R. China, 150090 hitbai@163.com Abstract: The energy consumption... region and the same operating strategy was adopted[1]. Wang Li analyzed the temperature control principles to achieve economical operation in CAV system, and presented improved control strategy to integrate fresh air control with indoor air...

Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performances on indoor air quality and energy consumption incomfort, indoor air quality and energy performance. 1.1.1.better indoor air quality and energy efficiency, as well as

Chen, Bin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Radon Mitigation in Schools Utilising Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling...system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified......

G. Fisher; B. Ligman; T. Brennan; R. Shaughnessy; B.H. Turk; B. Snead

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conservation, and it is urgent. At the same time, the energy consumption about air-conditioning of buildings continues to increase and the new wind energy accounts for 4%~12% of the buildings total energy consumption [1]. A heat recovery system for air...

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

simulated and compared the summer energy consuming conditions of the two systems. Results prove the superiority of the 2nd return air system, and the validity of the simulation. Also, the air system energy performance in summer was illustrated with typical...

Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

"Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Coolling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

132

"Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 "

133

Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Co ntrol Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-5-2 Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems Lianyou LI Zhihong ZHANG Yong...

Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

135

Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future, Vol.VIII-8-1 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-conditioning System Chunlei Zhang Suilin Wang Hongbing Chen...

Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation of Automotive Air Conditioning System Based On Modelica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The automotive air conditioning (AC) systems are complex systems where two-phase flow, pneumatic, mechanical and electrical components are coupled. Such systems coupled with various physical domains have great...

Jing Li; Yunqing Zhang…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

Wetter, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

channel wheel heat exchanger under different ambient conditions using the model developed. These include frost formation on the surface of the channel wheel heat exchanger, and impacts on the operational performance of the channel wheel fresh air...

Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dependence of thermal destabilization of electric-arc plasma in an air flow on discharge conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the conditions of electric-arc burning in an air flow on the ... processes in the development of instability in an arc-discharge column is shown.

V. N. Borisyuk; S. V. Goncharik…

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Research on Solar High-Temperature Absorption Air-Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the characteristics and performance of solar higher-temperature absorption air conditioning systems which employed linear concentrating collectors and double-effect absorption chillers. A solar...

Guoqing Yu; Jinhua Tang; Zhijun Zou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - automative air-conditioning systems Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 PLEASE HELP SAVE ENERGY Learn how to control the heating system for your room. Summary: & SW Heat & air conditioning control Cary E & NE &...

143

Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

Vliet, G. C.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Development and modelling of a solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the development and simulation of an advanced solar assisted liquid desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for ... regenerator, and an array of flat plate solar collectors. The sys...

Aqeel Kareem Mohaisen; Zhenjun Ma

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning heat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water. FIND... : Determine which condition feels colder. Contrast these results with a heat loss of 30 Wm2 under ormal room... in the case f air flow.o ANALYSIS: The hand will...

146

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower evaporator condenser radiators electric motor which acts as a vehicle engine and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000 1500 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0 500 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

Azhar Abdul Aziz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIRECT-EXPANSION AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN LOW HUMIDITY APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY MUKESH K. KHATTAR, P.E. DENNIS KEEBAUGH, P.E. Senior Systems Engineer Senior Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Shenandoah Solar Center... warehouse. The flat gravel roof is exposed to sun. The 16' ceiling is insulated with two inch spray foam. Entrance to the warehouse is through sealed and insulated doors located on the west partition wall. The air -conditioning sys tem on this leased...

Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Energy Efficient Design, Air Conditioning Correspondence to Author:  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT: HVAC maintain both comfort and safety of indoor air quality. The challenge of maintaining high product quality while simultaneously reducing production costs can often be met through investments in energy efficient technologies and energy efficiency practices. The greatest opportunities for energy efficiency exist at the design stage for HVAC systems in new industrial facilities. By sizing components of HVAC systems generally include dampers, supply and exhaust fans, filters, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, heating and cooling coils, ducts, and various sensors properly and designing energy efficiency into a new facility, an industry can minimize the energy consumption and operational costs of its plant HVAC systems from the outset. Optimizing system design and operations, such as minimizing laboratory ventilation, can also lead to significant reductions in energy use. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner.

Parth Patel; Parth Patel

152

An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

Sudip K. Mazumder

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Simulation- Assisted Audit of an Air Conditioned Office Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 performances of the installation. Finally, some significant retrofit opportunities are proposed. BUILDING DESCRIPTION Building design The considered building is an existing... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 In nominal heating conditions (outdoor : -10?C/RH 90%; indoor : 20?C/RH50%), with ?t = 30 K, this gives a sensible power demand of: g1843g4662g3046,g3041g3042g3040 =g343623...

Bertagnolio, S.; Lebrun, J.; Hannay, J.; Silva, C. A.

154

A comparison between the use of natural air and air containing ozone in conditioning farm products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H3 Ave, Air Volume& Otme 42EOO 52e98 45e 66 46e48 40, 65 56, 64 47, 31 48, 20 43. 65 51, 66 48. 99 48, 10 55. 98 52e98 42 00 50. 32 39EOO 41e31 41e 64 COe 65 39EOO 41, 25 41. 64 40. 63 , tatio Pressures In, H. C. ~ 4...

Wilkes, Lambert Henry

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded light duty vehicles in Algeria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Nejjari et al., 2003, Atek et al., 2004). As a result, many stations of air pollution measurement and Boukadoum, 2005). Vehicle pollutant emissions constitute not only a problem of air quality in big citiesJ. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded

Boyer, Edmond

156

Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, Ookayama, Meguro-ku 152-8550 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER PLANTS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating, and heating type for the divertor and first wall (FW). A particular power plant design is used, referred

California at San Diego, University of

159

Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from the Fresno, California, Retrofit Unoccupied Test House  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field testing was performed in a retrofit unoccupied test house in Fresno, California. Three air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems -- a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms -- were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each of the three systems was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling also was performed and refined based on comparison to field test results to determine the air flow rate into the bedrooms of over-door and bottom-of-door air transfer grilles.

Stecher, D.; Poerschke, A.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

valve increases. PREDICTION OF DEGRADED CONDITIONS There are several steady state simulation programs which are available to predict the design conditions of air conditioners and heat pumps [20, 21]. The ORNL and NIST models are popular and extensively... used in industry. Farzad modified ORNL model using NIST subroutines to simulate heat exchangers in a better fashion through tube-by-tube simulation [22]. Katipamula modified TRPUMP [TRansient PUMP, 23] to simulate transient conditions to elucidate about...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency increased with the increase of the solar irradiation. The efficiencies found to be very sensitive for low level of solar irradiations. At about 400 W m?2 irradiation efficiencies became less sensitive.

M. Imroz Sohel; Zhenjun Ma; Paul Cooper; Jamie Adams; Robert Scott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

163

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficeincy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Demonstration and Testing of ClimaStat® for Improved Rooftop Air-Conditioning Efficiency Presented at IA Technology Deployment Working Group Meeting March 15, 2012 By Dan Howett, PE Oak Ridge National Laboratory Demonstration/Testing of ClimaStat ® for Improved Efficiency of RTU Air Conditioners * Technology from Advantek Consulting - Patented by Dr. Michael West in 2003. (US Patent #6427454) - Originally demonstrated under DOE's Inventions & Innovations program. * Current demonstration sponsored by DOD's ESTCP program * Uses off-the-shelf components to either... - Modify existing packaged air conditioners, or - Incorporate changes into new RTU equipment before installation * Initial tests show 15% improvement in HVAC efficiency.

164

Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F, Second Fig ABSTRACT. Upper-air conditions archived in the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis have been used cannot be determined, so the investigation is limited to examining relative changes in those upper air

Rasmussen, L.A.

165

The effect of standard ambient conditions used for the determination of road load to predict vehicle fuel economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AN1BIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 198Z Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE EFFECT OF STANDARD AMBIENT CONDITIONS USED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROAD LOAD TO PREDICT VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY A Thesis by Michael Lee Love Approved...

Love, Michael Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................. 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment.................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................................ 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a Heat Pump................................................. 53.5 1.1 3.5 5.7 4.9 With a Heat Pump......................................................

167

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the outlet side of fan coil units (FCU) served by variableunit (AHU) including a return air economizer, chilled water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Buildings and Thermal Systems, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colo., and Qingyan (Yan) Chen systems, estimating building energy use and predicting thermal comfort for buildings with buoyancy models with building energy and load calculations as an extension to the ASHRAE Toolkit for Building Load

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

169

DEST Software to Analyze System Zoning and Energy Consumption in Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reports on a study on how to appropriately divide system zoning by using DeST software to calculate the basis dynamic temperature and load of all rooms in an office building. Influent factors of weather conditions, building envelope...

Fan, Y.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Innovative Evaporative and Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way-with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. Desiccants are an example of a thermally activated technology (TAT) that relies on heat instead

171

Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-2-2 Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB Zhigang Shi Songtao Hu Gang Wang Angui Li Xi?An University...

Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

173

A heuristic predictive logic controller applied to hybrid solar air conditioning plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper shows the development of a heuristic predictive logic controller (HPLoC) applied to a solar air conditioning plant. The plant uses two energy sources, solar and gas, in order to warm up the water. The hot water feeds a single-effect absorption ...

Darine Zambrano; Winston García-Gabín; Eduardo F. Camacho

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Experimental Tests and Predictive Model of an Adsorptive Air Conditioning Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An adsorption air conditioning unit has been built operating with a heat and mass recovery cycle and a zeolite?water pair. A new consolidated adsorbent composite with good heat transfer properties has been developed and implemented in the adsorber. At an ...

Florence Poyelle; Jean-Jacques Guilleminot; Francis Meunier

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

175

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments James Cummings BA-PIRC; Florida Solar Energy Center Presented at BA Summer Meeting, July 26, 2012 The gist of my message * Fixed capacity AC systems generally provide good RH control in typical residences. * In low-load homes, they may be less effective in achieving good RH control. * On the other hand, variable capacity AC systems have several characteristics which can provide improved RH control in homes. - Both Nordyne and Carrier have variable capacity units, varying from about 40% to 100% of nominal full capacity. - What is variable capacity? -- condenser fan, compressor speed, and AHU fan speed. The gist, continued

176

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

177

Evaluating the Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles under a Scoured Condition by Model Tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the scour widths were 0 and 667 mm. Two-way loading was the method of applying repeated loads and a safety factor of 2.0 was applied for the ultimate lateral load capacities of the piles calculated using Broms' method. Pile failure was defined when...

Ismael, Omar Khaleel

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage AirINSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units (Page 1 of 2) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 Ice Storage Air

180

Damage of Elastomeric Matrix Composites (EMC-rubbers) Under Static Loading Conditions: Experimental and Numerical Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastomeric matrix composites (EMC-rubbers) are considered as isotropic hyper elastic incompressible materials under static loading conditions. As a rubber material element cannot be extended to an infinite stretch ratio, a damage mechanism at large strain is considered. The phenomenon of cavitation plays an important role in the damage of EMCs and influences the toughening mechanism of rubber-modified plastics. Indeed, cavitation in elastomers is thought to be initiated from flaws, which grow primarily due to a hydrostatic tensile stress and ahead of the crack; there will not only be a high stress perpendicular to the plane of the crack but also significant stress components in the other direction. However, there exists historically much discussion on the evolution of the cavitation in elastomers under monotonic and/or static solicitation. Mainly, cavitation instability occurs when the stress levels are sufficiently high so that the void expansion rate becomes infinitely large. Many research works have been performed to understand the effects of rubber cavitation on toughening of plastics. In fact, the cavitation phenomenon is not well known in detail. The most popular idea states that the cavitation is related to the existence of the gas bubbles trapped in the material during the production stage and the growing of the cavities would then be the result of the growing gas bubbles. Further, instable failure mechanism at the end of the cavitation is not well known too.

Ayari, F. [Laboratory of Mechanics, College of Science and Technology, 1008 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia); Supmeca/LISMMA-Paris, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (France); Bayraktar, E. [Supmeca/LISMMA-Paris, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (France); Zghal, A. [Laboratory of Mechanics, College of Science and Technology, 1008 Montfleury, Tunis (Tunisia)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the development of wall reforms, the production scale and engineering applications of energy savings are increasing daily. It is inevitable to aggressively extend production of new energy-saving walls. Based on the thermal instantaneous...

Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development of a high efficiency compressor/expander for an air cycle air conditioning system. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the methods and procedures used and the results obtained in the design, fabrication, and testing of a rotary vane type compressor operated on air cycle thermodynamics. The history and results of the testing of a similar expander are summarized and the full report of that work is referenced. The machine design used was based on one patented by Ecton Corporation. The goal of the reported effort was to demonstrate the attainable efficiencies of these machines. Appropriate test rigs were assembled and the machines were tested at various operating conditions. The compressor testing did not achieve the full design speed because of time constraints but important data was obtained at 87% speed (3000 rpm). The maximum measured total efficiencies were 78% for the expander and 71% for the compressor. Various design improvements which may yield improved performance were identified and reported.

Summers, R.L.; Smolinski, R.E.

1982-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-6-3 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems Qin Wang, Xiaoping Miao, Baoyi Cheng, Liangkai Fan EIEC, PLA...]. Youming Chen, Shengwei Wang, Ling Zhang. Application of System Identification of Hygrothermal Process in Buildings [M]. Construction and Industry Publishing Company in China, Beijing, 2004. [7]. J.R. Philip, D.A. de Vries. Moisture Movement in Porous...

Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Identification of the Flow Resistance Coefficient and Validation of a Building Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for HRC estimation is investigated in this paper. And some conclusions can be got as follows: 1) The MGO method is applicable for S value identification. The method is based on the principle for multi goal optimization. The process can be widely used...ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-2 Zhijian Hou Identification of the Flow Resistance Coefficient and Validation of a Building Air Conditioning System Zhiwei Lian...

