National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioning light

  1. Critical analysis of thermodynamic cycle modeling of adsorption cooling systems for light-duty vehicle air conditioning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    -duty vehicle air conditioning applications Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Keywords: Adsorption cooling system Vehicle air conditioning Thermodynamic cycle Fully dynamic modeling a b different operating conditions for light-duty vehicles air conditioning applications. Available ACS

  2. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  3. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  4. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    2009-01-01

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  5. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  6. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  7. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  8. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  9. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  10. 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling load is due to people, lights, and heat transfer through the walls and the windows. The number of 5-kW window air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    3-19 3-50 A classroom is to be air-conditioned using window air-conditioning units. The cooling.17 3-51 The lighting energy consumption of a storage room is to be reduced by installing motion sensors lamps)(60 W/lamp )(3285 hours/year) = 4730 kWh/year Cost Savings = (Energy Savings)(Unit cost of energy

  11. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1990.

  12. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  13. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  14. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  15. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

  16. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  17. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT EquipmentControl of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT equipmentcontrol computer room air conditioning. The data provided

  18. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  19. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  20. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way — with heat.

  1. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards Drive Improvements As air conditioning use soared in the 1970s, the energy crisis hit. In response, lawmakers passed laws to reduce energy consumption across...

  2. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. Air-Source Heat Pumps...

  3. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  4. Light transmission through a triangular air gap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvania A. Carvalho; Stefano De Leo

    2013-05-31

    Due to the recent interest in studying propagation of light through triangular air gaps, we calculate, by using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics and the multiple step technique, the transmissivity through a triangular air gap surrounded by an homogeneous dielectric medium. The new formula is then compared with the formula used in literature. Starting from the qualitative and quantitative differences between these formulas, we propose optical experiments to test our theoretical results.

  5. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  6. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  7. Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cal, Mark P.

    Roswell International Air Center Airport (ROW) Pavement Condition and Analysis Submitted to: Jane M ................................................1. Conditions at Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 .................................Figure 1. Geographic Location of Roswell International Air Center (ROW) 4 ..............................Table 1

  8. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01

    50% relati~e humi interest in evaporative cooling offers additional dity were usually viewed as dehumidifier jobs. means to curb the rising cost of conditioning air Those above 50% were thought to be best suited to for human or product comfort.... refrigeration. I In the market place below 50% relative humidity, the chemical dehumidifier ranged through the middle 1970 era, when energy cost became a painful reality. We began to research energy reduction means, as When manufacturing areas require...

  9. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room conditions, especially in hot and sunny climates. In particular air conditioning systems based on sorption technologies offer several advantages as they can be designed...

  10. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  11. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  12. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  13. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system...

  14. Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to realize the optimization of the air-conditioning system operation. Although set values of air-conditioning systems are usually fixed, variable setting values are used in this study. It is possible that less energy consumption...

  15. Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

  16. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  17. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Load for Radiant and Air Conditioning Systems. ProceedingsRefrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc. Babiak,of European Heating ahd Air-Conditioning Associations. CEN (

  18. Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Justin George

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engi- neers. cz07ventilation, and air conditioning. ksan identifier for theon the Energy Use of Air Conditioning Equipment A Thesis

  19. Thermal comfort in naturally-ventilated and air-conditioned classrooms in the tropics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Alison G

    1997-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Elliot,Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Nicol,Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE.

  20. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    of Commercial and Residential Air Conditioning and HeatingOF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL AIR-CONDITIONING AND HEATINGand residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  1. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  2. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in fuel economy with increasing restriction. However, the level of restriction required to cause a substantial (10-15%) decrease in fuel economy (such as that cited in the literature) was so severe that the vehicle was almost undrivable. Acceleration performance on all vehicles was improved with a clean air filter. Once it was determined how severe the restriction had to be to affect the carbureted vehicle fuel economy, the 2007 Buick Lucerne was retested in a similar manner. We were not able to achieve the level of restriction that was achieved with the 1972 Pontiac with the Lucerne. The Lucerne's air filter box would not hold the filter in place under such severe conditions. (It is believed that this testing exceeded the design limits of the air box.) Tests were conducted at a lower restriction level (although still considerably more severe than the initial clogged filter testing), allowing the air filter to stay seated in the air box, and no significant change was observed in the Lucerne's fuel economy or the AFR over the HFET cycle. Closed-loop control in modern fuel injected vehicle applications is sophisticated enough to keep a clogged air filter from affecting the vehicle fuel economy. However for older, open-loop, carbureted vehicles, a clogged air filter can affect the fuel economy. For the vehicle tested, the fuel economy with a new air filter improved as much as 14% over that with a severely clogged filter (in which the filter was so clogged that drivability was impacted). Under a more typical state of clog, the improvement with a new filter ranged from 2 to 6%.

  3. Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyer, Ram Venkataraman

    Tour Planning for an Unmanned Air Vehicle under Wind Conditions Rachelle L. McNeely and Ram V. Iyer Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1042 and Phillip R. Chandler U. S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright­Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7531 Graduate Student, Department of Mathematics

  4. Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System Selection for Hot & Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties of selecting direct expansion (DX) air conditioning systems to dehumidify conditioned spaces in hot & humid climates. It is a common opinion among designers that concerns of humidity control are best...

  5. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    outside pump circulating heat transfer fluid air make-up inside exhaust 24 Cogged V Belts A major N.C. Manufacturer Tested 2-17 Months (yr 1985) .052KWH (.13 EP) 2700 Hours...

  6. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will require more energy to cool your house. A preferable alternative is a dehumidifying heat pipe, which can be added as a retrofit to most existing systems. Types of Central Air...

  7. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  8. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  9. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger...

  10. K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant M-833Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing M-832Ambler is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution. K-7109 Agnew Hall 460 West Campus Dr M-2204 Air Conditioning Plant 344 Stanger St M-833 Ambler Johnston Hall - East Wing 700 Washington St SW M-832 Ambler

  11. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  12. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  13. Model-based Enhancement of Lighting Conditions in Image Sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girod, Bernd

    Model-based Enhancement of Lighting Conditions in Image Sequences Peter Eisert and Bernd Girod model-based technique for estimating and manipulating the lighting in an image sequence. The current scene lighting is estimated for each frame exploiting 3-D model information and by synthetic re-lighting

  14. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  15. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  16. Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The control system of central air-conditioning, based on PMV, not only improves thermal comfort but also reduces system energy consumption. A new thermal comfort degree softsensor model is built via use of the CMAC neural network nonlinear...

  17. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning. Modifications to the air-conditioning system and some advanced air conditioning systems are introduced, which are helpful for system optimization. In this paper, based on analysis of the characteristics of the air - conditioning system in foreign high speed...

  18. ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/227 Using Air Conditioning Load Response for Spinning Reserve 2008 Prepared by John D...........................................................................................................4 II. Air Conditioning Temperature Effect and High SEER Ratings .................................................................................................................10 IV. Use of Building Air Conditioning Models to Predict Load

  19. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of health services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    55476 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased5-14-04 Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increasedof office buildings with air-conditioning systems (e.g. ,

  20. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  1. Analysis of Air Conditioning Effectiveness vs. Outdoor Conditions: Traditional Bins or Joint Frequency Bins? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    There are a number of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of air conditioning equipment in handling loads. Full hourly computer simulations are probably the most accurate, but lack flexibility and are more cumbersome ...

  2. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

  3. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  4. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    not a new technology at the time, neither was the gas engine. But now in the 19901s, gas engine-drive (GED) chillers have "hit" the air conditioning market with a "bang". In the Lone Star Gas Company area in 1995, GED chillers are now being considered...

  5. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  6. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response. IModeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions Chin-Yao Chang, Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, and Karanjit Kalsi Abstract-- Demand-side control is playing an increasingly

  7. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  8. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  9. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  10. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

  11. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  13. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed ...

  14. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According ...

  15. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  16. 2180, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2180, Page 1 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14 in Yashar and Lee (2013); they optimized the evaporator circuitry for a rooftop air- conditioning (RTU) unit;2180, Page 2 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

  17. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain

  18. Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions Xuhui Lee* School of Forestry state of knowledge about air ¯ow under ideal conditions (neutral to slightly unstable conditions knowledge of air motion in forest vegetation is a necessary step towards a better understanding of a number

  19. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  20. The effect on hospital air-conditioning system operation of soiled system elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Air-Conditioning systems in a hospital are a crucial element in maintaining a safe and healthy environment. A clean, adequate supply of air is generally provided in the initial construction of the facility or during space remodeling. The presence of dirt or lint on the elements of the air-conditioning system reduces the available air volume and reduces the effectiveness of the heat exchanger surfaces. The ability of the air system to absorb moisture is also impaired and results in fogging and other moisture problems. This paper reviews (1) methods of identifying the condition and cleanliness of hospital air-conditioning systems; (2) methods of cleaning the elements of the hospital air-conditioning system; and (3) the effects on performance of dirt and lint in hospital air-conditioning systems.

  1. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  2. `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898 Irish Centre for Nursing & Midwifery History Spring-summer Seminar series Sanitary reform in the Dublin and hospital sanitation `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858

  3. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01

    As a high-efficiency air conditioning scheme, the variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is finding its way into medium-sized office buildings. Based on a generic dynamic building energy simulation environment, EnergyPlus, a new...

  4. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building-thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all Team Members: Jing Cong Chen, Rong Xiang, Chen Ma, Wen Jie Li · Results demonstrate that solar air

  5. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . (Keywords: CFCs; refrigeration; air conditioning; insulation; ozone depletion) Utilisation des to this global environmental issue by signing for R22 were obtained from the Air Conditioning and the MontrealFILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air

  6. Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, G.

    2006-01-01

    equation model and two equation model. At present, k-? model is mostly adopted in indoor airflow[4]. Researches[5-6] obtained reliable results from applying k-? model in numerical simulation of three dimensional airflow field of air conditioning... of the task conditioning system. Key words: task air conditioning; numerical simulation; airflow; HDG; VDG; microenvironment 1. INTRODUCTION Total-volume ventilation and air conditioning of rooms are most used at present. Rooms are used...

  7. Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

  8. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  9. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  11. Recovering Spectral Reflectance under Commonly Available Lighting Conditions Jun Jiang and Jinwei Gu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Jinwei

    Recovering Spectral Reflectance under Commonly Available Lighting Conditions Jun Jiang and Jinwei light- ing conditions, such as daylight at different times over a day, camera flash and ambient light, and fluorescent and tungsten light. Our approach does not require camera spec- tral sensitivities or the spectra

  12. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  13. Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions

  14. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  15. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  16. Improving the Performance of Air-Conditioning Systems in an ASEAN Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch, J. F.; Warren, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of air conditioning performance under hot and humid tropical climate conditions appropriate to the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This region, with over 280 million people, has one...

