National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioners refrigerators

  1. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Amongmore » all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.« less

  2. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  3. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  4. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-12

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  5. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoBanksPhotos. A...

  6. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  7. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  8. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  9. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  10. Adsorption air conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rousseau, Jean L. I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar powered air conditioner using the adsorption process is constructed with its components in a nested cylindrical array for compactness and ease of operation.

  11. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

  12. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Conditioners Tips: Air Conditioners Bigger isn't always better for an air conditioner. Learn effective ways to stay cool while saving energy. | Photo courtesy of ...

  13. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was

  14. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  15. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/kschulze. Room or window air conditioners cool rooms rather than the entire home or business. If they provide cooling only where they're needed, room air conditioners are less expensive to operate than central units, even though their

  16. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  17. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  18. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  19. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  20. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ductless mini-split air conditioners are a good choice if you want a zoned air conditioning system but have no ducts in your house.

  1. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    frequently. Based on size alone, an air conditioner generally needs 20 Btu for each square foot of living space. Other important factors to consider when selecting an air...

  2. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... This calculator allows the user to input a location, cooling capacity of the room air conditioners, efficiency (i.e., EER) and rate for electricity. The output section ...

  3. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air ...

  4. Product Standards for Air Conditioners (Japan) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Conditioners (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Air Conditioners (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy...

  5. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM Issues On October ... Energy (DOE) to discuss proposed amended test procedures for central air conditioners ...

  6. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. ...

  7. Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests ...

  8. Enforcement Policy Statement: Split-System Central Air Conditioners...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC December 16, 2015 In the November 9, 2015 central air conditioner test procedure supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (80 ...

  9. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency ...

  10. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bigger isn't always better for an air conditioner. Learn effective ways to stay cool while saving energy. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotogalinast. Bigger isn't always better...

  11. Central Air Conditioner Enforcement Policy Statement | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 24, 2014 DOE will not seek civil penalties for violations of the regional standards applicable to central air conditioners that occur prior to July 1, 2016, provided that the...

  12. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cool while saving energy. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotogalinast. Buying a bigger room air conditioner won't necessarily make you feel more comfortable during the hot summer...

  13. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  14. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air conditioning unit in place in a window frame. Window air conditioners are inexpensive, portable, and can be installed by home occupants, making them a good solution for spot cooling and for installing air conditioning into homes that lack ductwork. However, window air conditioners have low

  15. 13 EER Window Air Conditioner

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... HXs - unfortunately not suitable for WACs - Replace the capillary tube with a needle valve for better control of refrigerant flow - Replace AC fan motor with ECM DC fan motor - ...

  16. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mini-Split Air Conditioners A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoLUke1138. A ductless...

  17. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  18. Air Conditioner Regional Standards Brochure | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Conditioner Regional Standards Brochure Air Conditioner Regional Standards Brochure November 9, 2015 DOE has adopted energy conservation standards for split-system air conditioners that vary depending on when and where a unit is installed. This brochure provides information about the new standards to distributors, contractors (installers), and consumers. PDF icon Central Air Conditioner Standards Brochure More Documents & Publications 2015-11-12 Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Enforcement

  19. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including room air conditioners, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  1. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer ... for increased feedback * Tested in ambient air Next steps: * Testing in operational ...

  2. Enforcement Policy: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC Enforcement Policy: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC December 16, 2015 DOE issued an enforcement policy that it would begin investigating the methods manufacturers are using to rate split-system central air conditioners that do not have a highest sales volume combination (HSVC) to test as required by the applicable regulations and that it would assess penalties for units manufactured after February 1,

  3. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Procedure Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure On September 18, 2015, AHRI staff and Manufacturing Representatives met with representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss proposed amended test procedures for central air conditioners. PDF icon AHRI Ex Parte Memo CACTP More Documents & Publications Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM Issues Ex Parte Memo on CAC/Dry Charged Units

  4. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Central Air Conditioners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Residential Central Air Conditioners Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Central Air Conditioners The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential central air conditioners, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are

  5. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advances in Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology The U.S. ...

  6. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling (Program Document...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia's air conditioner uses helium ...

  7. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Proposed ...

  8. Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commercial package air conditioners, heat pumps, and commercial warm air furnaces is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  9. The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review ... Paul Schwartz, CEO pschwartz@tm-lift.com DE-FOA-0000823 The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air ...

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  11. 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: General Electric - Fairfield, CT DOE Funding: $1,540,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2015 Project Objective This project is designing and developing a high-efficiency 13 energy-efficiecy-ratio (EER) window air

  12. Five ENERGY STAR Room Air Conditioners Fail Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement announced today that DOE testing has identified five Friedrich room air conditioners that do not meet the ENERGY STAR Program’s energy...

  13. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Notice) on September 27, 2011, to AeroSys, Inc. (AeroSys) regarding four models of central (through-the-wall) air conditioners that fail to meet Federal energy...

  14. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ENERGY STAR program has revealed that an Electrolux Gibson air conditioner (model GAH105Q2T1) and an Equator clothes washer (model EZ 3720 CEE), both of which claimed ENERGY STAR...

  15. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advances in Technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of

  16. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Case study describes various concepts for more cost-effective cooling solutions in data centers, while keeping in mind that the reliability of computing systems and their respective cooling systems is always a key criterion. PDF icon dc_fancasestudy.pdf More Documents & Publications Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency NSIDC Data

  17. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted behind-the-scenes without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  18. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  19. Enforcement Policy Statement: Off Mode Standards for Central Air Conditioners

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Enforcement Policy Statement: Off Mode Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Central Air Conditioning Heat Pumps July 8, 2014 On June 27, 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) published in the Federal Register a direct final rule (DFR) under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 6291-6309, which set forth amended energy conservation standards for central air conditioners and central air conditioning heat pumps (CAC/HP), including a new standard for off mode electrical

  20. DOE Reaches $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer DOE Reaches $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer October 27, 2015 - 5:48pm Addthis The General Counsel's enforcement office settled an enforcement action against Friedrich Air Conditioning Company for $1,494,626.25, for the distribution of room air conditioners that failed to meet federal minimum standards for energy efficiency. Room air conditioners must meet minimum efficiency standards to be

  1. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models ...

  2. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  3. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Central Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance for residential central air conditioners, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards | Department of Energy Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown to Violate Federal Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards September 23, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - The Department of Energy announced today that it has taken action against Air-Con, International, requiring

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-06-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-11-19: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  8. ISSUANCE 2016-04-27 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. A Homeowners Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Window air conditioners (ACs) are an inexpensive alternative to central systems, and are ... The study showed that window AC installation resulted in signifcant air ...

  10. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  11. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  12. Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.

