National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioner water

  1. 13 EER Window Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13 EER Window Air Conditioner 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Broadway Apartment Building with WACs in NYC Pradeep Bansal, bansalpk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National...

  2. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  3. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with a clean one can lower your air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%. For central air conditioners, filters are generally located somewhere along the return duct's...

  4. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    integrated with an air conditioner unit and air/water heatan air conditioner unit and air/water heat exchanger Source:system and a standard air/water heat exchanger. Figure A-

  5. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  6. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    acquisition guidance for residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that...

  8. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    poor service procedures, and inadequate maintenance. Improper installation of a central air conditioner can result in leaky ducts and low airflow. Many times, the...

  9. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard October...

  10. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air...

  11. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  12. The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisham, Phillip Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

  13. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mini-Split Air Conditioners A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoLUke1138. A ductless...

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air...

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    fluid. The indoor unit includes a capillary tube and a DX evaporator with copper tubes and aluminium fins. The outdoor unit includes a high performance tube-in-tube water-cooled condenser connected to a hermetic rotary compressor. The cooling tower...

  17. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with a representative from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss proposed amended test procedures for central air conditioners and how they would impact ICM manufacturers....

  18. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  20. Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commercial package air conditioners, heat pumps, and commercial warm air furnaces is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  1. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore »R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  2. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  3. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic model TTWC-18K-31B. DOE enforcement testing revealed that this model...

  4. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE testing in support of the ENERGY STAR program has revealed that an Electrolux Gibson air conditioner (model GAH105Q2T1) and an Equator clothes washer (model EZ 3720 CEE), both...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  6. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a...

  7. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Heat from Burner Combined Heat Delivered (25 kW) Ambient (10 kW) Paul Schwartz, CEO...

  8. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  9. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  10. Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

  11. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models...

  12. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-06-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

  15. ISSUANCE 2015-11-19: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  16. Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of return air leakage from hot/humid attic spaces on the performance of a residential air conditioner. Tests were conducted in psychrometric facilities where temperatures and humidities...

  17. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  18. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  19. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  20. The Impact of Energy Recovery on Window Air-conditioner Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Tang, C.; Liao, K.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental energy recovering air-conditioner can produce fresh air exchange heat with exhaust air in the heat exchanger, which has no additional moving parts. The EER of the experimental air-conditioner (EAC) is increased by 17.4~37.3 percent...

  1. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases. Check out our Energy...

  2. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    before proper dehumidification occurs, making the area feel "clammy" and uncomfortable. Central air-conditioning systems need to be sized by professionals. Explore our Energy...

  3. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles...

  4. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...

  5. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    require that manufac- turers derive cooling ratings for unitary systems by testing a sample of sufficient size to meet certain specified statistical confidence levels. For split unitary systems comprising an outdoor unit and an indoor coil assembly...(95), SEER, and recommended indoor volumetric flow rate of air, are publicly available. The procedure also assumee that the matched indoor section is available for inspection and evaluation of the indoor coil capacity and the indoor fan power...

  6. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject DevelopsforReportingResourcesDepartmentDepartment ofRoom Air

  7. DOE Investigates Possible Air Conditioner Efficiency Violations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional|Certify AirDepartment of

  8. List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedList of RefuelingRoom Air Conditioners

  9. EVALUATION OF A NEW SOLAR AIR CONDITIONER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Benefits to California · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under-16 Grant Funding: $74,547 Term: February 2001 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  11. The Impact of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neal, L.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand Leon Neal North Carolina Alternate Energy Corporation Research Triangle Park, N.C. ABSTRACT Electric utilities have had a number of air conditioner rebate and maintenance... of the equipment), system sizing, and efficiency on the steady-state, coincident peak utility demand of a residential central air conditioning system. The study is based on the results of laboratory tests of a three-ton, capillary tube expansion, split...

  12. A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits...

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  14. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  15. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  16. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report is the first of two reports on the project "Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of High Efficiency Commercial Air Conditioners" funded by Houston Lighting and Power Company. The purpose ...

  17. Determination of the Transient Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to assesses the dehumidifying performance of residential central air conditioners (CACs). The performance studies were based on factors such as: (i) dynamic performance (ii) the ASHRAE comfort zone, (iii) control...

  18. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more energy than allowed under federal...

  19. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes: (1) the performance improvements possible for central air conditioners and heat pumps using conventional design improvements, (2) the development of a methodology for estimating the seasonal performance of variable speed heat...

  20. ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

  1. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance costs are assumed to apply to all product types (split or package systems, air conditioners or heat pumps) and

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

  3. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  4. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. Study of an integrated appliance, the air conditioner/heat pump-heat recovery unit-water heater. Final report, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Davies, A.; Fischler, S.

    1981-02-01

    Three integrated heat-pump - heat-recovery-unit - water-heater appliances were tested under various environmental conditions to measure the functional parameters and study the operating characteristics of these systems. It was found that the heat recovery, heat-recovery rate, and heat-recovery efficiency were dependent on the heat-recovery-unit's characteristics. The use of the heat-recovery unit in the system resulted in a reduced work load for the heat pump's compressor and slightly improved the heat-pump's performance. A computer simulation model of the integrated system was developed to study the interactions between several of the pertinent system variables on an hourly basis for selected situations and to estimate energy savings. Two alternative estimation methods that utilize five-degree temperature bin data were also developed. The estimate savings determined by using the alternative methods were about the same as those estimated using the hourly data. Conclusions were also reached concerning the use of water heaters with different tank capacities and on methods of increasing potential energy savings.

  6. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water HeatersRoom Air

  7. An Evaluation of the Effects of Refrigerant Charge on a Residential Central Air Conditioner with Orifice Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Ramsey, C. J.; Farzad, M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have been conducted at Texas A & M University to quantify the effect of over/undercharging on the performance of a residential central air conditioner with two different expansion devices: capillary tubes ...

  8. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with Capillary Tube Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the improper charging on the performance (capacity, EER, power consumption, SEER, and coefficient of degradation) of a residential air conditioner during the steady state (wet and dry coils) and cycling ...

  9. Simulation of Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Residential Central Air-Conditioners in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.; Somasundram, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses the dehumidifying performance of the high efficiency residential central air conditioners (CAC) in hot/humid climates typified by that of Houston and Galveston. The performance study is based on such factors as: (i) weather (ii...