  17. Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-56483 Laser Sheet Light Flow Visualization For Evaluating Room Air Flows From Registers Iain S using a Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurement technique. Water marked with fluorescent

  18. Universality of electron distributions in high-energy air showers - description of Cherenkov light production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Nerling; J. Blümer; R. Engel; M. Risse

    2005-12-22

    The shower simulation code CORSIKA has been used to investigate the electron energy and angular distributions in high-energy showers. Based on the universality of both distributions, we develop an analytical description of Cherenkov light emission in extensive air showers, which provides the total number and angular distribution of photons. The parameterisation can be used e.g. to calculate the contribution of direct and scattered Cherenkov light to shower profiles measured with the air fluorescence technique.

  19. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (U.S.A.) summer balance L. A-air conditions from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis database to estimate summer balance of South Cascade Glacier each error. The model relates summer balance linearly to temperature T > 0 C at 2000 m and to snow flux

  20. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  1. The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning units in residential buildings, and are using the central air-conditioning system in residential buildings. To determine the best air conditioning mode, a residential tower building with 22 layers was chosen for analysis. The advantages and disadvantages...

  2. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  3. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  4. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  5. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  6. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Carl; Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  7. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergy Air Barriers

  8. The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

    1967-01-01

    the grain mass. This air must be supplied with properties which will provide a potential driving force, such as enthalpy and vapor pressure, in order for heat and moisture to be transferred. In actual practice, grain temperature is of primary concern... of the entering air since there is only one specific humidity at which the mpor pressures are equal. To maintain moisture equilibrium, the specific humidity must be considered a( one property of the air condition which is required. The other property...

  9. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  10. Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

  11. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  12. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  13. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  14. A Field Study on Residential Air Conditioning Peak Loads During Summer in College Station, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, T. A.; Vaidya, S.; Griffith, L.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    located on the main campus of Texas A&M university provided the necessary climatic data, especially ambient temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation. The data were analysed to determine the extent to which air-conditioning over...

  15. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial ...

  16. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  17. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    , but also to provide a complete database of the airflow characteristics in the air-conditioned spaces. Based on this analysis and the vast progress of computers and associated software, the artificial intelligent technique will be a competitor candidate...

  18. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  19. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load ...

  20. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  1. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  2. Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 Air-Conditioning Equipment 2, 3 Central System......

  3. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  4. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  5. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  6. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  7. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01

    algorithm (GA ) has special advantages in tackling this problem based on its inherent characteristics.Genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted and applied in the optimal design of air-conditioning water system in this study. A mathematical model and constrained...

  8. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  9. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  11. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  12. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Saint-Etienne France ABSTRACT Under atmospheric pressure condition and temperatures between 0°C and +12 behaviour. The experimental device is made up of a brushed surface heat exchanger in which the hydrates flow rates and pressure drops measurements. We obtain flow curves of hydrates slurries depending

  13. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  14. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  15. An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    An inverse method for calculation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning for estimation of thermal inertia and heat gain in air conditioning and refrigeration systems using on Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

  16. User-guided White Balance for Mixed Lighting Conditions Ivaylo Boyadzhiev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bala, Kavita

    -consumption fluo- rescent and LED lights vary widely in their color temperature, and rooms with multiple bulbsUser-guided White Balance for Mixed Lighting Conditions Ivaylo Boyadzhiev Cornell University Kavita Bala Cornell University Sylvain Paris Adobe Fr´edo Durand MIT CSAIL (a) input with mixed lighting

  17. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    caused by office's thermal Environment, J. Archit. Plann.Standard 55- 2010. Thermal environment conditions for humanindoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and

  18. Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Christopher and Kathleen Kirk. ii Contents List of FiguresConditions by Adam Garnet Kirk A dissertation submitted inCopyright 2011 by Adam Garnet Kirk Abstract Perceptually

  19. Communication with spatially modulated Light through turbulent Air across Vienna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Krenn; Robert Fickler; Matthias Fink; Johannes Handsteiner; Mehul Malik; Thomas Scheidl; Rupert Ursin; Anton Zeilinger

    2014-11-12

    The transverse spatial modes of light offer a large state-space with interesting physical properties. For exploiting it in future long-distance experiments, spatial modes will have to be transmitted over turbulent free-space links. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in the mode quality after transmission through simulated turbulence and consecutive coherent detection. Here we experimentally analyze the transmission of one prominent class of spatial modes, the orbital-angular momentum (OAM) modes, through 3 km of strong turbulence over the city of Vienna. Instead of performing a coherent phase-dependent measurement, we employ an incoherent detection scheme which relies on the unambiguous intensity patterns of the different spatial modes. We use a pattern recognition algorithm (an artificial neural network) to identify the characteristic mode pattern displayed on a screen at the receiver. We were able to distinguish between 16 different OAM mode superpositions with only ~1.7% error, and use them to encode and transmit small grey-scale images. Moreover, we found that the relative phase of the superposition modes is not affected by the atmosphere, establishing the feasibility for performing long-distance quantum experiments with the OAM of photons. Our detection method works for other classes of spatial modes with unambiguous intensity patterns as well, and can further be improved by modern techniques of pattern recognition.

  20. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    . Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning...

  1. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle

  2. Measurement of air and nitrogen fluorescence light yields induced by electron beam for UHECR experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Colin; A. Chukanov; V. Grebenyuk; D. Naumov; P. Nedelec; Y. Nefedov; A. Onofre; S. Porokhovoi; B. Sabirov; L. Tkatchev

    2006-12-04

    Most of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) experiments and projects (HiRes, AUGER, TA, EUSO, TUS,...) use air fluorescence to detect and measure extensive air showers (EAS). The precise knowledge of the Fluorescence Light Yield (FLY) is of paramount importance for the reconstruction of UHECR. The MACFLY - Measurement of Air Cherenkov and Fluorescence Light Yield - experiment has been designed to perform such FLY measurements. In this paper we will present the results of FLY in the 290-440 nm wavelength range for dry air and pure nitrogen, both excited by electrons with energy of 1.5 MeV, 20 GeV and 50 GeV. The experiment uses a 90Sr radioactive source for low energy measurement and a CERN SPS electron beam for high energy. We find that the FLY is proportional to the deposited energy (E_d) in the gas and we show that the air fluorescence properties remain constant independently of the electron energy. At the reference point: atmospheric dry air at 1013 hPa and 23C, the ratio FLY/E_d=17.6 photon/MeV with a systematic error of 13.2%.

  3. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – how muchA.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation and+ paper 6,306 Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in

  4. Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi"cation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi to lower the Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidi"cation provides only a marginal and pressure. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; Buildings; Air

  5. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F, Second Fig ABSTRACT. Upper-air conditions archived in the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis have been used cannot be determined, so the investigation is limited to examining relative changes in those upper air

  6. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I: Present Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    The Impact of Climate Change on Air Quality­Related Meteorological Conditions in California. Part I on meteorology and air quality conditions in Cal- ifornia by dynamically downscaling Parallel Climate Model (PCM: Present Time Simulation Analysis ZHAN ZHAO Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University

  7. ASHRAE $1000 Scholarship Application (02/26/2013) The Utah Chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Jur

    of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is offering multiple $1,000 scholarships automation or controls, heating, ventilating, refrigeration or air conditioning (HVAC) principles are invited

  8. General Guidelines for the Disposal of Refrigerators, Freezers, and other Refrigeration Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    not Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in dumpsters or in common working and nonworking household refrigeration units (refrigerators, freezers, window air conditioning

  9. CfAIR2: Near Infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Andrew S; Marion, G H; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S; Bloom, Joshua S; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan; Klein, Christopher R; Starr, Dan L; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H; Miller, Adam A; Falco, Emilio E; Wyatt, William F; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F; Kirshner, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    CfAIR2 is a large homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) obtained with the 1.3m PAIRITEL (Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope). This data set includes 4607 measurements of 94 SN Ia and 4 additional SN Iax observed from 2005-2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes JHKs photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z~0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from maximum in the B-band. More than half of the light curves begin before the time of maximum and the coverage typically contains ~13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR. ...

  10. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining ...

  11. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  12. Intelligent Office Lighting: Demand-Responsive Conditioning and Increased User Satisfaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Intelligent Office Lighting: Demand-Responsive Conditioning and Increased User Satisfaction Jessica diagram decision framework is used to optimize demand responsive actuation decisions, resulting with retrofitting. Keywords: Daylighting, energy efficiency, influence diagrams, intelligence, demand response, user

  13. Simulation of air shower image in fluorescence light based on energy deposits derived from CORSIKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gora; D. Heck; P. Homola; H. Klages; J. Pekala; M. Risse; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski

    2004-03-01

    Spatial distributions of energy deposited by an extensive air shower in the atmosphere through ionization, as obtained from the CORSIKA simulation program, are used to find the fluorescence light distribution in the optical image of the shower. The shower image derived in this way is somewhat smaller than that obtained from the NKG lateral distribution of particles in the shower. The size of the image shows a small dependence on the primary particle type.

  14. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  15. "Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  16. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  17. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  18. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,14.1,3.6,1.5,2.1,6.4,0.6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,12.4,3.1,1.3,1.8,5.7,0.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.6,"Q",0.3,0.6,"Q"...

  19. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  20. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  1. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  2. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  3. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  4. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  5. "Table HC14.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2 " "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  6. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  7. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01

    that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat...

  9. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable...

  10. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  11. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    -savings at this area. Namely, we may use the combination of evaporative cooling, dehumidifier and mechanical cooling to save energy for air-conditioning....

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  13. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01

    , Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System... 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air- conditioning systems reaches up to 12...

  14. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    -conditioning system of variable frequency technology can achieve the effect of energy conservation. In this article, we analyze the application of the VRV air conditioning system heat recovery series in the construction inner zone and its energy saving characteristics...

  15. Assessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ) for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration (A/C­R) applications. Adsorber beds should be specificallyAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Conversion

  16. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  17. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  18. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  19. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  20. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01

    energy efficiency with the majority of electricity consumption attributed to lighting and air-conditioningair-conditioning and lighting systems without any consideration for energy efficiency

  1. Selection of Light Duty Truck Engine Air Systems Using Virtual Lab Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Houshun

    2000-08-20

    An integrated development approach using seasoned engine technology methodologies, virtual lab parametric investigations, and selected hardware verification tests reflects today's state-of-the-art R&D trends. This presentation will outline such a strategy. The use of this ''Wired'' approach results in substantial reduction in the development cycle time and hardware iterations. An example showing the virtual lab application for a viable design of the air-exhaust-turbocharger system of a light duty truck engine for personal transportation will be presented.

  2. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  4. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  5. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  6. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  7. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  8. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was ...

  9. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  10. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  11. Reproducibility of the airway response to an exercise protocol standardized for intensity, duration, and inspired air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive of asthma.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    air conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofair conditions, in subjects with symptoms suggestive ofhas not been reported in subjects being evaluated with mild

  12. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  13. Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beerer, Ingrid Mary

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

  14. Abstract--Power efficiency during heavy-and light-loading conditions in wireless portable applications is critical for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    and quiescent current flow during light loading conditions and (2) an adaptive PA bias-current generator1 Abstract-- Power efficiency during heavy- and light-loading conditions in wireless portable efficiency is improved with a 0.5-µm CMOS dynamically adaptive, dual-mode buck- boost power supply and bias

  15. Advantages of enhanced synchronous motors in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morash, R.T. [Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new synchronous motor is a high-efficiency AC machine that has a low starting current. It may be used for conventional loads and also to start high inertia loads, delivering a constant torque during starting. Acceleration to synchronous speed can be allowed to take several minutes, if necessary, because the low starting current precludes excessive heating in the motor. Some of these motors are constructed with integral high inertia rotors that act as flywheels. These synchronous motors can ride through power sags and interruptions up to 30 seconds or more while still delivering useful load to pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors. The motors also restart instantly and resynchronize when utility power recovers. The motor can be useful in many heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) applications including those where machines and processes might otherwise be forced to shut down during momentary power interruptions.