    2003-06-24

    The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

  13. De-icing thermostat for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.R.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes an electronic thermostat adapted to be connected to an air-cooling apparatus to control the operative state of the apparatus. The thermostat includes a means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of a desired temperature setpoint and means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of the ambient temperature at the thermostat. The improvement described here comprises: means for generating control signals for the aircooling apparatus in order to inhibit the accumulation of ice on the cooling element of the air-cooling apparatus when the ambient temperature is above the temperature setpoint; means, responsive to the control signals, for deenergizing the compressor in the air-cooling apparatus for a first preselected period of time whenever the compressor is determined to have run continuously for a second preselected period of time; and means for adaptively adjusting the length of at least one of the first or second preselected periods of time as a function of the change in the rate of change of the ambient temperature.

  14. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standard | Department of Energy YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard October 11, 2012 - 4:10pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination (Notice) on October 11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic

  15. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in ...

  16. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon DOE Reg Burden RFI 7-18-14 More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI from AHRI Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute ...

  17. FINAL REPORT DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE MAGNETIC AIR CONDITIONER (VMAC) TECHNOLOGY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FINAL REPORT ' DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE MAGNETIC AIR CONDITIONER (VMAC) TECHNOLOGY Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr., V. K. Pecharsky and David Jiles Institute for Physical Research and Technology Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 500 1 1-3020 . and Carl B. Zimm Astronautics Corporation of America Astronautics Technology Center 5802 Cottage Grove Rd Madison Wi 53718-1387 \ DOE Contract No.: DE-FC02-98 EE 50549 DOE Patent Clearance Granted ~ 9 m u u l c Mark P Dvorscak E-mail rnark.dvorscak@ch.doe Office ot

  18. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  19. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature ...

  20. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers ...

  1. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document ...

  2. 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Winter Conference 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

  3. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  4. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  5. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

  6. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  7. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners The Oak Ridge National Laboratory High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP)

  8. Department of Energy Opens Appliance Standards Investigation for Certain Air Con International Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it has opened an investigation to determine whether certain air conditioners and heat pump products manufactured by Air Con...

  9. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  10. Stronger Manufacturers' Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Air Conditioners Go Into Effect Today

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC -- To increase the energy efficiency of residential air conditioners, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has issued new manufacturing standards that go into effect  today, January...

  11. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more...

  12. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE Energy Star Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE testing in support of the ENERGY STAR program has revealed that an Electrolux Gibson air conditioner (model GAH105Q2T1) and an Equator clothes washer (model EZ 3720 CEE), both of which claimed...

  13. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  15. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Enforcement Action Against AeroSys, Inc. for Failure to Certify Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Aerosys Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty and Submit Test Data in Settlement with DOE

  16. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  17. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues | Department of Energy Procedure - ICM Issues Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM Issues On October 8, 2015, AHRI staff and Independent Coil Manufacturer (ICM) Representatives met with a representative from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss proposed amended test procedures for central air conditioners and how they would impact ICM manufacturers. PDF icon 10_8_15AHRI Ex Parte Memo ICM More Documents & Publications Ex Parte Communication on

  18. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards | Department of Energy AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards March 30, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop

  19. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Violating Minimum Appliance Standards | Department of Energy Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must

  20. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  1. Memorandum To: GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GENERAL COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) From: JONATHAN MELCHI, HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) Date: 1/12/2012 Subject: EX PARTE COMMUNICATION MEMO DOE ATTENDEES: Ashley Armstrong, John Cymbalsky, David Case, Laura Barhydt HARDI ATTENDEES: Talbot Gee, Jonathan Melchi AREAS OF DISCUSSION: DOE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat

  2. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  3. Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank July 22, 2014 - 3:15pm Addthis Cooling your home doesn't have to break the bank, with these tips you can save money and stay comfortable.| Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/galinast Cooling your home doesn't have to break the bank, with these tips you can save money and stay comfortable.| Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/galinast Elizabeth Spencer

  4. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner June 29, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy OK. It's officially summer here in Washington, D.C. I'm seeking the coolest, shadiest places possible as I get ready for the hottest few months of the year. It's already been a hot June in much

  5. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  6. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

  8. 2014-10-30 Issuance: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, Request for Information

  9. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  10. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  11. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burden RFI | Department of Energy Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its

  12. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI ... PDF icon DOE Com Reg Burden RFI 9-7-12.pdf More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden ...

  13. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Prof. Reinhard Radermacher, raderm@umd.edu University of Maryland College Park Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 03/01/2013 Planned end date: 02/29/2016 Key Milestones 1. Heat exchanger designs/process: 6/30/14 2. Fabrication/testing of 1 kW: 9/30/14 3. Fabrication/testing of 10 kW: 9/30/2015 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $561K Total future DOE $: $489K Target Market/Audience: Residential and

  14. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Reinhard Radermacher raderm@umd.edu 20%+ Better University of Maryland College Park Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 3/1/2013 Planned end date: 2/29/2016 Key Milestones 1. Design optimization, 3/30/14 2. Fabrication/testing, 1kW prototype, 1/30/2015 3. Fabrication/testing, 10kW prototype, 9/30/2015 Budget: Total Budget: $1500K Total UMD: $1050K Total DOE $ to date for UMD: $881K Total future DOE $

  15. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  16. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    In recent years China's energy consumption has increased rapidly. The problem of high energy consumption intensity and low energy utilization efficiency is serious, and the contradiction between economic development and energy and environmental resources has become increasingly acute, making energy conservation and consumption reduction an important society-wide concern. At the same time, global climate change has and will continue to have profound impacts on human survival and development, and is another major challenge to all countries. In order to accelerate China's energy conservation and emission reduction work, the National Leading Group to Address Climate Change, Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction was founded with Premier Wen Jiabao as the head, and the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction' and 'China's National Program of Addressing Climate Change' were issued, under which China's energy conservation and emission reduction work has been fully deployed. Efforts to promote energy efficiency have been further strengthened in all levels of government, and various policies and measures have progressively been issued and implemented. In addition, based on China's experience with implementing energy-saving priority strategies over the past 20+ years, our government established a goal of a 20% decrease in energy consumption per unit GDP in the 'Eleventh Five-year Development Plan'. Furthermore, in November 2009, in order to support global greenhouse gas emission reduction activities and promote China's low carbon economic development, the government established a further 40-50% reduction in energy consumption per unit GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2005. Improving energy utilization efficiency by scientific and technological progress will undoubtedly play an important role in achieving the above stated objectives. The improvement of energy efficiency of energy consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy-consuming products has become an important determinant of achieving energy conservation and emission reduc

  17. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is developing a miniaturized air-to-refrigerant heat exchanger that is more compact and more energy efficient than current market designs. The heat exchanger will feature at least 20% less volume, material volume, and approach temperature compared to current multiport flat tube designs, and it will be in production within five years. The heat exchanger, which acts as both an evaporator and a condenser, can be applied to commercial and residential air-conditioning or heat pump systems with various capacity scales. Prototype 1-kilowatt (kW) and 10 kW designs will be tested and then improved as necessary for final tests and demonstration in a 3-ton heat pump.