  10. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  11. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners— Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  12. Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    amling mil. Bqe surfam is needed to accomplish the heat ex&ange, so lamberenthian anl wrnpted surfaces have been used. Ihe of heat is ~Wlled by duct* & bypaseirq varying armnrts of air 8ud-1 that all air does not casrtact all the heat exdmqe...

  13. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture from the saturated air leaving an air conditioning (AC) cooling coil to the air returning to the AC unit from the conditioned space. This has the thermodynamic effect of reducing the overall energy...

  14. Development of an Automated Fault Detection System Tool for Unitary Air Conditioners at Undustrial Energy Audits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, P.; Pasmussen, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Faulty air conditioners are prevalent; as is the related energy inefficiency 57% Of 13,000 systems incorrectly charged 13% Average efficiency loss 10% Efficiency loss due to 30% overcharge 9% Efficiency loss due to 30% undercharge ESL-IE-15... • Refrigerant Type Brochure • Rated Subcooling• Rated Superheat Other • Type of Valve • Avoided Cost of Electricity • Operating Hours • Presence of Accumulator Co In Co Pr Co Out Ev Out Ev In Co In Co Out Ev Pr Ev Out Air side Temperatures Refrigerant side...

  15. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Study to Confirm Target Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant wheel operating in conjunction with a typical air conditioning system. Simulations and laboratory prototypes demonstrate that the cycle has the potential for enhanced humidity control with sensible heat ratios...

  16. Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

  17. Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Figure 1 illustrates a typical rooftop (NREL Pix 06451) installation. Building Industry Trends - 10 performance of this equipment has remained relatively constant, close to the minimum standard over this period. An evaluation of data on currently available models from theAirConditioning andRefrigerationInstitute (ARI2000

  18. The Explorationon the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.

    2014-01-01

    and Municipal Engineering Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual- temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle ESL-IC-14-09-35a... conditioner. However, energy losses caused by secondary heat transfer leave more room for the whole system performance to be improved if they can be avoided. 1 Introduction ?An innovative dual-temperature air-conditioner and the corresponding theoretical...

  19. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  20. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Air Conditioner Ready to Change Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:NewsWebmaster Please enter your name andEnergyAir

  1. Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of EnergyofDepartmentProcess DocumentPartner: A.O.Air

  2. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergyEvery Thanksgiving, we hearfreezers, aroom air

  3. Product Standards for Air Conditioners (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, BluePoulsenBioSolutions JumpProblems withAir

  4. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availabilty regarding test procedures for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 5, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-SavingofCode |DepartmentVampire

  6. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  7. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  8. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  9. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    use, the water-side economizer and the air-side economizer.The air-side economizer takes advantage of the cool outdoorair is cool enough to provide total cooling. The water-side economizer

  10. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  11. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  12. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  13. Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

    2005-02-17

    -1 EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER...

  14. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  15. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency...

  16. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    In recent years China's energy consumption has increased rapidly. The problem of high energy consumption intensity and low energy utilization efficiency is serious, and the contradiction between economic development and energy and environmental resources has become increasingly acute, making energy conservation and consumption reduction an important society-wide concern. At the same time, global climate change has and will continue to have profound impacts on human survival and development, and is another major challenge to all countries. In order to accelerate China's energy conservation and emission reduction work, the National Leading Group to Address Climate Change, Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction was founded with Premier Wen Jiabao as the head, and the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction' and 'China's National Program of Addressing Climate Change' were issued, under which China's energy conservation and emission reduction work has been fully deployed. Efforts to promote energy efficiency have been further strengthened in all levels of government, and various policies and measures have progressively been issued and implemented. In addition, based on China's experience with implementing energy-saving priority strategies over the past 20+ years, our government established a goal of a 20% decrease in energy consumption per unit GDP in the 'Eleventh Five-year Development Plan'. Furthermore, in November 2009, in order to support global greenhouse gas emission reduction activities and promote China's low carbon economic development, the government established a further 40-50% reduction in energy consumption per unit GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2005. Improving energy utilization efficiency by scientific and technological progress will undoubtedly play an important role in achieving the above stated objectives. The improvement of energy efficiency of energy consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy-consuming products has become an important determinant of achieving energy conservation and emission reduc

  17. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  18. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    the energy efficiency of air conditioning products isbetween the energy efficiency of air conditioning productsthe air conditioning testing facilities of energy efficiency

  19. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  20. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    shows that most foreign energy efficien- cy standards arethe measurement of the energy efficien- cies of air/air airshare consists of energy- efficient electric motor products.

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  2. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices. Introduction Residential air conditioning is responsible. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy

  3. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    86 Figure A-4: (a) Physical DEVap concept; (b)Illustration of DEVap air conditioningcontrolled ventilation DEVap Desiccant-enhanced evaporative

  4. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    1990-01-01

    a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat...

  5. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  6. Testing and Economic Evaluation of a High Efficiency 10-ton Rooftop Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Davis, M. A.

    2006-11-09

    In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a project to design, build and demonstrate a high efficiency commercial rooftop air conditioning unit. The unit was designed by Hibberd Consulting of Westminster, Colorado, and was built...

  7. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  8. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  9. Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

    2010-01-01

    (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity...

  10. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  11. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  12. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 13, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. 2014-08-19 Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)- Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Registe notice of open meetings regarding the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on August 19, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  14. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  15. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2010-01-01

    from flat-plate solar collectors and use air cooling forwith flat-plate solar collectors and air cooling; namely,from flat-plate solar collectors. Absorption refrigeration

  18. PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2010-01-01

    from flat-plate solar collectors and use air cooling foroperation with flat-plate solar collectors and air cooling;from flat-plate solar collectors. Absorption refrigeration

  19. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: A Homeowner’s Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Booten

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve energy efficiency, cost savings, and comfort for homeowners.

  1. Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment S.C. Jain Professor and Research Engineer Dept. Civil, C., "Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment," in Proceedings of the 48th SFSA Technical An analysis is reported of the water modeling experiments of Bates et al. (1994) to study air entrainment

  2. New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive Barrier Technologies for Commercial Buildings New Air and Water-Resistive...

  3. Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2006-01-01

    time can be known so that its energy consumption can be estimated accurately. In order to verify the simulation accuracy, an actual room equipped with a gas-engine heat pump (GHP) air-conditioning system is studied by both simulation and measurement...