  16. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  18. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  19. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  20. Interactions between lighting and space conditioning energy use in U.S. commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1998-04-01

    Reductions in lighting energy have secondary effects on cooling and heating energy consumption. In general, lighting energy reductions increase heating and decrease cooling requirements of a building. The net change in a building`s annual energy requirements, however, is difficult to quantify and depends on the building characteristics, operating conditions, and climate. This paper characterizes the effects of lighting/HVAC interactions on the annual heating/cooling requirements of prototypical US commercial buildings through computer simulations using the DOE-2.1E building energy analysis program. Twelve building types of two vintages and five climates are chosen to represent the US commercial building stock. For each combination of building type, vintage, and climate, a prototypical building is simulated with varying lighting power densities, and the resultant changes in heating and cooling loads are recorded. These loads are used together with market information on the saturation of the different HVAC equipment in the commercial buildings to determine the changes i energy use and expenditures for heating and cooling. Results are presented by building type for the US as a whole. Therefore, the data presented in this paper can be utilized to assess the secondary effects of lighting-related federal policies with widespread impacts, like minimum efficiency standards. Generally, in warm climates the interactions will induce monetary savings and in cold climates the interactions will induce monetary penalties. For the commercial building stock in the US, a reduction in lighting energy that is well distributed geographically will induce neither significant savings nor significant penalties from associated changes in HVAC primary energy and energy expenditures.

  1. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  2. Freeze-out conditions for production of resonances, hadronic molecules, and light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungtae; Lee, Su Houng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the freeze-out conditions of a particle in an expanding system of interacting particles in order to understand the productions of resonances, hadronic molecules and light nuclei in heavy ion collisions. Applying the kinetic freeze-out condition with explicit hydrodynamic calculations for the expanding hadronic phase to the daughter particles of $K^*$ mesons, we find that the larger suppression of the yield ratio of $K^*/K$ at LHC than at RHIC compared to the expectations from the statistical hadronization model based on chemical freeze-out parameters reflects the lower kinetic freeze-out temperature at LHC than at RHIC. Furthermore, we point out that for the light nuclei or hadronic molecules that are bound, the yields are affected by the freeze-out condition of the respective particle in the hadronic matter, which leads to the observation that the deuteron production yields are independent of the size of deuteron, and depend only on the number of ground state constituents.

  3. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  4. HOW TO HEAT AND COOL A HOME WITH 400 CFM SUPPLY AIR AND KEEP THE DUCTS IN THE CONDITIONED SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1999-05-01

    A design strategy is presented that can enable a typical new home to be heated, cooled, and ventilated with less than 400 cfm of delivered air. The strategy has three major elements. First, peak cooling loads are minimized by using good available technologies for the envelope, with emphasis on minimizing heat gains through the windows. Second, the envelope is designed to have very low natural air leakage rates, such that all the ventilation air can be drawn in at one point and passed over the cooling coil before it is mixed with the house air. This permits a significant portion of the cooling load to be met at an air flow rate of {approximately}200 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per ton, compared with the typical 400 cfm per ton in standard air-conditioning systems. Third, by reducing the amount of supply air needed to meet the envelope loads, the required size of ductwork is reduced, making it easier to locate the ducts within the conditioned space. This reduces duct loads to zero, completing the three-part energy conserving strategy.

  5. With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air quality implications of a changing climate.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    With harmful ozone concentrations tied to meteorological conditions, EPA investigates the U.S. air?" noting that ". . . changing climatic conditions could significantly affect the air quality in some quality implications of a changing climate. D iscussion of the potential sensitivity of air quality

  6. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Al-Rubaiee; U. Hashim; Marwah M.; Y. Al-Douri

    2015-05-06

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code, in the energy range (10^13-10^16) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation which measured with Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability for identifying of the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades determining of its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  7. Study of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function around the Knee Region in Extensive Air Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Rubaiee, A A; M., Marwah; Al-Douri, Y

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (LDF) was simulated with the CORSIKA code, in the energy range (10^13-10^16) eV. This simulation was performed for conditions and configurations of the Tunka EAS Cherenkov array for two primary particles (p and Fe). Basing on the simulated results, many approximated functions are structured for two primary particles and different zenith angles. This allowed us to reconstruct the EAS events, which is, to determine the type and energy of the primary particles that produced showers from signal amplitudes of Cherenkov radiation which measured with Tunka Cherenkov array experiment. Comparison of the calculated LDF of Cherenkov radiation with that measured at the Tunka EAS array shows the ability for identifying of the primary particle that initiated the EAS cascades determining of its primary energy around the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  8. Independence Power and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independence Power and Light (IPL) offers rebates to residential customers for purchasing new, energy efficient appliances. Rebates are available on central air conditioning systems, heat pumps,...

  9. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  10. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  11. International Conference 'Transport and Air Pollution' 2008, Graz EMISSION FACTOR MODELLING FOR LIGHT VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - 16th International Conference 'Transport and Air Pollution' 2008, Graz EMISSION FACTOR in Europe: The European MEET (Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport) project. Transport and Air Pollution, Graz : Austria (2008)" #12;- 2 - 16th International Conference 'Transport

  12. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Suilou; Schery, Stephen D.; Rodgers, John

    2000-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  13. Problem of Vain Energy Consumption in a VAV Air Conditioning System Shared By an Inner Zone and Exterior Zone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenji, G.; Ling, C.; Dongdong, L.; Mei, S.; Li, Z.

    2006-01-01

    in winter and summer. Taking a practical project as example, this paper analyzes the energy consumption of a VAV air conditioning system that is shared by inner zone and exterior zone. The paper also points out the serious problem of useless energy...

  14. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    air conditioning systems used in the automotive industry are based on vapour-compression refrigeration major challenge facing the automotive industry. Currently, R-134a is being used, almost in all vehicles. Perform a literature review and describe the state-of-the-art for A/C in automotive industry, for both

  15. Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Using upper-air conditions to estimate South Cascade Glacier (Washington, U.S.A.) summer balance balance of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., each year over 1959^99. The rms error, 0.30mw.e. (r2 ^ 0.71), is com- parable to measurement error. The model relates summer balance linearly

  16. INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    with thermal decay and stratification. The development ofUFAD systems, room air stratification and thermal decay (Leeno thermal decay) UF – Increased stratification + common

  17. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning facilities for the new "Polymer Laboratory" (Building 771)

  20. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  1. Case Study: The Effective Use of an Extensive Logical rule Based Data Analytics Approach in Establishing Root Cause of Performance Issues in Widespread Deployments of Unitary Space Air Conditioning Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brady, N.

    2013-01-01

    Today a significant percentage of office spaces are air conditioned using widely deployed unitary systems, either Fan Coil Units (FCU) or Variable Air Volume (VAV) boxes, to achieve high degrees of air conditioned zonal control. However establishing...

  2. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01

    Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving...

  3. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01

    To address the issue of the substantial energy cost and operating cost of an all-return air system for a clean room, we changed the former system to a 2nd return air system. With the newest building energy simulation program, Energy Plus, we...

  4. Influence of Fault and Optimization of PID Parameters in Building Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyoshi, K.; Akashi, Y.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Song, Y.

    2005-01-01

    [s] APPROPRIATE 1 30 FAULT 20 30 Table 2. PID Parameters Of VWV 2-way Valve For Experiment Figure 5. Experiment Results 0 5 10 15 20 25 (a)Outside & room temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 10 20 30 40 500 60 Elapsed time[min] Room... opening deg.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 30 35 40 (c)Supply air temp. Te m p. [d eg .C ] 0 Supply air temp.(appropriate case) Supply air temp.(fault case) 10 20 30 40 50 60 Elapsed time[min] 0 20 40 60 80 100 (d...

  5. Numerical Analysis of the Channel Wheel Fresh Air Ventilator Under Frosting Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, B.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, Z.; Luo, E.

    2006-01-01

    As new equipment, the channel wheel fresh air ventilator has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, when such equipment is operated under low ambient temperature in the freezing area in winter, the formation of frost on the outdoor...

  6. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems. Olesen, B. (2012). "surface heating and cooling systems: . Brussels, EuropeanIn the case of the all-air system, cooling load matches the

  7. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  8. Optimization of airport terminal-area air traffic operations under uncertain weather conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek

    2011-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Although Air Traffic Flow Management algorithms exist to schedule and route ...

  9. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  10. Study of Air Ingress Across the Duct During the Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-05-06

    The goal of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenoena associated with air ingress in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Air ingress may occur due to a nupture of primary piping and a subsequent breach in the primary pressure boundary in helium-cooled and graphite-moderated VHTRs. Significant air ingress is a concern because it introduces potential to expose the fuel, graphite support rods, and core to a risk of severe graphite oxidation. Two of the most probable air ingress scenarios involve rupture of a control rod or fuel access standpipe, and rupture in the main coolant pipe on the lower part of the reactor pressure vessel. Therefor, establishing a fundamental understanding of air ingress phenomena is critical in order to rationally evaluate safety of existing VHTRs and develop new designs that mimimize these risks. But despite this importance, progress toward development these predictive capabilities has been slowed by the complex nature of the underlaying phenomena. The combination of interdiffusion among multiple species, molecular diffusion, natural convection, and complex geometries, as well as the multiple chemical reactions involved, impose significant roadblocks to both modeling and experiment design. The project team will employ a coordinated experimental and computational effort that will help gain a deeper understanding of multiphased air ingress phenomena. THis project will enhance advanced modeling and simulation methods, enabling calculation of nuclear power plant transients and accident scenarios with a high degree of confidence. The following are the project tasks: Perform particle image velocimetry measurement of multiphase air ingresses Perform computational fluid dynamics analysis of air ingress phenomena

  11. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01

    ? [k W h] E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /y e a r? 12,000 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 0 Outdoor air-conditioning unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit A Humidity Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Outdoor air-conditioning unit A Humidity... Control unit Indoor unit Outdoor unit Developed system onventional system E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 E le ct ri c p o w e r co n su m p ti o n ? kW h /m o n th ? 1,400 1,200 1,000 800...

  12. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01

    EFFICIENCY DIAGNOSIS AND POTENTIAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION FROM AIR- CONDITIONING SYSTEM Lecturer : Rong-Jiang Ma School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University Beijing, China September 14-17, 2014 ICEBO2014 - 2014 International... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-14-09-21a Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 Outline ICEBO2014 - 2014 International Conference for Enhanced Building...

