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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India. Michael A.followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliancesfrost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have

McNeil, Michael A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device...

Farzad, Mohsen

4

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced...

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the manufacturer for a specific indoor and outdoor temperatures. Once the full charge was determined, the unit was subjected to 40%, 30%, 20%, 15%, 10%, and 5% undercharging and 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% overcharging of refrigerant by mass. The fully charged tests were... CONDITION All tests were performed on a split system central air conditioner provided by the Trane company. To determine the proper amount of refrigerant charge needed in the system and the unit's corresponding performance, charging specifications...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with Capillary Tube Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the coil was 20.94 ft2 with refrigerant tube sizes of 3/8". The outdoor fan was located on the top of the outdoor coil. The fan specifications are given in Table 3.1. Figure 3.3 - Detail of Outdoor Test Section 25 Table 3.1 - Fan Specification...ESL-TR-88/07-01 AN EVALUATION OF IMPROPER REFRIGERANT CHARGE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A SPLIT SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONER WITH CAPILLARY TUBE EXPANSION FINAL REPORT Submitted by Mohsen Farzad Dennis L. O'Neal Prepared For ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY RESEARCH...

Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

replacement options have and are being developed. Choice of Refrigerant: The most efficient air conditioners

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

11

The Explorationon the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle Zhao Lei, Zhao Xijin, Hu Andu Professor, graduate student, graduate student...-temperature air conditioning system and its corresponding theoretical mixed refrigeration cycle are proposed. This consists of a separate air handling unit and a metal radiation panel as the dual-temperature evaporators, a compressor, a condenser, two thermal...

Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation… (more)

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Engineering computer models for refrigerators, freezers, furnaces, water heaters, room and central air conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This User's Guide provides the necessary information for understanding and using a computer model developed for the US Department of Energy which predicts the performance (energy consumption) of household refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The model is capable of simulating various cabinet configurations (top-mount, bottom-mount, side-by-side, single-door) and refrigeration unit combinations (back-mounted static condenser with single forced convection evaporator, hot wall condenser with cooled wall panels, etc.). The program is comprised of two main subroutines: a cabinet heat-load submodel and a refrigeration unit submodel; they can be used separately for preliminary design analysis or together for performance evaluations. A technical description of the model and information on how to structure input parameters are provided. The user is provided with specific guidance for running the model on a computer. Specific instructions are given in the Appendices for changing and running the model using the operating language compatible with the DOE computer terminal system. Other users will have to modify the procedures in these sections as necessary for different computers.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baseline Efficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . 28 AverageEfficient Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Btu/h Commercial Air Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

2001-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

18

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energyof Improved Central Air Conditioner Efficiencies Authorsresidential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency

Rosenquist, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1473. Neal, L. 1992. Air Conditioner Efficiency in the Realof a Residential Air Conditioner. Proceedings of the 1992of new residential air conditioners in Phoenix, Arizona.

Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M.ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K. DAO, M.

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

An Evaluation of the Effects of Refrigerant Charge on a Residential Central Air Conditioner with Orifice Expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

had one row of tubes with spine fins spaced at 20 per inch. The face area of the coil was 20.94 ft with refrigerant tube sizes of 3/8". The outdoor fan was located on the top of the outdoor coil. The fan specifications are given in Table 2.... 2.5 Table 2.1 - Fan Specification Refrigerant Side A schematic of the refrigerant circuit is shown in Figure 2.3. Refrigerant pressures were monitored at the 6 points shown with the use of 0-300 psig pressure transducers. To accurately measure...

O'Neal, D. L.; Ramsey, C. J.; Farzad, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST DUE TO EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES TO BE COMPLETED BY ATTENDING Moderate Significant Is the use of an air conditioner desirable Yes No OR essential Yes No to the management of allergy? Is the use of an air conditioner

23

High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air conditioning unit in place in a window frame. Window air conditioners are inexpensive,...

24

Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners John Shugars, Consultant ofcommercialpackaged air conditioners, explore the reasons behindthis efficiency gap, and assess opportunities). Although sales of rooftop air conditioners have steadily increased over the past decade, the efficiency

25

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K.Driven Absorption Air-Conditioner", K. Dao, M. Simmons, R.SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K.

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE Energy Star Testing Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE Energy Star Testing...

27

Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner Lead Performer: Thermolift - Stony Brook, NY Partners: -- New York State Energy Research &...

28

An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data....2 - Performance and hardware data collectedfor this survey. 3.2 References 1. "Directory of Certified Unitary Air Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment", Semi-Annual Issues, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute...

O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blast-Type Air Conditioners and Heat Pump. The correspondingair/air air conditioners and heat pumps. Some improvementsconnected air- conditioner (heat pump) units, household

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

operate on single-phase current and have cooling capacities less than 65,000 Btuh. Room air conditioners (window and through-the-wall) are covered by a separate specification,...

32

Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology is presented for rating the performance of mixed, split residential air conditioners. The method accounts for the impact on system performance of the indoor evaporator, expansion device and fan; three major components that are likely...

Domanski, P. A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results for Room Air Conditioners Nan Zhou David FridleyTable of Contents I. Air Conditioner Round Robin TestingAir Conditioners..

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forpilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads

Bode, Josh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sector Study of Room Air Conditioners in China) , ChinaQi Shichang ( China’s Air Conditioner Market ), China Lightand Constant-Speed Air Conditioners." ASHRAE Transactions.

Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Final Summary Report by Air Conditioner Evaluation Standardreversible residential air conditioners and heat pumps usingJFS, 2007: “New Air Conditioners with Infrared Sensors

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoLUke1138. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners Ductless, Mini-Split Heat Pumps...

38

The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

Grisham, Phillip Ryan

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including room air conditioners, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

40

Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps,and Validation of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat PumpC.W. (1994). Room Air Conditioner System Modeling, Air

Yu, Bingyi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide Equipment Type Size Category (Btu/h) Size.ahridirectory.org/ceedirectory/pages/ac/cee/defaultSearch.aspx 12,000 Btu/h = 1 ton Less than 65,000 Btu/h Air Conditioners, Air Cooled Air Conditioners, Water completed by the California Energy Commission at a rate of 12,000 Btu/h per ton of air conditioning Source

43

Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: OpportunitiesStar Labeled room Air Conditioners. ” Ministry of Power (of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners,” Lawrence Berkeley

Phadke, Amol

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

APPROVED ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONERS Revised as of 06-18-2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPROVED ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONERS Revised as of 06-18-2008 The following vendors and their ice storage air conditioners models can be used in the ice storage air conditioner compliance option. Input

45

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners Michael A. McNeilFigure 1 – MEPS for 1.5 ton Window Air Conditioners – 1994-4 Figure 2 – Air Conditioner Test Data and Rating Plan -

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

47

2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioners electronic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND NEXT GENERATION Summary: ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioner screening Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND NEXT GENERATION Summary: ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

50

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption air conditioner Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND NEXT GENERATION Summary: ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

51

Commercial Central Air Conditioners, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of commercial central air conditioners.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Heat Pumps DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt...

53

DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

Dao, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

Winkler, J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAECA NATIONAL APPLIANCE ENERGY CONSERVATION ACT NBS NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS NECPA NATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION POLICY ACT NTU NUMBER OF TRANSFER UNITS OEM ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER ORNL OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY RAC ROOM AIR CONDITIONER.... There are two public domain models that we have considered using for this analysis: the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [1] and the Arthur D. Little (ADL) room air conditioner model [2]. The ORNL model was completed in 1981. Although...

O'Neal, D. L.; Penson, S. B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESIDENTIAL AIR CONDITIONER DIRECT LOAD CONTROL "ENERGY PARTNERS PROGRAMn John D. Cook Supervisor Houston ABSTRACT Demand side management programs like Energy Partners can provide an effective peak reducing capability which within a.... In this partnership the customer allows HLfP to install a I switch on his/her air conditioner or heat pump and i periodically cycle the unit off during the hottest summer 1 days. In return the customer benefits by receiving an incentive payment, as well...

Cook, J. D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationCentral Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. Washington DC:Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Conservation

Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps EnergyResidential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps.Products: Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy

Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps, ASHRAE, 1791of Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Simulation Modelsfor Rating Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,

Yu, Bingyi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cornell's (LSC) project began providing 16,000 tons of cooling (1 ton of cooling = 12,000 Btu/hr, or approximately one large residential window air conditioner) to Cornell University's Ithaca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

window air conditioner) to Cornell University's Ithaca campus in July of 2000. This project has almost completely replaced mechanical refrigeration for the Cornell district cooling system with the following benefits: · Greater LSC has replaced

Keinan, Alon

62

Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5705 Rev.: 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Installation of Window Air Conditioners........................................................................................................................................1 1. Purpose To define a policy for installation of window air conditioners that avoids exterior

Buehrer, R. Michael

63

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented preliminary results of these analyses in May 2006, at a meeting of BEEs Technical Committee for Air Conditioners. This meeting was attended by a wide array of stakeholder, including industry representatives, engineers and consumer advocates. Comments made by stakeholders at this meeting are incorporated into the final analysis presented in this report. The current analysis begins with the Rating Plan drafted by BEE in 2006, along with an evaluation of the market baseline according to test data submitted by manufacturers. MEPS, label rating levels, and baseline efficiencies are presented in Section 2. First, we compare Indian MEPS with current standards in other countries, and assess their relative stringency. Baseline efficiencies are then used to estimate the fraction of models likely to remain on the market at each phase of the program, and the impact on market-weighted efficiency levels. Section 3 deals with cost-effectiveness of higher efficiency design options. The cost-benefit analysis is grounded in technical parameters provided by industry representatives in India. This data allows for an assessment of financial costs and benefits to consumers as a result of the standards and labeling program. A Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation is used to evaluate the impacts of the program at the unit level, thus providing some insight into the appropriateness of the levels chosen, and additional opportunities for further ratcheting. In addition to LCC, we also calculate payback periods, cost of conserved energy (CCE), and return on investment (ROI). Finally, Section 4 covers national impacts. This is an extension of unit level estimates in the two previous sections. Extrapolation to the national level depends on a forecast of air conditioner purchases (shipments), which we describe here. Following the cost-benefit analysis, we construct several efficiency scenarios including the BEE plan, but also considering further potential for efficiency improvement. These are combined with shipments through a stock accounting model in order to forecast air conditioner energy consumption in each sc

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models...