  4. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    and was exhausted by the unit fan back into the room through the outdoor coil. PSYCHROMETRIC ROOMS The psychrometric rooms could simulate all testing conditions required for air conditioning and heat pump performance testing. Dew point and room temperatures could..., Including Heat Pumps (1979)[7]. The entering dry bulb temperature for the outdoor coil for steady state and cyclic tests was 82? +/-0.3 F DB and 20% relative humidity. The steady state tests were repeated for outdoor temperatures of 90?, 95?, and 100?F...

  5. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  6. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2011-01-01

    heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermal waterheater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermal water

  7. Master's Thesis: Behaviors of Air Bubbles in Drinking Water Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Master's Thesis: Behaviors of Air Bubbles in Drinking Water Pipelines: Experimental Investigation............................................................................... 3 2.1 Air Bubbles in Pipeline........................................................................................ 3 2.1.1 Air Existence in Drinking Water Pipeline Networks

  8. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Arnold, Phillip A. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air.

  9. Air and water cooled modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Arnold, P.A.; Ball, D.G.; Cook, E.G.

    1995-09-05

    A compact high power magnetic compression apparatus and method are disclosed for delivering high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output which does not require the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids such as chlorofluorocarbons either as a dielectric or as a coolant, and which discharges very little waste heat into the surrounding air. A first magnetic switch has cooling channels formed therethrough to facilitate the removal of excess heat. The first magnetic switch is mounted on a printed circuit board. A pulse transformer comprised of a plurality of discrete electrically insulated and magnetically coupled units is also mounted on said printed board and is electrically coupled to the first magnetic switch. The pulse transformer also has cooling means attached thereto for removing heat from the pulse transformer. A second magnetic switch also having cooling means for removing excess heat is electrically coupled to the pulse transformer. Thus, the present invention is able to provide high voltage pulses of short duration at a high repetition rate and high peak power output without the use of environmentally unacceptable fluids and without discharging significant waste heat into the surrounding air. 9 figs.

  10. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01

    target residential water heaters and air conditioners usingStrategies for Water Heaters and Air Conditioners Voluntaryor snapback of load. Water heaters and air conditioners have

  11. Homeowner's Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve efficiency and comfort for homeowners.

  12. SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 #12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved................................................................3 2.1. Equation fit water to air heat pump and chiller models...............................3 2

  13. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  14. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  15. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  16. PTG exam 7122011 answers 87. Ebalance: aircp,airTair + watercp,waterTwater = s water = ( s aircp,airTair )/ cp,waterTwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    PTG exam 7122011 ­answers 87. Ebalance: aircp,airTair + watercp,waterTwater = s water = ( s aircp,airTair )/ cp,waterTwater = (44000 0.2100030)/(420025) = 0.362 kg/s 88. Ebalance for heat

  17. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  18. Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surfactant/Water Interactions at the Air/Water Interface Probed by Vibrational Sum Frequency and orientation of water molecules at an air/water interface has been measured in the presence of cationic spectrum of both the surfactant and water molecules at the water surface. In the presence of the charged

  19. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Salton, Jonathan R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  20. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  1. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  2. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) Marketed Production (Million Cubic84.

  3. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) Marketed Production (Million Cubic84.5.

  4. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B) (Building...

  5. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel TravelChallenges |1-01 Audit|3:Analysis:

  6. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power,5 BUDGETUCivilConsortium Commercialization andProcessCommon

  7. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the BillDepartmentSites | DepartmentLowering65-OCT.Department of

  8. Room Air Conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohm and HaasRomoland,Rooks

  9. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOA Applicantof YearsRevolving Loan Fundsand

  10. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:February 25, 2015 |7Design » Types of

  11. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgram Manager Directoryof Energy Think Outside the Box10 Timeline of

  12. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Roberts About Us Rob Roberts -Ronald E.

  13. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _s - "U N

  14. Central Air conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio: Energy Resources

  15. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015 TheTechnologies-2015 UpdateremovetoC.RodneyA

  16. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS on the internetMagneticPlasmaMaintaining Your

  17. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchersOctoberCharles DOE Launches DataA refrigerant leak

  18. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 Timeline of Events: 1938-1950 August 2,10Design

  19. Florida Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state of Florida to protect, maintain, and improve the quality of the air and waters of the state. This Act authorizes the Department of Environmental Protection to enact...

  20. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  1. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  2. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

  3. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  4. Towards a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards a unified picture of the water self-ions at the air-water interface: a density functional theory perspective Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards a unified...

  5. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  6. Abiotic: water !, Soil, Sunlight, wind, air, weather,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Generate power: Hydro-electric power Biodiversity change or loss Invasive species Organism interactions, food webs Power, recreation, drinking, agriculture, irrigation, aesthetics, housing, industry, food, Habitat? Climate/Weather Flood control Water diversion- dam Geologic Processes Create power

  7. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con private label do not comport with the...

  8. Water Rules: In Texas, conservation increasingly the law of the land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    actions against violators. Previously, they had to enforce these violations through criminal proceedings. Many cities turn o? water to the irrigation system a?er repeated o?enses. Rainwater harvesting In ????, the Legislature passed several laws... on the amount of water anticipated to be saved, o?en suggesting that customers include other sources of water such as air-conditioner condensate to increase the amount of water saved. Additionally, some cities require permits or registrations before or a?er...

  9. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  10. Potential Dependent Alignment and Hydrogen Bonding of Water Molecules at Charged Air/Water and CCl4/Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    /Water Interfaces D. E. Gragson and G. L. Richmond* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, Uni. The presence of surfactants at an air/water or oil/water interface greatly affects the surface tension field has on the structure and hydrogen bonding of interfacial water molecules is not fully understood

  11. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  12. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tubes in the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

  13. ENVIR 202B: Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 Essay #3, WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENVIR 202B: Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 Essay #3, WATER Draft version due://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami-hazard/) . Use examples from Indonesia and Hawaii to explore how the shape of the depth profile affects and the ecosystem. W5 - GROUNDWATER FLOW ­ AQUIFERS AND POLLUTION Chapter 5 of McNeill discusses "The history

  14. East Germany struggles to clean its air and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherfas, J.

    1990-04-20

    East Germans are working hard on a strategy to improve their polluted environment. Industrial plants are largely responsible for this pollution. A shroud of haze veils the suburbs of East Berlin. Far to the south the giant power plants around Leipzig pour more dust and sulfur dioxide into the air than in any other country in Europe. More than 90% of the country's electricity comes from brown coal, accompanied by prodigious quantities of dust and sulfur dioxide: almost 6 million tones of sulfur dioxide and more than 2 million tones of dust in 1988. East Germany enjoys some of the cheapest energy in the world, and the world's third highest energy consumption per capita, behind the United States, and Canada. Naturally, is also suffers air quality and health problems. The country is trying to cut down on consumption and clean up on generation. Actually, water quality is the number one priority, which unlike air is in very short supply.