  18. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  19. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  20. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference | Department of Energy American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference June 25, 2016 9:00AM EDT to June 29

  1. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: Paul Schwartz, Thermolift Related Publications PDF icon 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air ...

  2. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research reveals the effects of parasitic power losses on the energy consumption of oversized residential air conditioners. Retrofits of existing homes can be substantial invest- ments that reduce home energy use for years; there- fore, knowledge about the energy impacts of building systems is critical. In the case of air conditioners, conven- tional wisdom suggests that oversized cooling equipment leads to higher energy use because equipment cycling is inefficient. It also implies that there

  3. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioners |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel cooling/heating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles PDF icon ghoshal.pdf More Documents & Publications Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These solid state heat pumping elements can be implemented in low cost manner which have the potential to dramatically change the way in which

  4. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  5. ISSUANCE 2016-04-11: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Determination of Portable Air Conditioners as a Covered Consumer Product

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Determination of Portable Air Conditioners as a Covered Consumer Product

  6. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Cooling Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Cooled Buildings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Residential-Type Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air Conditioning Units","Swamp Coolers","Other" "All

  7. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Cooling Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Cooled Buildings","Cooling Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Residential-Type Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged Air Conditioning Units","Swamp Coolers","Other" "All

  8. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Thomas; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Chen, Yuting; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Iyer, Maithili; Price, Sarah; Dunham, Camilla

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  9. Air Sample Conditioner Helps the Waste Treatment Plant Meet Emissions Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Pekour, Mikhail S.

    2014-12-02

    The air in three of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) melter off-gas discharge stacks will be hot and humid after passing through the train of emission abatement equipment. The off-gas temperature and humidity levels will be incompatible with the airborne emissions monitoring equipment required for this type of stack. To facilitate sampling from these facilities, an air sample conditioner system will be installed to introduce cool, dry air into the sample stream to reduce the temperature and dew point. This will avoid thermal damage to the instrumentation and problematic condensation. The complete sample transport system must also deliver at least 50% of the particles in the sample airstream to the sample collection and on-line analysis equipment. The primary components of the sample conditioning system were tested in a laboratory setting. The sample conditioner itself is based on a commercially-available porous tube filter design. It consists of a porous sintered metal tube inside a coaxial metal jacket. The hot gas sample stream passes axially through the porous tube, and the dry, cool air is injected into the jacket and through the porous wall of the inner tube, creating an effective sample diluter. The dilution and sample air mix along the entire length of the porous tube, thereby simultaneously reducing the dew point and temperature of the mixed sample stream. Furthermore, because the dilution air enters through the porous tube wall, the sample stream does not come in contact with the porous wall and particle deposition is reduced in this part of the sampling system. Tests were performed with an environmental chamber to supply air with the temperature and humidity needed to simulate the off-gas conditions. Air from the chamber was passed through the conditioning system to test its ability to reduce the temperature and dew point of the sample stream. To measure particle deposition, oil droplets in the range of 9 to 11 micrometer aerodynamic diameter were injected into the environmental chamber and drawn through the conditioning system, which included a filter to capture droplets that passed through the conditioner. The droplets were tagged with a fluorescent dye which allowed quantification of droplet deposition on each component of the system. The tests demonstrated the required reductions in temperature and moisture, with no condensation forming when heat tracing was added on the upstream end of the sample conditioner. Additionally, tests indicated that the system, operating at several flow rates and in both vertical and horizontal orientations, delivers nearly all of the sampled particles for analysis. Typical aerosol penetration values were between 98 and 99%. PNNL, Bechtel National Inc., and the instrument vendor are working to implement the sample conditioner into the air monitoring systems used for the melter off-gas exhaust streams. Similar technology may be useful for processes in other facilities with air exhaust streams with elevated temperature and/or humidity.

  10. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availabilty regarding test procedures for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 5, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  11. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  12. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  13. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  14. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  15. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department has issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Civil Penalty to Air-Con, International, requiring Air-Con to cease the sale of certain air-conditioning systems in...

  16. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  17. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 | www.nrel.gov Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% post consumer waste. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency. Window air conditioners

  18. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The general replacement of low-efficiency air conditioners (replacing units in all houses without considering pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption) was not cost effective in the test houses. ECMs installed under the Oklahoma WAP and installed in combination with an attic radiant barrier did not produce air-conditioning electricity savings that could be measured in the field test. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this type of housing.

  20. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  1. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  2. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  3. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  4. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  5. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S.; Baguer, G. M. Gistau

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  6. 2014-08-19 Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)- Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Registe notice of open meetings regarding the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on August 19, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  7. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 13, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  8. Room Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards.

  9. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Friday, February 13, 2015, AHRI staff met telephonically with the Department of Energy to discuss issues pertaining to the ongoing efficiency standards rulemaking for single package vertical air...

  10. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  11. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  12. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  13. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  14. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  15. DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and Proposes Penalties DOE Requires Air-Con International to Cease Sales of Inefficient Air Conditioners and ...

  16. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  17. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  18. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: A Homeowner’s Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Booten

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve energy efficiency, cost savings, and comfort for homeowners.

  20. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  1. Refrigerant recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, A.W.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes improvement in a refrigerant recovery apparatus of the type having inlet means for connecting to a refrigerant air system to withdraw refrigerant from the system, expansion means for converting refrigerant received from the system in liquid phase to a gaseous refrigerant, a compressor having a suction chamber with a suction inlet for receiving and pressurizing the gaseous refrigerant, the compressor having a housing containing oil for lubricating the compressor, a condenser for receiving the pressurized gaseous refrigerant and condensing it to liquid refrigerant, and a storage chamber for storing the liquid refrigerant. The improvement comprises in combination: oil separator means mounted exterior of the housing to one end of an inlet line, which has another end connected to the suction inlet of the compressor for receiving the flow of refrigerant from the refrigerated air system for separating out oil mixed with the refrigerant being received from the refrigerated air system prior to the refrigerant entering the suction inlet of the compressor; and the oil separator means being mounted at a lower elevation than the suction inlet of the compressor, the inlet line being unrestricted for allowing refrigerant flow to the compressor and oil from the compressor for draining oil in the housing of the compressor above the suction inlet back through the inlet line into the oil separator means when the compressor is not operating.

  2. NREL Demonstrates Game-Changing Air Conditioner Technology (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of DEVAP prototype validates modeled predictions of 40% to 85% energy savings. Researchers in the NREL Buildings group are moving the award-winning desiccant enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air conditioning technol- ogy further toward commercialization by demonstrating that its energy-saving perfor- mance matches closely with thermodynamic model predictions. Industry partners Synapse Product Development and AIL Research built two prototypes of DEVAP based on NREL's design and modeling,

  3. High power thermoacoustic refrigeration. Annual summary report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.

    1996-06-15

    The purpose of this research project is to study the fundamental physical processes which are involved in production of high cooling powers from electrically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration. The results of these experimental investigations are then utilized to produce improved designs for the next generation of high power thermoacoustic refrigerators, chillers, and air conditioners. These research objectives are achieved by an integrated combination of experimental measurements on thermoacoustic components and subsystems, as well as complete refrigeration systems. Comparison of the measured performance to analytic models based on differential equations (low amplitude) and similitude (high amplitude) and to numerical models based on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Design Environment for Low-Amplitude ThermoAcoustic Engines (DELTA-E), are then made.