  13. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  14. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  15. A DNS capability for obtaining underwater light field and retrieving upper ocean conditions via in-water light measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Zao, Mech. E. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the ocean surface conditions (surface elevation, temperature, wind speed, etc.) becomes more and more important for both real life and military applications. This thesis presents a direct numerical simulation ...

  16. Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

    1987-01-01

    . Historic energy-use data and field-measured performance data are analyzed. The importance of certain design and operating parameters such as indoor airflow quantity, cooling coil apparatus dew-point temperature and the air-handling unit's fan operating...

  17. Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions Adam G. Kirk James F. O'Brien

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Perceptually Based Tone Mapping for Low-Light Conditions Adam G. Kirk James F. O'Brien University of California, Berkeley Images copyright Adam Kirk and James O'Brien. Figure 1: Left: A high dynamic range (HDR;42:2 · Adam G. Kirk and James F. O'Brien Figure 2: Plot of the normalized cone and rod spectral sensitivi

  18. Comparison of Zone Cooling Load for Radiant and All-Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    conditions, therefore, no heat transmission through buildingto the conductive heat transmission through the building3-5. Table 3 compares the heat transmission through building

  19. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  20. Experiment on TiO2/AC Photocatalysis Technique to Eliminate Toluene in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Y.; Feng, G.; Yuan, Q.

    2006-01-01

    system to control indoor environmental conditions. The influences of the absorption characteristics of active carbon and TIO2 photocatalytic oxidation on decomposing toluene are tested. The efficiencies of three kinds of purification webs to purify high...

  1. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1 HomeRegional37 Air-Conditioning

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  4. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  5. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  6. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak...

  7. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

  8. Distortions of Experimental Muon Arrival Time Distributions of Extensive Air Showers by the Observation Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Haeusler; A. F. Badea; H. Rebel; I. M. Brancus; J. Oehlschlaeger

    2001-10-17

    Event-by-event measured arrival time distributions of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) muons are affected and distorted by various interrelated effects which originate from the time resolution of the timing detectors, from fluctuations of the reference time and the number (multiplicity) of detected muons spanning the arrival time distribution of the individual EAS events. The origin of these effects is discussed, and different correction procedures, which involve detailed simulations, are proposed and illustrated. The discussed distortions are relevant for relatively small observation distances (R < 200 m) from the EAS core. Their significance decreases with increasing observation distance and increasing primary energies. Local arrival time distributions which refer to the observed arrival time of the first local muon prove to be less sensitive to the mass of the primary. This feature points to the necessity of arrival time measurements with additional information on the curvature of the EAS disk.

  9. The design, construction, and instrumentation of a chamber to study heat, mass, and momentum transfer from humid air to metal under conditions of frosting and free convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchison, James P

    1961-01-01

    THE DESIGN? CONSTRUCTION? AND INSTRUMENTATION OF A CEAMSER TO STUDY HEAT, MASS? AND MOSNTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Submitted to the Graduate School..., AND MOMENTUM TRANSFER FROM HUMID AIR TO METAL UNDER CONDITIONS OF FROSTING AND FREE CONVECTION A Thesis By James P. Hutchison Approved as to Style and Content: Chairman of Committee Head of Departm t + gkA4; August 1961 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The writer...

  10. DEST Software to Analyze System Zoning and Energy Consumption in Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on how to appropriately divide system zoning by using DeST software to calculate the basis dynamic temperature and load of all rooms in an office building. Influent factors of weather conditions, building envelope...

  11. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of Air Conditioning for the SCX1 Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building. Following a market survey (MS-2937/ST/LHC) carried out among 115 firms in thirteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3046/ST/LHC) was sent on 26 March 2002 to 10 firms and two consortia in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders from six firms and one consortium in five Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium DEMONT (IT) - GESCO (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of air conditioning for the SCX1 building for a total amount of 649 319 euros (945 426 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: IT-40%; DE-21%; GR-21%; SE-10%; FR-8%.

  12. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  14. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  15. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  17. On eddy accumulation with limited conditional sampling to measure air-surface exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hart, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of turbulence data collected at a height of 12.3 m above grasslands was carried out to illustrate some of the limitations and possible improvements in methods to compute vertical fluxes of trace substances by the eddy accumulation technique with conditional sampling. The empirical coefficient used in the technique has a slight dependence on atmospheric stability, which can be minimized by using a threshold vertical velocity equal to approximately 0.75{sigma}{sub w}, below which chemical sampling is suspended. This protocol results in a smaller chemical sample but increases the differences in concentrations by approximately 70%. For effective conditional sampling when mass is being accumulated in a trap or reservoir, the time of sampling during updrafts versus downdrafts should be measured and used to adjust estimates of the mean concentrations.

  18. Experimental and kinetic study of autoignition in methane/ethane/air and methane/propane/air mixtures under engine-relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.; Bushe, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    The ignition delay of homogeneous methane/air mixtures enriched with small fractions of ethane/propane was measured using the reflected-shock technique at temperatures from 900 to 1400 K and pressures from 16 to 40 bar. The results show complex effects of ethane/propane on the ignition of methane, but a common trend observed with both hydrocarbons is an increased promotion effect for temperatures below 1100 K. A detailed kinetic mechanism was used to investigate the interaction between ethane/propane and the ignition chemistry of methane under the above conditions. It was found that at relatively low temperatures, the reactions between ethane/propane and methylperoxy (CH{sub 3}O{sub 2}) lead to an enhanced rate of formation of OH radicals in the initiation phase of the ignition. By systematically applying the quasi-steady-state assumptions to the intermediate species involved in the main reaction path identified, we have achieved an analytical description of the ignition process in the transitional temperature regime. The analytical solutions agree reasonably well with the detailed kinetic model and the experimental results for both ignition delay and concentrations of major intermediate species.

  19. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  20. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, E

    2013-01-01

    The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.

  1. The matter in extreme conditions instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nagler, Bob; Arnold, Brice; Bouchard, Gary; Boyce, Richard F.; Boyce, Richard M.; Callen, Alice; Campell, Marc; Curiel, Ruben; Galtier, Eric; Garofoli, Justin; et al

    2015-04-21

    The LCLS beam provides revolutionary capabilities for studying the transient behavior of matter in extreme conditions. The particular strength of the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument is that it combines the unique LCLS beam with high-power optical laser beams, and a suite of dedicated diagnostics tailored for this field of science. In this paper an overview of the beamline, the capabilities of the instrumentation, and selected highlights of experiments and commissioning results are presented.

  2. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

  3. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  4. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  5. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  6. Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13,CenterCenterLighting Sign In

  7. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  9. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore »(O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  10. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  11. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  12. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  13. Lateral distribution of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers at high mountain altitude produced by different primary particles in wide energy range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mishev; J. Stamenov

    2005-12-16

    The general aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles precisely by. protons, Helium, Iron, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Calcium, Silicon and gamma quanta in wide energy range at high mountain observation level of Chacaltaya cosmic ray station. The simulations are divided generally in two energy ranges 10GeV-10 TeV and 10 TeV-10 PeV. One large detector has been used for simulations, the aim being to reduce the statistical fluctuations of the obtained characteristics. The shape of the obtained lateral distributions of Cherenkov light in extensive air showers is discussed and the scientific potential for solution of different problems as well.

  14. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  15. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  16. Air Conditioning Cold/Heat Source Analysis of the Inclusion of the Monetary Values of Environmental Damage Based on the LCA Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Z.; Duanmu, L.; Shu, H.; Zhu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effect on the technical solutions when monetary values of externalities are included in a model for selecting air conditioning cold/heat sources. The focus of the study is on heating and cooling using conventional...

  17. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  18. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Research Director, PIER Demand Response Research CenterAssessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering, staffPower Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air

  19. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  20. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  1. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 03: A novel ?erenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A; Rowlands, J A; Pang, G

    2014-08-15

    Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Recently a new concept of a high quantum efficiency (QE) ?erenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on ?erenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibres aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few ?erenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required. In this work we propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index, a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Our Monte Carlo studies have shown that the modified new CPID has a QE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  2. Enhanced Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems Toward Peak Power Reduction for an Office Building in Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghimlas, F.; Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.

    2012-01-01

    t i o n ( M W h / y ) * 1 0 6 P e a k P o w e r D e m a n d ( M W ) Years Peak power Yearly Electricity Consumption Typical?Power?Demand?Profile?for?Summer?Day 5 2 0 0 5 5 8 0 5 9 6 0 6 3 4 0 6 7 2 0... w er The focus to reduce the power demand during the peak hours Options?to?Reduce?Fossil?Fuel?Consumption? 1. Implement?energy?efficiency?and? conservation?measures?in?buildings?to? reduce?their?demand?for?electricity. 2. Generate...

  3. Energy Consumption Simulation and Analysis of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System in Wuhan by the BIN Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Y.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    to simulate the annual energy consumption of groundwater heat pump systems (GWHPS) for an office building in Wuhan. Its annual energy consumption was obtained and compared with the partner of the air source heat pump systems (ASHPS). The results show...

  4. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  5. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning or fluorinated greenhouse gases (air conditioning units, refrigeration units etc.) 2. Several approved

  6. Light-Light Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naohiro Kanda

    2011-06-03

    For a long time, it is believed that the light by light scattering is described properly by the Lagrangian density obtained by Heisenberg and Euler. Here, we present a new calculation which is based on the modern field theory technique. It is found that the light-light scattering is completely different from the old expression. The reason is basically due to the unphysical condition (gauge condition) which was employed by the QED calcualtion of Karplus and Neumann. The correct cross section of light-light scattering at low energy of $(\\frac{\\omega}{m} \\ll 1)$ can be written as $ \\displaystyle{\\frac{d\\sigma}{d\\Omega}=\\frac{1}{(6\\pi)^2}\\frac{\\alpha^4} {(2\\omega)^2}(3+2\\cos^2\\theta +\\cos^4\\theta)}$.

  7. Possibility of Using a Satellite-Based Detector for Recording Cherenkov Light from Ultrahigh-Energy Extensive Air Showers Penetrating into the Ocean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shustova, O P; Khrenov, B A

    2011-01-01

    We have estimated the reflected component of Cherenkov radiation, which arises in developing of an extensive air shower with primary energy of 10^20 eV over the ocean surface. It has been shown that, under conditions of the TUS experiment, a flash of the reflected Cherenkov photons at the end of the fluorescence track can be identified in showers with zenith angles up to 20 degrees.

  8. Analysis of the Window Side Thermal Environment Formed by Air Barrier Technique in Winter Conditions and Its Economy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Jia, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    The air barrier technique applies airflow through a window fan to decrease the heat load of a window surface and avoid dewfall in winter and decrease heat radiation from the window surface in summer. This paper uses numerical simulation to predict...

  9. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    based on the electric refrigeration. Among the heat sources, the prospect of gas boilers is better. In addition, the air source heat pump depends heavily on whether some crucial issues such as frost can be solved during its application. The water...