  15. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  16. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

  17. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

  18. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL EPACT 1992 Electric Motors EPACT 1992 Warm Air Furnaces EPACT 1992 Packaged Boilers EPACT 1992 Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

  19. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with...

  20. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  1. New Appliance Tax Credits, Rebates, and Incentives for Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air conditioners Clothes washers Dishwashers Freezers Furnaces (oil and gas) Heat pumps (air source and geothermal) Refrigerators Room air conditioners Water heaters State...

  2. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  3. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-07-15

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  4. Instrumented Water Tanks can Improve Air Shower Detector Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    Previous works have shown that water Cherenkov detectors have superior sensitivity to those of scintillation counters as applied to detecting extensive air showers (EAS). This is in large part due to their much higher sensitivity to EAS photons which are more than five times more numerous than EAS electrons. Large area water Cherenkov detectors can be constructed relatively cheaply and operated reliably. A sparse detector array has been designed which uses these types of detectors to substantially increase the area over which the Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory collects EAS information. Improvements to the Milagro detector's performance characteristics and sensitivity derived from this array and preliminary results from a prototype array currently installed near the Milagro detector will be presented.

  5. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  6. Quantitative imaging of the air-water flow fields formed by unsteady breaking waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)

    2009-01-01

    An experimental method for simultaneously measuring the velocity fields on the air and water side of unsteady breaking waves is presented. The method is applied to breaking waves to investigate the physics of the air and ...

  7. Cattle Feedlot Waste Management Practices -For Water and Air Pollution Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Cattle Feedlot Waste Management Practices - For Water and Air Pollution Control John M. Sweeten* Water Pollution and Wastewater Management This bulletin outlines some of the basic regulatory in the potential for both water and air pollution. To prevent potential problems from developinginto real problems

  8. Water Infiltration in Layered Soils with Air Entrapment: Modified Green-Ampt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    . This study proposed a modified Green-Ampt model (MGAM) to simulate water infiltration in layered soilsWater Infiltration in Layered Soils with Air Entrapment: Modified Green-Ampt Model and Experimental-phase (gaseous and liquid phase) flow model to describe water infiltration in layered soils with air entrap- ment

  9. A method for three-dimensional interfacial particle image velocimetry (3D-IPIV) of an air–water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turney, D E; Anderer, A; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    across the turbulent gas- water interface AIChE J. 52 3363-3D-IPIV) of an Air-Water Interface Damon E. Turney Brenwithin ~1 mm of a wavy air-water interface with simultaneous

  10. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption 2005-2030 Consumption (TWh) IND INDO SAS-PAS BRASAS-PAS BRA MEA Figure 4 Air Conditioner Saturation by Region 2005-

  11. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  12. FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN XUHUI LEE and XINZHANG HU-air exchange of carbon, water, and energy was conducted at a mid-latitude, mixed forest on non-flat terrain to address this question, we conducted a field experiment on energy and carbon exchanges in a mixed forest

  13. Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-To-Water Heat Pump in a Real of an air to water heat pump in relation to outdoor temperatures is proposed and evaluated. This model into account. Real empirical data for usage of a heat pump over a whole heating season have been used to obtain

  14. `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898 Irish Centre for Nursing & Midwifery History Spring-summer Seminar series Sanitary reform in the Dublin and hospital sanitation `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858

  15. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  16. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  17. A PLASMA CHANNEL BEAM CONDITIONER FOR A FREE ELECTRON LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    . In this paper, we give examples of conditioners that might be employed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS is the output wavelength, and is the average beta function in the FEL. For LCLS parameters, the corresponding

  18. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  19. Residential Humidity Control: Exciting New Opportunities with Air Flow Modulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews psychrometric principles and shows how to formulate a psychrometric chart from a single equation. The chart is used to demonstrate the manner in which a conventional single-speed air conditioner adjusts its operating point...

  20. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  1. Numerical Investigation of turbulent coupling boundary layer of air-water interaction flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Song, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Air-water interaction flow between two parallel flat plates, known as Couette flow, is simulated by direct numerical simulation. The two flowing fluids are coupled through continuity of velocity and shear stress condition ...

  2. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

  3. Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

  4. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  5. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01

    algorithm (GA ) has special advantages in tackling this problem based on its inherent characteristics.Genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted and applied in the optimal design of air-conditioning water system in this study. A mathematical model and constrained...

  6. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

  7. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  8. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records of precipitation in locations that are dominated by clouds that are most susceptible to the detrimental impacts

  9. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  10. History of the Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Rivoli Theater in New York, Carrier publicly debuted a new type of system that used a centrifugal chiller, which had fewer moving parts and compressor stages than existing...

  11. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program" 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    ) approach in which both demand- side and supply side resources are evaluated. HL&P also recognizes the contribution demand-side programs make to the company's long-term ability to provide reliable and reasonably priced electric service for its... effected, according to EPRI. Numerous large investor-owned electric utilities are presently offering residential load control programs with great success. Arkansas Power & Light, Duke Power Company, Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power t Light...

  12. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    calculation include the installed consumer cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and

  13. Development of a room air conditioner design model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penson, Steven Brad

    1988-01-01

    AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Page . 12 . 12 . 20 . 33 . 38 . 48 . 50 . 56 Conclusions. Recommendations. REFERENCES APPENDIX A . 57 . 57 . 59 . 61 VITA . 66 LZST OP TABLES Table Page 2. 1 Major output parameters from the ORNL model 3. 1 Effect of tube.... Efficiency improvements are evaluated with the aid of a computer model. The model chosen for this analysis was the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [5] . The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN computer program developed...