Hou, Z.; Lian, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality will be achieved. Our study aims to simulate airflow in the ventilated room with this new type of air conditioning. Radiation is taken into account by the energy conservation in the system. The following section presents algorithm, thermal..., the governing equations to be solved are the conservation equations for continuity, momentum, and energy as well as the equations for turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The buoyancy effect is accounted for by Boussinesq approximation...

Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

Not Available

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it...................... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System................................................... 65.9 15.3 22.6 10.7 9.9 7.3 Without a Heat Pump....................................... 53.5 12.5 17.9 8.7 8.2 6.3 With a Heat Pump............................................ 12.3

189

Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment........................... 17.8 3.2 4.7 3.6 5.5 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment........................................ 93.3 7.7 21.4 23.7 18.5 21.9 Use Cooling Equipment......................................... 91.4 7.6 21.0 23.4 17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it........................ 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System...................................................... 65.9 4.8 12.3 15.1 14.9 18.7 Without a Heat Pump......................................... 53.5 4.7 11.5 11.6 12.3 13.6 With a Heat Pump..............................................

190

Energy consumption and optimization of internally cooled/heated liquid desiccant air-conditioning system: A case study in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract LDAC (liquid desiccant air-conditioning system) is promising for reducing the energy consumption, and improving the indoor air quality. In this paper, the operation performance of LDAC with internally cooled/heated dehumidifier/regenerator was simulated and optimized. The cooling tower and solar collectors were employed as the cooling/heating source. Four nested iteration loops were developed and solved for system modeling. A typical commercial building in Hong Kong was selected as a case study, which air-conditioning load was obtained by Energy-plus. Results show that with the increase of solar collector area, the electricity consumption of AC (air-conditioning systems) system reduced by 11–35% in original system, but only a part of dehumidification demand was handled with liquid desiccant ventilation, which led to a low chiller COP (coefficient of performance). By adding a cooling coil for the solution entering dehumidifier, the electricity saving effectively increased to 22–47%, while the heat demand for regeneration also increased by 17%. So, a heat exchanger between water leaving regenerator and solution leaving dehumidifier was introduced. With the lower thermal requirement (reduced by 20%) and higher solar fraction (increased from 30 to 40%), the saving further increased to 29–49%, and the required collector area obviously reduced by 50–60% for the similar energy saving purpose.

Ronghui Qi; Lin Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I, on October 23, 2014.

192

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economizer control with constant supply air temperature seteconomizer control with constant supply air temperature setcontrol under the constraint of constant supply air temperature

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

E-Print Network 3.0 - air quality conditions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Summary: Learn More: www.arl.noaa.gov 17 A Breath of Fresh Air: Improving Air Quality Predictions... reduce air pollution by driving less and mowing their lawn when...

195

Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vehicle Air- Vehicle Air- Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range Preprint September 2000 * NREL/CP-540-28960 R. Farrington and J. Rugh To Be Presented at the Earth Technologies Forum Washington, D.C. October 31, 2000 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published

196

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et al. [2004], PRs allow a more appropriate estimate of the increase in each outcome associated with the risk factor of air-conditioning. The increase in prevalence was roughly estimated as [100* (crude PR * adjusted OR/crude OR)-100] %. Based on the data in Table 2 of Preziosi et al. [ 2004], estimates for the increased prevalence associated with air-conditioned offices include increases of 120% in otorhinolaryngology visits, and 40% in sickness absence. If these associated increases represented valid causal relationships, it would indicate enormous costs for employers and for society associated with air-conditioning systems, from increased health care and for reduced workplace productivity from sickness absence, in addition to a large burden of disease on workers.

Mendell, Mark J.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

None

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

199

Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

Karagiozis, A.N.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Optimizing Electric Humidifier Operation with an Air Side Economizer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air side economizer cycle is a control scheme that is often used in WAC systems to reduce cooling energy consumption by introducing variable quantities of ambient air into a conditioned space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling...

Shami, U. F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High Temperature Expansion Due to Compression Test for the Determination of a Cladding Material Failure Criterion under RIA Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is mainly dedicated to the development of an out-of-pile test reproducing the thermo-mechanical loading conditions encountered during the first stage of a Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA) transient, dominated by Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction (PCMI). In particular, the strain-controlled clad loading under high strain rate associated with temperatures up to 600 deg. C expected during the PCMI phase is simulated by an Expansion Due to Compression (EDC) test achievable at high temperature. The use of appropriate materials for the inner pellet made it possible to achieve the tests from 20 deg. C up to 900 deg. C. The interpretation of the test data is supported by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) including parameters tuned using an inverse method coupling FEA and tests results. A deformation model, identified upon the PROMETRA (Transient Mechanical Properties) experimental database and describing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding alloys under typical RIA loading conditions, is exploited. The combined analysis of experimental results and finite element simulations provides a deeper understanding of the deformation mode (near pure hoop tension) that arises during the tests. The failure mode appears to be representative of that obtained on tubes during the PCMI stage of RIA experiments. An appropriate device is currently developed in order to reach a bi-axiality of the loading path closer to that expected during the PCMI stage (between plane-strain and equal-biaxial tension). (authors)

Le Saux, M.; Poussard, C.; Averty, X.; Sainte Catherine, C.; Carassou, S. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DMN/SEMI, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Besson, J. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

An experimental system for advanced heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While having the potential to significantly improve heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system performance, advanced (e.g., optimal, robust and various forms of adaptive) controllers have yet to be incorporated into commercial systems. Controllers consisting of distributed proportional-integral (PI) control loops continue to dominate commercial HVAC systems. Investigation into advanced HVAC controllers has largely been limited to proposals and simulations, with few controllers being tested on physical systems. While simulation can be insightful, the only true means for verifying the performance provided by HVAC controllers is by actually using them to control an HVAC system. The construction and modeling of an experimental system for testing advanced HVAC controllers, is the focus of this article. A simple HVAC system, intended for controlling the temperature and flow rate of the discharge air, was built using standard components. While only a portion of an overall HVAC system, it is representative of a typical hot water to air heating system. In this article, a single integrated environment is created that is used for data acquisition, controller design, simulation, and closed loop controller implementation and testing. This environment provides the power and flexibility needed for rapid prototyping of various controllers and control design methodologies.

Michael Anderson; Michael Buehner; Peter Young; Douglas Hittle; Charles Anderson; Jilin Tu; David Hodgson

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

"Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

205

"Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.4,1.7 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,12.8,3.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,12.6,3.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7

206

"Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,5.3,7,7.7,6.6 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,"Q","N","Q",0.6 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4

207

"Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","U.S. Census Region" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Total",111.1,20.6,25.6,40.7,24.2 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,4,2.1,1.4,10.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,16.5,23.5,39.3,13.9 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,16.3,23.4,38.9,12.9 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.3,"Q",0.5,1 "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7

208

"Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"South Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total South" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central" "Total",111.1,40.7,21.7,6.9,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.4,0.8,0.2,0.3 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,39.3,20.9,6.7,11.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,38.9,20.7,6.6,11.7 "Have Equipment But Do Not Use it",1.9,0.5,"Q","Q","Q" "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2"

209

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

Miyashita, Yasushi

210

A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose the use of weighted linguistic fuzzy rules in combination with a rule selection process to develop accurate fuzzy logic controllers dedicated to the intelligent control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems concerning ... Keywords: BEMS, building energy management system, FLC, fuzzy logic controller, Fuzzy logic controllers, GA, genetic algorithm, Genetic algorithms, HVAC systems, HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, KB, knowledge base, PMV, predicted mean vote index for thermal comfort, Rule selection, Weighted fuzzy rules

Rafael Alcalá; Jorge Casillas; Oscar Cordón; Antonio González; Francisco Herrera

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advances in the development of energy efficient technologies: Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to and/or enhancement of air conditioning from mechanical chillers. SWAC pumps cold sea water from the appropriate ocean depths (50 to 3,000 feet depending on the climate and local characteristics) to the shore where it replaces (by direct cooling) or enhances (through use as condenser water) large mechanical chillers found in coastal facilities. SWAC direct cooling uses less than twenty per cent of the electricity of a mechanical chiller and uses no refrigerants whatsoever. Indirect cooling also offers substantial energy savings. Both systems dispense with the need for a cooling tower. Technical advances over the last twenty years in corrosion resistant alloys (titanium or aluminum), bio-fouling deterrence, and deep ocean pipeline deployment allow SWAC installations to use reliable, off-the-shelf technology. SWAC works in a variety of climates (existing installations are in Hawaii and Halifax, Nova Scotia), giving it significant domestic and international potential. Economy-of-scale advantages make it attractive to district cooling schemes.

Coony, J.E. [Boston Pacific Co., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Loads on Tie-Down Systems for Floating Drilling Rigs during Hurricane Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and SPAR Motion The motion characteristics of TLP and SPAR in the ocean are quite different due to the geometric shape of each structure and mooring configurations. These differences cause the different loading on tie-down systems. To some extent... by integrating the boundary element of submerged structures of interest or by the geometry itself in frequency domain. The external stiffness due to tendon and riser should be also considered to ensure a more reliable result. All of these procedures...

Bae, Yoon Hyeok

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - air filter condition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fans... , water treatment equipment, elevators (electric and hydraulic), sewer lift pumps, filter servicing in air... : Use of mechanical equipment such as refrigeration, air...

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences 3 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock Summary: Energy Efficient Process Heating: Managing Air Flow Kevin Carpenter...

216

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Geosciences ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 19 Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Summary: Connectable solar air collectors Solar...

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning applications Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Engineering 13 Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Summary: Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre...

218

Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy--ORNL/TM-2009/021  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

021 021 Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy February 2009 Prepared by Kevin Norman Shean Huff Brian West DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900 E-mail info@ntis.gov Web site http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange

219

Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

Wray, Craig; Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Federspiel, C.C.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Regression analysis of residential air-conditioning energy consumption at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy consumption of a house air conditioner located at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, is modeled as a function of weather parameters and total (global) solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The selection of effective parameters that significantly influence energy consumption is carried out using general stepping regression methods. The problem of collinearity between the regressors is also investigated. The final model involves parameters of total solar radiation on a horizontal surface, wind speed, and temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. However, the model coefficients are functions of relative humidity and/or temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor condition. Model adequacy is examined by the residual analysis technique. Model validation is carried out by the data-splitting technique. The sensitivity of the model indicates that relative humidity and temperature difference strongly influence the cooling energy consumption. It was found that an increase in relative humidity from 20% to 100% can cause a 100% increase in cooling energy consumption during the high cooling season.

Abdel-Nabi, D.Y.; Zubair, S.M.; Abdelrahman, M.A.; Bahel, V. (Energy Systems Group, Div. of Energy Resources, Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (SA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

"Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" 7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Usage Indicators",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

223

"Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" 6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,," Owner-Occupied Housing Units (millions)","Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With--" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,,"Detached","Attached","2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Total",111.1,78.1,64.1,4.2,1.8,2.3,5.7 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,11.3,9.3,0.6,"Q",0.4,0.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,66.8,54.7,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.8 "Use Cooling Equipment",91.4,65.8,54,3.6,1.7,1.9,4.7

224

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Meteorological Conditions Dependence of Radon Concentration in the Air above the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... very likely to happen in June, and, finally, we have connected the concentration of radon and of its descendants to the origin of the air masses, for the air ... If the air comes from the north-west of France or from Great Britain, its radon concentration is always between 10 and 27 pc./m3; the mean speed wind blowing ...

J. FONTAN; D. BLANC; A. BOUVILLE; J. LACAZE

1963-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

226

The lifetime and failure strain prediction of Zircaloy-4 cladding loaded under loca-similar temperature ramp conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The life fraction rule is applied to predict the time to failure of internally pressurized Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes subjected to temperature ramps similar to those expected in a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. For given loading conditions, the calculations are solely based on data from uniaxial stress rupture tests. No fitting procedure is involved in the comparison between prediction and results of burst tests. This evidently is an advantage of the present procedure. The agreement between the results of calculations and experiments is good. A modified Monkman-Grant (MMG) relationship, which connects the lifetime with the minimum creep rate and the strain to failure, is used to predict the failure strain of Zircaloy-4 cladding subjected to temperature ramps. This problem turned out to be more complicated than the prediction of lifetime. Contrary to the latter, due to the anisotropy of strain, data from burst experiments enter into the failure strain calculations. Thus the applicability of this method in the present form is restricted to particular loading conditions. However, considering the complexities of the problem, the agreement between experiments and calculations is encouraging.

Bocek, M.; Petersen, C.; Schmidt, L.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Indoor air environment and night cooling energy efficiency of a southern German passive public school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently built school building has adopted a novel heat recovery air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification have been numerically investigated concerning the effects of the heat flow flux of passive cooling within the ceiling concrete in the classroom due to night ventilation in summer which could result in cooling energy storage. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of passive cooling can simultaneously decrease the volume averaged indoor temperatures and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air-cooling unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of exhaust air and the heat flux value for passive cooling within the classroom ceiling concrete. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Xiao-Hong Li; Han-Qing Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Removal of submicron particles using a carbon fiber ionizer-assisted medium air filter in a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratory tests of particle removal were performed with a pair of carbon fiber ionizers installed upstream of a glass fiber air filter. For air flow face velocities of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m/s, the overall particle removal efficiencies of the filter for all submicron particles were 17%, 16%, and 14%, respectively, when the ionizers were not turned on. These values increased to 27%, 23%, and 19%, respectively, when the ionizers were used to generate ions of 6.0 × 109 ions/cm3 in concentration. The carbon fiber ionizers were then installed in front of a glass fiber air filter located in a heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. Field tests were performed in a test office room with a total indoor particle concentration of 2.2 × 104 particles/cm3. When the flow rate was 75 cubic meters per hour (CMH), the steady-state values of the total indoor particle concentrations using the glass fiber air filter with and without ionizers decreased to 0.87 × 104 particles/cm3 and 1.15 × 104 particles/cm3, respectively, resulting in a 25% decrease of the ionizer effect. When the operation flow rate was increased to 115 and 150 CMH, the effect of the ionizer decreased to 19% and 17%, respectively. These experimental data match the results calculated using a mass-balance model whose parameters were determined from laboratory tests.