65

Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Air Conditioner User Behavior in a Master-Metered Apartment Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air conditioner operation was studied in order to understand how energy consumption and peak power are determined by user behavior, equipment operation and building characteristics. In a multi-family building, thirteen room air conditioners were...

Kempton, W.; Feuermann, D.; McGarity, A. E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTED type  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ 150 (76 / 68) 238 / 207 (108 / 94) REFRIGERANT CHARGING PIPE LENGTH 25 ft. (7.5 m) 33 ft. (10 m) 49 ftY3E-A C O N T E N T S SPECIFICATIONS OUTLINE AND DIMENSIONS REFRIGERANT SYSTEM DIAGRAM CIRCUIT, Induction motor, Recipro CODE H25B18QABCA H25B18QABCA H25B24QABCA H25B24QABCA H25B35QABCA REFRIGERANT R-22

Kleinfeld, David

68

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

check in the air conditioning products category is indicatednumber of domestic air conditioning product manufacturers100 million worth of air conditioner products to 14 major

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems (Page 1 of 4) Project Name CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC-MECH-3A (Revised 08

70

Room Air Conditioners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginia BlueRiverwoods,RockRipple,Rollingwood, Texas:Conditioners Jump

71

Monitoring and evaluation of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached houses in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US DOE initiated this project to evaluate the performance of an air conditioner retrofit program in Austin, Texas. The City's Austin's Resource Management Department pursued this project to quantify the retrofit effect of replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency air conditioners in single-family detached homes. If successfully implemented, this retrofit program could help defer construction of a new power plant which is a major goal of this department. The project compares data collected from 12 houses during two cooling seasons under pre-retrofit and then post-retrofit air conditioner units. The existing low-efficiency air conditioners were monitored during the 1987 cooling season, replaced during the 1987--88 heating season with new, smaller sized, high-efficiency units, and then monitored again during the 1988 cooling season. Results indicated that the air conditioner retrofits reduce the annual air conditioner electric consumption and peak electric demand by an average of 38%. When normalized to the nominal capacity of the air conditioner, average demand savings were 1.12 W/ft{sup 2} and estimated annual energy savings were 1.419 kWh/ft{sup 2}. Individual air conditioner power requirements were found to be a well defined function of outdoor temperature as expected. In the absence of detailed data, estimates of the peak demand reductions of new air conditioners can be made from the manufacturer's specifications. Air conditioner energy consumption proved to be strongly linear as a function of the outdoor temperature as expected when taken as an aggregate. No noticeable differences in the diversity factor of the air conditioner usage were found. Analysis of the retrofit effect using PRISM yields estimates of the reduction in normalized annual consumption (NAC) and annual cooling consumption of 12% and 30%. 2 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

Burns, R.; Hough, R.E. (Fleming (W.S.) and Associates, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of return air leakage from hot/humid attic spaces on the performance of a residential air conditioner. Tests were conducted in psychrometric facilities where temperatures and humidities...

O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Central Air conditioners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:Energy Information on PV EconomicsOregon:Centereach,conditioners Jump to:

75

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

76

Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

Sin, Peter

77

Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

79

The Impact of Energy Recovery on Window Air-conditioner Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental energy recovering air-conditioner can produce fresh air exchange heat with exhaust air in the heat exchanger, which has no additional moving parts. The EER of the experimental air-conditioner (EAC) is increased by 17.4~37.3 percent...

Luo, Q.; Tang, C.; Liao, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A split-system direct-expansion air conditioner was used to empirically determine temperature and return-air humidity indicators that could detect performance degradation resulting from degraded conditions. The air conditioner test bench...

Watt, James Bonner

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption air conditioner Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rating Summary: size systems such as absorption or vapor compression air-conditioners or heat pumps, the following... degradation. There are two possible designs for adjusting the...

83

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioners energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy optimization tool to analyze Summary: --when an existing component (e.g., an air conditioner) fails, it must be replaced by a more efficient component (e... National...

84

Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reaching the expansion valve. In theory, the efficiency of vapor compression air conditioning can be improved through two primary mechanisms associated with condenser shading: Direct shading. Incident solar radiation can pose approximately a 1,000 w...]: IEYPERAlURL COUPARlSOn A/C SHADING DP. 1 (Some): SOUR RADlAllON COUPARISON I=AYEI[Nl KYP orq=82.1 , mu=87.(22 Z=CONDEHSIR ARU AIR lEYP orq=83.8 , mox=02.858 TIME OF DAY, (hr) 9 12 15 TIME OF DAY, (hr) Figure 3. Sample daily 15-minute data for June 21...

Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

86

Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles » AlternativeUp HomeHorse Backwards | DepartmentCommon Air

87

Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange Visitorsfor Shade LandscapingMaintaining Your Air

88

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Modeling of a second-generation solar-driven Rankine air conditioner. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ten configurations of a second-generation (2G), solar-powered, Rankine-driven air conditioner were simulated and the data presented for use in companion studies. The results of the analysis show that the boiling-in-collector (BIC) configuration generates more power per collector area than the other configurations. The models used to simulate the configuration are presented in this report. The generated data are also presented. Experimental work was done under this study to both improve a novel refrigerant and oil lubrication system for the centrifugal compressor and investigate the aerodynamic unloading characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. The information generated was used to define possible turbo-gearbox configurations for use in the second generation computer simulation.

Denius, M.W.; Batton, W.D.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Central Air Conditioner Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccessCO2 Injection Begins inCarmineCentral Air Conditioner

91

Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

Tennessee, University of

92

Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Experimental analysis of a window air conditioner with a R-22 and R32/R125/R134a mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much experimental and theoretical analysis of potential R-22 replacements has been accomplished. However, published information about the experimental analysis of any off-the-shelf air conditioner with a potential R-22 replacement at realistic, operating conditions is still rare. This type of work could be useful because it provides baseline data for comparing the performance of R-22 and its potential replacement at drop-in conditions. In this study, an off-the-shelf window air conditioner was tested at Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)-rated indoor conditions and at different ambient temperatures, including the ARI-rated outdoor condition, with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%) (the ternary mixture). A test rig was built that provided for baseline operation and for the option of operating the system with a flooded evaporator by means of liquid over-feeding (LOF). The test results indicated the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was 7.7% less than that of R-22 at 95{degrees}F ambient for baseline operation. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved when a flooded evaporator, or LOF, was used. For LOF operation, the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was only 1.1% less than that of R-22. The ternary mixture had slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, a lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high/low pressure ratio.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); HuangFu, E.P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Modeled and measured effects of compressor downsizing in an existing air conditioner/heat pump in the cooling mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is not uncommon to find oversized central air conditioners in residences. HVAC contractors sometimes oversize central air conditioners for one reason or another--some to the point that they may be 100% larger than needed to meet the load. Retrofit measures done to improve house envelope and distribution system efficiency also contribute to HVAC oversizing, as they reduce house heating and cooling loads. Proper sizing of an air conditioner or heat pump allows more efficient operation and provides a more comfortable environment than a highly oversized unit. Another factor that lowers operating efficiency is an improper refrigerant charge. Field inspections have revealed that about half of the units checked were not properly charged. An option available to homeowners with oversized air conditioners is to replace the existing compressor with a smaller, more efficient compressor, rather than purchasing a new, smaller unit. Such a retrofit may be economically justified, especially during a compressor failure, provided the oversizing of the existing unit is not too great. A used, 15-year old, single-package heat pump with a capillary tube expansion device on the indoor coil was purchased and tested in a set of environmental chambers to determine its cooling performance at various conditions. The system was also modeled to estimate its existing performance, and that with two different types of retrofitted state-of-the-art (SOA) efficient compressors with about 30% less capacity than the original compressor. This reduced the overall system cooling capacity by about 25%. Modeling estimated that the retrofit would increase system EER at 95 F by 30%, SEER by 34%, and reduce power demand by 39% compared to the existing unit. Reduced cycling losses account for the higher increase in SEER.

Levins, W.P.; Rice, C.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Enhanced Cooling and Dehumidification System," ASBRAE Transactions 1994, V.100, Pt. 2, #3816, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, 1994 [7] Chant, E. E., Transient and Stearj, State Simulations of an Advanced..., the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimate from their surveys that 30% of their customers use dehumidifiers. [1] In supermarkets, where much of the sensible cooling is already done by the display cases, wasteful overcooling is done...

Cromer, C. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioners water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Moving the Market toward High Efficiency Summary: and water source air conditioners and heat pumps <135,000 Btuh and for large commercial packaged water... h and <135,000 Btuh...

98

Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of...

100

A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits...

Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile air conditioners Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: automobile air conditioners Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 7-55E An office that is being cooled...

102

The Impact of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of laboratory tests of a three-ton, capillary tube expansion, split-system air conditioner, system capacity and efficiency data available from manufacturer's literature, and assumptions about relative sizing of the equipment to cooling load on a residence. A...

Neal, L.; O'Neal, D. L.