  14. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01

    driver, driven by high pressure vapor. DW: main circulationpump driven by high pressure vapor. ~ restrictors ~ checkof the amount of high pressure vapor used to run the pump

  16. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    shell characteristics and occupant behavior) and geographicto forecast (e.g. , occupant behavior and climate). Lee

  17. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

  18. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    of Energy, DRAFT Marginal Energy Prices Report, July, 1999.energy use by the energy price paid by the household.energy consumption, energy price, discount rate, and central

  19. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    analyze, the energy price projection, and the start year (uncertainty of projections offuture energy prices, the LCC

  20. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1988-01-01

    for an Energy-Efficient Economy Washington, DC ABSTRACT Reliable monitoring and measurement of the energy savings resulting from the installation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and power recovered from waste energy (recycled energy) projects... is becoming increasingly important. As a growing number of states and now the federal government look to mandatory energy efficiency portfolio programs such as an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS), CHP and waste heat recovery stands to play a...

  1. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, December, 1999.trends from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AE02000) were

  2. Enforcement Policy: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgramof-SA-02:Innovative Energy AppsA123Enforcement| Department of

  3. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22, 2014 TheMonday March 3, 2014, a

  4. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(Million Cubicthrough 1996) inNatural Gas Heat Pump and

  5. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterprise ServersHotDepartmentof

  6. Novel Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartmentNew JerseyEnergybenefits of61075 LisaLaboratory, Oak

  7. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _s - "U NMeasure

  8. List of Central Air conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds JumpOxiranchemRemodelersList ofList

  9. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect HighHighin a Bent

  10. 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s i s t a n t S eOF 1121DaveOF THE DEPARTMENT

  11. Air Conditioner Regional Standards Brochure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONYDepartment of Energy with7:00AM EST9

  12. Enforcement Policy Statement: Off Mode Standards for Central Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution JPG20,1LLC |Compliance Period

  13. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof EnergyBreakout2 DOEof EnergyEnergy

  14. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartmentHigh-Efficiency Parking

  15. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent LampFort Collins, ColoradoEfficiency Standard |

  16. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICES of Experience955

  17. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per GallonDataEnergyDuctDuctless

  18. Central Air Conditioner Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment|Marketing, LLCEfficiencyCOP 21:Department of Energy Bill ValdezApril

  19. Radio-Frequency Beam Conditioner for Fast-Wave Free-Electron Generators of Coherent Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    to Physical Review Letters Radio-Frequency Beam ConditionerDE-AC03-76SF00098 LBL-31006 RADIO-FREQUENCY BEAM CONDITIONERIbaraki, 305, Japan. RADIO-FREQUENCY BEAM CONDITIONER FOR

  20. X-ray Microtomography Determination of Air?Water Interfacial Area?Water Saturation Relationships in Sandy Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Harrold, Katherine H.; Lieb-Lappen, Ross M. (Middlebury)

    2008-08-06

    In this work, total smooth air-water interfacial areas were measured for a series of nine natural and model sandy porous media as a function of water saturation using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Interfacial areas decreased linearly with water saturation, while the estimated maximum interfacial area compared favorably to the media geometric surface areas. Importantly, relative interfacial area (i.e., normalized by geometric surface area) versus water saturation plots for all media collapsed into a single linear cluster (r{sup 2} = 0.93), suggesting that geometric surface area is an important, and perhaps sufficient, descriptor of sandy media that governs total smooth interfacial area?water saturation relationships. Measured relationships were used to develop an empirical model for estimating interfacial area-water saturation relationships for sandy porous media. Model-based interfacial area estimates for independent media were generally slightly higher than interfacial areas measured using aqueous-phase interfacial tracer methods, which may indicate that microtomography captures regions of the air-water interface that are not accessible to aqueous-phase interfacial tracers. The empirical model presented here requires only average particle diameter and porosity as input parameters and can be used to readily estimate air-water interfacial area?water saturation relationships for sandy porous media.

  1. Enhanced water desalination efficiency in an air-cathode stacked microbial electrodeionization cell (SMEDIC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    less electrical energy [2,3]. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have recently drawn atten- tion as a low-energy method of water desalination. The simplest MDC is a microbial fuel cell (MFCEnhanced water desalination efficiency in an air-cathode stacked microbial electrodeionization cell

  2. Direct Observation of the Dynamics of Latex Particles Confined inside Thinning Water-Air Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Direct Observation of the Dynamics of Latex Particles Confined inside Thinning Water-Air Films K. P from Sigma. The protein used, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was a lyophilized product from Sigma (Catalog No. A-3803). The solutions for the experiments were prepared with deionized water from a Millipore

  3. Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple GPUs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Numerical simulation of air/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple and manufacturing of plumbing products such as ceramic sanitary wares. In order to re-produce the complex/water multiphase flows for ceramic sanitary ware design by multiple GPUs Being a world-wide leading company, TOTO

  4. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  5. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  6. Control of outdoor air source water heating using variable-speed heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.; Paige, L.E.; Dunshee, K.B.; Voorhis, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process of controlling an integrated heat pump system of the type. It comprises a variable speed compressor having a discharge port and a suction port; a water heater exchanger coupled to the discharge port of the compressor for heating water by transfer of heat from a compressed heat exchange fluid; an outdoor evaporator heat exchanger having an outdoor fan and a coil receiving the heat exchange fluid from the water heat exchanger and coupled also to the suction port of the compressor, for drawing heat from the outdoor air which heat is transferred to the water in the water heat exchanger; a controller having output channels to control an outdoor fan and the speed of the variable speed compressor and inputs respectively coupled to a water heater setpoint adjustment means, an outdoor air temperature sensor for sensing the outdoor temperature of the outdoor air; and a water temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the water heated by the water heat exchanger; the process comprising the steps of sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub o}.

  7. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  8. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Air Conditioners. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, Mass. No.Model User’s Guide. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, Mass. DE-described in the Arthur D. Little model will serve as the

  9. The effect of a surfactant monolayer on oxygen transfer across an air/water interface during mixed convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, John R.