Jae Hong Park; Ki Young Yoon; Jungho Hwang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8

230

Relationship between the merit factor of thermoelectric materials and the air conditioning unit of urban electric cars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main benefit of electric cars is to reduce air pollution in cities that is thus desirable to equip them with non polluting air conditioning units and this rules out frigorific compressors operating with CFC. The planned replacement of CFC by HFC is at best an interim solution. The best solution is certainly to use thermoelectric air conditioning units, which are inherently pollution-free. However, these have a fairly low COPF when compared to traditional compressor units. We study the relationship between the cooling of the interior of urban electric cars and the merit factor of the thermoelectric material in their Peltier unit. This should help provide concrete target properties of future T E materials. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Buffet, J. [Counsulting Engineer, 2 av. DODE de la BRUNERIE 75016 Paris (France)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning committee Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Committee Meeting Minutes January 16, 2008 Darden 126 Attendees... Transit Service, Maintenance Shop, Operations, Administration, Air and HSCMedical Center. Major Source: Whittle,...

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning devices Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Interaction Institute, Carnegie... cities of the developing world, urban air pollution has worsened, which has been detrimental... to the health of their populations. At...

233

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

zones. Variable speed fan coil units (VSFCU) provide air tounit (AHU) including an airside economizer, a chilled water cooling coil, and a relief fan.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Better Unitary Equipment Air-Handlers for Efficiency and Humidity Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure gives too little credit for advanced air handlers that reduce air conditioning load and facilitate adaptive humidity control through automatic fan speed adjustment. DC permanent magnet variable speed motors have much lower market share than less...

Sachs, H. M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning Finned tube adsorber bed Specific cooling power Adsorber bed to adsorbent mass ratio a b s t r a c t Adsorber bed design strongly affects the performance of waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems (ACS

Bahrami, Majid

236

Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy...

Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to significant power consumption of vapour-compression systems, finding a new "green" refrigerant is another vehicles (HEVs), as it is the second most energy consuming system after the electric motor. Further, HVAC air conditioning systems used in the automotive industry are based on vapour-compression refrigeration

Bahrami, Majid

238

Sensible and Latent Cooling Load Control Using Centrally-Ducted, Variable-Capacity Space Conditioning Systems in Low Sensible Load Environments  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

239

Une mthode simple de prvision des tempratures de l'air et de la surface du sol en conditions de geles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Une méthode simple de prévision des températures de l'air et de la surface du sol en conditions de l'air et du sol, on a tracé des abaques qui expriment le refroidissement en conditions de ciel clair frost conditions. A one-dimensional model of nocturnal change in soil and air temperature has been used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Influence of Mobile Air-Conditioning on Vehicle Emissions and Fuel Consumption:? A Model Approach for Modern Gasoline Cars Used in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, apart from studies involving MOBILE6 in the United States (1) and other U. S. studies (2?5), air-conditioning activity in relation to meteorological conditions has not been thoroughly investigated. ... For manual air conditioners, a good setting was sought before the test and the knobs for cooling and ventilation were readjusted if the temperature drifted more than 1 °C. ... The temperatures of the conditioned air range from 5 to 11 °C. ...

Martin F. Weilenmann; Ana-Marija Vasic; Peter Stettler; Philippe Novak

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

243

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Case Study: The Effective Use of an Extensive Logical rule Based Data Analytics Approach in Establishing Root Cause of Performance Issues in Widespread Deployments of Unitary Space Air Conditioning Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today a significant percentage of office spaces are air conditioned using widely deployed unitary systems, either Fan Coil Units (FCU) or Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes, to achieve high degrees of air conditioned zonal control. However establishing...

Brady, N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - air ingress conditions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Internet Computing, Las Vegas, NV (June 2002), pp. 201-208. Fair and Scalable Load Distribution in the Internet Summary: . Such a scheme would require the ingress nodes...

247

Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

Burdick, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zhang Senior Engineer Postgraduate Wuhan Architectural Design Institute, Wuhan, China, 430014 Chenyh918@263.net Abstract: This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air...

Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-borne dust conditions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L., Guo, J., Dan, M., Zhang, W., Wang, Z., and Hao, Z.: The air-borne particulate pollution... Discussions Regional characteristics of spring Asian dust and its impact on...

251

Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

Hassan, Yassin

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

252

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Air-to-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Researchers from Alliance for Residential Building Initiative worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation.

253

Combustion and \\{NOx\\} emissions of biomass-derived syngas under various gasification conditions utilizing oxygen-enriched-air and steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the \\{NOx\\} emissions from combustion of syngas derived from gasification of three different biomass feedstock (i.e., pine, maple–oak mixture, and seed corn) at different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions. Three different oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions were tested for each feedstock, thus resulting in nine different sets of syngas. The biomass-derived syngas was burned in an industrial burner that was integrated into the gasification system. The gasifier and burner are rated at 800 kW and 879 kW thermal, respectively. For each set of biomass-derived syngas, \\{NOx\\} emissions were measured at different burner operating conditions including various heat rates and equivalence ratios using emission analyzers with chemiluminescence technology. All the combustion test conditions are in the lean mixture ranges in order to avoid the peak temperature limitation of both the burner and combustion chamber. Results show that \\{NOx\\} emissions using syngas obtained from woody feedstock decrease almost linearly as the combustion mixture becomes leaner and the heat rate decreases. When compared to natural gas, syngas from both woody feedstock generates higher \\{NOx\\} emissions even when the heat rates are comparable, indicating that fuel \\{NOx\\} formation is highly important in biomass-derived syngas combustion. In contrast to syngas from woody feedstock, syngas from seed corn results in peak \\{NOx\\} emissions before \\{NOx\\} decreases with leaner conditions. The trend is observed for all fuel flow rates and all oxygen-enriched-air and steam conditions of seed corn-derived syngas. Among the three feedstock, seed corn has the highest nitrogen content which yields the highest ammonia concentration in syngas, which, in turn, results in the highest \\{NOx\\} emissions for all test conditions. Overall, the \\{NOx\\} emissions from seed corn-derived syngas combustion are approximately in the range of 450–900 ppm higher compared to those from wood-derived syngas combustion.

Cuong Van Huynh; Song-Charng Kong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Lifetime and failure strain prediction for material subjected to non-stationary tensile loading conditions: applications to Zircaloy - 4. [Monkman-Grant relationship  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The life fraction rule (LFR) is used to calculate the lifetime of materials subjected to stress and temperature ramp loading. The solutions for the individual nonstationary temperature and stress loading conditions can be applied to predict also the lifetime of structures loaded by superimposed ramps solely on the basis of normal 'iso'-stress rupture data. The concept is applied to tensional stress and temperature cycling as well. As compared with the peculiarities of the problem, the agreement between experiments and calculations is encouraging. 16 refs.

Bocek, M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Enhanced Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems Toward Peak Power Reduction for an Office Building in Kuwait  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced?Operation?Strategies?for?Air? Conditioning?and?Lighting? Systems?Toward?Peak?Power?Reduction? for?an?Office?Building?in?Kuwait F. Alghimlas A. Al-Mulla G.P. Maheshwari D. Al-Nakib Building and Energy Technologies Department... Environment and Urban Development Division ICEBO 2012 Manchester, United Kingdom October 23-26, 2012 Electricity?Use?by?Sector?in?Kuwait Percentages?of?Primary?Energy?Utilization Percentages?of?Electricity?Utilization Yearly?Increase?in...

Alghimlas, F.; Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Influence of Fault and Optimization of PID Parameters in Building Air-Conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 800 8 10 12 14 16 18 Supply air flow volume A ir flo w v ol um e[ m 3 / h] A ir flo w v ol um e[ m 3 / h] (b)Supply air flow volume Time[hour] 0 10 20 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1....4 18161412108 Time[hour] Secondary inlet water temp. Secondary outlet water temp. Secondary pump water flow volume w at er fl ow v ol um e[ m 3 / h] Te m p. [d eg .C ] (d)Secondary inlet & outlet water temp. / water flow volume 10...

Kuniyoshi, K.; Akashi, Y.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Song, Y.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

The Evaluation of the Heat Loading from Steady, Transient, and Off-Normal Conditions in ARIES Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heat loading on plasma facing components (PFCs) provides a critical limitation for design and operation of the first wall, divertor, and other special components. Power plants will have high power entering the scrape-off layer and transporting to the first wall and divertor. Although the design for steady heat loads is understood, the approach for transient and offnormal loading is not. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating space of viable solutions and point to research focus areas.

C.E. Kessel, M.S. Tillack and J. Blanchard

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

259

Combustion of single biomass particles in air and in oxy-fuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion behaviors of four different pulverized biomasses were evaluated in the laboratory. Single particles of sugarcane bagasse, pine sawdust, torrefied pine sawdust and olive residue were burned in a drop-tube furnace, set at 1400 K, in both air and O2/CO2 atmospheres containing 21, 30, 35, and 50% oxygen mole fractions. High-speed and high-resolution images of single particles were recorded cinematographically and temperature–time histories were obtained pyrometrically. Combustion of these particles took place in two phases. Initially, volatiles evolved and burned in spherical envelope flames of low-luminosity; then, upon extinction of these flames, char residues ignited and burned in brief periods of time. This behavior was shared by all four biomasses of this study, and only small differences among them were evident based on their origin, type and pre-treatment. Volatile flames of biomass particles were much less sooty than those of previously burned coal particles of analogous size and char combustion durations were briefer. Replacing the background N2 gas with CO2, i.e., changing from air to an oxy-fuel atmosphere, at 21% O2 impaired the intensity of combustion; reduced the combustion temperatures and lengthened the burnout times of the biomass particles. Increasing the oxygen mole fraction in CO2 to 28–35% restored the combustion intensity of the single biomass particles to that in air.

Juan Riaza; Reza Khatami; Yiannis A. Levendis; Lucía Álvarez; María V. Gil; Covadonga Pevida; Fernando Rubiera; José J. Pis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning systemsfor occupant Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University Collection: Biology and Medicine 3 Introduction Prior research has shown that energy savings are Summary: conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. The meeting took place on Thursday January 5 th , 2012 from 2pm to 3-pm. The following topics were discussed. 1.) Sell-Through. HARDI asked for clarification on the DOE's notation on the Framework Document

262

Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23.11.2014Ã?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Ã?bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Ã?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

Zevenhoven, Ron

264

Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas.

Yutong Li; Lin Lu; Hongxing Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

Kerrigan, P.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document provides Public Information for Convening Interviews for US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment

267

The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes ...

Lee, Kyoung Ok

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Ushimaru, Kenji (Energy International, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Optimal supply air temperature with respect to energy use in a variable air volume system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a variable air volume (VAV) system with 100% outdoor air, the cooling need in the building is satisfied with a certain air flow at a certain supply air temperature. To minimize the system energy use, an optimal supply air temperature can be set dependent on the load, specific fan power (SFP), chiller coefficient of performance, outdoor temperature and the outdoor relative humidity. The theory for an optimal supply air temperature is presented and the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) energy use is calculated depending on supply air temperature control strategy, average U-value of the building envelope and two outdoor climates. The analyses show that controlling the supply air temperature optimally results in a significantly lower HVAC energy use than with a constant supply air temperature. The optimal average U-value of the building envelope is in practise mostly zero.

Fredrik Engdahl; Dennis Johansson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Development of cold seawater air conditioning systems for application as a demand side management tool for Hawaii and other subtropical climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of the proximity to deep cold seawater for many coastal regions in Hawaii and the high demand for air conditioning in large buildings, seawater air conditioning (SWAC) is a major potential sustainable energy resource for Hawaii and other subtropical regions of the world. The basic concept of seawater air conditioning is the use deep cold seawater to cool the chilled water in one or more air conditioned buildings as opposed to using energy intensive refrigeration systems. The economic viability of the seawater air conditioning is determined by comparing the construction and operating costs of the seawater supply system to the construction and operating costs of conventional air conditioning systems. The State of Hawaii commissioned an analysis to identify the technical and economic opportunities and limitations in the use of SWAC in Hawaii. The result of this work is a feasibility analysis of SWAC systems in the state and the potential associated energy savings. The study looked at the prospects of installing such a system at a major new resort development on Oahu called West Beach.

Kaya, M.H. [State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Influence of Real-World Engine Load Conditions on Nanoparticle Emissions from a DPF and SCR Equipped Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Influence of Real-World Engine Load Conditions on Nanoparticle Emissions from a DPF and SCR Equipped Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine ... United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines have gradually evolved toward stringent emissions control policy. ... All diesel engines manufactured to be used in the US are subject to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), which mandates exercising the engine over the FTP engine dynamometer cycle. ...

Arvind Thiruvengadam; Marc C. Besch; Daniel K Carder; Adewale Oshinuga; Mridul Gautam

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

274

Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of MAC systems also consumes significant quantities of fuel as compared to similar driving conditions without operating the air conditioning. ... However, turning off the air conditioner and rolling-down the windows also decreases fuel economy due to increased air drag but this scenario is not considered in these studies (1, 2). ... In 2006, the European Commission issued Directive 2006/40/EC (commonly known as the F-Gas Directive) (3), which requires new types of air-conditioned cars sold in the EU to have a refrigerant with a GWP of 150 or less starting in 2011, and all new vehicles to have a refrigerant with a GWP of 150 or less by 2017. ...