103

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Truman STaTe univerSiTyWELCOME HOME! Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air conditioner requests.If you need air conditioning and are assigned to Centennial,Grim,or Fair,Missouri Hall,Ryle Hall and West Campus Suites have air conditioning included).The documentation must that requires the need for air conditioning. Please fill out the form on the reverse side of this sheet, attach

Gering, Jon C.

105

Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

106

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

107

HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte Memo.pdf More Documents & Publications 3rd Semi-Annual Report to...

108

Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Air Conditioner Efficiency Under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Conditioner Efficiency under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective Ammi Amarnath Technical Leader, Energy Efficiency & Demand Response Program Electric Power Research Institute 3420 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA... are summarized below. Recommendations ? Establish a utility and energy efficiency agency coordinating council for regional standards; ? Identify regional centers to provide the institutional support; ? Develop recommended best practices for regionally based...

Amarnath, A.

112

7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

Bahrami, Majid

113

Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

Laughman, Christopher Reed.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enthalpies at six locations were calculated using the refrigerant property calculation program developed by Kartsounes[26]. Air-side enthalpy, humidity and specific volume were calculated by a psychrometric program developed at the Energy Systems Laboratory... procedure based on measurement of refrigerant and air side temperatures. n TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 E LITERATURE REVIEW 3 Service and failure patterns 3 Degradation studies 4 HI MODEL DEVELOPMENT 6 Theory of operation 6 Degraded...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the purpose of developing optimized control algorithm for room air-conditioners to ensure their energy efficiency, a short time interval (i.e., one minute) simulation of building thermal performance is necessary because the sampling time...

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Simulation of Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Residential Central Air-Conditioners in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study assesses the dehumidifying performance of the high efficiency residential central air conditioners (CAC) in hot/humid climates typified by that of Houston and Galveston. The performance study is based on such factors as: (i) weather (ii...

Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.; Somasundram, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

119

STRATEGIC PLAN TO REDUCE THE ENERGY IMPACT OF AIR CONDITIONERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acknowledgements This report represents the efforts of many experts from the air conditioning industry who Manufacturer Freus Air Conditioning Jim Bazemore Consultant Energy Market Innovations, Inc. Doug Beaman of Heating and Air Conditioning Industries Kahn Air Conditioning Tav Commins Staff, Buildings

120

13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

122

Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Study to Confirm Target Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant wheel operating in conjunction with a typical air conditioning system. Simulations and laboratory prototypes demonstrate that the cycle has the potential for enhanced humidity control with sensible heat ratios...

Cromer, C. J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this air conditioner are to be sketched. The heat absorbed by the refrigerant, the work input of the air conditioner is 689.4 Btu/h3.412 W1 W Btu/h 16 Btu/h3.412 W1 SEERCOPR

Kostic, Milivoje M.

124

Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* -led use of this inprarrPd air mtianer cycle with dssicrants will met likely occur in the cammrcial sector bbm desiccants are acmnonly IaKWn end the potential for savimy is greatar. Cne patential amnercial a~plication where the humidity pmblm...

Cromer, C. J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment| Department of EnergyRoom Air

127

2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availabilty regarding test procedures for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 5, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

128

Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR GĂ©nie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Entrainment of refrigerated air curtains down a wall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerated air curtains are used in open supermarket display cases as a barrier between the warm ambient air and the cold refrigerated air. Entrainment of ambient air into the curtain by shear layer mixing contributes to both the sensible and the latent heat load on the display case. To better understand the fluid dynamics which govern entrainment, velocity and temperature measurements of the curtains were made in a refrigerated display case, which was modified to allow a more fundamental flow. In particular, a vertical solid wall was installed to approximately represent a fully-stocked configuration. As such, negatively-buoyant wall jets (with high inflow turbulence) in the Reynolds number range of 4200-8000 and in the Richardson number range of 0.13-0.58 were examined. To define the air curtain vortex structures, flow visualization of the curtain interface was employed. The results of which showed that the entrainment of the ambient air was found to be governed by a variety of eddy engulfing structures. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to examine the velocity profiles of the air curtains in a non-intrusive manner, the measurements of which indicated negatively-buoyant acceleration following the jet exhaust, followed by a more linear curtain growth characteristic of isothermal wall jets. In addition, thermocouples were used to obtain the net increase in temperature of the curtain due to entrainment, where it was found that the dimensionless thermal energy loss decreased with decreasing Reynolds number.

Field, Brandon S.; Loth, Eric [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 104 South Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

133

Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène

Boyer, Edmond

135

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy storage and water heater all year round”, Energyof thermal energy storage and water heaters to ensure theair conditioner, water heater and energy storage device is

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was maybe tested with less refrigerant charge than in China.Differences in the refrigerant charges are not confirmed byvacuum treatment, charge 850g±5g R22 refrigerant for sample

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

138

Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER.

Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Are You Planning to Bring an Air Conditioner? Welcome to Truman State University and the services available through the Disability Services Office. Part of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioner requests. If you need air conditioning and are assigned to Centennial, Grim, or Fair Apartments, Missouri Hall, Ryle Hall, and West Campus Suites have air conditioning included). The documentation must that requires the need for air conditioning. Please fill out the form on the reverse side of this sheet, attach

Gering, Jon C.

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioners furnaces air Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Space Summary: and electricity. These include boilers and furnaces for heating, air-conditioning systems and heat-pump systems... ) Space Heating Only Furnaces:...

143

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

144

DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

12CO09EV12EV. Today's notice proposes the maximum penalty for selling non-compliant products and requires Air-Con to immediately cease further U.S. sales and provide written...

145

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency Huawei Zhu Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute... conditioning system has led to extensive criticism. 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND ITS PRESENT APPLICATION ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 2...

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - ac line conditioners Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND NEXT GENERATION Summary: ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - array power conditioner Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AND NEXT GENERATION Summary: ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

150

Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water-cooled air-conditioning systems (WACS) are in general more energy efficient than air-cooled air-conditioning systems (AACS), especially in subtropical climates where the outdoor air is hot and humid. Related studies focused on evaluating...

Lee, W.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

152

Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de Clémencičres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioner utilizing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

51 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers enhanced this building energy optimization tool to analyze Summary: --when an existing component (e.g., an air...

154

Experimental analysis of a window air conditioner with R-22 and zeotropic mixture of R-32/125/134a  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is the result of the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company, Inc., (CRADA No. 92-0161) for testing the use of heat exchangers as the evaporator and condenser in an air-conditioning rig. Heat exchangers at typical realistic operating conditions were tested with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%). A test rig was built that provided for operation of the low-temperature exchanger (evaporator) with flooded coils. The test results indicated that the performance of the evaporator heat exchanger using ternary mixture, in terms of cooling capacity, would be around 7.4% less than the performance using R-22. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved with flooded evaporator operation by 8.6% for R-22 and by 15% for ternary mixture. Compared with R-22 operation, operation with ternary mixture results in slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high-low pressure ratio. Temperature glide for ternary mixture, for both evaporator and condenser, was clearly evident, but not as pronounced as expected because of the pressure drop (and thus the temperature drop) along the coils. Further improvement of the performance of ternary mixture is possible if the evaporator is arranged in a counter-cross-flow configuration to take advantage of the temperature glide. Current evaporator designs are mostly concurrent-cross-flow, which is more appropriate for single-component refrigerants or azeotropic refrigerant mixtures.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Carlstedt, J.; Hallden, D.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Page 1 of 4 Refrigerant Charge Verification: 70F Return Air Requirement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by operating the central heating system to preheat the dwelling sufficiently to keep the air temperature above 70°F for the duration of the test, or by using supplemental electric resistance heating devices on for the refrigerant charge test. This preheating is best accomplished by the central heating system, but a plug

156

Mathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a useful temperature difference. Though there are a few current applications of Stirling engines in energy of the work done on Stirling cycle-based machines. Although the re- view focused on engines, the analysisMathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a) Fabio

Sen, Mihir

157

An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project was created to address an important issue currently faced by test facilities measuring static pressure for air-conditioning and heat pumps. Specifically, ASHRAE Standard 37, the industry standard for test setup, requires an outlet duct...

Wheeler, Grant Benson

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

158

Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perceived air quality increases when relative humidity is decreased till about 30% in the range of comfort temperature. In the present scenario, humidity is considered as a pollutant. Hence, a controlled environment not only at low temperature...

Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Testing and Economic Evaluation of a High Efficiency 10-ton Rooftop Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a project to design, build and demonstrate a high efficiency commercial rooftop air conditioning unit. The unit was designed by Hibberd Consulting of Westminster, Colorado, and was built...

O'Neal, D. L.; Davis, M. A.