  10. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc Bauman,conventional overhead (OH) air conditioning and underfloorair distribution, air conditioning, energy, peak demand,

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of a quantum noise limited ?erenkov detector based on air-spaced light guiding taper for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A.; Rowlands, J. A.; Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute , Thunder Bay P7A 7T1; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3E2 ; Pang, G.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs) have been widely used in radiation therapy and are still needed on linear accelerators (Linacs) equipped with kilovoltage cone beam CT (kV-CBCT) or MRI systems. Our aim is to develop a new high quantum efficiency (QE) ?erenkov Portal Imaging Device (CPID) that is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse. Methods: Recently a new concept of CPID for MV x-ray imaging in radiation therapy was introduced. It relies on ?erenkov effect for x-ray detection. The proposed design consisted of a matrix of optical fibers aligned with the incident x-rays and coupled to an active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) for image readout. A weakness of such design is that too few ?erenkov light photons reach the AMFPI for each incident x-ray and an AMFPI with an avalanche gain is required in order to overcome the readout noise for portal imaging application. In this work the authors propose to replace the optical fibers in the CPID with light guides without a cladding layer that are suspended in air. The air between the light guides takes on the role of the cladding layer found in a regular optical fiber. Since air has a significantly lower refractive index (?1 versus 1.38 in a typical cladding layer), a much superior light collection efficiency is achieved. Results: A Monte Carlo simulation of the new design has been conducted to investigate its feasibility. Detector quantities such as quantum efficiency (QE), spatial resolution (MTF), and frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have been evaluated. The detector signal and the quantum noise have been compared to the readout noise. Conclusions: Our studies show that the modified new CPID has a QE and DQE more than an order of magnitude greater than that of current clinical systems and yet a spatial resolution similar to that of current low-QE flat-panel based EPIDs. Furthermore it was demonstrated that the new CPID does not require an avalanche gain in the AMFPI and is quantum noise limited at dose levels corresponding to a single Linac pulse.

  12. Reflection and transmission of light waves from the air-magnetoplasma interface: Spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borhanian, Jafar

    2015-03-15

    We have investigated the reflection and transmission of an electromagnetic wave from the air-magnetoplasma interface. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained for an arbitrary polarized incident wave. The spatial and angular Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts are discussed. The numerical results are presented to study the dependence of the reflection and transmission coefficients and IF shifts on relevant parameters of the system. The plasma and wave parameters can be used to control the reflection coefficients and IF shifts.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  14. Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air...

  15. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  17. Evaluation of surfactants as steam diverters/mobility control agents in light oil steamfloods: Effect of oil composition, rates and experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1991-12-01

    A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available surfactants for steam-foam EOR applications in light oil reservoirs. The experiments were performed in a 3-ft long, 1-1/2 in.-diameter cylindrical sandpack of about 1 darcy permeability. The sandpack and injected fluids were preheated to 430{degree}F at 155 psi. The main objective of these tests was to investigate the effectiveness of several surfactants in providing mobility control under a variety of conditions expected in light-oil steamfloods. Thus, maximum pressure-rise and foam-bank buildup/decay were noted as operating conditions were changed in a test or in various tests. Tests were performed with various oil types, sacrificial salts, injection rates, injection strategies, vapor-to-liquid fractions (VLF), and steam/N{sub 2} ratios (SNR).

  18. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  19. Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, James Bonner

    1997-01-01

    was equipped with the ability to use either a short-tube orifice (STO) or a thermal expansion valve (TXV). The degraded conditions studied include low evaporator airflow, high and low-charge, and a blocked condenser coil. The work presented in this thesis...

  20. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    15 4.1. LightingEvaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, andcomparison EUI, kBtu/Gsf Lighting Heating Cooling Pumps/C

  1. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  2. Experimental investigation of supersonic low pressure air plasma flows obtained with different arc-jet operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lago, Viviana; Ndiaye, Abdoul-Aziz

    2012-11-27

    A stationary arc-jet plasma flow at low pressure is used to simulate some properties of the gas flow surrounding a vehicle during its entry into celestial body's atmospheres. This paper presents an experimental study concerning plasmas simulating a re-entry into our planet. Optical measurements have been carried out for several operating plasma conditions in the free stream, and in the shock layer formed in front of a flat cylindrical plate, placed in the plasma jet. The analysis of the spectral radiation enabled the identification of the emitting species, the determination of the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the free-stream and in the shock layer and the determination of the distance of the shock to the flat plate face. Some plasma fluid parameters like, stagnation pressure, specific enthalpy and heat flux have been determined experimentally along the plasma-jet axis.

  3. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    with an installed lighting power density of 1.3 W/ft 2 andmaximum installed lighting power density (LPD) specified byASHRAE 90.1-2001 Lighting power density 1.3 W/ft Work plane

  4. The Impact of Climate Change on Air QualityRelated Meteorological Conditions in California. Part II: Present versus Future Time Simulation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    results to infer potential air pollution changes in California. Changes in both the meteorological fields of stagnation days (NNSD) integrating all stagnation events, during which most of the air pollution episodes will be stronger in the future for the two main air pollution seasons (i.e., summer and winter). Increases

  5. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Windsor Conference - Air Conditioning and the Low CarbonA. , Thomas, PC (2010). Air conditioning, comfort and energyAmerica's Romance with Air- Conditioning. Washington, D.C.

  6. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    the energy efficiency of air conditioning products isbetween the energy efficiency of air conditioning productsthe air conditioning testing facilities of energy efficiency

  7. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded light duty vehicles in Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; Nejjari et al., 2003, Atek et al., 2004). As a result, many stations of air pollution measurement and Boukadoum, 2005). Vehicle pollutant emissions constitute not only a problem of air quality in big citiesJ. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., vol 58, 2008, p. 45-54 On-board emission measurement of high loaded

  8. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-01-01

    electricity consumption.electricity consumption ..estimates annual electricity consumption by lighting sectors

  9. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy Facilities By E-mail: YouAbsorption heat pumpsstory home

  10. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. FossilMethodsDepartment ofAmerica's

  11. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (US); Rodgers, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  12. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    pathways Light duty ?eet Urban air pollution 1. Introductionof light duty gasoline ?eets to urban air pollution usingThe PM 10 pollution is the least accurate in the light duty

  13. In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS) is modeled and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In hot and dry weather such as Phoenix summers, Air Conditioning (AC) and cooling becomes a large percentage of the power load on the grid. In this thesis the performance of a Hybrid AC System (HACS, especially during peak hours. In addition to solar photovoltaic (PV) panels, the system includes an ice

  14. The world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solar energy is receiving much attention due to its potential as one of the solutions. Air conditioning is particularly attractive as a solar energy application because of the near coincidence of peak cooling loadsThe world is grappling with two serious issues related to energy and climate change. The use

  15. Impact of Canada’s Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    of the Effects of Air Conditioning Operation and AssociatedSystem for Mobile Air Conditioning. ” Society of Automotiveof R-134a Automotive Air Conditioning System. ” Society of

  16. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    of the Effects of Air Conditioning Operation and AssociatedSystem for Mobile Air Conditioning. ” Society of Automotiveof R-134a Automotive Air Conditioning System. ” Society of

  17. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption 2005-2030 Consumption (TWh) IND INDO SAS-PAS BRASAS-PAS BRA MEA Figure 4 Air Conditioner Saturation by Region 2005-

  18. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of light duty vehicles to urban air pollution are estimatedof on-road light duty vehicles to urban air pollution. Theof light duty fleets to urban air pollution using travel

  19. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-01-01

    Transit California High Speed Rail Criteria air pollutantsproposed California High Speed Rail (CAHSR). The BART andFTA 2005]. California High Speed Rail The high speed rail

  20. Light and Plants Plants use light to photosynthesize. Name two places that light can come from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    Light and Plants Plants use light to photosynthesize. Name two places that light can come from: 1 (CO2, a gas) from the air and turn it into SUGARS (food). This process is powered by energy from light plants) for energy. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is a combination of red light and blue

  1. Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan Light Kit use in the U.S. Results of a Survey on Amazon Mechanical Turk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kantner, Colleen L.S.

    2013-01-01

    air conditioning .31   3.7   Impact of ceiling fans on air conditioningowners increased the air conditioning thermostat temperature

  2. Cold air distribution in office buildings: technology assessment for califonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Borgers, T.; LaBerge, P.; Gadgil, A.

    1993-01-01

    for sunm~er air conditioning with ice storage. ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thermal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air conditioning,

  3. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    for summer air conditioning with ice storage." ASHRAEIce storage is one form of thennal energy storage (TES), or off-peak air-conditioning,

  4. An evaluation of gas field rules in light of current conditions and production practices in the Panhandle non-associated gas fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, C.L.; O`Rear, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    During the early years of development in the Panhandle fields the Rule of Capture was king. Under the Rule of Capture each property owner has the right to drill as many wells as desired at any location. Adjacent property owners protect their rights by doing the same. Courts adopted the Rule of Capture to protect mineral owners from liability due to migration of oil and gas across property boundary lines. This general practice {open_quotes}to go and do likewise{close_quotes} generally leads to enormous economic and natural resource waste. Established to offset the waste created under the Rule of Capture is the doctrine of Correlative Rights. Correlative Rights is the fight of each mineral owner to obtain oil and gas from a common source of supply under lawful operations conducted from his property. However, each mineral owner has a duty to every other mineral owner not to extract oil and gas in a manner injurious to the common source of supply. This paper will examine the historical context of these common law principles with regard to the Panhandle non-associated gas fields. Discovered in 1917, the Panhandle fields are ideal to evaluate the merit of statutes and regulations enacted in response to production practices. As in many Texas fields, proration in the Panhandle fields is the primary mechanism to protect correlative rights and prevent waste. Signed and made effective May 1989, the current field rules pre-date much of the enhanced recovery techniques that use well-head vacuum compression. This paper reviews the gas rules in the 1989 Texas Railroad Commission order in light of current reservoir conditions and production practices.

  5. An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Bobby

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1967 Fh)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HORIZONTAL METAL PIATE UNDER FROSTING... Sketch ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 Photographs of Frost Formation e ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ 23 - 26 LIST OF CURVES 13 - 14 Temperature and Concentration Boundary Layer Profile ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 59 15 ? 16 Accumulation of Frost Grosth vs. Time...

  6. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  7. A Post-Occupancy Monitored Evaluation of the Dimmable Lighting, Automated Shading, and Underfloor Air Distribution System in The New York Times Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    =5.5 (designed for single floor) Heating Sizing Heating from110°F) due to heating from floor Minimum volume set at 5% tofloor) ASHRAE 90.1-2001 Lighting Equipment (plug loads) Fans Pumps/Cooling tower Cooling Fan powered boxes Total (kWh/ft -yr) Heating

  8. Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building: _________________________________________________________ File Number: ________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Forms 195 Building in relation to indoor air quality. Page 1 of 14 Needs Attention Not ApplicableOKComponent Comments Outside Air Screen Unobstructed? General condition? Size of mesh? (1 /2" minimum) Outside Air Dampers Operation

  9. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con private label do not comport with the...

  10. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air...