Stella Papasavva; Deborah J. Luecken; Robert L. Waterland; Kristen N. Taddonio; Stephen O. Andersen

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

275

Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 6950 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada V6T 1Z4)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

Golbraikh, Ephim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star AHRI Comments - DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star May 9, 2011 P a g e | 1 May 9, 2010 Ms. Ashley Armstrong U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: DOE Verification Testing in Support of Energy Star Dear Ms. Armstrong: I am writing on behalf of the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) to address the proposed DOE requirements for verification testing in support of the Energy Star program. AHRI is the trade association representing manufacturers of heating, cooling, and commercial refrigeration equipment. More than 300 members strong, AHRI is an internationally recognized advocate for the industry, and develops standards for and certifies the performance of many of the

279

Uncertainty of sound power levels determined following Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Standard 220  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of the AHRI ASA-ANSI and ISO standards development processes the uncertainty of sound power measurements needs to be quantified for inclusion in sound power standards. A study of four reverberation rooms with volumes of 140 280 560 and 1790 cubic meters was undertaken. Sound power levels for five noise sources (two vertical shafted sound sources two horizontal shafted sound sources and a leaf blower) were determined using ARI Standard 220. Variables investigated include: source location source orientation room conditions source operating characteristics and microphone traverse length. The frequency range of interest was 25 Hz to 10 kHz. Measurements were repeated and the order of tests was randomized. Of particular interest was the difference between the 140 cubic foot room and the other rooms to confirm the room qualification process required by ARI Standard 220 because the 140 cubic foot room does not meet the ARI Standard 220 qualification process but does meet the requirements in ISO 3741. This work will be helpful in understanding the sources of variation and allow for a starting point for determining if improvements are needed and if so what factors should be considered.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

Li, Lee, E-mail: leeli@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, HuaZhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

282

Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These control strategies mainly involve optimal chiller sequencing control, cooling tower sequencing control, optimal water pressure differential set-point control, AHU supply air static pressure reset control and DCV-based fresh air control, etc. To assess...

Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Strength Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional E- Glass Fiber Epoxy Resin Nanoclay Composites under Hygrothermal Loading Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) plays a vital role in many industries because of its high strength to weight ratio. Its strength properties are somewhat lower than carbon fibre and it is less stiff and brittle. Using glass fibre in industries because of its raw material is much less expensive with compare to other materials. In the present work, the epoxy resin was modified using natural montmorillonite Closite 30B (1 wt%, 3 wt%, 5 wt%) nanoclay is used with E-glass unidirectional fiber to manufacture fiber reinforced nanocomposite using hand layup method. Three different types of fiber reinforced nanocomposites are fabricated using 1wt% nanoclay, 3wt% nanoclay and 5wt% nanoclay with 30% wt fiber, epoxy resin and hardener. The epoxy resin and hardener are mixed in 10:4 weight ratios. Three different test, tensile test, hardness test and flexural test were measured through using mechanical test instruments. The mechanical test shows that the tensile and flexural strength for 3wt% nanoclay composite is more compared to 1wt% and 5wt% nanoclay composite. To improve the flexural and tensile properties are 57% and 8% respectively by adding 3wt% of nanoclay. Micro hardness test for 3wt% of nanoclay composite is higher compare to 1wt% and 5wt% nanoclay composite and further increase beyond 3wt% nanoclay hardness start decreasing .Further check durability the specimen were immersed in water and NaOH baths under accelerated hygrothermal loading for 30 days. Due to accelerated hygrothermal loading it is observed that the mechanical properties degradation in NaOH environment was more severe as compared to simple water.

S.K. Singh; S. Singh; S. Sharma; V. Sharma

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

Ledenyov, Oleg P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: QwickLoad  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

QwickLoad QwickLoad QwickLoad logo QwickLoad uses the ASHRAE TFM (Transfer Function Method) algorithms combined with a screen interface that provides building load calculations. It includes a Duct Sizing Program and supports IP and SI units. QwickLoad Residential 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 10 zones. QwickLoad Commercial 7.0 provides heat gain and heat loss calculations for up to 500 zones. Zones and plenums can be added or deleted with one button click. Intuitive screens for entering building information. Default is automatically displayed. Construction types for roofs, walls, partitions, windows, shade types, and scheduling control. Complete air-conditioning and heating system control and supply, return, heating and cooling duct static pressure specification. Energy recovery ventilator can

287

Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Willingness - to - pay (WTP). The analysis makes it possible to compare the technical and eco-nomic differences of the air conditioning system based on business economics to a system with greater empha-sis on socio...

Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

289

2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

290

2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Small, large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

291

Perovskite Sr0.95Ce0.05CoO3d loaded with copper nanoparticles as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could be used in a metal/air battery or a PEM fuel cell as an efficient and stable bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air batteries Wei Yang,ab Jason Salim,c Shuai Li,ab Chunwen Sun,*ab Liquan Chen,ab John B. 1. Introduction A requirement for the proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) H2/air fuel cell

292

ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

293

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers January 16, 2014 - 4:19pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the calculator assumptions and definitions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement How many chillers will you purchase? Performance Factors Existing What is the existing design condition? Full Load Partial Load What is the cooling capacity of the existing chiller? tons What is the full-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER What is the partial-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER New What is the new design condition? Full Load Partial Load

294

Development and evaluation of optimization-based air economizer strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes two new strategies for controlling air economizers. The model-based control strategy uses a model to estimate the load on the cooling coil for 100% outdoor air and minimum outdoor air and transitions dampers between these two positions to minimize the load. The optimization-based control strategy uses a cooling coil model and a one-dimensional optimization routine to determine the fraction of outdoor air that minimizes the coil load. A coil model based on the contact–mixture analogy was adopted for this study and validated with experimental data. Simulations were used to compare the new economizer control strategies with traditional strategies. Simulations evaluated the sensitivity of the annual and peak cooling loads to outdoor air and return air sensor errors and climatic conditions. Incorrect control decisions stemming from sensor errors reduce the achievable energy savings and lead to higher peak hourly loads. For a scenario representative of poorly maintained sensors, the lowest annual coil loads of the economizer strategies investigated are 3.0–40.3% higher than those achieved for the ideal scenario of optimization-based control and ideal sensors (i.e., no sensor errors), and the lowest peak hourly loads for those cases are 6.8–84.1% higher than those for the ideal scenario.

J.E. Seem; J.M. House

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Air handling unit supply air temperature optimal control during economizer cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have an air economizer cycle for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. During the economizer cycle, the outside air and return air dampers are modulated to seek supply air temperature at its setpoint. The supply air temperature is typically set at 55 F (13 °C) to control humidity in the space. However, dehumidification is not necessary when the outside air is dry. Meanwhile, the space may have less cooling load due to envelope heat loss and/or occupant schedule changes. These facts provide an opportunity to use higher supply air temperature to reduce or eliminate mechanical cooling and terminal box reheat. On the contrary, a higher supply air temperature requires increased air flow as well as fan power. Therefore, an optimization question is formed, through which an optimal supply air temperature is identified to minimize total energy consumption. In this paper a steady-state energy consumption model is established for AHU systems under the economizer, and then an analytical optimization method is used to seek an optimal supply air temperature setpoint to minimize the energy cost. This paper presents AHU system energy modeling, supply air temperature optimization, simulated energy savings, and control sequence development.

Gang Wang; Li Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The use of phase change materials in domestic heat pump and air-conditioning systems for short term storage: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Heat pumps for space heating and cooling are a mature and highly efficient technology that can take advantage of renewable energies. They can also provide energy savings by load shifting when they operate together with thermal energy storage (TES). This paper presents a literature review of TES systems using phase change materials (PCM) potentially applicable to domestic heat pumps used in residential and administrative buildings. The paper describes the systems proposed by the different authors and presents the main conclusions of the studies. The TES systems presented are not only used as energy storage to shift the load demand but also for other applications such as heat recovery or defrosting in air-conditioners. The PCM have the suitable melting temperature to work together with standard heat pumps in each application. Moreover, some systems where the heat pump is coupled to latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) units and other energy sources or where the TES system is incorporated in a radiant floor or air distribution system have also been included.

Pere Moreno; Cristian Solé; Albert Castell; Luisa F. Cabeza

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

DOE/EA-1673: Environmental Assessment for Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment (July 2009)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 3 Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment July 2009 8-i CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 8-1 8.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................... 8-1 8.3 AIR POLLUTANT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................................................ 8-1 8.4 AIR QUALITY REGULATIONS ...................................................................................... 8-3

299

Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water-source...

Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Distribution Behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), and Zr(IV) with N,N-Dihexyl Octanamide Under Uranium-Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-based PUREX process has been the workhorse of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the last four and a half decades, a few drawbacks associated with the use of TBP have caused concern to the separation scientists and technologists. These shortcomings may pose a serious challenge particularly during the reprocessing of (a) short cooled thermal reactor fuels, (b) fast reactor fuels with the larger Pu content and significantly higher burn up, and (c) while treating various waste streams for their disposal to the environment. The N,N-dialkyl aliphatic amides have received particular attention as alternate potential extractants for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in view of (a) the innocuous nature of their degradation products, namely, carboxylic acids/amines and (b) the possibility to incinerate the used solvent leading to reduced volume of secondary waste. The physical and chemical properties of these amides are influenced strongly by the nature of alkyl groups. The extractant N,N-dihexyl octanamide (DHOA) was found to be a promising candidate among a large number of extractants studied. Laboratory batch studies as well as mixer settler studies were performed under process conditions with DHOA and compared with those of TBP. DHOA was found to extract Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium loading conditions. In addition, the extraction behavior of Am(III) and Zr(IV) was studied at varying nitric acid concentrations (1 to 6 M). Extraction behavior of uranium at macroconcentrations (9.9 to 157.7 g/l) was carried out at different temperatures, and it was observed that D{sub U} decreased with the increase in U loading as well as with the increase of temperature (in the range 25 to 45 deg. C) and that the two-phase reaction was exothermic in nature. Mixer settler studies on U(VI) revealed that DHOA is similar to TBP during the extraction cycle but better than TBP during the stripping cycle.

Manchanda, V.K.; Ruikar, P.B.; Sriram, S.; Nagar, M.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.; Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Ramanujam, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A comparison between two underfloor air distribution (UFAD) design tools  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TWO UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) DESIGN TOOLS Bin CHENunderfloor air distribution (UFAD) design tools (ASHRAE RP-air distribution (UFAD), Cooling load, Design tool, HVAC

Chen, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred S; Chen, Qingyan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sonic Load History Recorder. I. Feasibility Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acoustic loads to which an aircraft is subjected during its lifetime must be known for structural?fatigue analysis in aircraft design. The Sonic Load History Recorder senses filters smooths and records some measure of the length of time the sound pressure has spent in a given level band. Sound?pressure?level distributions over long periods of time are calculated for a present?day aircraft from engine?operating parameters operational characteristics of the aircraft and from ambient atmospheric conditions. The requirements for a device which is designed to provide a useful description of acoustic loads at a point on an operational aircraft are developed on the basis of the SPL histories and fatigue criteria. [This work was supported under U. S. Air Force Contract AF 33(616)?7789.

N. Doelling; D. Noiseux

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Grid Friendly Appliances – Load-side Solution for Congestion Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the effectiveness of deploying grid-friendly{trademark} appliances (GFAs) as a load-side solution for congestion management in a competitive electricity market, with the residential house ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) load used as an example. A GFA is an appliance that can have a sensor and a controller installed to detect price, voltage, or frequency signals and turn on/off according to certain control logic. By using the congestion price as a signal to shift GFA power consumption from high-price periods to low-price periods to reduce load in load pocket areas, transmission line congestion can be successfully mitigated. The magnitude of GFA load reduction and the location of the GFA resources are critical to relieve congestion on targeted lines while not causing other lines to congest. Simulation results are presented and the impact of implementing price-responsive GFAs on the power grid is also studied.

Lu, Ning; Nguyen, Tony B.

2006-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes for air-cathode microbial fuel cells{  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development and evaluation of carbon and binder loading in low-cost activated carbon cathodes materials in order to optimize and extend the lifetime of AC cathodes in MFCs. 1. Introduction A microbial, with the cathode typically limiting power production.5,6 Catalysts can be used to reduce the activation energy

305

Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. 16. NT VVS 116, 1997. ?Refrigeration and heat pump equipment: Check-ups and performance data inferred from measurements under field conditions in the refrigerant system?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. ESL-IC-10...

Berglof, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that is certified to the Department; The timing of when the certification should be made relative to distribution in commerce; and Alterations to a basic model that would impact the certification.

307

2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

308

Using energy audits to investigate the impacts of common air-conditioning design and installation issues on peak power demand and energy consumption in Austin, Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents an analysis of a unique dataset of 4971 energy audits performed on homes in Austin, Texas in 2009–2010. We quantify the prevalence of typical air-conditioner design and installation issues such as low efficiency, oversizing, duct leakage, and low measured capacity, and estimate the impacts that resolving these issues would have on peak power demand and cooling energy consumption. We estimate that air-conditioner use in single-family residences currently accounts for 17–18% of peak demand in Austin, and we found that improving equipment efficiency alone could save up to 205 MW, or 8%, of peak demand. We estimate that 31% of systems in this study were oversized, leading to up to 41 MW of excess peak demand. Replacing oversized systems with correctly sized higher efficiency units has the potential for further savings of up to 81 MW. We estimate that the mean system could achieve 18% and 20% in cooling energy savings by sealing duct leaks and servicing their air-conditioning units to achieve 100% of nominal capacity, respectively. Although this analysis is limited to the City of Austin, understanding the methods described herein could allow electric utilities in similar climates to make better-informed decisions when considering efficiency improvement programs.