  4. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  5. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

  7. Attenuator And Conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Carson, Richard F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; Kemme, Shanalyn Adair; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.

    2006-04-04

    An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  9. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  10. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  11. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%.

  12. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  13. Homeowner's Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve efficiency and comfort for homeowners.

  14. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  15. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  16. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  17. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by

  18. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  19. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  20. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  1. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  2. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  3. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  4. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  5. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  6. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cooling #AskEnergySaver: Home Cooling July 24, 2014 - 11:13am Addthis Home cooling accounts for 6 percent of the average household's energy use. To help you save money by saving energy, our experts are answering your home cooling questions. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Home cooling accounts for 6 percent of the average household's energy use. To help you save money by saving energy, our experts are answering your home cooling questions. | Photo courtesy of

  7. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Guidance Guidance internet-security.jpg Cybersecurity Documents in italics are currently under revision: Cybersecurity Strategy Cybersecurity Architecture OMB Requirements Records Management Employee Separation: Completing HQ F 3293.1, Sec. 7c Centers of Excellence (pdf) DOD 5015.02-STD, Records Management Applications Design Criteria Standards NARA Bulletins Procedures and Instructions Records Management Handbook Web DigitalGov Required Web Content and Links

    Exchangers for Solar Water

  8. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regulations Policy and Regulations map-1019833_960_720.jpg

    Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office U.S. Army Battalion Tours Portsmouth Site U.S. Army Battalion Tours Portsmouth Site Portsmouth Site Director Dr. Vince Adams (left) presents U.S. Army Major Ryan Watson with a framed photo of the Portsmouth Decontamination and Decommissioning Project. The site recently welcomed 32 members of the U.S. Army 412th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne - Tactical) to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  9. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  10. Novel Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Partners: Vaccumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG., Hanau, Germany

  11. DOE Investigates Possible Air Conditioner Efficiency Violations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Enforcement is committed to its compliance enforcement responsibilities with regard to federal energy conservation standards and ensuring that all those subject...

  12. Room Air Conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  13. Central Air conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  14. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Condensate Drains Occasionally pass a stiff wire through the unit's drain channels. Clogged drain channels prevent a unit from reducing humidity, and the resulting excess moisture ...

  15. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditioners | Department of Energy Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon testing_residential_ariconditioners_booten_winkler.pdf More Documents & Publications Key Issues High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners -

  16. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M.

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  18. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  19. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy...

  1. Unitil (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Star Appliance Program provides rebates for clothes washers, air purifiers, refrigerators, and room air conditioners.

  2. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype Eric ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air ...

  3. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  4. 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers | Department of Energy 06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room

  5. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Motor VFDs, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment State Energy Loan...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Motor VFDs, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Alternative...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Energy Star Appliance Rebate Program...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    customers. Rebates are available for high efficiency lighting equipment, occupancy sensors, central air conditioners, geothermal heat pumps, windows, appliances, refrigeration...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Building Insulation, Windows,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors,...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Windows, Other EE,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Pool Pumps Puget Sound Energy- Commercial...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rebates are available for high efficiency lighting equipment, occupancy sensors, central air conditioners, geothermal heat pumps, windows, appliances, refrigeration...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air conditioners, geothermal heat pumps, windows, appliances, refrigeration equipment, food service equipment, newly constructed buildings and custom measures. Appliance rebates...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Multifamily Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shrewsbury Electric offers rebates on ENERGY STAR appliances. Eligible products include washing machines, dishwashers, refrigerators, and room air conditioners. Customers......

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Motor VFDs, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Xcel Energy-...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Motor VFDs, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Refine your...

  8. National Grid (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Incentive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction Residential Multifamily Residential Low Income Residential Savings Category RefrigeratorsFreezers Dehumidifiers Water Heaters Lighting Heat Pumps Air conditioners...

  9. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  10. Refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagani, R.F.; Clarke, K.J.; Avon, E.J.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a chamber including an expandable refrigerant system associated therewith. The system comprises reservoir containing an expandable refrigerant coolant and lead piping connecting the reservoir to conduits carrying the coolant therein. The chamber comprises top, bottom and side walls, accordingly defining an interior and an exterior to the chamber, one of the walls comprises a door affording access into the chamber, each of the walls being insulated with insulating material. At least one of the walls comprises a first layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the exterior and a second layer of the insulating material extending thereover adjacent the interior. The reservoir, lead piping and conduits are disposed intermediate the first and second layers of insulating material thereby isolating them from both the interior and exterior. Heat transferring through the at least one wall is substantially absorbed by the coolant and the insulating material cooled by the coolant, before it is able to penetrate through the at least one wall, permitting a product placed in the chamber to effectively maintain or substantially maintain a selected even temperature.

  11. ISSUANCE 2015-12-22: ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM: CERTIFICATION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Period 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes ...

  12. IAPMO/PMI CCE Overview and Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    06072011 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes ...

  13. WICF Certification, Compliance and Enforcement webinar | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    14, 2011 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes ...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air conditioners filter RefrigeratorsFreezers (10) Apply RefrigeratorsFreezers filter Windows (10) Apply Windows filter Building Insulation (9) Apply Building Insulation filter...

  15. Owatonna Public Utilities - Residential Conserve and Save Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    unit Dishwashers: 25 RefrigeratorsFreezers: 25 RefrigeratorFreezer Recycling: 15 Room Air Conditioners: 25 Room AC Recycling: 15 CFL Bulbs: 50% of cost CFL Light...

  16. Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric) - Residential Conserve and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    50 Dishwashers: 25 RefrigeratorsFreezers: 25 RefrigeratorFreezer Recycling: 15 Room Air Conditioners: 25 + 15 for recycling Room AC Recycling: 15 Central AC: 100 +...

  17. Single Packaged Vertical Units | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    standards. File Single Packaged Vertical Units -- v2.0 More Documents & Publications Room Air Conditioners Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

  18. Clause Matrix Part 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    repair, or disposal of any equipment or appliance using ozone-depleting substances as a refrigerant, such as air conditioners, including motor vehicles, refrigerators, chillers,...

  19. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  20. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  1. Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) The Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  2. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  3. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Common Air Conditioner Problems Common Air Conditioner Problems A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. A refrigerant leak is one common air conditioning problem. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/BanksPhotos. One of the most common air conditioning problems is improper operation. If your air conditioner is on, be sure to close your home's windows and outside doors. For room air conditioners, isolate the room or a group of

  4. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been themore » most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).« less

  5. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo

    2015-05-13

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  6. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has ...

  7. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Brian Fricke

  8. Commercial Refrigeration Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural, and institutional buildings. 

  9. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R.