    ,4,8,5,2,13], natural convec- tion [14­16], rain [17,18,7], and chemical reactions within water [19­22], to name justThe effect of a surfactant monolayer on oxygen transfer across an air/water interface during mixed monolayer on the transport of oxygen across an air/water interface during mixed convection conditions

  10. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  11. Enforcement under the 1990 CAAA: Hot air or hot water?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanisch, J. [Earth Tech, Concord, MA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have caused varying degrees of anxiety in facility and environmental managers. How worried should they be? One area of special concern is Title VII, Provisions Relating to Enforcement, which has led to field citations, new civil penalties, provisions for citizen suits and, of most concern, the new criminal provision. The CAAA include strong new enforcement authority, which allows the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to take swift and strong action against violators. The Agency can issue tickets up to $5,000 per violation, penalties up to $25,000 per day for administrative penalties and $250,000 and up to five years in prison for criminal violations. Sources that maintain compliance with air pollution regulations and maintain accurate records and documentation have nothing to fear from these new regulations. However, sources that violate federal requirements, falsify records or knowingly create risks to the environment or human health can look forward to aggressive enforcement by EPA. This article briefly discusses the new provisions, whom they affect, how one may be able to minimize the potential liabilities and what to do if the EPA begins an enforcement action.

  12. Breakup of Air Bubbles in Water: Memory and Breakdown of Cylindrical Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan C. Keim; Peder Moller; Wendy W. Zhang; Sidney R. Nagel

    2006-07-31

    Using high-speed video, we have studied air bubbles detaching from an underwater nozzle. As a bubble distorts, it forms a thin neck which develops a singular shape as it pinches off. As in other singularities, the minimum neck radius scales with the time until breakup. However, because the air-water interfacial tension does not drive breakup, even small initial cylindrical asymmetries are preserved throughout the collapse. This novel, non-universal singularity retains a memory of the nozzle shape, size and tilt angle. In the last stages, the air appears to tear instead of pinch.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt....

  16. Influence of entrapped air pockets on hydraulic transients in water pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Ling; Liu, Prof. Deyou; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Zhang, Qin Fen

    2011-01-01

    The pressure variations associated with a filling undulating pipeline containing an entrapped air pocket are investigated both experimentally and numerically. The influence of entrapped air on abnormal transient pressures is often ambiguous since the compressibility of the air pocket permits the liquid flow to accelerate but also partly cushions the system, with the balance of these tendencies being associated with the initial void fraction of the air pocket. Earlier experimental research involved systems with an initial void fraction greater than 5.8%; this paper focuses on initial void fractions ranging from 0% to 10%, in order to more completely characterize the transient response. Experimental results show that the maximum pressure increases and then decreases as the initial void fraction decreases. A simplified model is developed by neglecting the liquid inertia and energy loss of a short water column near the air-water interface. Comparisons of the calculated and observed results show the model is able to accurately predict peak pressures as a function of void fraction and filling conditions. Rigid water column models, however, perform poorly with small void fractions.

  17. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

  18. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    buy a qualified energy-efficient model. In some states, you may still be able to get a rebate on an ENERGY STAR air conditioner purchase through a Recovery Act-funded program....

  19. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  20. Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its...

  1. TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TOMOGRAPHIC RETRIEVAL OF CLOUD WATER DISTRIBUTIONS USING AN AIR-BORNE SCANNING MICROWAVE RADIOMETER, for United States Government purposes. BNL-79834-2008-AB #12;ABSTRACT Microwave radiometers have been used, but neither the microwave technology nor the cloud models were mature enough for practical application

  2. Navier-Stokes simulations of steep breaking water waves with a coupled air-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Kelli L

    2005-01-01

    Wave breaking on the ocean surface significantly facilitates the transfer of mass, momentum, heat and energy across the air-sea interface. In the context of the near field flow about a surface ship, the breaking bow wave ...

  3. Potential energy of atmospheric water vapor and the air motions induced by water vapor condensation on different spatial scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastassia M. Makarieva; Victor G. Gorshkov

    2010-03-29

    Basic physical principles are considered that are responsible for the origin of dynamic air flow upon condensation of water vapor, the partial pressure of which represents a store of potential energy in the atmosphere of Earth. Quantitative characteristics of such flow are presented for several spatial scales. It is shown that maximum condensation-induced velocities reach 160 m/s and are realized in compact circulation patterns like tornadoes.

  4. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic

  5. NOTES ABOUT REAL WATER AND REAL AIR OC569a Experimenting with Fluids, Winter 2008 10i08

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -4 (T=190 C, S=3.5%). Plots of fresh water density against temperature are shown in the figures below water just before freezing can float on top of the denser, 40 water). This allows life to proceed1 NOTES ABOUT REAL WATER AND REAL AIR OC569a Experimenting with Fluids, Winter 2008 10i08 · To make

  6. NOTES ABOUT REAL WATER AND REAL AIR OC569a Experimenting with Fluids, Winter 2010 11jan2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5%). Plots of fresh water density against temperature are shown in the figures below. Fresh water is most freezing can float on top of the denser, 40 water). This allows life to proceed in the quite winter beneath1 NOTES ABOUT REAL WATER AND REAL AIR OC569a Experimenting with Fluids, Winter 2010 11jan2010

  7. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commonly used as the heat transfer fluid in refrigerators, air conditioners, and heat pumps. They generally have a low boiling point and a high heat capacity. This enables a...

  8. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  9. Fisk-based criteria to support validation of detection methods for drinking water and air.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonell, M.; Bhattacharyya, M.; Finster, M.; Williams, M.; Picel, K.; Chang, Y.-S.; Peterson, J.; Adeshina, F.; Sonich-Mullin, C.; Environmental Science Division; EPA

    2009-02-18

    This report was prepared to support the validation of analytical methods for threat contaminants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) program. It is designed to serve as a resource for certain applications of benchmark and fate information for homeland security threat contaminants. The report identifies risk-based criteria from existing health benchmarks for drinking water and air for potential use as validation targets. The focus is on benchmarks for chronic public exposures. The priority sources are standard EPA concentration limits for drinking water and air, along with oral and inhalation toxicity values. Many contaminants identified as homeland security threats to drinking water or air would convert to other chemicals within minutes to hours of being released. For this reason, a fate analysis has been performed to identify potential transformation products and removal half-lives in air and water so appropriate forms can be targeted for detection over time. The risk-based criteria presented in this report to frame method validation are expected to be lower than actual operational targets based on realistic exposures following a release. Note that many target criteria provided in this report are taken from available benchmarks without assessing the underlying toxicological details. That is, although the relevance of the chemical form and analogues are evaluated, the toxicological interpretations and extrapolations conducted by the authoring organizations are not. It is also important to emphasize that such targets in the current analysis are not health-based advisory levels to guide homeland security responses. This integrated evaluation of chronic public benchmarks and contaminant fate has identified more than 200 risk-based criteria as method validation targets across numerous contaminants and fate products in drinking water and air combined. The gap in directly applicable values is considerable across the full set of threat contaminants, so preliminary indicators were developed from other well-documented benchmarks to serve as a starting point for validation efforts. By this approach, at least preliminary context is available for water or air, and sometimes both, for all chemicals on the NHSRC list that was provided for this evaluation. This means that a number of concentrations presented in this report represent indirect measures derived from related benchmarks or surrogate chemicals, as described within the many results tables provided in this report.