Joshua D. Rhodes; Brent Stephens; Michael E. Webber

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Integrated Modeling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Modeling Integrated Modeling NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team predicts the impact of advanced vehicle cooling technologies before testing by using an integrated modeling process. Evaluating the heat load on a vehicle under real world conditions is a difficult task. An accepted method to evaluate passenger compartment airflow and heat transfer is computational fluid dynamics. (CFD). Combining analytical models with CFD provides a powerful tool to assist industry both on current vehicles and on future design studies. Flow chart showing the vehicle integrated modeling process which considers solar radiation, air conditioning, and vehicles with CAD, glazing, cabin thermal/fluid, and thermal comfort modeling tools. Results are provided for fuel economy, tailpipe emissions and occupant thermal comfort.

310

Forced Air Systems in High Performance Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE HOMES Iain Walker (LBNL) Building America Meeting 2013 What are the issues? 1. Sizing  When is too small too small? 2. Distribution  Can we get good mixing at low flow? 3. Performance  Humidity Control  Part load efficiency  Blowers & thermal losses Sizing  Part-load - not an issue with modern equipment  Careful about predicted loads - a small error becomes a big problem for tightly sized systems  Too Low Capacity = not robust  Extreme vs. design days  Change in occupancy  Party mode  Recovery from setback Sizing  Conventional wisdom - a good envelope = easy to predict and not sensitive to indoor conditions  But..... Heating and cooling become discretionary - large variability depending on occupants

311

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

314

Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was equipped with the ability to use either a short-tube orifice (STO) or a thermal expansion valve (TXV). The degraded conditions studied include low evaporator airflow, high and low-charge, and a blocked condenser coil. The work presented in this thesis...

Watt, James Bonner

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Air Cooling R&D  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

operation condition - Conservative power factor * Applied 1.5 safety factor to MOSFET heat loss for heat load target * Used heat load target for all devices Generating Power...

316

Characteristics of Photosynthesis in Wheat Cultivars with Different Sensitivities to Ozone Under O3-Free Air Concentration Enrichment Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the help of the Chinese Ozone-Free Air Concentration Enrichment (O3FACE) platform, the responses of photosynthsis characteristics to elevated O3 concentration were investigated using winter wheat (Tritcium aestivum L.) cultivars Yannong 19 and Yangmai 16, which differ in sensitivities to O3. Under O3 treatment for 75 d, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomtal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased significantly in both cultivars, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) changed slightly. The O3-sensitive cultivar Yannong 19 had larger reductions in Pn (61.1%), Gs (68.0%), and Tr (57.4%) than Yangmai 16 (27.9%, 37.5%, and 27.9%, respectively). This indicated that the reduction of Pn mostly resulted from the nonstomatal factors in cooperation with stomal factors. In the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark (Fv/Fm), the potential activity of PSII (Fv/Fo), the photochemical quenching (qP), and the rate of photochemical reaction (Prate) decreased in the O3 treatment, but the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and the rate of thermal dissipation (Drate) showed a upward tendency. The change tendency of total soluble protein content and the amount of Rubisco was similar to that of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and Pn. The results implied that the major nonstomal factors responsible for the Pn decrease under elevated O3 concentration were the Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation limitation and the damage of PSII. The change extents of all the parameters were larger in Yannong 19 than in Yangmai 16. The high Tr value and slow reduction of Rubisco amount in Yangmai 16 are probably crucial reasons for its high photosynthetic rate.

Ji-Ling CAO; Liang WANG; Qing ZENG; Jing LIANG; Hao-Ye TANG; Zu-Bin XIE; Gang LIU; Jian-Guo ZHU; Kazhuhiko KOBAYASHI

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air conditioning  IAQ: Indoor air quality  LBNL: Lawrence Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms? HDEGRADING INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN CALIFORNIA CLASSROOMS?

Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz [Laboratoire ICARE CNRS, 1C Av. de la Recherche Scientifique 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

319

Estimation of the damage of a porous limestone from continuous (P- and S-) wave velocity measurements under uniaxial loading and different hydrous conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Schubnel et al. 2005) and shale (Dewhurst Siggins 2006; Sarout...indicates that the damage is anisotropic. This decrease in Young's...isotropic and became progressively anisotropic during loading. Indeed, during...microcracks and stress field on shale anisotropy, Geophys. J......

J. Eslami; D. Grgic; D. Hoxha

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The impacts of duct design on life cycle costs of central residential heating and air-conditioning systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Many central residential HVAC systems in the U.S. operate at high external static pressures due to a combination of system restrictions. Undersized and constricted ductwork are thought to be key culprits that lead to excess external static pressures in many systems, although the magnitude of energy impacts associated with restrictive ductwork and the costs or benefits associated with addressing the problem are not well known. Therefore, this work uses annual energy simulations of two typical new single-family homes in two separate climates in the United States (Austin, TX and Chicago, IL) to predict the impacts of various external static pressure ductwork designs from independent HVAC contractors (using both flexible and rigid sheet metal ductwork materials) on annual space conditioning energy use. Results from the simulations are combined with estimates of the initial installation costs of each duct design made by each contractor to evaluate the total life cycle costs or savings of using lower pressure duct designs in the two homes over a 15-year life cycle. Lower pressure ductwork systems generally yielded life cycle cost savings, particularly in homes with PSC blowers and particularly when making comparisons with constant ductwork materials (i.e., comparing flex only or rigid only).

Brent Stephens

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Plug Load  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Commercial Commercial Industrial Lighting Energy Smart Grocer Program HVAC Program Shell Measures Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment Plug Load New...

322

With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air quality implications of a changing climate.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

%, vehicle miles traveled increased 103% and energy consumption increased 30% (U.S. EPA 2008). Air pollution- port emphasized that the U.S. air quality management system must be "flexible and vigilant" to ensure

Cohen, Ronald C.

323

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benchmark – Long Cycle .............................................................................................. 95 5.46 System Pressures and Temperatures – Valve Part Cycle Vs Benchmark – Long Cycle...

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Heat balance for two commercial broiler barns with solar preheated ventilation air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In temperate climatic zones, solar air heaters can reduce heating loads, and increase winter ventilation rates thereby improving inside air quality and livestock performance without additional fuel input. A heat balance was carried out to measure bird heat production under field conditions on two commercial broiler barns to evaluate the impact of solar heated ventilation air on bird performance, and identify strategies to reduce winter heating load. Located 40 km east of Montreal, Canada, the experimental broiler barns were identically built with three floors housing 6500 birds per floor in an all-in all-out fashion. Equipped with solar air pre-heaters over their fresh air inlets, the barns were instrumented to monitor inlet, inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and heating system operating time. The effects on bird performance were observed from November 2007 to March 2009 by alternating their operation between the barns. The measured sensible and total heat productions of 4.5 W and 8.4 W, respectively, for 1 kg birds corresponded to laboratory measured values. Bird performance was not affected by the solar air pre-heaters which increased the ventilation rate above normal during only 20% of the daytime period. Room air temperature stratification resulted in 20–40 kW of heat losses during the winter, representing 25% of the total natural gas heat load. Because inside air moved directly to the fans, large and rapid increases in ventilation inlet air temperature, produced by the solar air pre-heaters, resulted in further heat losses equivalent to 15% of the solar energy recovered. Sustainable energy management in livestock barns requiring heating should incorporate an air mixing system to eliminate air temperature stratification and improve fan flows.

Sébastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Comparison of the stress-strain relations of a real soil with those of a simulated soil under triaxial loading conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'I'. " '1!lC ' 1L~JY 1IZSIIET VT . CO ~'ICLES1L"iS ', ll. I'Ill'Lol' Id SI:, ', IRCH RSCOI'""IR I!! I'TOES d I 'PS!d. '1'I' 'IUe S dpi'S!KTX 1'lIIISa YT L I!RES, 'IIET: C "PRE'IE Z E !R 7 '~I&pi! E o vi DIB'1' OF FIGURES l~ii ure Pa ge 2. 1... h, . meci ar ical beiiav or of nnite? ialn cumposed oi' discreLe eius i, i c: spheres. Derea'e;;iiiz (i9qyj a:id iiendron (1963) present i he canes of determining defu?iiia 4:oris ' n uoac air!i rlei'sc pair'. ed. Li:rce-c. 'r ens iurin. l. nr ays...

Lynch, Frank Lane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

328

Load Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

329

Studies in the Respiratory and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Plant Tissues. III. Experimental Studies of the Formation of Carbon Dioxide and of the Changes in Lactic Acid and other Products in Potato Tubers in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions J. Barker A. F. El Saifi This paper is the third in a series dealing with the anaerobic metabolism of potato tubers. In the two earlier papers (Barker Saifi 1952a, b) we considered the changes which occurred during...

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Studies in the Respiratory and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Plant Tissues. IV. The Relation between the Rate of Carbon Dioxide Production in Potato Tubers in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions, and the Accompanying Changes in Lactic Acid Content and Sugar Concentration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Following Anaerobic Conditions, and the Accompanying Changes in Lactic Acid Content and Sugar Concentration J. Barker A. F. El Saifi In part III of this series data were presented for the changes in air following periods of anaerobiosis in the rate of production...

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Residential load management: A small town`s experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an integrated residential load management program controlling air conditioning, electric heating, and water heating. The location is Lockhart, Texas, a small city in the central part of the state. A cooperative effort of City management and the wholesale power supplier (the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA)) produced a cost-effective, verifiable load management program which benefits the participants, the City, and LCRA. Included are descriptions of the successes and failures in marketing the program to potential participants, discussion of the switch installation and inspection process, and accounts of customer reactions when load management actually began to affect their appliances. The report includes information about customer acceptance and drop-out rates, rebate incentives, and local electrical contractor alliances. And, this report outlines the monitoring system and gives the results of the metering at both the end-use and feeder.

Lewis, C.; Riordon, K.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

96 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Current duct design methods for variable air volume  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.Hourlyairflowrequirements, part-load fan characteristics, and duct static pressure control are incorporated into the problem airflow. Fan power is also influ- enced if static pressure at the end of the longest duct line for effective, energy-efficient, and comfortable heating, ventilat- ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems

335

High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air conditioning unit in place in a window frame. Window air conditioners are inexpensive,...

336

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

337

An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIOATION OF THE NEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HDRIZOHTAL METAL PLATE UNDER FROSTINO COND1TIONS A Thesis By BOBBY BELL~ JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial... ~ ~ ~. . . 60 - 61 17 Total Heat Transferred, to Plate vs. Time ~ 18 19 20 Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Frost vso Time. . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ Heat Transfer Convective Coefficient vs. Time ~ 0 4 ~ 0 ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ ~ Resistivity of' Air...

Bell, Bobby

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

339

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

check in the air conditioning products category is indicatednumber of domestic air conditioning product manufacturers100 million worth of air conditioner products to 14 major

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Load Management for Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the electric utility industry, load management provides the opportunity to control customer loads to beneficially alter a utility's load curve Load management alternatives are covered. Load management methods can be broadly classified into four...

Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model of a room in which whole-field supply air mixing maps of two vertical planes were measured using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent dye was used to simulate the supply airflow; and the resulting concentrations within the water filled model show how the supply air mixes with the room air and are an analog for temperature (for thermal loads) or fresh air (for ventilation). In addition to performing experiments over a range of flow rates, we also changed register locations and examined the effects for both heating and cooling operation by changing the water density (simulating air density changes due to temperature changes) using dissolved salt.

Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development and Verification for the Control Method Using Surplus Pressure of Primary Pumps in Chiller Plant Systems for Air Conditioning which Adopts Primary/Secondary Piping Systems PPT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(chiller side) and secondary flow loop (load side). It is a huge energy loss, because the primary pumps use their head to lead much flow to the decoupler. Therefore, we have developed new control method using surplus pressure of the primary pump to reduce...

Matsushita, N.; Fujimura, M.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

DOE-HDBK-1169-2003; DOE Handbook Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

viii viii ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND CONVERSION CHARTS ACGIH American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACI American Concrete Institute ADC Air Diffusion Council ADL Additional Dynamic Loads AEC U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of ERDA, DOE, and NRC) AFI Air Filter Institute AGS American Glovebox Society AgX silver-exchanged zeolite AHJ Authority Having Jurisdiction AISI American Iron and Steel Institute AISC American Institute of Steel Construction ALAP as low as practicable (obsolete term for ALARA) ALARA as low as reasonably achievable AMCA Air Moving and Conditioning Association AMD aerodynamic mean diameter (of particles) ANS American Nuclear Society ANSI American National Standards Institute APA American Plywood Association

345

Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefier’s (CHL’s) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHL’s supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESR’s 12 bar 15-K capacity.

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Loading capability of HVDC transformer bushings with restricted oil circulation for use in HVDC valve halls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The loading capability of a 500 kV HVDC transformer bushing is calculated with some unusual conditions: the internal oil circulation in the bushing is blocked at the flange level and the ambient air temperature is raised to 60 C. The theoretical model was verified with a full-scale heat run test on a 7.8 m long bushing. A 220 m[sup 3] insulated test chamber was required to enclose the test set-up.

Johansson, L.; Magnuson, B. (ABB Components AB, Ludvika (Sweden)); Riffon, P. (Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Load Data and Load Vector Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data for loading cases in solid mechanics problems is described. The following external loading factors can be specified: concentrated nodal forces, distributed surface forces, and thermal loading. JavaTM class F...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-to-air heat pumps Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conditions... data on the seasonal performance of air-to-air residential heat pump systems. The purpose of this paper... of operation 10, 197778, the Control House ......