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  12. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air-bearing supported rotating heat-sink impeller. The project included baseline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis, and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel

  14. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  15. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. ... materials would further improve the competitiveness of magnetic refrigeration technology. ...

  16. Magnetocaloric Refrigeration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    compression cycle and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions by eliminating the use of high-global-warming-potential refrigerants. Refrigeration technologies based on MCE are...

  17. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Goeltz, Rick

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air-bearing supported rotating heat-sink impeller. The project included baseline ...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, DuctAir...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, DuctAir sealing,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Equipment Insulation, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Air conditioners, DuctAir...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Star appliances,... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy efficient homes. The Energy Star Appliance Program provides rebates for clothes washers, air purifiers, refrigerators and room air conditioners. The Home Performance with...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    include efficient central air conditioners, central air-source heat pumps, electric heat pump water heaters, furnace blower fans, programmable thermostats, refrigerator...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE, Pool Pumps Pasadena Water and Power- Residential...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Custom...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  13. Otter Tail Power Company - Dollar Smart Financing Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps RefrigeratorsFreezers Water Heaters Lighting Furnaces Heat Pumps Air conditioners Heat recovery DuctAir sealing Motors Motor...

  14. Xcel Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category Geothermal Heat Pumps RefrigeratorsFreezers Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Furnaces Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats DuctAir...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Motors, CustomOthers pending approval, Food Service Equipment, Vending Machine Controls, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more energy efficient homes. The Energy Star Appliance Program provides rebates for clothes washers, air purifiers, refrigerators and room air conditioners. The Home Performance...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE Gross Receipts...

  18. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Enforcement issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination (Notice) on September 27, 2011, to AeroSys, Inc. (AeroSys) regarding four models of central ...

  19. List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility...

  20. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

  1. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study Bulletin By Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Steve Greenberg September 2013 2 Contacts Steve Greenberg Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, ...

  2. List of Central Air conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lighting Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Biomass CHPCogeneration Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar...

  3. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... less expensive, but they supply thermal energy at a lower temperature: ... they will deliver between 50% and 60% of the incident solar radiation as hot water at 180F (82C). ...

  4. Air Conditioner Ready to Change Industry - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Aiming to Green NASCAR's Future: Q&A with Driver Leilani Munter Aiming to Green NASCAR's Future: Q&A with Driver Leilani Munter August 2, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Leilani Münter adopts an acre of rainforest for every race she drives in. | Photo courtesy of Phil Cavali Leilani Münter adopts an acre of rainforest for every race she drives in. | Photo courtesy of Phil Cavali Lindsay Gsell "I feel being a part of NASCAR is where I can make a really big impact

  5. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Residential Central Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The United Nations Standard Products and Services Code (UNSPSC) is a worldwide classification system for e-commerce. It contains more than 50,000 commodities, including many used ...

  6. TEE-0062 - In the Matter of United CoolAir Corp. | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    62 - In the Matter of United CoolAir Corp. TEE-0062 - In the Matter of United CoolAir Corp. This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by United CoolAir Corporation (United CoolAir) seeking exception relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 431, Subpart F, Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation Standards (Commercial Air Conditioner Standards).1 In its Application,

  7. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  8. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  9. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of Air Conditioning History of Air Conditioning July 20, 2015 - 3:15pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs MORE ON AIR CONDITIONING Check out our Energy Saver 101 infographic to learn how air conditioners work. Go to Energy Saver for more tips and advice on home cooling. Stay up-to-date on how the Energy Department is working to improve air conditioning technology. We take the air conditioner for granted, but imagine what life would be

  10. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  11. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  12. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 ...

  13. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  14. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  15. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  16. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling ...

  17. High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * DOE reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, trade shows - Intermediate ... Refrigeration Systems," International Journal of Refrigeration (submitted). 14 Next ...

  18. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  20. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  1. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  2. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Caleb; Reis, Chuck; Nelson, Eric; Armer, James; Arthur, Rob; Heath, Richard; Rono, James; Hirsch, Adam; Doebber, Ian

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Vending Machine Controls, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration...

  4. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances that you can find with an ENERGY STAR label include: Refrigerators Freezers Room air conditioners Televisions Clothes washers Dishwashers Battery chargers Water ...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    lighting occupancy sensors, air conditioners, duct inspectionsrepair, solar window film, ceiling and wall insulation upgrades, motors, refrigeration equipment and heat pump...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, LED...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Pool Heating, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Food Service Equipment, Vending Machine Controls, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sensors, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment PECO Energy (Electric)-...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sensors, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Illinois Municipal Electric...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, Building Insulation, Windows,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners Emerald PUD- Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Programs Emerald People's Utility District...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy audits, and custom measures. Recycling rebates for refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners are only available to customers who properly recycle their old working...

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates (Offered by 5 Utilities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     For residential customers, rebates are available for ENERGY STAR ceiling fans, clothes washers, decorative light strings, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, refrigerators, room air conditioners, and he...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill Gas, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, Vending Machine Controls, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration...

  17. Rochester Public Utilities - Residential Conserve and Save Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    contact RPU for consultation Dishwashers: 25 - 40 RefrigeratorsFreezers: 25, plus 15 bonus if properly recycled Room Air Conditioners: 25, plus 15 bonus if properly...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners Efficient Housing Construction...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Lighting, Air conditioners, Pool Pumps, LED Lighting Eau Claire Energy Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Eau Claire...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Pool Heating, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Air conditioners, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Pool Pumps Pacific Power- FinAnswer Express Pacific Power's FinAnswer...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, Duct...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners PSEG Long Island- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Institutional Savings Category: Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment TVA- Energy Right...

  6. Crow Wing Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    geothermal heat pumps, water heaters, refrigerators and clothes washers. Rebates on heat pumps and air conditioners vary by system efficiency. In addition to these rebates,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Other EE, Wind (Small),...

  8. Minnesota Power - Residential New Construction Rebate Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction Residential Savings Category Solar Photovoltaics Geothermal Heat Pumps Clothes Washers RefrigeratorsFreezers Dehumidifiers Water Heaters Heat Pumps Air conditioners...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting ControlsSensors, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Combined Heat & Power, Motor VFDs, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Sustainable Building Design...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas from Owatonna Public Utilities. Equipment rebates for refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners can be increased by properly recycling previously used, working...

  11. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas) - Business Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dollar Savings Clothes Washer: 50 - 100 Dishwasher: 15 Freezer: 25 Refrigerator: 50 Room Air Conditioner: 25 Desktop and integrated computers: 5 Computer Equipment: 4 -...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners Home Energy Loan...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AC units, room air conditioners, compact fluorescent light bulbs, refrigerators, clothes washers, dehumidifiers, and dishwashers. Some restrictions apply to this program. All...

  14. Shrewsbury Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In collaboration with EFI, Shrewsbury Electric offers rebates on ENERGY STAR appliances. Eligible products include washing machines, dishwashers, refrigerators, and room air conditioners. Customers...