2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

160

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning Residential Buildings: Technologies, Design heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

Siegel, Jeffrey

162

Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy heat pump condenser coil will foul sufficiently to cause a 20 % reduction in performance over a 4 to 7 is based on a model of heat exchanger fouling that we developed specifically for residential heat

163

Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3 Beryllium-Associated Worker2014 HouseCoveredAirDepartment ofof04of Proposed

165

2015-02-13 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 13, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

166

Analysis on the energy efficiency of variable-frequency air conditioners (Hitachi models as an example) Jim Jr-Min Lin 2014.09.26  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis on the energy efficiency of variable-frequency air conditioners (Hitachi models (Max) Energy Efficiency @min load Energy Efficiency @Max load kW kW kW kW W/W W/W RAS-22NB 1.00 3.20 0 Efficiency @min load Energy Efficiency @Max load kW kW kW kW W/W W/W RAM-5FNS(B) - 12.5 - 2.91 - 4.3 RAM-6FNS

167

Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and Enforcement System for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label for Appliances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners;on room air-conditioners, which covered products from 29for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners;

Lin, Jiang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for refrigerator and air conditioner replacement and allof refrigerator and air-conditioner replacement on householdthat replacement of residential air conditioners would save

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of refrigerator and air-conditioner replacement on householdfor refrigerator and air conditioner replacement and allassociated with air-conditioner replacement were to be

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in MJ /household-year. Air conditioner and refrigerator endand 217.4% for air conditioner in Japan in 2000 (IEEJ,appliances including air conditioner, refrigerator, clothes

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A Novel, Low-Cost, Reduced-Sensor Approach for Providing Smart Renote Monitoring and Diagnostics for Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes conceptually an approach to providing automated remote performance and conditioning monitoring and fault detection for air conditioners and heat pumps that shows great promise to reduce the capital and installation costs of such systems from over $1000 per unit to $200 to $400 per unit. The approach relies on non-intrusive electric load monitoring (NIELM) to enable separation of the power use signals of compressors and fans in the air conditioner or heat pump. Then combining information on the power uses and one or two air temperature measurements, changes in energy efficiency and occurrence of major faults would be detected. By decreasing the number of sensors used from between ten and twenty in current diagnostic monitoring systems to three for the envisaged system, the capital cost of the monitoring system hardware and the cost of labor for installation would be decreased significantly. After describing the problem being addressed and the concept for performance monitoring and fault detection in more detail, the report identifies specific conditions and faults that the proposed method would detect, discusses specific needs for successful use of the NIELM approach, and identifies the major elements in the path from concept to a commercialized monitoring and diagnostic system.

Brambley, Michael R.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing/vcmfiles/ electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in ://www.bge.c Heat pumps

Zevenhoven, Ron

173

2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

174

Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labelling Programs in China: Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for household refrigerators/ freezers and room airZhou et al 2008] Refrigerators Freezers Air conditionersZhou et al 2008] Refrigerators Freezers Air conditioners

Saheb, Yamina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for household refrigerators/ freezers and room airZhou et al 2008] Refrigerators Freezers Air conditionersZhou et al 2008] Refrigerators Freezers Air conditioners

Saheb, Yamina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Compliance and Verification of Standards and Labeling Programs in China: Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

covering two products (refrigerators and air conditioners),and unitary air conditioners) and 15 other products areprogram by products and location room air conditioners Fix

Saheb, Yamina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is applied to four products including: air conditioners;to cover four products including: air conditioners; house-size - for three products (refrigerators, air-conditioners

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like refrigerator and air conditioner replacements. Thisiv) Replacement of conventional air conditioners by energy-ii) Replacement of conventional air conditioners by energy-

Abhyankar, Nikit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like refrigerator and air conditioner replacements. This5-star air conditioners are the efficient replacement, withiv) Replacement of conventional air conditioners by energy-

Abhyankar, Nikit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 474 Impacts of HVAC Filtration on Air-Conditioner Energy Consumption in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 474 Impacts of HVAC Filtration on Air efficiency filters (Points A, B, and C, respectively). #12;Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 474

Siegel, Jeffrey

188

Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus Yanping Zhou Jingyi..., especially for those who ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 show some interest about high-efficiency systems like VRF, it becomes of interest to compare the VRF to other systems and evaluate VRF?s performance...

Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Performance of HCFC22 alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R152a, R290(Propane) and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in residential air-conditioners. The test heat pump was of 1 ton capacity with water as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Test results how that ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a have 4 {approximately} 5% higher coefficient of performance(COP) and capacity than R22. Hence they seem to be promising alternatives for R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COPs and capacities than R22. R290/R134 azeotrope also shows 3--4% increases in COP and capacity. The compressor discharge and dome temperatures of all the mixtures tested are lower than those of R22 by 15.9--34.7 C and 5.5--14.3 C respectively, indicating that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22. Finally, the test results with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) indicated that SLHX must be used with special care in air-conditioners since its effect is fluid dependent.

Jung, D.; Kim, C.B.; Song, Y.J.; Park, B.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

Johnson, Francis

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Research Positionsfor Development of Novel Green Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems for Transportation Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in refrigeration and heat pump systems, HVAC, porous media development/characterization, transport phenomena of compact and lightweight heat exchangers for evaporator and condenser; v) Development of heatdriven adsorption chillers tailored to service vehicles; vi) Development and implementation of thermal energy

Bahrami, Majid

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - amr refrigeration cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

COPs, pressure ratios, outlet temperatures of the refrigerants... , Ltd. KEY WORDS: refrigeration; refrigerants; water; comparison; compressor; cycle; heat pump; air... be...

193

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

13 EER Window Air Conditioner  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment( Sample of Shipment Notice)1021STATE ENERGY PROGRAM

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - active magnetic refrigerator Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: : The Perspectives of Patient and Public Health Organizations Aerosols Air Conditioning and Refrigeration... : Refrigerant Alternatives for Chillers Koichi Watanabe,...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration machines Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigerating machine Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigeration systems (2-3) htm systems (2-3) Thermo... ) Absorption: used more for air conditioning and for refrigeration- Absorption: used more for air conditioning... air...

198

Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-cooled water chillers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and centrifugal chillers... ... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ... xvi Absorption Chillers......

200

International Congress Refrigeration 2003, Washington, DC ACTIVE DESICCANT INTEGRATION WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

standard. Integration of a rooftop, unitary air conditioner with an active-desiccant module (ADM) allows the use of a standard rooftop air conditioner with a thermally regenerated active desiccant component requirements for fresh air ventilation standards with continuous supply and increased amounts of building

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an air conditioner for the first time, or by replacements ofair conditioner lifetime. Each retirement generates another replacementreplacements. Step 1 is described in detail in the section called Forecasting Air Conditioner

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an air conditioner for the first time, or by replacements ofair conditioner lifetime. Each retirement generates another replacementand replacements. Step 1 is described in detail in the section called Forecasting Air Conditioner

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Impact of Refrigerant Charge, Air Flow and Expansion Devices on the Measured Performance of an Air-Source Heat Pump Part I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes extensive tests performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. The tests contain 150 steady-state performance tests, 18 cyclic tests and 18 defrost tests. During the testing work, the refrigerant charge level was varied from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value; the outdoor temperature was altered by three levels at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C); indoor air flow rates ranged from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate; and the expansion device was switched from a fixed-orifice to a thermal expansion value. Detailed performance data from the extensive steady state cyclic and defrost testing performed were presented and compared.

Shen, Bo [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

208

Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. 16. NT VVS 116, 1997. ?Refrigeration and heat pump equipment: Check-ups and performance data inferred from measurements under field conditions in the refrigerant system?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. ESL-IC-10...

Berglof, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditionersStandards Domestic refrigerators/freezers* Room air

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

Trends in the cost of efficiency for appliances and consumer electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appliance Refrigerators and Freezers Room Air ConditionersPCU3352283352285 a The refrigerator and freezer price trendRefrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers (Final

Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

California DREAMing: the design of residential demand responsive technology with people in mind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

replacement (Vandervort, 2006). The proper changing of the refrigerant can also significantly improve air conditioner

Peffer, Therese E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

A laboratory for instruction and research in air conditioning and refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complicated due to the combination of many simple units into elaborate assemblies. The functional relation- ship of condmnsers, compressors, cooling towersp evaporators, air distri- bution systems~ controls, snd other parts of an installation are often...

Hall, Ray Allison

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Assessment of the Impacts of Standards and Labeling Programs in Mexico (four products).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Level Trends – Air Conditioner Product Classes Product Class7 – Efficiency of Air Conditioner Product Classes (Watts/for four major products: household refrigerators, room air

Sanchez, Itha; Pulido, Henry; McNeil, Michael A.; Turiel, Isaac; della Cava, Mirka

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Refrigerants in Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a class of chemicals called fluorocarbons..., Gordon, "Forty Years Research on Atmospheric Ozone at Oxford: A !Iistory," Applied Optics, March t968, pp. 387-405. 4. Downing, R., "Development of Chloro fluorocarbon Refrigerants," CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1989...

Stouppe, D. E.

219

Attenuator And Conditioner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method of attenuating and/or conditioning optical energy for an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module is disclosed. An apparatus for attenuating the optical output of an optoelectronic connector including: a mounting surface; an array of optoelectronic devices having at least a first end; an array of optical elements having at least a first end; the first end of the array of optical elements optically aligned with the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices; an optical path extending from the first end of the array of optoelectronic devices and ending at a second end of the array of optical elements; and an attenuator in the optical path for attenuating the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices. Alternatively, a conditioner may be adapted in the optical path for conditioning the optical energy emitted from the array of optoelectronic devices.

Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kemme, Shanalyn Adair (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM)

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Homeowner's Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve efficiency and comfort for homeowners.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning heat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering, Purdue University Collection: Engineering 30 ME 4321 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning (Elective) Catalog Description: ME 4321 Refrigeration and Air...

225

Energy Consumption, Efficiency, Conservation, and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Japan's Building Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.4.3 C o o l i n g Air Conditioner Multi-room Load AirGHPs) Chillers Air Conditioner COP Desiccant Conditioningappliances such as air-conditioners, refrigerators and

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

Swift, G W

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at constant p #12;Stirling cycle, Stirling engineStirling cycle, Stirling engine See for principle also http://www.cs.sbcc.net/~physics/flash/heatengines/stirlingRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 5. Low temperatures,p liquefied gases Ron Zevenhoven ��bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron

Zevenhoven, Ron

229

Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

231

Malone refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

Swift, G.W.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cabinets commercial refrigerators and freezers commercialsolid door refrigerators and freezers Commercial steam7 New homes Refrigerators and freezers Room air conditioners

Sanchez, Marla Christine

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

each document... an individual study related to the interaction between refrigeration and air conditioning use, its environmental... , regarding refrigerant emission policy...

234

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

7Name ________________________________ System Watts Energy source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which will do work to move air in your air conditioner, or to keep food cold in your refrigerator. When

236

BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comfort Series 13 Air Conditioner with Puron Refrigerant.for new houses with 3.5 ton air-conditioners from a study ofblower use by the air conditioner and stand-by power.

Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

238

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development of slotted orifice flow conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentric rings of radial slots. The porosity of each ring varied so that the conditioner generated a six step parabolic profile similar to the profile tested with Fluent The overall porosity of the parabolic conditioner was 25. 1'/o, which is lower than... 19 Velocity Profile Procedure . Co Measurement Procedure Data Reduction . . . . . . 19 21 22 RESULTS 24 LDA Velocity Profile and Turbulence Intensity Analysis 24 Tube Bundle, Uniform Slotted Orifice Flow Conditioner . . Parabolic Slotted...

Ihfe, Larry Michael

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for DR and demand side management, along with operationalresponse), DSM (demand side management), DR strategy, air

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS GAS SPACE HEATERS WATER HEATERS PLUMBING FITTINGS FLUORESCENT LAMP BALLASTS LUMINAIRES GAS COOKING APPLIANCES AND GAS POOL HEATERS SEPTEMBER 1992 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLIANCE) Gas space heaters, excluding the following types: (1) gravity type central furnaces; (2) heaters

242

Low-noise pulse conditioner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

Bird, David A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

EVALUATION OF A NEW SOLAR AIR CONDITIONER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Benefits to California · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under-16 Grant Funding: $74,547 Term: February 2001 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced

244

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »ExchangeDepartmentResolve to Save Energy This Year|Rooftop

245

Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButler Tina Butler Tina-Butler.jpg Tina L.

246

Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energy fromCommentsRevolving Loan Funds Revolving LoanA l iSoftRTU Suite

247

DOE Investigates Possible Air Conditioner Efficiency Violations |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTSof Energy DOE ChallengeThese(Notice of Proposed

248

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Director, PIER Demand Response Research CenterAssessment of Demand Response & Advanced Metering, staffPower Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption refrigeration cycle Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Content Distribution Psy Press Titles Summary: applications, including absorption refrigeration, air liquefaction, automotive 973 Downloaded... optimization of vapor...

252

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential Clothes Washers...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

June 2011 - Residential furnaces and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps September 2011 - Residential refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers...

253

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Gas processing (O2, H2, CO2, LPG, LNG...) (3) Air conditioning, cooling towers, rg/pages/zon Air conditioning, cooling towers, food cooling and freezing (4) Heat pumps, heat pipes, special ww.sgisland.o p p

Zevenhoven, Ron

254

STATE OF CALIFORNIA --NATURAL RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HOLES FOR VERIFYING REFRIGERANT CHARGE IN RESIDENTIAL AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS The California Energy charged with refrigerant. Proper refrigerant charge is necessary for compressor air conditioning systems problems. To reduce air conditioner energy consumption and peak demand, the Building Energy Efficiency

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning system driven Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(3-0-3) Summary: and design of air-conditioning, heating, and refrigeration systems; including consideration of vapor... ME 4321 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning...

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force engineering Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: the Performance of the Air Curtain in a Refrigerated Display Case," Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 3... , E., "Entrainment by a Refrigerated Air Curtain...

257

Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

258

Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities...

259

Proceedings: commercial refrigeration research workshop. Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify the state-of-the-art and determine research needs for improving energy use and demand in commercial refrigeration applications. Workshop attendees included research and development, technical operations and marketing people from manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration, space conditioning, and energy management systems equipment, and from supermarket chains and electric utilities. Presentations were given on best current practice and research needs from the perspective of each of these industry segments. Working groups identified ten important research, development and equipment demonstration projects to improve the efficiency of refrigerating equipment, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, and other energy-using systems in supermarkets.

Blatt, M.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-connected air condition (heat pump) unit Chiller VL CRefrigerator Heat Pump Water Heater Air Conditioner ElectricHeat Pump Water Heater Standby TV Refrigerator Others* Air

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

262

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-connected air condition (heat pump) unit Chiller VL VLmotors and air conditioners are followed by heat pump waterRefrigerator Heat Pump Water Heater Air Conditioner Electric

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

264

Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

265

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ moisture a_Falls.jpg For the range -10 ~ +50°C, dry air can be treated as an ideal gas with c i 1 005 kJ/(kg· K) _Mist-Niagara cp,air 1.005 kJ/(kg K) The saturation pressure of water at 50°C is 12.3 k.3 kJ/kg c t 1.82 kJ/(kg· K) Picture:http:// 8.11.2012 �bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

Zevenhoven, Ron

266

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

Chung, C. W.

267

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/28 #12;Food products /1Food products /1 About 15 occurs over a tempe-rature range (see Figure); rate of freezing affects quality; velocity of cold air 7 affects moisture loss from products, etc. Food products /2Food products /2 Food deteriorates fastest

Zevenhoven, Ron

268

2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for...

269

DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards June 3, 2010 - 2:17pm Addthis...

270

2102, Page 1 Experimental Investigation of Closed Loop Oscillating Heat Pipe as the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pipe (CLOHP) as the condenser for a vapor compression refrigeration system. Split type air conditioner condenser in the split type air conditioner. The refrigeration capacity was set at 12,500 Btu/h (3.663 k is commonly used in a wide range of residential and commercial buildings. Most of the air conditioner types

Ghajar, Afshin J.

271

1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption refrigerators and heat pumps These machines ADsorb cycles for: Heat pumps Refrigerators Air conditioning Driven by heat from: Fossil fuels Bio fuels Waste of concept forced convection adsorption machine [#1] · Generating temperature 225° C · Heat rejection

Davies, Christopher

272

Alternative refrigerants and refrigeration cycles for domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project initially focused on using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) in a two-evaporator refrigerator-freezer design using two stages of liquid refrigerant subcooling. This concept was proposed and tested in 1975. The work suggested that the concept was 20% more efficient than the conventional one-evaporator refrigerator-freezer (RF) design. After considerable planning and system modeling based on using a NARM in a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) RF, the program scope was broadened to include investigation of a ``dual-loop`` concept where energy savings result from exploiting the less stringent operating conditions needed to satisfy cooling, of the fresh food section. A steady-state computer model (CYCLE-Z) capable of simulating conventional, dual loop, and L-M refrigeration cycles was developed. This model was used to rank the performance of 20 ozone-safe NARMs in the L-M refrigeration cycle while key system parameters were systematically varied. The results indicated that the steady-state efficiency of the L-M design was up to 25% greater than that of a conventional cycle. This model was also used to calculate the performance of other pure refrigerants relative to that of dichlorodifluoromethane, R-12, in conventional and dual-loop RF designs. Projected efficiency gains for these cycles were more modest, ranging from 0 to 10%. Individual compressor calorimeter tests of nine combinations of evaporator and condenser temperatures usually used to map RF compressor performance were carried out with R-12 and two candidate L-M NARMs in several compressors. Several models of a commercially produced two-evaporator RF were obtained as test units. Two dual-loop RF designs were built and tested as part of this project.

Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.L.; Vineyard, E.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the reviewers on the present household air conditioners, the potential requirements for new heat transfer enhancement used for household air conditioners are discussed. Investigations on condensation and boiling of refrigerants in mini/micro channels have...

Su, J.; Li, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

ENERGY AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACTS OF NOT-IN-KIND AND NEXT GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................... xvi Adsorption Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners ............................. xvi Absorption Chillers .................................................. xvii Absorption Heat Pumps .............................................. xviii Magnetic Heat Pumps-IN-KIND TECHNOLOGIES ............................. ...... 9 ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

275

Some studies on industrial Refrigeration system integrated With encapsulated pcm in cool Thermal energy storage system;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning utilities newlineespecially in the developing countries has increased manifold during the last newlinedecade This additional load on… (more)

Cheralathan M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This… (more)

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Field Measurements of Efficiency and Duct Effectiveness in Residential Forced Air Distributions Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power for air conditioning, heat pumps and electricwith 13 air conditioners, eight heat pumps (one house hadPre Post * A C : air conditioning, HP : heat pump, GF : gas

Jump, D.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Energy-efficiency directory of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented about the energy costs of operating refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers and includes the type of refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, the fresh food volume, the freezer volume, the total volume, and the yearly energy cost. The directory lists all currently marketed electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that have Energy Guide labels. The Federal Trade Commission requires manufacturers who distribute refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers to attach Energy Guide labels to appliances manufactured on or after May 19, 1980. The data have been measured by manufacturers and/or their agents according to US Government standard test procedures.

Statt, T.G.; Coggins, J.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

280

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. To receive the...

282

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

283

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

284

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3 Beryllium-Associated Worker2014 HouseCoveredAir Conditioners

286

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

287

Stirling-cycle refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

Nakamura, K.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had...

289

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

ETME 422 -REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC -10:00 -10:50am M W F RH 312  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1209(h) Office Hours: M-F 1-2p.m. Text: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning - Analysis and Design. -- Refrigeration and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) for comfort and industrial applications of the fundamentals of Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration as they relate to human comfort

Dyer, Bill

291

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Shrewsbury Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In collaboration with EFI, Shrewsbury Electric offers rebates on ENERGY STAR appliances. Eligible products include washing machines, dishwashers, refrigerators, and room air conditioners. ...

293

2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers 2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators,...

294

ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Office  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

method, one that uses permanent mag- nets and specialized alloys. The result would be refrigerators, air conditioners and giant warehouse freezers that are greener, quieter and...

295

Income Tax Deduction for Energy-Efficient Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This incentive is available for dishwashers, clothes washers, air conditioners, ceiling fans, compact fluorescent light bulbs, dehumidifiers, programmable thermostats or refrigerators that meet or...