350

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Heat Generated Cooling  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Heat Generated Cooling Heat Generated Cooling A counterintuitive but promising path to reducing the loads imposed by automotive air conditioning systems is to use heat-specifically the waste heat generated by engines. This can be an abundant source of energy, since most light-duty vehicles with combustion engines are only about 30% efficient at best. With that degree of thermal efficiency, an engine releases 70% of its fuel energy as waste heat through the coolant, exhaust gases, and engine compartment warm-up. During much of a typical drive cycle, the engine efficiency is even lower than 30%. As efficiency decreases, the amount of waste heat increases, representing a larger potential energy source. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team is investigating a number of heat generated cooling technologies

351

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of Advanced Automotive Manikin Reducing fuel consumption by air conditioning systems is the focus of Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) activities at NREL. About 7 billion gallons of fuel-about 5.5% of total national light-duty vehicle fuel use-are used annually just to cool light-duty vehicles in the United States. That's why our VALR team works with industry to help increase fuel economy and reduce tailpipe emissions by reducing the ancillary loads requirements in vehicles while maintaining the thermal comfort of the passengers. Approaches include improved cabin insulation, advanced window systems, advanced cooling and venting systems, and heat generated cooling. Another focus of the VALR project is ADAM, the ADvanced Automotive Manikin

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - air mass origin Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Yale University Collection: Chemistry 27 Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222) Summary: temperature. The air heat...

353

Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems May 30, 2012 - 6:41pm Addthis A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. What does this mean for me? You can eliminate the most common air conditioner problems before hiring an air conditioning technician. You can do some air conditioner maintenance and repair tasks yourself. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of connected rooms as much as possible from the rest of your home.

354

Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems May 30, 2012 - 6:41pm Addthis A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. What does this mean for me? You can eliminate the most common air conditioner problems before hiring an air conditioning technician. You can do some air conditioner maintenance and repair tasks yourself. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of connected rooms as much as possible from the rest of your home.

355

Compressed Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BPA Utility Reimbursement Programs for Compressed Air Projects Customer Proposal Template Measurement & Verification Plan for Compressed Air CA 2006-15 A template for utilities to...

356

Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

Walker, Iain S.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

375 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load Coincidence Factors* Wenyuan Li, Ke Wang, and Wijarn Wangdee 16.1 INTRODUCTION Load curve data refer to power consumptions recorded by meters at certain time intervals at buses of individual substations. Load curve data are one of the most important datasets

Wang, Ke

358

Exergy efficiency of a counterflow air/air heat exchanger with vapour condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exergy efficiency of a counterflow hot moist air/...?1 for the temperature and humidity ratio of hot moist air respectively are considered. Constant ambient air conditions of 20°C and 0.01 kg·kg?1 were assume...

J. Jilek; J. H. Young

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices. Introduction Residential air conditioning is responsible

360

NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation.

Not Available

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Studies in the Respiratory and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Plant Tissues. V. Experimental Studies of the Formation of Carbon Dioxide and of the Changes in Lactic Acid, Sucrose and in Certain Fractions of Keto-Acids in Potato Tubers in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in Certain Fractions of Keto-Acids in Potato Tubers in Air Following Anaerobic Conditions J. Barker L. W. Mapson Barker Saifi (1953 b), suggested that the initial rapid increase and the subsequent slower decrease in the output of potatoes in air after...

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

NO2 Aging and Iodine Loading of Silver-Functionalized Aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Off-gas treatment systems in used fuel reprocessing which use fixed-bed adsorbers are typically designed to operate for an extended period of time before replacement or regeneration of the adsorbent. During this time, the sorbent material will be exposed to the off-gas stream. Exposure could last for months, depending on the replacement cycle time. The gas stream will be at elevated temperature and will possibly contain a mixture of water vapor, NOx, nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents in addition to the radionuclides of capture interest. A series of studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed iodine sorbent materials under increasingly harsh off-gas conditions. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of up to 6 months of aging under dry air and under humid air conditions on the iodine loading behavior of Ag0-functionalized aerogels. This study examines the effects of extended exposure (up to 6 months) to NO2 on the iodine loading capacity of Ag0- functionalized aerogels. Material aged for 1 and 2 months appeared to have a similar total loading capacity to fresh material. Over an aging period of 4 months, a loss of approximately 15% of the total iodine capacity was seen. The iodine capacity loss on silver-functionalized aerogels due to NO2 was smaller than the iodine capacity loss due to humid or dry air aging.

Patton, K K [ORNL; Bruffey, S H [ORNL; Walker, J F [ORNL; Jubin, R T [ORNL

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Field development of a desiccant-based space-conditioning system for supermarket applications. Annual report, February 1982-January 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of gas-regenerated desiccant dehumidification systems to provide space-conditioning for supermarkets was investigated. A silica gel-based dehumidification system and related components were installed in a Jewel supermarket as an adjunct to the conventional vapor-compression air-conditioning system. Instrumentation was installed to monitor this hybrid system and to allow performance comparisons with the conventional vapor-compression system operating alone. Data collected were used to develop load models for the building and to correlate indoor and ambient conditions to the energy consumption by the air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. The expected reduction in refrigeration energy consumption with decreasing store humidities was verified. The load models were used in conjunction with system characteristics to obtain cooling season cost projections for both systems operating under different conditions. Initial estimates indicate that payback periods of the hybrid system could be under 1 year.

Cohen, B.M.; Levine, A.H.; Arora, R.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. A window air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. What does this mean for me? Room air conditioners are less expensive and disruptive to install than central air conditioning systems. Room air conditioners can be a cost-effective alternative to central air conditioning systems. How does it work? Room air conditioners work by cooling one part of your home. Room or window air conditioners cool rooms rather than the entire home or business. If they provide cooling only where they're needed, room air conditioners are less expensive to operate than central units, even though

365

Air Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

366

Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air-conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot and humid. Related studies focused on evaluating...

Lee, W.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this project, IBACOS, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, assessed a strategy for providing conditioned air to bedrooms when the bedroom doors are closed and measured potential thermal discomfort that occupants may experience when this strategy is used. Builders can use this information to discuss space conditioning options for low-load houses with their clients to determine acceptable comfort levels for occupants in these cost-optimized, energy-efficient houses.

368

Taking a Bite out of Lighting Loads  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Take a Bite Out of Lighting Loads With LEDs Stephen Williams Toshiba Sales Support Manager ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Some LED Advantages • Less electricity ? 18w LED... = 100w PAR38 • No maintenance for years ? 50,000 LED vs.10,000 CFL • Improved light quality ? 80 CRI LED vs. 25 CRI HPS • Reduce HVAC cooling load • Advanced control options ESL-KT-13-12-34 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San...

Williams, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

that application as shown below. Table 1. Efficiency Requirements for Federal Purchases: Air-Cooled Electric Chillersa Full-Load Optimized Applications products must meet both...

370

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems Mukesh Khattar Michael J. Brandemuehl Manager, Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Associate Professor Customer Systems Group Joint Center for Energy Management Electric Power Research Institute Campus... costs, the small, modular nature of the system allows great flexibility for fitting into retrofit geometries and saves space in new construction. Moreover, a single chiller can serve multiple air-handling units-in stark contrast to packaged...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It wns decided to use two heating coils, one as a steady input heater and the other as a control heater, From the preceding calculations a control hester twenty feet in length wns installed in the aiF flow along with a steady input heater coil forty... and thermocouple leads until the disks were parallel to and in contact with the teat surfaces. under these conditions the sero point of the scale wss marked. Then while a steel rule was held perpsadicular to the test surface and close to one of the copper disks...

Hutchison, James P

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

overhead air distribution design(1). 1.3 Thermal comfortS. Under Floor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. s.l. :load design tool for underfloor air distribution systems.

Pasut, Wilmer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Neuro-optimal operation of a variable air volume HVAC&R system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are some reasons for high energy consumption of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC&R systems should be efficiently operated to maintain a desired indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions. This study proposes a neural network based optimal supervisory operation strategy to find the optimal set points for chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and VAV system fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. Simulation results show that compared to the conventional night reset operation scheme, the optimal operation scheme saves around 10% energy under full load condition and 19% energy under partial load conditions.

Min Ning; M. Zaheeruddin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company customer service Industry Focus Heating and air conditioning services Size 52 employees Case Study Nuccio Fixing Problems Fast In Florida's competitive air conditioning industry, the differentiator is "speed

Fisher, Kathleen

375

Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Strategies for Affordable Housing Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable...

376

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

377

Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

Baone, Chaitanya A [ORNL] [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Cycling Losses During Screw Air Compressor Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency confirmed that modulation only controls are accurately portrayed by traditional part load models under most conditions. It also confirmed that load-unload type controls are accurately modeled when cycle times are longer than 5 minutes. However...

Maxwell, J. B.; Wheeler, G.; Bushnell, D.

379

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, D.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Valve for fuel pin loading system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Simplified Space Conditioning  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Simplified Space Conditioning Simplified Space Conditioning Duncan Prahl, RA IBACOS, Inc. Building America Technical Update April 29, 2013 Simplified Space Conditioning Rethinking HVAC Design * Traditional Method - Assume envelope losses dictate the load - Room by room load analysis - Pick Equipment and distribute to meet the load in each room * New Method - Consider how the occupants live in the building - Seriously consider internal gains in both heating and cooling - Consider ventilation strategy - Design system Simplified Space Conditioning If you are: * A production builder * Participating in "above code" programs * Following ACCA Manual RS or ASHRAE 55 * Need to prove "delivering heat to each habitable room" * Concerned about litigation * Play it safe, Use Manual J, S & D and condition every

382

EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Power Characteristics of Industrial Air Compressors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and with different loads are discussed as case studies. The case studies illustrate how to identify the type of control, and potential problems such as inadequate compressed air storage, over-sized compressors, and compressed air leaks from the power signatures...

Schmidt, C.; Kissock, K.

384

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Seismic considerations in the evaluation of temporary loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temporary loads in nuclear power facilities can result from a number of activities including special one time operating conditions, repair and upgrade conditions, and ALARA requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance. Many times evaluation of these loadings includes their consideration in conjunction with other design basis loadings such as normal loads and extreme event loads including earthquake loadings. At times this combination with design basis extreme loads, such as earthquake, results in predicted structural demands which exceed the design basis capacity. Many times a major contributor to this demand prediction is the earthquake loadings. Discussed in this paper are analytical methods, probabilistic considerations, and earthquake experienced based evaluations which can be applied to reduce the earthquake demand for short term temporary loadings.

Adams, T.M. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stevenson, J.D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

387

Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Barriers for Residential and Air Barriers for Residential and Commercial Buildings Diana Hun, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory dehun@ornl.gov 865-574-5139 April 4, 2013 BTO Program Peer Review 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Problem Statement & Project Focus - Air leakage is a significant contributor to HVAC loads - ~50% in residential buildings (Sherman and Matson 1997) - ~33% of heating loads in office buildings (Emmerich et al. 2005) - Airtightness of buildings listed in BTO prioritization tool

388

Loading margin Stable operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear approximation at p1 Actual loading margin Loadingmargin Parameter p p1 p2 p3 IEEE Transactions collapse. Linear and quadratic estimates to the variation of the loading margin with respect to any sys power support, wheeling, load model param- eters, line susceptance, and generator dispatch. The accuracy

389

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

- Grenada, MS -- International Copper Association - New York, NY -- Wieland - Ulm, Germany -- Heat Transfer Technologies - Abington, PA Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump...

390

Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Air Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both natural processes and human activities contribute to air pollution, with the combustion of fossil fuels being the largest anthropogenic source of air pollutants. Adverse health effects (above all respiratory and cardiovascular complications), damage to crops, natural vegetation and materials, reduced visibility and changed radiation balance of the atmosphere are the major consequences of high concentrations of air pollutants. Technical fixes can sharply reduce emissions from large stationary sources and lower the rates of automotive emissions, but the rising number of vehicles and longer time spent on the road will call for more radical solutions to traffic-generated photochemical smog now present in all major urban areas.

V. Smil

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Notes 04. Static load performance of plain journal bearings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The long and short bearing models. Pressure field and fluid film forces on short length journal bearings. Equilibrium condition, load capacity and the Sommerfeld number....

San Andres, Luis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Bos > AIR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The advent of air travel has produced a building typology completely new to the 20th century. The outdated planning of regions for airports render most existing airports as isolated, autonomous instances in the urban ...

Lee, Kevin Young

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation. When the climate control system in an...

395

{Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular and Extensible Systemic Simulation of Demand Response Networks 2.1 Introduction Thermostatically controlled devices, such as heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), refrigerators,

Burke, William Jerome

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The impact of filter loading on residential hvac performance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Buildings are the primary user of energy in the USA. Within homes, the heating, ventilation, and air condition (HVAC) system is the largest energy consumer.… (more)

Kruger, Abraham J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Mountain Air | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Air Jump to: navigation, search Name Mountain Air Facility Mountain Air Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Terna Energy Developer Terna Energy Energy Purchaser Idaho Power Location Hammett ID Coordinates 42.98719519°, -115.3985024° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.98719519,"lon":-115.3985024,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

398

Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

404

Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Quantitative analysis of the soot loading and soot distribution for Cordierite type DPFs are studied under controlled conditions.

405

Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners August 9, 2012 - 4:05pm Addthis A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/LUke1138. A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/LUke1138. What does this mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air conditioning without ducting. A ductless mini-split air conditioner is relatively easy to install and does not provide an entry point for intruders as some room air conditioners do. Ductless, mini split-system air-conditioners (mini splits) have numerous

406

Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners August 9, 2012 - 4:05pm Addthis A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/LUke1138. A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/LUke1138. What does this mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air conditioning without ducting. A ductless mini-split air conditioner is relatively easy to install and does not provide an entry point for intruders as some room air conditioners do. Ductless, mini split-system air-conditioners (mini splits) have numerous

407

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner Maintaining Your Air Conditioner Maintaining Your Air Conditioner June 18, 2013 - 6:20pm Addthis Replacing or cleaning air conditioner filters is a critical maintenance task. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/firemanYU. Replacing or cleaning air conditioner filters is a critical maintenance task. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/firemanYU. What does this mean for me? Regular maintenance keeps your air conditioner running as efficiently as possible. Maintaining your air conditioner will save you money by extending the unit's life. An air conditioner's filters, coils, and fins require regular maintenance for the unit to function effectively and efficiently throughout its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases.