  15. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  16. Refrigeration in a world without CFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland, R.W.; Adcock, P.W.

    1996-09-01

    In an era of heightened awareness of energy efficiency and the associated environmental impacts, many industries, worldwide, are exploring ``environmentally friendly`` technologies that provide equivalent or improved performance while reducing or eliminating harmful side effects. The refrigeration and air conditioning industry, due to its reliance on CFCs and HCFCs has invested in research in alternatives to the industry standard vapor compression machines. One alternative technology with great promise is chemical absorption. Absorption chillers offer comparable refrigeration output with reduced SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions. Additionally, absorption chillers do not use CFCs or HCFCs, refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction for those new to absorption technology as well as a discussion of selected high efficiency cycles and environmental impacts for those familiar with absorption. The introduction will include a brief history of absorption and a description of the basic refrigeration cycle, while the advanced sections will discuss triple-effect technology and a life-cycle or ``systems`` approach to evaluating global warming impacts.

  17. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

    2010-04-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefier’s (CHL’s) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHL’s supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESR’s 12 bar 15-K capacity.

  19. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D.; Butz, James R.; Veatch, Bradley D.; O'Connor, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  20. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  1. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  2. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  3. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  4. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  5. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  6. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  7. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  8. Research and Development Roadmap For Next-Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-07-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that will accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities occurs within an accelerated five-year timeframe, and covers several prominent equipment types. The roadmap is organized around four primary objectives to: assess and mitigate safety risks, characterize refrigerant properties, understand efficiency and environmental tradeoffs, and support new refrigerant and equipment development.

  9. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  10. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ORNL and Hillphoenix, found solutions to both challenges-the refrigerant leakage and high-global warming potential refrigerants-by using CO2 as the refrigerant and confining it to ...

  11. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    We compare refrigeration system performance to that for a supermarket having nearly identical layout and refrigeration loads, in a similar climate and of similar vintage, that uses ...

  13. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  14. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  15. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  16. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    standards. File Commercial Refrigeration Equipment -- v2.0 More Documents & Publications Beverage Vending Machines Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

  17. Minituraized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Accomplishments: 10kW Radiator Fabrication 1kW: 484 Tubes, 140mm x 150mm 10kW: 2280 Tubes, 444mm x 580mm Tube Defects Significant tubes had fractures and leaks Had to re-order ...

  18. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... References: Westphalen, D., Roth, K. W. and Brodrick, J. (2006) 'Heat transfer enhancement', ASHRAE Journal, 48(4), 68-71. Contacts DOE Technology Manager: Tony Bouza Performer: ...

  19. Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

  20. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  1. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  2. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  3. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  4. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  5. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  6. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Magnetocaloric Materials Chill Next-Generation Refrigerators You've seen them. You may even decorate with them. The ubiquitous "sticker-uppers" that cover your refrigerator, helping to keep your

  7. Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R. ); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

  8. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Penalty

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (2010-SE-0301) | Department of Energy Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Penalty (2010-SE-0301) Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Penalty (2010-SE-0301) September 20, 2010 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con private label do not comport with the energy conservation standards. DOE

  9. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Read the full Notice of Noncompliance Determination and Proposed Civil Penalty (pdf - 234kb). Follow the Department of Energy on Facebook, Twitter, Youtube and Flickr. Follow ...

  10. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  11. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Overton, W.C. Jr.; Stewart, W.F.

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  12. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  13. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  14. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  15. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  16. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  17. Commercial Compressed Air Systems Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load screw and vane compressors, cycling refrigerated thermal mass dryers (up to 30...

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Kariya, Harumichi Arthur; Leick, Michael T.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Li, Manjie; Du, Yilin; Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air - bearing supported rotating heat - sink impeller. The project included ba seline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel baseplate, and performance measurement and validation of this condenser system as incorporated into the residential refrigerator. Comparable performance was achieved in a 60% smaller volume package. The improved modeling parameters can now be used to guide more optimized designs and more accurately predict performance.

  19. High Efficiency Motors for Refrigerated Open Display Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with support from commercial refrigeration OEMs, retrofit contractors, utilities ... from commercial refrigeration OEMs, retrofit contractors, utilities and grocery sites. ...

  20. Everest Refrigeration: Noncompliance Determination (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) finding that commercial refrigeration equipment model number ESGR3 does not comport with the energy conservation standards.

  1. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  2. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Everest Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2015-SE-42001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) manufactured and distributed noncompliant commercial refrigeration equipment model ESGR3 in the U.S.

  5. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  6. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  7. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  8. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, James A.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

  10. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  11. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  12. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  13. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR Program technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. This report summarizes the research conducted during the third quarter of calendar year 1995 on the following projects: Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives; Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants; Compatibility of motor materials used in air-conditioning for retrofits with alternative refrigerants and lubricants; Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants; Products of motor burnouts; Accelerated test methods for predicting the life of motor materials exposed to refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods; Investigation into the fractionation of refrigerant blends; Lean flammability limits as a fundamental refrigerant property; Effect of selected contaminants in AC and R equipment; Study of foaming characteristics; Study of lubricant circulation in systems; Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers; Infrared analysis of refrigerant mixtures; Refrigerant database; Refrigerant toxicity survey; Thermophysical properties of HFC-32, HFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-125; Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a; Theoretical evaluations of R-22 alternative fluids; Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals; Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants; Viscosity, solubility and density measurements of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Electrohydrodynamic enhancement of pool and in-tube boiling of alternative refrigerants; Accelerated screening methods; and more.

  14. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-07-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

  15. Alternative technologies for cooling and refrigeration equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matchett, J.

    1995-12-01

    Significant national and international attention has focused on the role that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) play in stratospheric ozone depletion. The Clean Air Act of 1990 calls for the production of the most harmful CFCs to completely cease by December 31, 1995. This production phaseout affects many CFC-refrigerants which are commonly used in commercial, residential, and industrial cooling processes. The production phaseout of CFCs will require owners of CFC-based refrigeration equipment to make plans to replace their equipment. Many equipment owners find themselves in a {open_quotes}rut{close_quotes}replacing CFCs with another chemical coolant, rather than a new cooling process. Since many of the chemical alternatives are structurally similar to CFCs (i.e., HCFCs, HFCs, and blends) they require minimal changes to current equipment. However, these substances are also believed to affect the global climate. Hence, they may not be the most environmentally sound alternative and probable are subject to other Federal regulations. There are other HVAC/R alternatives which are less environmentally damaging than these chemicals and may actually be more cost-effective and energy efficient and than the {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} CFC chemical substitutes. Alternative cooling technologies include absorption systems, desiccant cooling, evaporative cooling, and ammonia vapor compression. These alternative technologies are proven alternatives and are commercially available. Further, significant technological developments in recent years have made these technologies feasible alternatives for applications previously believed to be unacceptable. This paper describes these alternative technologies and the conditions in which they are viable alternatives to CFC-based equipment. Additionally, energy efficiency and life-cycle cost analysis considerations are addressed to provide a more completes analysis of cooling equipment alternatives.