  11. VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS Andrea Basso method to improve the lighting conditions of a real scene or video sequence. In particular we concentrate on modifying real light sources intensities and inserting virtual lights into a real scene viewed from a fixed

  12. Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions Appendix II The unique geology, hydrology and instream habitat. This chapter examines how environmental conditions in the Deschutes watershed affect, the discussion characterizes the environmental conditions within three watershed areas: the Lower Deschutes

  13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act notice of construction for spent nuclear fuel project - hot conditioning system annex, project W-484

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.K., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This notice of construction (NOC) provides information regarding the source and the estimated quantity of potential airborne radionuclide emissions resulting from the operation of the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) Annex. The construction of the HCS Annex is scheduled to conunence on or about December 1996, and will be completed when the process equipment begins operations. This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 for the HCS Annex. About 80 percent of the U.S. Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventory is stored under water in the Hanford Site K Basins. Spent nuclear fuel in the K West Basin is contained in closed canisters, while the SNF in the K East Basin is contained in open canisters, which allows release of corrosion products to the K East Basin water. Storage of the current inventory in the K Basins was originally intended to be on an as-needed basis to sustain operation of the N Reactor while the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant was refurbished and restarted. The decision in December 1992 to deactivate the PUREX Plant left approximately 2, 1 00 MT (2,300 tons) of uranium, as part of 1133 N Reactor SNF in the K Basins with no means for near-term removal and processing. The HCS Annex will be constructed as an annex to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) and will contain the hot conditioning equipment. The hot conditioning system (HCS) will release chemically-bound water and will condition (process of using a controlled amount of oxygen to destroy uranium hydride) the exposed uranium surfaces associated with the SNF through oxidation. The HCS Annex will house seven hot conditioning process stations, six operational and one auxiliary, which could be used as a welding area for final closure of the vessel containing the SNF. The auxiliary pit is being evaluated at this time for its usefulness to support other operations that may be needed to ensure proper conditioning of the SNF and proper storage of the vessel containing the SNF. Figures I and 2 contain map locations of the Hanford Site and the HCS Annex.

  14. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

  15. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (‘source categories’) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm – 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  16. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  18. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  19. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  20. Investigative Tools and Techniques for Indoor Air Quality Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, S. R.; Quinn, C. B.; Henderson, J. E.; Vickery, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air quality problems are diverse and often complex. Adverse indoor air quality problems can exist which create symptomatic conditions for building occupants. Often, the exact cause, or causes, of the substandard indoor air quality are unknown...

  1. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01

    non-uniform so that residents usually feel uncomfortable. The distribution of indoor airflow by cold air distribution is researched in this paper. We study indoor air distribution under different low temperature air supply conditions by numerical...

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in indoor environmental conditions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beam-break counters; and outdoor air fractions in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems serving the sampled spaces. Measurements were made at 5-minute intervals...

  3. Investigation of Feasibility of All-Fresh Air Supply in an All-Air System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Yan, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of an all-fresh air supply in an all-air system is investigated in theory, and the problem of AHU-handling air in low efficiency in summer and winter conditions is analyzed. The air supply temperature is almost up to standards when a...

  4. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-01-01

    electricity consumption..electricity consumption estimates annual electricity consumption by lighting sectors

  5. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    , and HFC-245ca. HCFC-22 is also scheduled for phase-out, and three alternatives for HCFC-22 have been identified: HFC-134a, a near-azeotropic mixture of R32/Rl25, and a zeotropic mixture of R32/R125/R134a. Performance test results, future potential energy...

  6. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    -driven water chiller. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated and tested. A field experiment unit has been operating since August, 1986, and seven field test units have been operating since April, 1987. The performance of the system has been...

  7. Membrane Based Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof EnergyPresentation:Dais Analytic Corporation - Odessa,

  8. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space Heating

  9. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers atDay 12:was createdNobelInnovations

  10. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchersOctober 22,Plant | Department of EnergyCentral

  11. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS PolicyandHigh

  12. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases. Check out our Energy...

  13. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    before proper dehumidification occurs, making the area feel "clammy" and uncomfortable. Central air-conditioning systems need to be sized by professionals. Explore our Energy...

  14. Smart Lighting Controller!! Smart lighting!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    'll build the circuit! We'll use an LED to represent the room lights! #12;4! Block diagram! Battery! Rail! #12;23! LED: light-emitting diode! Diode conducts current in only one direction! When current flows1! Smart Lighting Controller!! #12;2! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if

  15. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency...

  16. Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air temperature is the most important control parameter in air conditioning systems. It not only impacts the thermal comfort of occupants, but also also greatly affects the energy consumption in air conditioning systems. The lower the indoor...

  17. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  18. Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, Stephen D., Wasiolek, Piotr; Rodgers, John

    1999-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  20. Portable air monitoring laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehntholt, D.J.; Beltis, K.J.; McCullough, J.E.; Valentine, J.R. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. was contracted by the US Army to design, fabricate, test and deliver a series of portable air monitoring laboratories which could be used to detect trace levels of toxic chemicals on board cargo ships. The labs were designed to be completely self-sufficient, containing all supplies necessary for a 75-day mission, and to operate under rugged conditions. They were used to monitor for parts-per-billion concentrations of chemical agents in air and to provide information equivalent to high quality fixed laboratory analyses. The mission was successfully completed; independent design awards were received for the laboratories, and they were subsequently diverted to other uses.

  1. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air v.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-01-01

    Transit California High Speed Rail Criteria air pollutantsproposed California High Speed Rail (CAHSR). The BART andFTA 2005]. California High Speed Rail The high speed rail

  2. AIRS Project Science Team Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JPL Fusion of AIRS and OCO-2 carbon dioxide data for mapping lower-atmospheric CO2 3:30 PM Le = Remote Presentation Tuesday, April 21, 2015 Light Refreshments: 7:30 a.m. Session 1: Project Status Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) 8:30 AM Kevin Bowman NASA JPL Invited Talk: Observational constraints

  3. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing Building America Webinar: High Performance Space...

  4. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  5. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Electric) - Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CaulkingWeather-stripping DuctAir sealing Building Insulation Doors Other EE Food Service Equipment Vending Machine Controls LED Lighting Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

  6. New Insights into Light in the Oceans Tommy Dickey, UCSB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    biogeochemistry (carbon dioxide) with optics c. Global climate change and ocean ecosystems #12;Fundamental Problem and apparent optical properties * Light absorption, scattering, polarization * Radiative transfer at air

  7. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustin Mihi andAir Leaks inAir

  8. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  9. Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LIGHT!! #12;Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c' C = 3 x 108 m/s Or 190,000 miles/second!! Light could travel around the world about 8 times in one second #12;What is light?? Light is a "wave packet" A photon is a "light particle" #12;Electromagnetic Radiation and You Light is sometimes

  10. AirUCI Summer Training Workshop in Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution NOx PC Lab: Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) PSE PC Lab - Ability of catalytic converters to reduce air pollution - Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS to 10 am: Room Rowland Hall 390 · Lecture by Prof. Sergey Nizkorodov - The use of light in analytical

  11. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  12. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture from the saturated air leaving an air conditioning (AC) cooling coil to the air returning to the AC unit from the conditioned space. This has the thermodynamic effect of reducing the overall energy...

  13. Model-Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units ­ Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 Introduction In most large air-conditioned buildings, air-handling units

  14. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  15. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  16. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  17. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  18. Way Beyond Widgets: Delivering Integrated Lighting Design in Actionable Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Richman, Eric E.; Jones, Carol C.

    2008-08-17

    Previously, energy-efficiency strategies for commercial spaces have focused on using efficient equipment without providing specific detailed instructions. Designs by experts in their fields are an energy-efficiency product in its own right. A new national program has developed interactive application-specific lighting designs for widespread use in four major commercial sectors. This paper will describe the technical basis for the solutions, energy efficiency and cost-savings methodology, and installations and measurement/verification to-date. Lighting designs have been developed for five types of retail stores (big box, small box, grocery, specialty market, and pharmacy) and are planned for the office, healthcare, and education sectors as well. Nationally known sustainable lighting designers developed the designs using high-performance commercially available products, daylighting, and lighting controls. Input and peer review was received by stakeholders, including manufacturers, architects, utilities, energy-efficiency program sponsors (EEPS), and end-users (i.e., retailers). An interactive web tool delivers the lighting solutions and analyzes anticipated energy savings using project-specific inputs. The lighting solutions were analyzed against a reference building using the space-by-space method as allowed in the Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE 2004) co-sponsored by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). The results showed that the design vignettes ranged from a 9% to 28% reduction in the allowed lighting power density. Detailed control strategies are offered to further reduce the actual kilowatt-hour power consumption. When used together, the lighting design vignettes and control strategies show a modeled decrease in energy consumption (kWh) by 33% to 50% below the baseline design.

  19. Laser Noise Reduction in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Bejot; Jerome Kasparian; Estelle Salmon; Roland Ackermann; Nicolas Gisin; Jean-Pierre Wolf

    2006-08-09

    Fluctuations of the white-light supercontinuum produced by ultrashort laser pulses in selfguided filaments (spatio-temporal solitons) in air are investigated. We demonstrate that correlations exist within the white-light supercontinuum, and that they can be used to significantly reduce the laser intensity noise by filtering the spectrum. More precisely, the fundamental wavelength is anticorrelated with the wings of the continuum, while conjugated wavelength pairs on both sides of the continuum are strongly correlated. Spectral filtering of the continuum reduces the laser intensity noise by 1.2 dB, showing that fluctuations are rejected to the edges of the spectrum.

  20. Optimizing Electric Humidifier Operation with an Air Side Economizer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shami, U. F.

    1996-01-01

    Air side economizer cycle is a control scheme that is often used in WAC systems to reduce cooling energy consumption by introducing variable quantities of ambient air into a conditioned space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling...

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

    2006-01-01

    of the liquid desiccant air conditioning. Of these design parameters, the framework of the padding tower, ratio of the air and the concentration of the inlet solution is largest through the tower, the temperature and effects of the dehumidifying capability...

  2. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged bynuevo sistemaAir

  3. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat from hot surfaces, and man-made heat (exhaust from cars, buildings, etc.). Air is fairly transparent to light--the direct absorption of solar radiation in atmospheric air only raises the air temperature by a small amount. Typically about 90% of solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and then is either absorbed or reflected. The absorbed radiation on the surface increases the surface temperature. And in turn the hot surfaces heat the air. This convective heating is responsible for the majority of the diurnal temperature range. The contribution of man-made heat (e.g., air conditioning, cars) is very small, compared to the heating of air by hot surfaces, except for the downtown high-rise areas.

  4. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices. Introduction Residential air conditioning is responsible. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy

  5. AirUCI Summer Institute 2012 Schedule Monday, June 25

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    by FTIR - Ability of catalytic converters to reduce air pollution - Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy - The use of light in analytical chemistry - Absorption of light and Beer's Law (p.6­9, 177­179, 184­Pitts - Light and Photochemistry (p. 6­7 and 13­16) - The Chapman reactions (p. 16­20), CFC's (p. 29, 55

  6. AirUCI Summer Institute 2011 Schedule Monday, June 27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    / mouthwash measured by FTIR - Ability of catalytic converters to reduce air pollution - Laser. Sergey Nizkorodov - The use of light in analytical chemistry - Absorption of light and Beer's Law (p. 30 Wednesday, June 29 9 am to 11 am: Room Rowland Hall 390 · Lecture by Prof. Barbara Finlayson­Pitts - Light

  7. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  8. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in the United States and proposing a civil penalty of 231,090 for sales...