408

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner Maintaining Your Air Conditioner Maintaining Your Air Conditioner June 18, 2013 - 6:20pm Addthis Replacing or cleaning air conditioner filters is a critical maintenance task. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/firemanYU. Replacing or cleaning air conditioner filters is a critical maintenance task. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/firemanYU. What does this mean for me? Regular maintenance keeps your air conditioner running as efficiently as possible. Maintaining your air conditioner will save you money by extending the unit's life. An air conditioner's filters, coils, and fins require regular maintenance for the unit to function effectively and efficiently throughout its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases.

409

Predicting pipeline frost load  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to find a formula for predicting the additional load imposed on underground pipelines by soil freezing. The authors conclude that a modified Boussinesq equation can be used to assess this load. Results also showed that frost affects the modulus of soil reaction and therefore the induced stress in flexible pipe.

Fielding, M.B.; Cohen, A.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Soot formation in aerodynamically strained methane-air and ethylene-air diffusion flames with chloromethane addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of chloromethane (CH{sub 3}Cl) addition on soot inception in methane-air and ethylene-air counterflow diffusion flames were investigated by varying the concentrations of chloromethane and nitrogen in the fuel stream. Experiments showed a monotonic increase in the critical sooting stretch rate for methane-air flames when methane was replaced by chloromethane, while ethylene and chloromethane flames exhibited a larger sooting tendency than flames under comparable conditions and burning either ethylene or chloromethane alone. For the conditions investigated, the critical sooting stretch rates of methane-chloromethane-nitrogen flames were shown to be primarily a function of the chloromethane loading in the fuel stream. The structure of these flames was modeled using detailed chemistry and transport. Modeling results suggested that the enhancement of soot formation in ethylene-chloromethane flames may be a combined result of increased concentrations of C{sub 2} species and chlorinated C{sub 1} radicals (CH{sub 2}Cl and CHCl). A large rate of the reactions among these species may be the first steps in the molecular growth processes, which leads to the inception of soot particles. (author)

Leylegian, J.C. [ATK GASL NY Operations, 77 Raynor Avenue, Ronkonkoma, NY 11779-6648 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Many Faces of a Compressed Air Audit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost of audit with 1-2 year pay back. The same scope as Strategic Audit, but with a 3-8 day evaluation plus trended measurement needed for air systems with multiple compressor sites, centrifugal units, or for metering for utility funding... the largest electric load may be air compressors. 1 Summary Compressed air systems represent a unique opportunity for the development of energy savings programs. Compressed air is one of the largest energy users in industrial plants and represents a...

Kemp, H. L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

413

Scalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shown that the algorithm scales according to the definition of scalability given following. LoadScalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs E. Berger and J. C of an integrated load distribution-load balancing algorithm which was targeted to be both efficient and scalable

Berger, Emery

414

The air plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The air plasma spraying is characterized by using of a compressed air as a plasma forming gas. Here is shown the application of benefits of the present technology compared with other spraying process. The creation of the present process was possible due to a reliable plasma torch and certain condition of heating and deposition of powder materials on a work. Plasma torch develops a power up to 50 kW and can work during 14 hours without replacement of a cathode and during 25 hours as for an anode what is acceptable for industrial application. When spraying of coatings a minimum waste of alloying elements is attained with slight increase of oxygen in coating which is comparable with argon plasma spraying in the open. In certain cases the air plasma spraying allows to obtain more perfect coatings and at high performance. The present method finds large application at restoration and strengthening of machine parts, at forming of components etc. The air plasma spraying provides high quality coatings at low cost of components.

Valery S. Klubnikin

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

416

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts....

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

418

Truman STaTe univerSiTyWELCOME HOME! Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air conditioner requests.If you need air conditioning and are assigned to Centennial,Grim,or Fair,Missouri Hall,Ryle Hall and West Campus Suites have air conditioning included).The documentation must that requires the need for air conditioning. Please fill out the form on the reverse side of this sheet, attach

Gering, Jon C.

419

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioner Reduction Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% United States map depicting number of millions of gallons of cooling and dehumidification by state: Alabama 167, Alaska 1, Arizona 43, Arkansas 86, California 730, Colorado 76, Connecticut 61, Delaware 19, Florida 753, Georgia 251, Hawaii 68, Idaho 26, Illinois 242, Indiana 142, Iowa 68, Kansas 75, Kentucky 95, Louisiana 176, Maine 21, Maryland 118, Massachusetts 86, Michigan 186, Minnesota 86, Mississippi 85, Missouri 144, Montana 12, Nebraska 40, Nevada 61, New Hampshire 90, New Jersey 167, New Mexico 52, New York 273, North Carolina 187, North Dakota 12, Ohio 229, Oklahoma 109, Oregon 66, Pennsylvania 238, Rhode Island 15, South Carolina 127, South Dakota 17, Tennessee 179, Texas 735, Utah 43, Vermont 9, Virginia 187, Washington 64, West Virginia 37, Wisconsin 167, and Wyoming 7

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems part IV: underfloor plenum testing and modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss of control of the supply air temperature from thecontrol of the thermal conditions above and below the plenum. Hence, a relatively low plenum supply air temperature

Bauman, Fred; Jin, Hui

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

to provide needed ventilation under drier summer and winter conditions and reduce the air introduced during periods of peak space conditioning. For more information, see the...

424

Effect of Combustion Air Preheat on a Forged Furnace Productivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to determine are the effects of combustion air preheat on four additional furnace operating characteristics. These characteristics are: (1) fuel utilization of a furnace operating cycle; (2) time to heat the furnace load; (3) scale production; and (4) furnace...

Ward, M. E.; Bohn, J.; Davis, S. R.; Knowles, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Thermal comfort and cold air distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cold air distribution systems supply air at temperatures between 38 F and 51 F. Cold air distribution systems are increasingly attractive when used in conjunction with ice storage systems to shave peak load by shifting the demand to off-peak hours. They also require less operating and capital costs because they use smaller fans, ducts, piping, and pumps. However, an important issue in design and application of cold air systems is the effect on occupant comfort. There are several techniques and methodologies that practitioners use for evaluation of conventional air distribution systems. Among these is the Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI). It is widely used in the US and is referenced in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. However, this technique is based on empirical correlations obtained from tests conducted with conventional systems and it cannot be guaranteed that they will be equally applicable to cold air systems. This study was undertaken, therefore, to extend the existing techniques (especially the Air Diffusion Performance Index) to applications where cold air distribution systems are utilized. This work presents a critical review of the evolution of the ADPI technique and offers several recommendations for developing a firm foundation for future room air distribution research.

Hassani, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, P.L. [Miller (Paul), Arvada, CO (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties September 21, 2010 - 6:43pm Addthis The Department has issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Civil Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in the United States and proposing a civil penalty of $231,090 for sales of these products in violation of the applicable energy efficiency standards. This action reflects the Department's continued commitment to act aggressively to remove unlawful products from the market. In March, 2010, the Department issued a subpoena requiring Air-Con to

427

Knock limitations of methane-air mixtures in a turbocharged dual-fuel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knock limitations are investigated using natural gas, with diesel pilot ignition, as a fuel for the 3406 DI-TA Caterpillar diesel engine. Thermodynamic properties at TDC are generated by computer and compared with experimental results. Exhaust emissions are analyzed. A comparison is made of dual-fuel operation relative to diesel. Observations are made to determine the onset of knock. The onset of knock is characterized as a function of engine speed, load, inlet manifold temperature, and air-fuel ratio (A/F). The conditions at the inset of knock are determined using cylinder pressure data. The most efficient operating range is determined with knock avoidance as a prime parameter.

Song, Y.K.; Acker, G.H.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Brett, C.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Truck loading rack blending  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Blending, the combining of two or more components to make a single product, has become widely used in most loading rack applications. Blending should not be confused with additive injection, which is the injection of very small doses of enhancers, detergents and dyes into a product stream. Changes in the environmental protection laws in the early 90`s have put increasing demands on marketing terminals with regards to reformulated fuels and environmental protection concerns. As a result of these new mandates, terminals have turned to blending at the loading rack as an economical and convenient means in meeting these new requirements. This paper will discuss some of these mandates and how loading rack blending is used for different applications. Various types of blending will also be discussed along with considerations for each method.

Boubenider, E. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

the performance of market-available through-wall air transfer fans with respect to Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual RS and ASHRAE Standard 55-2010...

431

Largest Ice-Bank Promotes Load Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California's largest ice-bank storage system is an example of how thermal storage can be applied to both new and existing buildings. At the Union Oil Company in Brea, California, one massive ice-storage system satisfies the air conditioning needs...

Brarmann, G. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

Kelley, N.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

Rudd, A.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

E-Print Network 3.0 - air service management Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010 Summary: Management Policy: 2.1 ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Engineers 2... of the supplied air with the air already in the room. 3.0...

435

Characterization of Rivastigmine Loaded Chitosan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI). In present study rivastigmine loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles

Simar Preet Kaur; Rekha Rao; Afzal Hussain; Sarita Khatkar

436

Chapter 28 - Air Quality Status and Trends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes the condition of air quality, based on air pollutant concentrations, i.e. criteria pollutants, in airsheds around the world, as well as certain air toxics in urban areas and hot spots. The variability of pollutant concentrations in space and time are discussed, as well as differences in air pollution between more industrialized and economically developed regions vs developing nations. The status and trends of atmospheric concentrations of tropospheric ozone, oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulfur, carbon monoxide, lead, and particulate matter are discussed. Examples of air toxics include benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, aldehydes, and metals, e.g. mercury. Regional and global trends include acid deposition, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and climate change. Indoor air quality is discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of an air quality index.

Daniel Vallero

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Bridge Monitoring and Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;1 Bridge Monitoring and Loading P. Fanning, E. OBrien Stone Arch Bridges - Modelling simulations were conducted for a range of stone arch bridges spanning 5.0m to 32m. Traditional assessment procedures for the determination of both longitudinal and transverse bridge strengths were developed

438

Bridge Monitoring and Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Bridge Monitoring and Loading P. Fanning, E. OBrien Stone Arch Bridges - Modelling and Assessment dimensional non- linear finite element simulations of a range of stone arch- bridges spanning 5.0m to 32m and novel assessment proce- dures for the determination of both longitudinal andtrans- verse bridge

439

Load Management Made Simple  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

Schneider, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Conditions of Award Vice-Chancellor's Merit Scholarship UTS Scholarship Conditions of Award  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

load, and an Honours degree, if applicable. In all cases, the Scholarship continues only until, on the basis of a full-time study load (equivalent full-time student load of 48 credit points/academic year). 1;Conditions of Award ­ Vice-Chancellor's Merit Scholarship Note: where the Recipient does not follow

University of Technology, Sydney

442

Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

recreate load le Rick Whitman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an example of an initial unexpanded fos load le. It loads data for the le: u-init-y.cy0 u data for the le: e-init-y.cy0 2 #12;e-next-y.lod - this is an expanded fos load which uses erecreate load le Rick Whitman November 27, 1996 Usage The tool is invoked by entering recreate load

Sirianni, Marco

444

Diagnostic indicators for shipboard mechanical systems using Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis examines the use of Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) in auxiliary shipboard systems, such as a low pressure air system, to determine the state of equipment in larger connected systems, such as the main ...

McKay, Thomas Duncan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

Follett, Jordan R.

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ambient Operation of Li/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, Li/air batteries based on nonaqueous electrolytes were investigated in ambient conditions (with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm and relative humidity of ~20%). A heat-sealable polymer membrane was used as both an oxygen-diffusion membrane and as a moisture barrier for Li/air batteries. The membrane also can minimize the evaporation of the electrolyte from the batteries. Li/air batteries with this membrane can operate in ambient conditions for more than one month with a specific energy of 362 Wh kg-1, based on the total weight of the battery including its packaging. Among various carbon sources used in this work, Li/air batteries using Ketjenblack (KB) carbon-based air electrodes exhibited the highest specific energy. However, KB-based air electrodes expanded significantly and absorbed much more electrolyte than electrodes made from other carbon sources. The weight distribution of a typical Li/air battery using the KB-based air electrode was dominated by the electrolyte (~70%). Lithium-metal anodes and KB-carbon anodes account for only 5.12% and 5.78% of the battery weight, respectively. We also found that only ~ 20% of the mesopore volume of the air electrode was occupied by reaction products after discharge. To further improve the specific energy of the Li/air batteries, the microstructure of the carbon electrode needs to be further improved to absorb much less electrolyte while still holding significant amounts of reaction products

Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Deyu; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Williford, Ralph E.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Research on over Frequency Load Adding and Its Application to Hainan Power Grid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In allusion to the frequency increase problem caused by under frequency load shedding in Hainan power grid, over frequency load adding, which is ... the paper. The general condition of Hainan power grid is introd...

Yu Jiaxi; Wei Guoqing; Li Xian; Hu Jianchen…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fuel Assembly Shaker Test for Determining Loads on a PWR Assembly...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assembly Shaker Test for Determining Loads on a PWR Assembly under Surrogate Normal Conditions of Truck Transport R0.1 Fuel Assembly Shaker Test for Determining Loads on a PWR...

450

DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards September 23, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy announced today that it has taken action against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency appliance standards. DOE is proposing a civil penalty of more than $230,000 for importing and distributing these inefficient cooling products. This action and the proposed penalties are part of the Department's continued commitment to act aggressively to remove

451

Form PI-1 General Application for Air Preconstruction Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

General Application for Air Preconstruction Permit General Application for Air Preconstruction Permit Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Form PI-1 Air Preconstruction Permit Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Unavailable Author(s): Unknown Published: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Date Unknown Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Source: View Original Document Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Form_PI-1_General_Application_for_Air_Preconstruction_Permit&oldid=631449" Category: Reference Materials What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 1863640201

452

Loading guide for dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applicable to naturally cooled dry-type power transformers complying with IEC 60726. Permits the calculation of, and indicates the permissible loading under certain defined conditions in terms of rated current.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Conditional load and store in a shared memory Blumrich, Matthias...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

of a parallel computer Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E Data communications in a parallel active messaging interface (PAMI) of a...