  16. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  17. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  18. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  19. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  20. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  1. Energy Efficient Commercial Refrigeration with Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant and Scroll Expanders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, John

    2013-04-04

    Current supermarket refrigeration systems are built around conventional fluorocarbon refrigerants – HFC-134a and the HFC blends R-507 and R404A, which replaced the CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-502, respectively, used prior to the Montreal Protocol phase out of ozone depleting substances. While the HFC refrigerants are non-ozone depleting, they are strong greenhouse gases, so there has been continued interest in replacing them, particularly in applications with above average refrigerant leakage. Large supermarket refrigeration systems have proven to be particularly difficult to maintain in a leak-tight condition. Refrigerant charge losses of 15% of total charge per year are the norm, making the global warming impact of refrigerant emissions comparable to that associated with the energy consumption of these systems.

  2. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Description Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology for cooling and heating because of its potential to save energy and reduce operating costs. The potential

  3. Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigeration is

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  5. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the HVAC&R community on selecting alternative, energy-efficient, low GWP refrigerants - Enable U.S. manufacturers to position ...

  6. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review New Project Lee Jestings (lee@S-RAM.com), Project Summary Timeline: Key Partners: Start date:...

  7. A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

  8. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  9. Ex Parte Communication_Kitable Refrigerator/Freezer Guidance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CommunicationKitable RefrigeratorFreezer Guidance Ex Parte CommunicationKitable RefrigeratorFreezer Guidance This memo memorializes the meeting between AHAM and the Department ...

  10. Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermoacoustic Engines and Refrigerators: A Short Course You are accessing a ...

  11. Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy...

  12. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document ...

  13. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; ...

  14. 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Procedure for Refrigerated Bottled or Canned Beverage Vending Machines; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and public meeting 2014-08-01 Issuance: Test Procedure for Refrigerated ...

  15. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators...

  16. Unified HVAC and Refrigeration Control Systems for Small Footprint...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    refrigeration systems and integrate photovoltaic sources Key Issues: Low-cost, "low-touch" retrofit of control technology into buildings and refrigeration systems to facilitate ...

  17. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue ...

  18. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. PDF icon WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators ...

  19. Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Lab-based consortium to research improving refrigeration technology Ames Tribune ... alternative environmentally-friendly and energy- efficient technologies in refrigeration. ...

  20. Ames Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory to lead new consortium to advance refrigeration technology Ames Laboratory will ... friendly and energy-efficient refrigeration technologies, sponsored by DOE's ...

  1. DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis...

  2. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Performance of alternative ...

  3. Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pecharsky talks magnetic refrigeration with Forbes In a May 6 article, Forbes contributor Hillary Brueck writes about the race to develop magnetic refrigeration and interviewed...

  4. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  5. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  6. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel waywith heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  7. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: General Electric -

  8. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thermodynamic units (Patent) | DOEPatents Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units Title: Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage

  10. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1997-07-01

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  13. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  14. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  15. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  16. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting | Department of Energy 0 Issuance Energy Conservation Standard for Residential Furnaces; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting 2015-02-10 Issuance Energy Conservation Standard for Residential Furnaces; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking and public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnaces, as issued by the

  17. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  18. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that three manufacturers -- Aspen Manufacturing, Inc., Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump...

  19. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: University of California, Davis – Davis, CADOE Total Funding: $200,000Cost Share: $339,515Project Term: 2015 – 2017Funding Opportunity: Building University Innovators and Leaders...

  20. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  1. Maximizing NGL recovery by refrigeration optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldonedo H., A.H.

    1999-07-01

    PDVSA--Petroleo y Gas, S.A. has within its facilities in Lake Maracaibo two plants that extract liquids from natural gas (NGL), They use a combined mechanic refrigeration absorption with natural gasoline. Each of these plants processes 420 MMsccfd with a pressure of 535 psig and 95 F that comes from the compression plants PCTJ-2 and PCTJ-3 respectively. About 40 MMscfd of additional rich gas comes from the high pressure system. Under the present conditions these plants produce in the order of 16,800 and 23,800 b/d of NGL respectively, with a propane recovery percentage of approximately 75%, limited by the capacity of the refrigeration system. To optimize the operation and the design of the refrigeration system and to maximize the NGL recovery, a conceptual study was developed in which the following aspects about the process were evaluated: capacity of the refrigeration system, refrigeration requirements, identification of limitations and evaluation of the system improvements. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that by relocating some condensers, refurbishing the main refrigeration system turbines and using HIGH FLUX piping in the auxiliary refrigeration system of the evaporators, there will be an increase of 85% on the propane recovery, with an additional production of 25,000 b/d of NGL and 15 MMscfd of ethane rich gas.

  2. Sales Tax Exemption for Energy-Efficient Products (Sales Tax Holiday)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia allows a four-day sales tax* exemption for dishwashers, clothes washers, air conditioners, ceiling fans, light bulb, dehumidifiers, programmable thermostat and refrigerators that meet fe...

  3. IID Energy - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.30sq ft Electric Attic Fan: 75 Solar Attic Fan: 125 Refrigerator: 75unit Room Air Conditioner: 100unit Dual Pane Windows: 2.00sq ft Variable Speed Pool Pumps:...

  4. SECTION I

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... identified to date. Jan 1997 52.223-5 Pollution Prevention and Right-to-Know ... 2011 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners May 1995 52.223-15 Energy ...

  5. DOE Refers Four ENERGY STAR Models to EPA for Potential De-Listing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (“DOE”) testing has identified one refrigerator and three room air conditioners that do not meet the ENERGY STAR program’s applicable energy efficiency requirements.

  6. DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

  7. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  8. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  9. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  10. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration | Department of Energy Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Lead Performer: Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA Partners: Creative Thermal Solutions, Urbana, IL DOE Funding: $860,000 Cost Share: $86,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 to September 30,

  11. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  12. Method and apparatus for passive refrigerant retrieval and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Squire, D.C.

    1991-12-17

    This patent describes a method of retrieving and storing refrigerant from a cooling system being serviced of the type having a compressor for circulating a compressible refrigerant in a closed, pressurized system between a condenser and an evaporator to provide a cooling effect. It comprises: connecting one end of a refrigerant collector tube contained within a housing to the cooling system at the condenser outlet; connecting the interior of the housing to the compressor inlet; operating the cooling system compressor to pressurize refrigerant in the cooling system and pump the refrigerant into the collector tube; and discharging refrigerant from the collector tube into the housing interior through a metering valve where the refrigerant pressure is reduced and evaporates and cools the refrigerant remaining in the tube and the evaporated refrigerant is drawn into the compressor inlet whereby the refrigerant becomes trapped within the housing.

  13. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  14. High frequency thermoacoustic refrigerator. Annual summary report, 2 September 1993-31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko, O.G.