  9. Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai R.; Bennartz, Ralph; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Weiguo

    2009-08-15

    Long-term observational data reveal that both the frequency and amount of light rain have decreased in eastern China (EC) for 1956-2005 with high spatial coherency. This is different from the trend of total rainfall observed in EC, which decreases in northern EC and increases in southern EC. To examine the cause of the light rain trends, we analyzed the long-term variability of atmospheric water vapor and its correlation with light rain events. Results show very weak relationships between large-scale moisture transport and light rain in EC. This suggests that light rain trend in EC is not driven by large-scale circulation changes. Because of human activities, pollutant emission has increased dramatically in China for the last few decades, leading to significant reductions in visibility between 1960 and 2000. Cloud-resolving model simulations show that aerosols corresponding to heavily polluted conditions can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and reduce droplet sizes compared to pristine conditions. This can lead to a significant decline in raindrop concentration and delay raindrop formation because smaller cloud droplets are less efficient in the collision and coalescence processes. Together with weaker convection, the precipitation frequency and amount are significantly reduced in the polluted case. Satellite data also reveal higher CDNC and smaller droplet size over polluted land in EC relative to pristine regions, which is consistent with the model results. This evidence suggests that the significantly increased aerosol particles produced by air pollution are at least partly responsible for the decreased light rain events observed in China over the past fifty years.

  10. LIGHTING - Safer landings ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Airport runways could be highly visible under even the worst conditions with a lighting technology being developed by a team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The...

  11. Deblurring Low-light Images with Light Streaks Sunghyun Cho2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    Deblurring Low-light Images with Light Streaks Zhe Hu1 Sunghyun Cho2 Jue Wang2 Ming-Hsuan Yang1 1 University of California, Merced 2 Adobe Research Abstract Images taken in low-light conditions with handheld been made recently on image deblurring, state-of-the-art approaches often fail on low-light images

  12. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  13. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...

  14. Study of Air Infiltration Energy Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingsheng

    1992-01-01

    consumption, showed that results from earlier steady-state measurements can be approximately applied to dynamic conditions when solar radiation is not present. However, this study has shown for the first time that IHEE is strongly dependent on air flow...

  15. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  16. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01

    Air conditioning, comfort and energy in India’s CommertialAir conditioning, comfort and energy in India’s Commertialand energy consumption across commercial, office and public buildings in India [

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and...

  18. Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of a variety of insulation and construction products and services Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigerating Suppliers and Products Directory American Society of...

  19. Air Fluorescence Relevant for Cosmic-Ray Detection - Review of Pioneering Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Arqueros; Joerg R. Hoerandel; Bianca Keilhauer

    2008-07-24

    Cosmic rays with energies exceeding $10^{17}$ eV are frequently registered by measurements of the fluorescence light emitted by extensive air showers. The main uncertainty for the absolute energy scale of the measured air showers is coming from the fluorescence light yield of electrons in air. The fluorescence light yield has been studied in laboratory experiments. Pioneering measurements between 1954 and 2000 are reviewed.

  20. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  1. Lighting in the Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by your library lights E Kilowatt-hours consumed by your library lights F Annual cost of operating your library lights H Current lighting index for your library ...

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF AIR FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER VIA PDES Fei Cao, Luz Angelica Caudillo-Mata, Natalia Iwanski, Yong Li, Kamran Sadiq,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the air conditioning units (ACUs) with large scale fans into the plenum thereby pressurizing it of the air conditioning units; these are meant to extract (hot) air out of the room. Thus, equipment like

  3. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  4. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  5. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  6. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2010-01-01

    Letschert (2007). Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumptionrefrigerators, air conditioning, lighting, standby power,the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in

  7. Light-by-Light Scattering Effect in Light-Cone Supergraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renata Kallosh; Pierre Ramond

    2010-06-24

    We give a relatively simple explanation of the light-cone supergraph prediction for the UV properties of the maximally supersymmetric theories. It is based on the existence of a dynamical supersymmetry which is not manifest in the light-cone supergraphs. It suggests that N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is UV finite and N=8 supergravity is UV finite at least until 7 loops whereas the $n$-point amplitudes have no UV divergences at least until $L=n+3$. Here we show that this prediction can be deduced from the properties of light-cone supergraphs analogous to the light-by-light scattering effect in QED. A technical aspect of the argument relies on the observation that the dynamical supersymmetry action is, in fact, a compensating field-dependent gauge transformation required for the retaining the light-cone gauge condition $A_+=0$.

  8. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  9. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  10. Chapter 21 Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in the PortlandVancouver metro area where there are more industrial sources of air pollution and higher levels of traffic congestion that create more air emissions....

  11. Backward air lasing actions induced by femtosecond laser filamentation: influence of population inversion lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Hongqiang; chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Li, Ziting; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate generation of backward 357 nm N2 laser in a gas mixture of N2/Ar using 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses, and examine the involved gain dynamics based on pump-probe measurements. Our findings show that a minimum lifetime of population inversion in the excited N2 molecules is required for generating intense backward nitrogen lasers, which is ~0.8 ns under our experimental conditions. The results shed new light on the mechanism for generating intense backward lasers from ambient air, which are highly in demand for high sensitivity remote atmospheric sensing application.

  12. Types of Lights Types of Lights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Types of Lights Types of Lights q So far we have studied point lights ­ Radiate in all direc7ons q Other lights ­ Direc7onal lights (posi7on-independent) ­ Spotlights #12;2 Direc1onal Lights q Shine in a single, uniform direc7on q All rays

  13. Light Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2006-10-13

    A configuration of light pulses is generated, together with emitters and receptors, that allows computing. The computing is extraordinarily high in number of flops per second, exceeding the capability of a quantum computer for a given size and coherence region. The emitters and receptors are based on the quantum diode, which can emit and detect individual photons with high accuracy.

  14. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  15. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  16. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  17. Light Front Quantization with the Light Cone Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. G. C. McKeon; Chenguang Zhao

    2015-10-07

    The Dirac procedure for dealing with constraints is applied to the quantization of gauge theories on the light front. The light cone gauge is used in conjunction with the first class constraints that arise and the resulting Dirac brackets are found. These gauge conditions are not used to eliminate degrees of freedom from the action prior to applying the Dirac constraint procedure. This approach is illustrated by considering Yang-Mills theory and the superparticle in a 2 + 1 dimensional target space.

  18. Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, E.G.; Bradley, L.C. ); Chant, R.E. ); Fisher, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the energy performance of defrost and frost control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators (HRV) has been carried out by using computer simulations for various climatic conditions. This paper discusses the results and conclusions from the comparisons and their implications for the heat recovery ventilator manufacturers and system designers.

  19. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Air Pollution Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ), comprising 0.93% of air. The sum of these 3 is 99.96% (if we first remove the water ­ we call this "dry (O3) The thermosphere is warm due to absorption of high energy light (Xray, Gamma Ray, shortwave injure plants and animals #12;Mixing Ratios The most interesting and chemically important molecules

  20. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  1. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  2. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  3. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  4. Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Energy Consumption and Air Pollutant Emissions Barnard College 2005 - 2010 *Total campus square(MBtu) based on electricity, light fuel oil, and natural gas. Barnard's CO2 Emissions 2005 to 2010 (lbs/ft2/ft2 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 #12;2 Energy Consumption and Air

  5. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  6. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  7. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  8. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 81, 123102 (2010) A twisted periscope arrangement for transporting elliptically polarized light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    polarized light in air, wherein a general elliptic polarization state of the light is preserved at all making the use of relatively expensive Bragg mirrors impractical. Here we de- scribe a twisted periscope

  9. Security Conditions

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-08

    This Notice ensures that DOE uniformly meets the requirements of the Homeland Security Advisory System outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive-3, Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures, dated 3-11-02, and provides responses specified in Presidential Decision Directive 39, U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism (U), dated 6-21-95. It cancels DOE N 473.8, Security Conditions, dated 8-7-02. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels DOE N 473.8

  10. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  11. Exposing Digital Forgeries From 3-D Lighting Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries From 3-D Lighting Environments Eric Kee 1 , Hany Farid 2 Department@cs.dartmouth.edu Abstract--When creating a photographic composite, it can be difficult to match lighting conditions. We describe a technique for measuring lighting conditions in an image, and describe its use in detecting

  12. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0 Averagequestionnaires 7tniLighting Sign In

  13. Air Pollution Effects on Giant Sequoia Ecosystems1 P. R. Miller N. E. Grulke2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Pollution Effects on Giant Sequoia Ecosystems1 P. R. Miller N. E. Grulke2 K.W. Stolte3 Abstract season increased the light compensation point, lowered CO, exchange rate at light saturation concentrations did not yield visible injury or any detectable changes in photosynthetic rates. Air pollution

  14. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Electric) - Residential...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    70% of total installation cost up to 250 Room Air Conditioners: 20 SolidThermal Entry Door: 10 - 25 LED and CFL bulbs: 50% of cost Summary Interstate Power and Light...

  15. LED Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light-Emitting diodes (LEDs) efficiently produce light in a fundamentally different way than any legacy or traditional source of light.

  16. Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucci, David J.

    Exposing Digital Forgeries by Detecting Inconsistencies in Lighting Micah K. Johnson Department the lighting conditions from the individual photographs. Light- ing inconsistencies can therefore be a useful of computer vision, we describe how the di- rection of a point light source can be estimated from only

  17. Post-Receptor Adaptation: Lighting Up the Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert G.

    Post-Receptor Adaptation: Lighting Up the Details The very first rays of the rising sun enrich our ambient light conditions. A number of previous studies have documented light-dependent functional changes evidence that light-dependent changes may originate in excitatory bipolar cells and offers clear

  18. Air fluorescence relevant for cosmic-ray detection--Review of pioneering measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hörandel, Jörg R.