454

Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies to Optimize Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This results in higher excess air levels at medium and low fire, yielding poorer efficiencies. Although boilers are potentially more efficient at reduced firing rates, high excess air levels limit their part-load efficiency air control in boilers and methods to quantify both boiler efficiency as a function of excess air

Kissock, Kelly

455

Air Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Most relevant emissions into the air are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides ... compounds (VOC).The major cause of all air pollution

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Hickam Air Force Base  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

457

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE ... Athletes GOING FOR GOLD worry about Beijing’s air ... Atmospheric chemists say the air quality during the Beijing Games literally rests on which direction the winds blow. ...

RACHEL PETKEWICH

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

Air Quality and Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air quality refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air, both in outside space and in enclosed ... other non?industrial working places, and residencies. Air pollution is the abnormal ...

Zoran Marmut

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Aire Rite Finds Center for Family Business Just Right Huntington Beach Company Founded in 1972 Joins CSUF Center for Family Business  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beach-based Aire Rite Air Conditioning and Refrigeration to its Center membership. The premier network of multi-generational family business leaders. Aire Rite Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Inc and optimization programs for air conditioning, building automation, food machinery, and refrigeration equipment

de Lijser, Peter

460

Outside Air Ventilation Controller - Building America Top Innovation...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

demand up to 50% in California's central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal climate. Variations of these systems are being...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

excluded. Specify or select products that are ENERGY STAR-qualified. To find qualified products, go to the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) and Air Conditioning and...

462

Primary zone air proportioner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

463

Integrating the cold load pickup effect of reserve supplying demand response resource in social cost minimization based system scheduling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Expansion of smart grids and aggregator business facilitates the utilization of reserve supplying demand response (RSDR) resources. One of the loads that are increasingly used for reserve provision is air-conditioning load (ACL) that have cold load pickup (CLPU) or “payback” characteristics. With larger scale utilization of RSDR resources, as an effect of increasing DR aggregation business, CLPU characteristics of ACL can affect system optimal operation. Actual utilization time and duration of RSDR resources are probabilistic and affected by system scheduling and contingency occurrence. Therefore the CLPU effect of RSDR resources is probabilistic. This creates extra burden on the system reliability maintenance that should be considered from social cost minimization point of view. This complexity is addressed in this paper by modeling the extra expected load not supplied (ELNS) that the probabilistic CLPU of RSDR can impose on system. Then the aggregated RSDR resources, with CLPU characteristics, are integrated into day-ahead simultaneous system scheduling with the objective function of social cost minimization. This study showed that CLPU can have considerable effects on system scheduling and RSDR effectiveness. The proposed method of this paper proved to be useful for reducing the negative effects of CLPU while using RSDR resources.

Mahdi Behrangrad; Hideharu Sugihara; Tsuyoshi Funaki

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

load profile | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

465

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Initial Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Before we can run a transient analysis, we must find the appropriate set of initial conditions for the variables. The most important requirement of initial conditions is that they do not contradict any of the ...

Michael Tiller Ph.D.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

E-Print Network 3.0 - air treatment system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... , water treatment equipment,...

468

E-Print Network 3.0 - air handling systems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... , water treatment equipment,...

469

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies, and discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this

471

Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model Electric Load vs Time: Complicated World, Complicated Model Speaker(s): Phillip Price Date: March 7, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Phillip Price "How much energy did I save by changing the operation of my building yesterday?" That turns out to be a very hard question to answer: you need to know how much energy you would have used under normal operations (the "baseline"), a number you can predict but not measure. In this talk we focus specifically on electrical energy ("electric load") in commercial buildings. Often the load can be broken down into several components that are superimposed on each other: a recurring weekly pattern, an effect of outdoor air temperature, and so on. Some buildings have patterns that are

472

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cooling and Heating Loads | Building  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999

473

Theoretical considerations of static and dynamic characteristics of air foil thrust bearing with tilt and slip flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thrust pad of the rotor is used to sustain the axial force generated due to the pressure difference between the compressor and turbine sides of turbomachinery such as gas turbines, compressors, and turbochargers. Furthermore, this thrust pad has a role to maintain and determines the attitude of the rotor. In a real system, it also helps reinforce the stiffness and damping of the journal bearing. This study was performed for the purpose of analyzing the characteristics of the air foil thrust bearing. The model for the air foil thrust bearing used in this study is composed of two parts: one is an inclined plane, which plays a role in increasing the load carrying capacity using the physical wedge effect, and the other is a flat plane. This study mainly consists of three parts. First, the static characteristics were obtained over the region of the thin air film using the finite-difference method (FDM) and the bump foil characteristics using the finite-element method (FEM). Second, the analysis of the dynamic characteristics was conducted by perturbation method. For more exact calculation, the rarefaction gas coefficients perturbed about the pressure and film thickness were taken into consideration. At last, the static and dynamic characteristics of the tilting condition of the thrust pad were obtained. Furthermore, the load carrying capacity and torque were calculated for both tilting and nontilting conditions. From this study, several results were presented: (1) the stiffness and damping of the bump foil under the condition of the various bump parameters, (2) the load carrying capacity and bearing torque at the tilting state, (3) the bearing performance for various bearing parameters, and (4) the effects considering the rarefaction gas coefficients.

Dong-Jin Park; Chang-Ho Kim; Gun-Hee Jang; Yong-Bok Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-5-3 Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building Hanqing Wang Zhiyong Wang Changrong Liu Ph.D. Professor Doctoral... of flow and temperature fields in atrium with ceiling height of 130 m [J]. ASHRAE Trans, 1995, 101(2): 1144-1157. [9] Wang han-qing, et al. Numerical simulation research on delaminating phenomena of ordinary air-conditional room [J]. Journal...

Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Liu, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and control. 6. Examine regional and global air pollution issues. Prerequisite: CHEM 113 and (MATH 261 or MATHATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants

476

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 The fluid dynamics of an underfloor air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier. Carrier had his first patent `Apparatus for Treating Air the term `air conditioning' in a 1906 patent claim. Cooling for human comfort, rather than industrial need, began in 1924, in the J.L. Hudson Department Store in Detroit, Michigan. Air conditioning of apartments

Linden, Paul F.

477

Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

Burdick, A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Reactive Air Aluminization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

479

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

480

MTS Table Top Load frame  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioning load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

In search for sustainable globally cost-effective energy efficient building solar system – Heat recovery assisted building integrated PV powered heat pump for air-conditioning, water heating and water saving  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Obtained as a research result of conducted project, this paper presents an innovative, energy efficient multipurpose system for a sustainable globally cost-effective building's solar energy use and developed methodology for its dynamic analysis and optimization. The initial research and development goal was to create a cost-effective technical solution for replacing fossil fuel and electricity with solar energy for water heating for different purposes (for pools, sanitary water, washing) in one SPA. After successful realization of the initial goal, the study was proceeded and as a result, the created advanced system has been enriched with AC performance. The study success was based on understanding and combined measurements and by BPS made predictions of AC loads and solar radiation dynamics as well as on the determination of the synergetic relations between all relevant quantities. Further, by the performed BPS dynamic simulations for geographically spread buildings locations, it has been shown that the final result of the conducted scientific engineering R&D work has been the created system of confirmed prestigious to the sustainability relevant performance – globally cost-effective building integrated photovoltaic powered heat pump (HP), assisted by waste water heat recovery, for solar AC, water heating and saving.

Marija S. Todorovic; Jeong Tai Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designersmeasured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spacesmeasured equipment load data from various laboratory spaces

Mathew, Paul A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of a load (i.e., due to economic conditions or closures), additional contract purchases, and/or new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2003 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring. The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes: an updated Detailed Operation Plan for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004, updated PNCA planning criteria for OY 2003, and revised juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2003 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information regarding marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2003 White Book analysis updates the December 2002 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Optimize the Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule for a Single-Duct VAV System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimize the Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule for a Single-Duct VAV System Guanghua Wei Mingsheng Liu, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Research Associate Associate Professor Professor Energy Systems Lab Architectural... will occur once the alrflow reaches the minimum and the heating load increases. To minimize this simultaneous cooling and heating, the supply air temperature is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature. Liu et al...

Wei, G.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

A dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode for a highly rechargeable lithium-air battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cathode structure plays a vital role in lithium-air battery for that it can provide space for discharged products accommodation and free path for oxygen, e? and Li+ transport. However, pore blockage, cathode passivation and degradation all result in low discharge rates and poor cycling capability. To get rid of these predicaments, a novel highly conductive dual pore carbon aerogel based air cathode is fabricated to construct a lithium-air battery, which exhibits 18 to 525 cycles in the LiTFSI/sulfolane electrolyte at a current density varying from 1.00 mA cm?2 to 0.05 mA cm?2, accompanied by a high energy efficiency of 78.32%. We postulate that the essence lies in that the as-prepared air cathode inventively create a suitable tri-phase boundary reaction zone, facilitating oxygen and Li+ diffusion in two independant pore channels, thus realizing a relative higher discharge rate capability, lower pore blockage and cathode passivation. Further, pore structure, carbon loading, rate capability, discharge depth and the air's effect are exploited and coordinated, targeting for a high power and reversible lithium-air battery. Such nano-porous carbon aerogel air cathode of novel dual pore structure and material design is expected to be an attractive alternative for lithium-air batteries and other lithium based batteries.

Fang Wang; Yang-Hai Xu; Zhong-Kuan Luo; Yan Pang; Qi-Xing Wu; Chun-Sheng Liang; Jing Chen; Dong Liu; Xiang-hua Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Property:Optimum Marine/Riverline Conditions | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marine/Riverline Conditions Marine/Riverline Conditions Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Optimum Marine/Riverline Conditions Property Type Text Pages using the property "Optimum Marine/Riverline Conditions" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) M MHK Technologies/Aegir Dynamo + Proprietary MHK Technologies/AirWEC + 15kW per meter of wave front or greater MHK Technologies/Aquantis + The Aquantis Current Plane C Plane technology is a marine current turbine designed to extract the kinetic energy from the flow and is capable of achieving reliable competitively priced base load power generation The technology is suitable for both steady marine currents and tidal currents although there are system differences and specific arraying and deployment requirements for each Aquantis is designed to harness the energy from the Gulf Stream and other steady marine currents around the world Aquantis deployment is projected to be cost competitive with thermal power generation when CO2 emissions and other environmental costs are accounted for

487

Hygrothermal performance of EIFS-clad walls: Effect of vapor diffusion and air leakage on the drying of construction moisture [Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal performance describes the response of the material layers that make up the wall to thermal and moisture loads. Modeling can be applied to determine the drying and wetting potential of walls with various initial construction moisture loads and to test alternative innovations. This paper investigates the drying performance of a particular barrier EIFS clad wall as a function of vapor diffusion control with a specific air leakage path. This investigation was conducted with constant interior temperature and relative humidity. The LATENITE model, developed at NRD, is employed in the investigation. This advanced hydrothermal model can incorporate system and sub-system performances by introducing simulated defects and wall system details derived from laboratory and field measurements. Moisture loads available to the EIFS structure originating either from the interior, the exterior or from initial construction moisture can be included. In this paper the authors present a study to determine the drying potential of a barrier EIFS clad wall for the climate of Wilmington, NC. This climate is characterized by the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals as being mixed. The effect of drying and wetting by airflow was investigated by introducing airflow paths. Hydrothermal performance with three different vapor diffusion control strategies and two air leakage conditions was simulated for a period of one year. Initial oriented strand board (OSB) moisture content was assumed to be very high. The influence of rain water, solar radiation and air movement within the cavity was included in the analysis.

Karagiozis, A.N.; Salonvaara, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Demand Response: Load Management Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

Simon, J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

?Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

Burdick, A.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at PSE is to collect load data for validating dynamic and approach decomposes recorded load data into different load “to continuously record load data for a selected time period

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Impact load mitigation in sandwich beams using local resonators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic response of sandwich beams with resonators embedded in the cores subjected to impact loads is studied. Using finite element models the effectiveness of various local resonator frequencies under a given impact load is compared to the behavior of an equivalent mass beam. It is shown that addition of appropriately chosen local resonators into the sandwich beam is an effective method of improving its flexural bending behavior under impact loads. The effect of a given local resonance frequency under different impact load durations is also studied. It is demonstrated that the choice of appropriate local resonance frequency depends on the impact duration. Further, by performing transverse impact experiments, the finite element models are verified and the advantage of using internal resonators under impact loading conditions is demonstrated.

Sharma, B

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

495

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository. This RD&D plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. The plan objective is to

496

Healthy Air Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

497

Air and Water Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Pollution.... Many pollutants enter our bodies through the air we breathe at 13,000 l/day ... to quantitatively understand the basic environmental physics of pollution. This chapter covers the foll...

David Hafemeister

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

Napier, Terrence

499

Online Load Balancing for Related Machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of entire schedule s as follows: load(s; i) = 1 v i X s(j)=i p j ; Load(s) = max i load(s; i) It is easyOn­line Load Balancing for Related Machines Piotr Berman \\Lambda Moses Charikar y Marek Karpinski z­line load balancing was studied extensively over the years (cf., e.g., [7], [3], [4], and [2

Karpinski, Marek

500

Utility -Owned Central Plant Load Management at the Domain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensive than ice > Pro – Can use existing chillers > Pro – Can be below ground (dual use of space) > Pro – Can be used for fire fighting or cooling tower backup water source > Con – Larger footprint 7 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Options ESL-KT-13...Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP Customer Energy Solutions, Austin Energy Mission: Deliver clean, affordable, reliable energy and excellent customer service. Utility Owned Load Management – Thermal Energy Storage ESL-KT-13-12-12 CATEE 2013: Clean Air...

Lilley, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z