    1994-06-16

    A small thermoacoustic refrigerator was developed for operation at 5 kHz. Its main components are a piezoelectric driver of the bimorph type, a cotton wool stack, a 1/2-wave resonator (operated at its 3rd harmonic), and photolithographically processed copper heat exchangers. Tests with air at 1 atmosphere as the working gas produced a temperature difference Delta T across the stack of 32 deg C in 4 seconds for an acoustic power input level of 160 dB. The refrigerator did not have thermal insulation. Improved performance is expected with pressurized helium gas and helium-xenon mixtures. The performance of this refrigerator and its small size make it attractive for applications in high speed electronics and possibly IR detectors.

  15. High frequency thermoacoustic refrigerator. Annual summary report, 1 June 1994-31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko, O.G.

    1995-08-15

    Results are presented on the development of a high frequency thermoacoustic refrigerator and its performance. The device consists of a piezoelectric driver, operated around 5kHz, which is coupled to a cylindrical resonator containing air at 1 atmosphere as the compressible fluid. For sound levels of 155dB at the stack, a maximum T of 41 C was reached across a cotton wool stack 4mm long. A cooling power of 1.2 watt was achieved with a coefficient of performance of 3. This simple and lightweight refrigerator shows promise for cooling of small samples and electronic components. The performance of this type of refrigerator at high frequencies leads to high efficiency and power density. Research is aimed at improving its performance by optimizing some of the critical parameters such as the sound level and the thermal interface between stack and heat exchangers.

  16. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers | Department of Energy Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers March 1, 2016 - 6:20pm Addthis DOE settled enforcement actions against Utility Refrigerator, True Manufacturing, and Victory Refrigeration for distributing commercial refrigeration equipment in the United States that do not meet applicable energy conservation standards. As a part of the

  17. A Tale of Three Windows: Part 1 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Global Effort to Phase Down Hydrofluorocarbons A Global Effort to Phase Down Hydrofluorocarbons October 15, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis The Energy Department is developing alternatives to hydrofluorocarbons, which are used in supermarket refrigeration, air conditioners and more. | Photo by I-5 Design & Manufacture. The Energy Department is developing alternatives to hydrofluorocarbons, which are used in supermarket refrigeration, air conditioners and more. | Photo by I-5 Design &

  18. ARTI Refrigerant Database. [Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-11-28

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyol ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  19. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  20. Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for customers to recycle older, working refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

  1. REFRIGERATION ESPECIALLY FOR VERY LOW TEMPERATURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.

    1960-09-13

    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  2. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  3. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  4. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  6. DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested...

  7. DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a...

  8. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  9. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  10. Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum; Wenning, Thomas J; Sever, Franc; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

  11. Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

  12. Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action Air-Con Agrees to Pay Civil Penalty to Resolve Enforcement Action November 23, 2010 - 6:34pm Addthis The Department of Energy has settled the civil penalty action it initiated against Air-Con International for Air-Con's sale of air conditioners in the United States that used more energy than allowed by federal law. On September 20, 2010, based on Air-Con's responses to a DOE subpoena, DOE ordered Air-Con

  13. DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    True agreed to a 36,400 civil penalty after manufacturing and distributing 182 units of commercial refrigerator models TCGG-72 and TCGG-72S. Utility Refrigerator agreed to ...

  14. Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy...

  15. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R ...

  16. DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved the civil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

  17. Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2011-02-01

    This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

  18. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  19. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  20. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech12_vineyard_040313.pdf More Documents & Publications Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Image of

  1. DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Consumer Refrigeration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Products | Department of Energy Consumer Refrigeration Products DOE Collects Civil Penalties for Failure to Certify Consumer Refrigeration Products April 22, 2015 - 8:41pm Addthis The Office of Enforcement recently resolved enforcement actions against seven companies that failed to submit required reports to certify that their refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and/or freezers comply with federal energy conservation standards. DOE assessed civil penalties of $8,000 per manufacturer for

  2. DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major

  3. EERE Success Story-New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supermarket Display Cases | Department of Energy Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases EERE Success Story-New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis EERE Success Story—New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases Research supported by the Energy Department's Building Technologies Office has led to a major breakthrough in refrigeration systems' efficiency, and the result may

  4. New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use April 1, 2016 - 11:40pm Addthis New Energy Department-supported technologies under development at Ames National Laboratory could make refrigerators a substantially more energy efficient appliance. New Energy Department-supported technologies under development at Ames National Laboratory could make refrigerators a substantially more energy

  5. Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Order (2015-SE-42001) Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001) June 9, 2015 DOE ordered Bu Sung America Corporation (dba Everest Refrigeration) to pay a $12,080 civil penalty after finding Bu Sung had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 64 units of noncompliant commercial refrigerator basic model ESGR3. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Bu Sung. PDF icon Everest Refrigeration: Order (2015-SE-42001) More

  6. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact space. Sandia-developed rotating heat exchanger

  7. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Credit: National Institute of Standards Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: ...

  8. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  9. Experimental Performance of R-1234yf and R-1234ze as Drop-in Replacements for R-134a in Domestic Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karber, Kyle M; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about anthropogenic climate change have generated an interest in low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and have spawned policies and regulations that encourage the transition to low GWP refrigerants. Recent research has largely focused on hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), including R-1234yf (GWP = 4) as a replacement for R-134a (GWP = 1430) in automotive air-conditioning applications. While R-1234yf and R-1234ze (GWP = 6) have been investigated theoretically as a replacements for R-134a in domestic refrigeration, there is a lack of experimental evidence. This paper gives experimental performance data for R-1234yf and R-1234ze as drop-in replacements for R134a in two household refrigerators one baseline and one advanced technology. An experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of R-134a to R-1234yf and R-1234ze, using AHAM standard HRF-1 to evaluate energy consumption. These refrigerants were tested as drop-in replacements, with no performance enhancing modifications to the refrigerators. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234yf had 2.7% and 1.3% higher energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. This indicates that R-1234yf is a suitable drop-in replacement for R-134a in domestic refrigeration applications. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234ze had 16% and 5.4% lower energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. In order to replace R-134a with R-1234ze in domestic refrigerators the lower capacity would need to be addressed, thus R-1234ze might not be suitable for drop-in replacement.

  10. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  11. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  12. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  13. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases Commercial Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon commlbldgs18_goetzler_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Alliance - 2013 BTO Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications - 2013 BTO Peer

  14. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  15. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  16. Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.

  17. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  18. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  19. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

  20. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study documents one year of operating experience with a transcritical carbon dioxide (TC CO2) booster refrigeration system at Delhaize America’s Hannaford supermarket location in Turner, Maine. This supermarket, which began operation in June 2013, is the first supermarket installation in the U.S. of a TC CO2 booster refrigeration system. We compare refrigeration system performance to that for a supermarket having nearly identical layout and refrigeration loads, in a similar climate and of similar vintage, that uses a conventional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant. Delhaize provided the submetered and utility data used to generate the performance summaries herein.