    Air fluorescence relevant for cosmic-ray detection--Review of pioneering measurements Fernando Keywords: Fluorescence yield Air showers a b s t r a c t Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1017 eV are frequently registered by measurements of the fluorescence light emitted by extensive air showers. The main

  19. DOE Light Truck Clean Diesel (LTCD) Program Final Caterpillar Public Report Light Truck Clean Diesel Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Fluga

    2004-09-30

    The US Department of Energy and Caterpillar entered a Cooperative Agreement to develop compression ignition engine technology suitable for the light truck/SUV market. Caterpillar, in collaboration with a suitable commercialization partner, developed a new Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) engine technology to dramatically improve the emissions and performance of light truck engines. The overall program objective was to demonstrate engine prototypes by 2004, with an order of magnitude emission reduction while meeting challenging fuel consumption goals. Program emphasis was placed on developing and incorporating cutting edge technologies that could remove the current impediments to commercialization of CIDI power sources in light truck applications. The major obstacle to commercialization is emissions regulations with secondary concerns of driveability and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness). The target emissions levels were 0.05 g/mile NOx and 0.01 g/mile PM to be compliant with the EPA Tier 2 fleet average requirements of 0.07 g/mile and the CARB LEV 2 of 0.05 g/mile for NOx, both have a PM requirement of 0.01 g/mile. The program team developed a combustion process that fundamentally shifted the classic NOx vs. PM behavior of CIDI engines. The NOx vs. PM shift was accomplished with a form of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The HCCI concept centers on appropriate mixing of air and fuel in the compression process and controlling the inception and rate of combustion through various means such as variable valve timing, inlet charge temperature and pressure control. Caterpillar has adapted an existing Caterpillar design of a single injector that: (1) creates the appropriate fuel and air mixture for HCCI, (2) is capable of a more conventional injection to overcome the low power density problems of current HCCI implementations, (3) provides a mixed mode where both the HCCI and conventional combustion are functioning in the same combustion cycle. Figure 1 illustrates the mixed mode injection system. Under the LTCD program Caterpillar developed a mixed mode injector for a multi-cylinder engine system. The mixed mode injection system represents a critical enabling technology for the implementation of HCCI. In addition, Caterpillar implemented variable valve system technology and air system technology on the multi-cylinder engine platform. The valve and air system technology were critical to system control. Caterpillar developed the combustion system to achieve a 93% reduction in NOx emissions. The resulting NOx emissions were 0.12 gm/mile NOx. The demonstrated emissions level meets the stringent Tier 2 Bin 8 requirement without NOx aftertreatment! However, combustion development alone was not adequate to meet the program goal of 0.05gm/mile NOx. To meet the program goals, an additional 60% NOx reduction technology will be required. Caterpillar evaluated a number of NOx reduction technologies to quantify and understand the NOx reduction potential and system performance implications. The NOx adsorber was the most attractive NOx aftertreatment option based on fuel consumption and NOx reduction potential. In spite of the breakthrough technology development conducted under the LTCD program there remains many significant challenges associated with the technology configuration. For HCCI, additional effort is needed to develop a robust control strategy, reduce the hydrocarbon emissions at light load condition, and develop a more production viable fuel system. Furthermore, the NOx adsorber suffers from cost, packaging, and durability challenges that must be addressed.

  20. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  1. Clean Air Bill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Her Majesty's Stationary Office

    1955-01-01

    The object of this Bill is to implement the principal recommendations in the Report of the Committee on Air Pollution

  2. Sandia Energy - (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting:...

  3. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  4. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Picard, Sandra

    2010-09-15

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO{sub 2}-enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

  5. Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Moss; L. Bugel; G. Collin; J. M. Conrad; B. J. P. Jones; J. Moon; M. Toups; T. Wongjirad

    2015-03-25

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  6. Sustainable Office Lighting Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Sustainable Office Lighting Options Task Lighting: Task lighting is a localized method of lighting a workspace so that additional, unnecessary lighting is eliminated, decreasing energy usage and costs. Illumination levels in the targeted work areas are higher with task lighting than with the ambient levels

  7. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  8. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  10. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However...

  11. Low Light Image Enhancement via Sparse Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    Low Light Image Enhancement via Sparse Representations Konstantina Fotiadou , Grigorios,greg,tsakalid}@ics.forth.gr Abstract. Enhancing the quality of low light images is a critical pro- cessing function both from images captured under low illumination conditions based on the mathematical framework of Sparse

  12. Laboratory Test Report for ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Winkler, J.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the performance of the ThermaStor Ultra-Aire XT150H Dehumidifier. Its performance was measured across a wide range of inlet air conditions and fit to a numerical model.

  13. CFD Simulation and Measurement Validation of Air Distribution at the Hunan International Exhibition Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, G.; Yuan, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hunan International Exhibition Center (HIEC) is a large space building. A stratified air-conditioning system on the second floor of the building has been adopted. Due to some problems with the air supply jet diffuser, CFD simulations were...

  14. Better Unitary Equipment Air-Handlers for Efficiency and Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachs, H. M.

    2002-01-01

    procedure gives too little credit for advanced air handlers that reduce air conditioning load and facilitate adaptive humidity control through automatic fan speed adjustment. DC permanent magnet variable speed motors have much lower market share than less...

  15. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2013-03-30

    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  16. Light front Casimir effect at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. L. M. Rodrigues; Silvana Perez; Danilo T. Alves; Van Sérgio Alves; Charles R. Silva

    2015-01-06

    The correct description of the standard Casimir effect for periodic boundary conditions via light front formalism implies in these conditions imposed at fixed Minkowski times [Almeida {\\it et al.} Phys. Rev. {\\bf D 87}, 065028 (2013); Chabysheva and Hiller, Phys. Rev. {\\bf D 88}, 085006 (2013)] instead of fixed light front times. The unphysical nature of this latter condition is manifested in the vacuum part by no regularization yielding a finite Casimir energy density [Lenz and Steinbacher, Phys. Rev. {\\bf D 67}, 045010 (2003)]. In the present paper, we extend this discussion and analyze the problem of the light front quantization with simultaneous presence of a thermal bath and boundary conditions. Considering both the oblique light front as well as Dirac light front coordinates, we show that the imposition of periodic boundary conditions at fixed Minkowski times recovers the expected behaviors for the energy density and Casimir entropy. We also investigate how the unphysical nature of the periodic boundary conditions imposed at fixed light front times manifests in the thermal part of the energy and entropy, showing that in the classical limit the Casimir entropy decreases linearly with the temperature (not becoming independent of the temperature as expected), and also that the Kirchhoff theorem is not respected.

  17. Working with Cities to Light Our Streets Better | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mechanisms, the High Performance Outdoor Lighting Accelerator, and More DOE Announces Webinars on High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Tribal Renewable Energy, and More...

  18. Economizer control assembly for regulating the volume flow of outdoor ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaels, D.D. Jr.

    1984-10-23

    An economizer assembly is disclosed wherein a sliding door is utilized for covering an outdoor ambient air opening allowing outdoor ambient air flow into a space to be conditioned. A motor shaft arrangement connected via a rotating drive rod is utilized to slidably displace the door to any position necessary to effectively regulate air flow. The utilization of this economizer control arrangement with a rooftop type air conditioning unit is further disclosed.

  19. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  20. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  1. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  2. Light Effects on the Charge Storage in the A-SI:H Pin Diode 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2013-04-19

    was verified with a pre-fabricated circuit which is a charge storage readout device. The diode under the long wavelength light illumination condition stored more charges than that under the short wavelength light illumination condition because the former could...

  3. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  4. Air-Con International: Order (2010-SE-0301)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Air-Con International, Inc. to pay a civil penalty of $10,000 after finding Air-Con had distributed in commerce in the U.S. central air conditioning units that were not in conformity with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE also found that, while some units were exported, none of the units were properly marked as imports intended for exportation.

  5. Indoor Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Focus For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health-from cognitive ability to personal comfort...

  6. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  7. Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,VillageWarrensourceCentreCounty, Tennessee:

  8. Simulation- Assisted Audit of an Air Conditioned Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertagnolio, S.; Lebrun, J.; Hannay, J.; Silva, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    and nominal performances and capacities can be automatically computed through a pre-sizing calculation or defined basing on default values given in European standards (prEN 13053 and 13773). The implementation of this global building-HVAC model... and nominal performances and capacities can be automatically computed through a pre-sizing calculation or defined basing on default values given in European standards (prEN 13053 and 13773). The implementation of this global building-HVAC model...

  9. Desiccants: Benefits for the Second Century of Air-Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGahey, K.; Harriman, L.

    1996-01-01

    to equalize this pressure differential. Lew Harriman Consultant Mason-Grant Company Box 6547 Portsmouth, NH 03802 With desiccants, moisture removal occurs in the vapor phase. Consequently, desiccant dehumidification can continue even when the dew...

  10. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

  11. Desiccant-Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Woods and E. Kozubal

    2012-10-01

    Presented at the Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE2012); Boulder, Colorado; August 1-4-, 2012

  12. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMatFermiGuido DeHoratiis -PDF version(HARDI) |

  13. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program |quickHeather

  14. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11,Security Officer Program |quickHeatherThermostats

  15. Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergyTurbine blades being delivered to Kahuku.KathrynTrees

  16. Quantum Well Thermoelectric Truck Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7, 2011 |1 DOEAssurance forReviewDepartmentQuantum Well

  17. Saving Money During the Air Conditioning Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProjectData Dashboard RutlandSTEAB's1-E Wholesale Powerand beEnergy and05as

  18. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡ ¢ £Space HeatingEmerging

  19. Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavy ElectricalsFTL Solar Jump to:Fenglilai Technology

  20. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergyBurden RFI |

  1. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie PezzulloAgenda AgendaEnergyBurden RFI

  2. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  3. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  4. Practical image based lighting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jaemin

    2003-01-01

    information is lighting. Image based lighting that is developed to recover illumination information of the real world from photographs has recently been popular in computer graphics. In this thesis we present a practical image based lighting method. Our...

  5. Light in the city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Kavita, 1976-

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on enhancing the awareness of light for the pedestrian,and using light as a way of revealing the structure of the city and its relation to the cosmos. It proposes that aesthetic qualities of light inform ...

  6. Advances in Lighting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumber, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Increasing electricity costs have made a significant impact on lighting. The Illuminating Engineering society (I.E.S.) and the lighting industry are producing new standards, procedures and products to make lighting more appropriate and energy...

  7. Natural lighting and skylights 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Benjamin Hampton

    1961-01-01

    There are many physiological and psychological factors which enter into the proper design of space for human occupancy. One of these elements is light. Both natural light and manufactured light are basic tools with which any designer must work...

  8. Specific light in sculpture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, John William

    1989-01-01

    Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

  9. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  10. Current collectors for rechargeable Li-Air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the negative influence of porous nickel foam for use as current collectors in rechargeable Li-air batteries. Uncoated nickel foam promotes the decomposition of LiPF6-organic carbonate electrolytes under normal charging conditions reported for rechargeable Li-air cells. We have identified Ni free porous carbon supports as more appropriate cathode current collectors.

  11. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  12. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  13. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Air LiAison officer Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) operations. Provides Command and Control, and Execution of Air, Space, and Cyber power. Primary advisor and advocate to the Ground Force Commander ensuring effective Air, Space, and Cyber power integration with US

  14. Appendix F. Air Permits Appendix F. Air Permits F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix F. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix F. Air Permits F-3 Table F.1. Air Permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Purification Facility #12;Oak Ridge Reservation F-4 Appendix F. Air Permits Table F.2. Oak Ridge National

  15. Appendix E. Air Permits Appendix E. Air Permits E-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix E. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix E. Air Permits E-3 Table E.1. Air permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Operation 01-0020-68 554701 Disassembly and Storage Operation #12;Oak Ridge Reservation E-4 Appendix E. Air

  16. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    are also under consideration. Outside the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program promotes energy-efficient lighting as a means to reducing...

  17. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  18. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  19. Leavenworth Tree Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Join HERO for our annual Leavenworth Tree Lighting Ceremony & Shopping SATURDAY DECEMBER 12, 2015 Leavenworth Christmas Lighting Festival Visitors return year after year for some...

  20. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    light by passing electricity through mercury vapor, which causes the fluorescent coating to glow or fluoresce. High-Efficiency Ballast (HEB): A lighting conservation feature...