296

Vehicular Thermoelectrics: The New Green Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

eere.energy.gov 37 Green Advantage of Vehicular Thermoelectric HVAC Current Vehicular Air Conditioner (AC) uses Compressed R134-a Refrigerant Gas -- Vehicles leak 110 gyear...

297

Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity Central AC Heat pumps Water heaters Refrigeratorsas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, andMerced). ACs Heat Pumps Combined Water Heaters Refrigerators

Mathieu, Johanna L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity Central AC Heat pumps Water heaters Refrigeratorsas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, andMerced). ACs Heat Pumps Combined Water Heaters Refrigerators

Mathieu, Johanna L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR: DETERMINIST AND STOCHASTIC APPROACHES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the calculation of air and load temperatures. An analysis of the predicted temperatures was undertaken temperature and thermostat setting, on air and load temperatures in non ventilated domestic refrigerator was studied. A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed which takes into account heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineers, Inc. , Energy Efficient Design of New BuildingsStandard 90.1, Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings

Rosenquist, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy-Energy Information Administration, A Look atof Energy-Energy Information Administration, 1995 Commercialof Energy-Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy

Rosenquist, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Development of a room air conditioner design model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Page . 12 . 12 . 20 . 33 . 38 . 48 . 50 . 56 Conclusions. Recommendations. REFERENCES APPENDIX A . 57 . 57 . 59 . 61 VITA . 66 LZST OP TABLES Table Page 2. 1 Major output parameters from the ORNL model 3. 1 Effect of tube.... Efficiency improvements are evaluated with the aid of a computer model. The model chosen for this analysis was the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [5] . The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN computer program developed...

Penson, Steven Brad

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles » AlternativeUpDrain-Water Heat Recovery Drain-Water

305

Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverviewPlansBuildings andEfficiency

306

Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codesthe Natural Resources Defenseon

307

List of Central Air conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolar (Texas) JumpEventBoilersCeiling FanCentral

308

List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarList ofPassive SolarRoofs Incentives Jump

309

High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013 many| Department HIGH

310

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012Nuclear Guide Remote55 Jefferson Ave. Valley ForgeValue

311

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, December, 1999.trends from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AE02000) were

Rosenquist, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program - LibbyofThisStatementNOTElectricity Transmissionof EnergyEnergy

313

Enforcement Policy Statement: Off Mode Standards for Central Air Conditioners  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program -Department oftoTheseClickDepartment of Energy June

314

Product Standards for Air Conditioners (Japan) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/GeothermalOrangePeru:JobInformation MccoyPrimusProEcoProcana

315

13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EERE Blog Posts of 2014 Year in Review:Summer-0 ResourcesEnergy

316

Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartmentfor EngineeringDepartment ofBoilersDataHotof Energy Central

317

Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwoVulnerabilities | Department of|VTA,anCompression

318

Downhole pulse tube refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

None

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

Jackson, H. Z.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

air conditionne point: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the air quality. Trade off between high purchase price of refrigerated air dryer versus energy savings should also be evaluated. 2. Operational issues such as set point of...

322

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Refrigeration monitor and alarm system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

324

Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

Pecharsky, Vitalij

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Claudia Barriga Kristin Heinemeier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conditioner #12;-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Air Conditioner Refrigerator #12;KEY FINDING 1 competitor get caught for not taking out a permit? #12;N=268 #12;· Measurements are used to charge air conditioners with the optimum amount of refrigerant. Too much refrigerant wastes energy. Too little

California at Davis, University of

327

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

328

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils for household refrigerator systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to industry concerns about the successful employment of hydrofluorocarbon-immiscible hydrocarbon oils in refrigeration systems, enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils have been developed. These products have been designed to be more dispersible with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, such as R-134a, in order to facilitate lubricant return to the compressor and to ensure proper energy efficiency of the system. Bench tests and system performance evaluations indicate the feasibility of these oils for use in household refrigeration applications. Results of these evaluations are compared with those obtained with polyol esters and typical naphthenic mineral oils employed in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigeration applications.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States); Barbour, C.B. [Americold, Cullman, AL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well...

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor driven by a steam turbine. The fraction of the refrigerant that flows around the second the compressor turbine. A forced draft air cooler is used to condense the HP refrigerant vapour, followed TP1o TP2o TP1i TP2i Turbine Compressor 1 Compressor 2 Condenser Receiver Process Stream 1 Process

Skogestad, Sigurd

333

Aire Rite Finds Center for Family Business Just Right Huntington Beach Company Founded in 1972 Joins CSUF Center for Family Business  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beach-based Aire Rite Air Conditioning and Refrigeration to its Center membership. The premier network of multi-generational family business leaders. Aire Rite Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Inc and optimization programs for air conditioning, building automation, food machinery, and refrigeration equipment

de Lijser, Peter

334

E-Print Network 3.0 - air treatment system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... , water treatment equipment,...

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning maintenance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... : Use of mechanical equipment...

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - air handling systems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... , water treatment equipment,...

337

E-Print Network 3.0 - air treatment heating Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Last Updated: 41702 Summary: , including refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans, roof ventilators, exhaust fans... , water treatment equipment,...

338

Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

340

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

343

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Adsorption of Hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134 and HFC-134A on X and Y Zeolites: Effect of Ion-Exchange on Selectivity and Heat of Adsorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rapidly as worldwide refrigerator and air-conditioner production rises almost exponentially.1 A byproduct) is a hydrofluorocarbon coolant for refrigerators designated to replace the ozone-damaging chloro- fluorocarbons (CFCs

Siperstein, Flor R.

348

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This significant usage of electricity in the HVAC industry has prompted researchers to develop...

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

349

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

350

Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

353

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

354

Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditioners (RACs), refrigerators, and freezers. GENERALsection). Refrigerators and Freezers Refrigerators followDifference* this Study Freezer Refrigerator Water Heater,

Lutz, James D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - air filter condition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fans... , water treatment equipment, elevators (electric and hydraulic), sewer lift pumps, filter servicing in air... : Use of mechanical equipment such as refrigeration, air...

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning units part Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fans... : Use of mechanical equipment such as refrigeration, air conditioning, heating systems, ventilating fans... -handling units and mechanical, compressed air, and electric ......

358

The refrigerator revolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses how a simple, new technology threw the best-laid plans of the chemical and refrigerator industries into disarray-and provided a new perspective on how future environmental agreements can be reached. In recent years, a series of massive business mergers has mesmerized the industrial world. However in the early 1990s a German environmentalist, triggered global reprocussions in the wake of the mandate to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances. The economic and political background of this is explained in detail.

Ayres, E.; French, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I (Section 1), and F. Bruce Sanford (Section 1) Table of Contents Pages Section 1 - Cold Storage Design to be Considered in the Freezing and Cold Storage of Fishery Products - Preparing, Freezing, and Cold Storage

360

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE TribaltheMy nameMid-LevelMidwestSept. 2005 | Department

362

Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

366

BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

charge. #12;BNL Refrigeration Management Plan Details how BNL complies with Sections 608 and 609BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the BER and CAC Ed Murphy, PE Chief Engineer / Manager is a heating process. Refrigeration is an engineered "cycle" where the refrigerant is made to evaporate

Homes, Christopher C.

367

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

369

Spring is in the Air and so is a Plethora of Pollen Dr. Joan Bradshaw, County Extension Director  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and skin. Use air filters and clean regularly, or run an air conditioner and change the air filterSpring is in the Air and so is a Plethora of Pollen Dr. Joan Bradshaw, County Extension Director, Suite 1 Lecanto, FL 34461 Springtime is in the air in Citrus County with its glorious weather

Jawitz, James W.

370

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help faci I itate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout fhe industry. This paper presents the resul ts... custaner's specifications. Most systems fall into two broad categories: Vapor Canpression Refrigeration Cycles - Mechanical or Steam Jet Canpression Systems Absorption Refrigeration Cycles - Heat Operated Cycles As shown in Table I, refrigerations...

Witherell, W. D.

375

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011)...

377

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years. About 20% of refrigerators and freezers sold in 2000energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers, Directiveof Energy, for refrigerators and freezers are base unit

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide… (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a new family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for application in manufacturing and facilities operations. Due to the Montreal Protocol and subsequent environmental regulations, CFC...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

380

The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

Holley, James Andrew

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

382

Analysis of heat recovery in supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this study is to investigate the heat recovery potential in supermarket refrigeration systems using CO2 as refrigerants. The theoretical control strategy… (more)

Abdi, Amir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-to-water heat pump Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuels 20 piwf AFR ( )piwttp AkR Summary: for simulating refrigeration and air conditioning equipment of all types: air-to-air, air-to-water, water... flow is...

384

Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

385

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

386

Analysis of Mass Flow and Enhanced Mass Flow Methods of Flashing Refrigerant-22 from a Small Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass flow characteristics of flashing Refrigerant-22 from a small vessel were investigated. A flash boiling apparatus was designed and built. It was modeled after the flashing process encountered by the accumulator of air-source heat pump...

Nutter, Darin Wayne

387

King Air flight RICO 2004/12/13 page 1 King Air N2UW flight report for December 13, 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

repair of the air conditioner on the aircraft, a test flight was needed and was to be transformedKing Air flight ­ RICO ­ 2004/12/13 page 1 King Air N2UW flight report for December 13, 2004 Crew: Drew, Vali, Oolman, Glover After

Vali, Gabor

388

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Loveland Water and Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator...

390

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

391

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

393

Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective.

Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Simulating effects of multispeed compressors on refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation analyses suggest that a multispeed compressor could increase steady-state operating efficiency by 4% to 14%. An additional 0.5% to 4% energy savings might be obtained from the reduction in the cycling frequency of the refrigerator. Several aspects of the robustness of the capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger design for the two-speed compressor system were also examined with the simulation model. It was shown that a system optimized for low-speed operation, when operating at the high speed, could have as much capacity as the original base case high-speed system. A relatively simple control strategy was proposed, one that requires measurement of on-cycle time and one or two compartment air temperatures. The effects of varying the speed of the evaporator or condenser fans at both compressor speeds were examined over a range of ambient temperatures. One energy-saving scenario was identified: decreasing the condenser fan speed for refrigerators operating at low ambient temperatures. By affecting the distribution of refrigerant change throughout the system, the decrease in condenser fan speed reduces the superheat in the evaporator and increases the overall UA of the evaporator. The resulting increase in evaporator capacity more than offsets the decrease in condenser UA and the energy use of the refrigerator is decreased.

Woodall, R.J. [International Paper Technology, Mobile, AL (United States); Bullard, C.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofThe U.S.D.C. - Energy Secretary WASHINGTON,to

397

Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces WG  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment ofEnergy.pdfApplications: Heating Cooling OPUBLICLeadcommercial

398

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

402

Applying Learnable Evolution Model to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman and Ryszard S. Michalski*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the evaporator tubes in the heat exchanger of an air conditioner. This is a very difficult problem because conditioner, refrigerant flows through a loop. It is superheated and placed in contact with cooler outside air conditions, manufacturers of air conditioning systems currently assume in their models average operating

Michalski, Ryszard S.

403

Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What do they know that we don’t know? Japan 90% Over 7 Million Systems China 86% Over 17 Million Systems Europe 81% Over 7 Million Systems USA 4% .5 Million Systems ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through...-source VRF IEER 11.5 - 17.7 19.6 9.7 10.3 10.9 10.5 IPLV - 14.2 - - SCHE - - 18.6 N/A Energy Efficiency - commercial EER ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 More Comfort & Quiet ? 4 ton...

Jones, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

California Energy Commission STAFF REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

central air conditioners and ducted split system heat pumps have the correct refrigerant charge verified (Section 151(f) 7Ai and ii). Proper refrigerant charge is necessary for compressor air conditioning that the correct refrigerant charge can be verified through measurement or through the installation of a charge

405

Comparing Mainframe and Windows Server Transactions per kWh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................................................................................................................15 Air Conditioner (Heat Pump) Efficiency Units

Narasayya, Vivek

406

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial...

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

407

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

408

E-Print Network 3.0 - air service management Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010 Summary: Management Policy: 2.1 ASHRAE: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Engineers 2... of the supplied air with the air already in the room. 3.0...

409

Air conditioning system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning hvac Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems play an important role in providing comfort in residential, commercial... of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Batterman S. and Burge H. 1995. "HVAC...

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning systems based Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INVENTION, APPLICATION NO. 61297,958 OF 25 JAN 2010 Summary: for Efficient Heating, Cooling, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning BY MILIVOJE M. KOSTIC, SYCAMORE, IL......

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative automative air-conditioning...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as well as developing countries. Because... of the energy demand from refrigeration and air conditioning. The thesis' first assessment discusses the effect... conditioning...

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-conditioning applications final Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is increasing in industrialized as well as developing countries. Because... of the energy demand from refrigeration and air conditioning. The thesis' first assessment...

414

E-Print Network 3.0 - air injection systems Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems. Different methods for measuring air-leakage rates were also compared... , and Refrigeration ... Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy...

415

HFC supermarket refrigeration demonstration. Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration tested and evaluated HFC refrigerants in a new Shop `n Save supermarket in Glens Falls, New York. This project included laboratory testing of HFC refrigerants for medium- and low-temperature application, the design of a supermarket refrigeration system to accommodate the new refrigerants, installation, start-up, and field monitoring.

Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

417

Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption and desorption. 3. Heat flows and composition changes occur at constant temperature. The advantages of complex compounds... 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption...

Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

418

Information on the Department of Energy's analyses to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A historical overview of three separate Department of Energy analyses performed to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards is presented. An identification of the assumptions used in each of the analyses and the conclusions reached in each analysis are covered. Standards for furnaces, water heaters, central air conditioners, refrigerators, ranges/ovens, clothes dryers, freezers, and room air conditioners are considered. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

420

Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Manufactured in the U.S. 2 Problem Statement * Current commercial and industrial heat pumps - Poor coefficient of performance (COP) at low temperatures * HFC refrigerant...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vending machines are equipped with controls or software that put the lighting andor refrigeration systems into a low power state at night, on weekends, or other periods of...

422

Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

An experimental study of waste heat recovery from a residential refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an integrated heat recovery system which has been designed both to enhance the performance of a residential refrigerator and simultaneously to provide preheated water for an electric hot water heater. A commercial, indirect-heated hot water tank was retrofitted with suitable tubing to permit it to serve as a water cooled condenser for a residential refrigerator. This condenser operates in parallel with the air-cooled condenser tubing of the refrigerator so that either one or the other is active when the refrigerator is running. The refrigerator was housed in a controlled-environment chamber, and it was instrumented so that its performance could be monitored carefully in conjunction with the water pre-heating system. The system has been tested under a variety of hot water usage protocols, and the resulting data set has provided significantly insight into issues associated with commercial implementation of the concept. For the case of no water usage, the system was able to provide a 35 C temperature rise in the storage tank after about 100 hours of continuous operation, with no detectable deterioration of the refrigerator performance. Preliminary tests with simulations of high water usage, low water usage, and family water usage indicate a possible 18--20% energy savings for hot water over a long period of operation. Although the economic viability for such a system in a residential environment would appear to be sub-marginal, the potential for such a system associated with commercial-scale refrigeration clearly warrants further study, particularly for climates for which air conditioning heat rejection is highly seasonal.

Clark, R.A.; Smith, R.N.; Jensen, M.K. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Recent developments in orifice meter and flow conditioner research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1969 concerns were raised regarding the validity of the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge uncertainty. An effort to resolve these concerns resulted in an internationally supported research project which produced a new sharp-edged concentric orifice meter empirical database and coefficient of discharge equation. However, the new empirical database and coefficient of discharge equation did not account for all of the differences being encountered in orifice metering. And in 1986, as a derivative of the coefficient of discharge equation research, questions were raised regarding the influences of installation effects on the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge. The 1986 EC research data indicated that the flow conditioner and straight pipe installation requirements of the flow measurement standards were inadequate to prevent biasing of the orifice meter`s coefficient of discharge by flow disturbances generated from upstream piping elements. Data generated from 1990 through 1993 by GRI sponsored SWRI and NIST research confirmed the original EC biasing and further identified differential pressure tap radial position sensitivity and velocity profile and swirl angle theory deficiencies. Current research is continuing to define installation effects influences and identify possible solutions.

LaNasa, P.J. [CPL and Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

Cavestri, R.C. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

427

Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

428

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

429

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

430

2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

431

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document...

432

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

433

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

environmentally harmful refrigerants and foam and enables the recycling of the plastic, metal, and wiring components. 1 Secondary refrigerators are units not located in the...

434

Corrosion aspects in indirect systems with secondary refrigerants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Aqueous solutions of organic or inorganic salts are used as secondary refrigerants in indirect refrigeration systems to transport and transfer heat. Water is known… (more)

Ignatowicz, Monika

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Next Generation Low-Global...

436

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration....

437

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of...

438

California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program Case Study PIER Buildings Program Research Powers the Future www.energy.ca.gov/research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a more energy efficient stage could provide adequate cooling. 2. Sub-optimal refrigerant charge. Inappropriate refrigerant charge is one of the most common faults in rooftop air conditioners. It occurs because %OFUNITSTESTEDWITHPROBLEM #12;high refrigerant charge result in decreased efficiency. According to research by Robert Mowris

California at Davis, University of

439

Heat Transfer in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid-state thermoelectric devices are currently used in applications ranging from thermocouple sensors to power generators in space missions, to portable air-conditioners and refrigerators. With the ever-rising demand ...

Tian, Zhiting

440

Analysis of Michigan's demand-side electricity resources in the residential sector: Volume 3, End-use studies: Revised final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume of the ''Analysis of Michigan's Demand-Side Electricity Resources in the Residential Sector'' contains end-use studies on various household appliances including: refrigerators, freezers, lighting systems, water heaters, air conditioners, space heaters, and heat pumps. (JEF)

Krause, F.; Brown, J.; Connell, D.; DuPont, P.; Greely, K.; Meal, M.; Meier, A.; Mills, E.; Nordman, B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DS report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was heated by a small unit heater, and cooling was by a small refrigerated air conditioner. Temperatures were between 50-80 o F. Chlorinated water was provided to the pilot...

442

Abatement of perfluorocompounds and chlorofluorocarbons using surface wave plasma technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and have been favored for wafer etch and chamber clean applications in the semiconductor industry. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are ozone depleting gases that were used as refrigerants for commercial and domestic condensers and air conditioners, but current...

Frantzen, Michelle E. Gunn

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

2012 APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, pool pumps, electric spas, pool pump motors, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan

444

CALIFORNIA Jackalyne Pfannenstiel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, fluorescent lamp ballasts, lamps, emergency lighting, exit signs, traffic

445

Arnold Schwarzenegger 2010 APPLIANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, pool pumps, electric spas, pool pump motors, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan

446

Dynamic Performance and Control of a Multilevel Universal Power Conditioner Leon M. Tolbert, Fang Z. Peng Thomas G. Habetler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-back diode-clamped inverters that constitute the universal power conditioner. An experimental verification. To meet the objectives detailed in these new premium power agreements, the implementation of advanced- clamped inverter into a universal power conditioner is an enticing prospect. For a multilevel universal

Tolbert, Leon M.