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Government, Tribal Government, Agricultural, Institutional Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Water Heaters, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  11. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  12. Bibliography of work on the photocatalytic removal of hazardous compounds from water and air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.M.

    1994-05-01

    This is a bibliography of information in the open literature on work that has been done to date on the photocatalytic oxidation of compounds, principally organic compounds. The goal of the listing is removing hazardous oompounds from water or air. It contains lists of substances and literature citations. The bibliography includes information obtained through the middle of 1993 and some selected references for the balance of that year.

  13. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  14. Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (5) Apply Solar Photovoltaics filter Solar Water Heat (5) Apply Solar Water Heat filter Water Heaters (5) Apply Water Heaters filter Air conditioners (4) Apply Air...

  16. ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER PERSPECTIVES ON EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    much discussion of water pollution. One of the most serious of environmental problems is the poor in looking at light and optics, and talking about wavelengths (~ colors) of light. We noted that light waves' as the waves are slowed down. Waves `refract' as they come into shore just as light beams are refracted

  17. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  18. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  20. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air source, and ductless heat pumps; central air conditioning; ECM motors; and heat pump water heaters. Rebates for air-source heat pumps and central air conditioners...

  2. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into the utility grid: Category 1. Residential power conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Ferraro, A.; Tompkins, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    The development of power conditioners for residential photovoltaic applications of approximately 5 to 30 kW is reported. The interface of the inverter and the solar array, as well as the ac utility is investigated including the effects of array input current, utility impedance, and injected harmonic currents. The trade-off study of alternate power conversion schemes are covered which results in a recommended approach. A conceptual design of the recommended approach, including performance results obtained from an inverter simulated is presented. (LEW)

  3. Pipeline rehabilitation -- conclusion: Two projects highlight water, air processes for reconditioning pipeline surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.A.; Werner, D.P. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-02-14

    In jobs for United Texas Transmission Co. and Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America, a proprietary system of high-pressure water jet blasting for cleaning and air abrasive or mechanical-wheel blasting for surface preparation increased productivity and decreased time required for long-line pipelines rehabilitation projects. This second of two articles presents field results of the process' use for cleaning, conditioning, and coating pipelines by line-travel equipment. The first article detailed the procedure and notes tests of the process for asbestos-containing coatings.

  4. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers are eligible for room air conditioners and water heaters through the Appliance Rebate Program. Room air conditioners qualify for a rebate of $25 and water heaters qualify for a rebate o...

  5. Reversible monolayer-to-crystalline phase transition in amphiphilic silsesquioxane at the air-water interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Banerjee, R.; Sanyal, M. K.; Bera, M. K.; Gibaud, A.; Lin, B.; Meron, M.

    2015-02-17

    We report on the counter intuitive reversible crystallisation of two-dimensional monolayer of Trisilanolisobutyl Polyhedral Oligomeric SilSesquioxane (TBPOSS) on water surface using synchrotron x-ray scattering measurements. Amphiphilic TBPOSS form rugged monolayers and Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering (GIXS) measurements reveal that the in-plane inter-particle correlation peaks, characteristic of two-dimensional system, observed before transition is replaced by intense localized spots after transition. The measured x-ray scattering data of the non-equilibrium crystalline phase on the air-water interface could be explained with a model that assumes periodic stacking of the TBPOSS dimers. These crystalline stacking relaxes upon decompression and the TBPOSS layer retains its initialmore »monolayer state. The existence of these crystals in compressed phase is confirmed by atomic force microscopy measurements by lifting the materials on a solid substrate.« less

  6. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  7. Wall pressure measurements of flooding in vertical countercurrent annular air–water flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choutapalli, I., Vierow, K.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study of flooding in countercurrent air-water annular flow in a large diameter vertical tube using wall pressure measurements is described in this paper. Axial pressure profiles along the length of the test section were measured up to and after flooding using fast response pressure transducers for three representative liquid flow rates representing a wide range of liquid Reynolds numbers (ReL = 4?/?; ? is the liquid mass flow rate per unit perimeter; ? is the dynamic viscosity) from 3341 to 19,048. The results show that flooding in large diameter tubes cannot be initiated near the air outlet and is only initiated near the air inlet. Fourier analysis of the wall pressure measurements shows that up to the point of flooding, there is no dominant wave frequency but rather a band of frequencies encompassing both the low frequency and the broad band that are responsible for flooding. The data indicates that flooding in large diameter vertical tubes may be caused by the constructive superposition of a plurality of waves rather than the action of a single large-amplitude wave.

  8. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory | Department ofPotawatomi Community |

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Windows, Other EE, Vending Machine Controls, Tankless Water Heater Marshall Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, CaulkingWeather-stripping,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Federal Government Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    regarding future funding. Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial, Agricultural Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial, Construction, Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    invoice from retai... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Air conditioners,...

  18. Delmarva Power- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: Rebates for ENERGY STAR appliances on air conditioners, freezers, water heaters purchased after Feb 1, 2015 have been discontinued.  

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, Building...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal, Daylighting, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential, InstallersContractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats,...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools, State Government, Institutional Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ceiling Fan, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Caulking...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial, Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Government, InstallersContractors, Retail Supplier Savings Category: Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential, Low Income Residential Savings Category: Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners,...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Other EE, LED Lighting Energy Optimization (Electric)- Residential Efficiency Program Energy Optimization...