447

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

448

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, January 2013, www.danfoss.com/co2 DIRECT Refrigerant Leakage (GWP) INDIRECT Energy Consumption (COP Geothermal's Direct Exchange System Advantage: · All Natural, Safe & Non-toxic Refrigerant · Highly Efficient Equivalent Warming Impact Commercial Food and Retail Application: Direct Leakage > Energy Consumption Brown

450

Modeling supermarket refrigeration energy use and demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed that can predict the performance of supermarket refrigeration equipment to within 3% of field test measurements. The Supermarket Refrigeration Energy Use and Demand Model has been used to simulate currently available refrigerants R-12, R-502 and R-22, and is being further developed to address alternative refrigerants. This paper reports that the model is expected to be important in the design, selection and operation of cost-effective, high-efficiency refrigeration systems. It can profile the operation and performance of different types of compressors, condensors, refrigerants and display cases. It can also simulate the effects of store humidity and temperature on display cases; the efficiency of various floating head pressure setpoints, defrost alternatives and subcooling methods; the efficiency and amount of heat reclaim from refrigeration systems; and the influence of other variables such as store lighting and building design. It can also be used to evaluate operational strategies such as variable-speed drive or cylinder unloading for capacity control. Development of the model began in 1986 as part of a major effort, sponsored by the U.S. electric utility industry, to evaluate energy performance of then conventional single compressor and state-of-the-art multiplex refrigeration systems, and to characterize the contribution of a variety of technology enhancement features on system energy use and demand.

Blatt, M.H.; Khattar, M.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Walker, D.H. (Foster Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

452

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

453

North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

454

Evaluation of a CFD-model for simulation of simplified flow conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perforated plate flow conditioners are used to generate a fully developed turbulent flow profile upstream of an orifice meter. It is very time-consuming to measure the effect of a flow conditioner for different upstream flow profiles. Therefore a project is initiated to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid computer code for this purpose. If the code correctly predicts the flow characteristics downstream of more complex flow conditioners. In this study a k-{var_epsilon} CFD-model was used to predict the flow downstream of obstruction plates having one large or nine small holes. Both mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, k, and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, {var_epsilon}, were calculated and compared against measured data. The results indicate that it is possible to predict the mean velocity well and that the accuracy of the predicted k and {var_epsilon} depends on the complexity of the flow.

Erdal, A. [Statoil/K-LAB, Haugesund (Norway); Torbergsen, L.E.; Rimestad, S.; Krogstad, P.A. [Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

455

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

456

Comfort by Design: An Introduction to HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comfort by Design An Introduction to HVAC’s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology Keith Reihl kreihl@hvac.mea.com ESL-KT-14-11-13 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 HVAC Market Overview 0% 27% 9% 5% 4... Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 How LOUD is a traditional HVAC unit? 33 dB(A) Library 50 dB(A) Refrigerator 60 dB(A) Conversation 78 dB(A) Vacuum 25 dB(A) Recording Studio 65-75 dB(A) Residential 3-ton HVAC Unit How Q IET are VRF...

Reihl,K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

459

Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

460

Energy-conservation program: notice of proposed rulemaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A notice of proposed rulemaking, proposing energy efficiency standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment (not including furnaces) kitchen ranges and ovens, and central air conditioners ispresented. Comments are invited and the procedure for public comment is detailed. Issues included and presented in the proposed rulemaking are: determination of energy efficiency levels, macro-economic analysis, certification and enforcement, effect on other law, small business exemptions, environmental assessment, and regulatory analysis. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Study of thermoelectric technology for automobile air conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analytical study was conducted to determine the feasibility of employing thermoelectric (TE) cooling technology in automobile air conditioners. The study addressed two key issues -- power requirements and availability of thermoelectric materials. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to predict the performance of TE air conditioners and to analyze power consumption. Results show that the power required to deliver a cooling capacity of 4 kW (13,80 Btu/h) in a 38{degree}C (100{degree}F) environment will be 9.5 kW electric. Current TE modules suitable for air conditioning are made of bismuth telluride. The element tellurium is expected to be in short supply if TE cooling is widely implemented for auto air conditioning; some options available in this regard were studied and presented in this paper.

Mathiprakasam, B.; Heenan, P. (Midwest Research Inst., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. ” Department ofrecent central air conditioner and heat pump purchasers only

Fujita, K. Sydny

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water heater replacement, air conditioner Assumptions behindreplacements (e.g. , furnace, water heater, air conditioner,

Zimring, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solarwater heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar

Fuller, Merrian C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermalreplacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermal

Fuller, Merrian C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Lesson 36: Housing and Accommodation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ mikeka [air conditioner / air conditioners] [mat / mats] CHUMBA CHA KULA CHAKULA / CHUMBA CHA MAANKULI

468

Classroom Vocabulary Classroom Vocabulary [msamiati wa darasani  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] [wall clock] [map / maps] [air conditioner / air conditioners] [picture / pictures] [drawing / drawings

469

Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

472

ARTI Refrigerant Database. [Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyol ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1993-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

473

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

474

Performance of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer using HFC refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cycle 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}) refrigerator/freezer was tested utilizing American National Standards Institute/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (ANSI/AHAM) standards for energy consumption testing. A 34.9% energy consumption reduction was realized for a 1984 model refrigerator/freezer (1020 kWh original energy use). This paper presents a proven method of reducing the current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum energy-efficiency standards for refrigerator/freezers to the proposed year 2001 standards utilizing existing technology. For a top-mount, frost-free refrigerator/freezer having the above volume, the current DOE minimum energy standard is 770 kWh/year, and the proposed DOE year 2001 standard is 530 kWh/year (a 31% reduction). Therefore, some significant reductions may be obtained by implementing the modifications discussed in this paper into newer refrigerator/freezer models. The paper gives an overview of the modifications implemented by a Danish university on a US refrigerator/freezer and presents experimental performance testing results of the refrigerator/freezer. The modifications will cause the refrigerator/freezer to be more expensive, but the performance enhancements should offset cost. No cost analysis is presented in this paper, but a detailed cost analysis of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer is contained in a 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (EPA 1993). The refrigerator/freezer was tested using four refrigerants and compressors. Two compressors and refrigerants were tested in the freezer cycle, and four were tested in the fresh food cycle.

Baskin, E.; Delafield, F.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

A review of polymer-based water conditioners for reduction of handling-related injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish are coated with an external layer of protective mucus. This layer serves as the primary barrier against infection or injury, reduces friction, and plays a role in ionic and osmotic regulation. However, the mucus layer is easily disturbed when fish are netted, handled, transported, stressed, or subjected to adverse water conditions. Water additives containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or proprietary polymers have been used to prevent the deleterious effects of mucus layer disturbances in the commercial tropical fish industry, aquaculture, and for other fisheries management purposes. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of water conditioners, and examines the contents and uses of a wide variety of commercially available water conditioners. Water conditioners containing polymers may reduce external damage to fish held in containers during scientific experimentation, including surgical implantation of electronic tags. However, there is a need to empirically test the effectiveness of water conditioners at preventing damage to and promoting healing of the mucus layer. A research agenda is provided to advance the science related to the use of water conditions to improve the condition of fish during handling and tagging.

Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption-recompression refrigeration...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REFRIGERATION CYCLE ACTUAL VAPOR-COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE VAPOR-COMPRESSION HEAT PUMPS THE EXERGY... and Engineering Center CARNOT REFRIGERATION CYCLE Practical...

478

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivationsecond most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residualfor more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as

Greenblatt, Jeffery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along withthe number of refrigerators and freezers in a home alongcompression refrigerators and freezers) in U.S. households.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air conditioners refrigerators" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from...

482

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

484

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

486

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

488

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

490

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These slurries seems to be well appropriate for cold storage and transportation in the case of air- conditioning as secondary refrigerants. Concerning hydrates, they have been used as PCM for cold storage for years

Boyer, Edmond

492

Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions...

Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio] [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Calendar Year 2008 Program Benefits for ENERGY STAR Labeled Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air cleaners Room air conditioners Scanners Servers Set-topBoilers • Central Air Conditioners and Air-Source HeatHeat Pump -Central Air Conditioner -Gas Furnace -Oil

Homan, GregoryK

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures, Part 1: Method assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results of a literature search performed to identify analytical techniques suitable for accelerated screening of chemical and thermal stabilities of different refrigerant/lubricant combinations. Search focused on three areas: Chemical stability data of HFC-134a and other non-chlorine containing refrigerant candidates; chemical stability data of CFC-12, HCFC-22, and other chlorine containing refrigerants; and accelerated thermal analytical techniques. Literature was catalogued and an abstract was written for each journal article or technical report. Several thermal analytical techniques were identified as candidates for development into accelerated screening tests. They are easy to operate, are common to most laboratories, and are expected to produce refrigerant/lubricant stability evaluations which agree with the current stability test ANSI/ASHRAE (American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers) Standard 97-1989, ``Sealed Glass Tube Method to Test the Chemical Stability of Material for Use Within Refrigerant Systems.`` Initial results of one accelerated thermal analytical candidate, DTA, are presented for CFC-12/mineral oil and HCFC-22/mineral oil combinations. Also described is research which will be performed in Part II to optimize the selected candidate.

Kauffman, R.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L ABORATORY China Energy Efficiency Round Robin TestingNeed to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy Consumingfor Implementing the China Energy Efficiency Label System (

Zhou, Nan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its integration. In the DOE’s energy model which was used toSources The energy efficiency simulation model used in thiss Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS) model (McNeil et

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the current cost of production of 3.5 Rs per kWh. It isthe average cost of production to be 3.50 Rs. per kWh, or $the cost of production significantly at 4.80 Rs. per kWh. As

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chapter we discuss market, energy consumption and technologyeffective Room AC energy efficiency market transformation42 Chapter 3 Room AC Market and Energy Consumption

Shah, Nihar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z