  13. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  14. STOMP Sparse Vegetation Evapotranspiration Model for the Water-Air-Energy Operational Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; White, Mark D.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2005-09-15

    The Water-Air-Energy (WAE) Operational Mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator solves the coupled conservation equations for water mass, air mass, and thermal energy in multiple dimensions. This addendum describes the theory, input file formatting, and application of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme for STOMP that is based on a sparse vegetation evapotranspiration model. The SVAT scheme is implemented as a boundary condition on the upper surface of the computational domain and has capabilities for simulating evaporation from bare surfaces as well as evapotranspiration from sparsely vegetated surfaces populated with single or multiple plant species in response to meteorological forcings. With this extension, the model calculates water mass, air mass and thermal energy across a boundary surface in addition to root-water transport between the subsurface and atmosphere. This mode represents the barrier extension of the WAE mode and is designated as STOMP-WAE-B. Input for STOMP-WAE-B is specified via three input cards and include: atmospheric conditions through the Atmospheric Conditions Card; time-invariant plant species data through the Plant Properties Card; and time varying plant species data through the Boundary Conditions Card. Two optional cards, the Observed Data and UCODE Control Cards allow use of STOMP-WAE with UCODE in an inverse mode to estimate model parameters. STOMP-WAE was validated by solving a number of test problems from the literature that included experimental observations as well as analytical or numerical solutions. Several of the UNSAT-H verification problems are included along with a benchmark simulation derived from a recently published intercode comparison for barrier design tools. Results show that STOMP is able to meet, and in most cases, exceed performance of other commonly used simulation codes without having to resort to may of their simplifying assumptions. Use of the fully coupled STOMP simulator to guide barrier design will result in optimized designs with reduced construction costs; reduced environmental impacts at borrow sites; and minimized post-closure care and monitoring needs, while meeting regulatory requirements.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis for a Virtual Flow Meter Using an Air-Handling Unit Chilled Water Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Li; Wang, Gang; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-04-28

    A virtual water flow meter is developed that uses the chilled water control valve on an air-handling unit as a measurement device. The flow rate of water through the valve is calculated using the differential pressure across the valve and its associated coil, the valve command, and an empirically determined valve characteristic curve. Thus, the probability of error in the measurements is significantly greater than for conventionally manufactured flow meters. In this paper, mathematical models are developed and used to conduct uncertainty analysis for the virtual flow meter, and the results from the virtual meter are compared to measurements made with an ultrasonic flow meter. Theoretical uncertainty analysis shows that the total uncertainty in flow rates from the virtual flow meter is 1.46% with 95% confidence; comparison of virtual flow meter results with measurements from an ultrasonic flow meter yielded anuncertainty of 1.46% with 99% confidence. The comparable results from the theoretical uncertainty analysis and empirical comparison with the ultrasonic flow meter corroborate each other, and tend to validate the approach to computationally estimating uncertainty for virtual sensors introduced in this study.

  16. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  17. The Electrochemical Surface Potential Due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcel D. Baer; Abraham C. Stern; Yan Levin; Douglas J. Tobias; Christopher J. Mundy

    2013-07-05

    We demonstrate that the driving forces for ion adsorption to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and a term that is of the form of a negative electrochemical surface potential. We carefully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory. Our research suggests that the electrochemical surface potential due to point charge models provides anions with a significant driving force to the air-water interface. This is contrary to the results of ab initio simulations that indicate that the average electrostatic surface potential should favor the desorption of anions at the air-water interface. The results have profound implications for the studies of ionic distributions in the vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces and proteins.

  18. Two-dimensional Insect Flight on an Air-Water Interface is a Chaotic Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional flapping wing insect flight on an air-water interface provides a successful foraging strategy to explore an ecological niche on the surface of a pond. However, the complex interplay of surface tension, aerodynamic forces, biomechanics and neural control that enables two-dimensional flight is unknown. Here we report the discovery of two-dimensional flight in the waterlily beetle Galerucella nymphaeae, which is the fastest reported propulsion mode for an insect on a fluid interface. Using kinematics derived from high-speed videography coupled with analytical models, we demonstrate that two-dimensional flight is a chaotic interfacial oscillator, thus significantly constraining the possible range of flight parameters. Discovery of this complex dynamics in two-dimensional flight on time scales similar to neural responses indicates the challenge of evolving active flight control on a fluid interface.

  19. Heat transfer to air-water two-phase flow in slug/churn region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadekar, V.V. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom). Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Service; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Measured heat transfer data for air-water two-phase flow in the slug/churn flow region are reported. The measurements were obtained from a 1.3 m tall, 15.7 mm diameter vertical tube test-section. It is observed that the data exhibit different heat transfer characteristics to those predicted by the standard correlations for the convective component of flow boiling heat transfer. Comparison with the predictions of a slug flow model for evaporation shows a significant overprediction of the data. The reason for the overprediction is attributed to the sensible heating requirement of the gas phase. The slug flow model is therefore suitably modified for non-evaporating two-phase flow. This specially adapted model is found to give reasonably good predictions of the measured data.

  20. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division: Best Management Practice Case Study #14; Alternate Water Sources (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    FEMP Water Efficiency Best Management Practice #14 Case Study: Overview of the air handler condensate recovery program at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division.

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebates are available for air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, central air conditioning systems, water heaters, and appliance recycling. Heat pumps and air conditioners...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pumps; central air conditioning; ECM motors; and heat pump water heaters. Rebates for air-source heat pumps and central air conditioners vary based upon system efficiency. All...

  3. Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacsi, Adam P

    The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion ...

  4. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  5. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  6. 14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir Hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes in boreal Québec produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO2 of the interface. When applied to the Robert- Bourassa hydroelectric reservoir in boreal Québec, this model

  7. Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2011-06-16

    Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

  8. An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    . Introduction Synthetic gas (syngas) is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in various compositionsAn experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed

  9. Ameren Illinois (Electric) - Custom, HVAC and Motor Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters Chillers Heat Pumps Air conditioners Heat recovery Compressed air Motor VFDs Agricultural Equipment CustomOthers pending approval Other EE Tankless Water...

  10. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Dehoff, Karl J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Pittman, Jonathan W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-02-24

    The use of air-water, {Theta}{sub wa}, or air-liquid contact angles is customary in surface science, while oil-water contact angles {Theta}{sub ow}, are of paramount importance in subsurface multiphase flow phenomena including petroleum reocovery, nonaqueous phase liquid fate and transport, and geological carbon sequestration. In this paper we determine both the air-water and oil-water contact angles of silica surfaces modified with a diverse selection of silanes, using hexadecane as the oil. The silanes included alkylsilanes, alkylarylsilanes, and silanes with alkyl or aryl groups that are functionalized with heteroatoms such as N, O, and S. These silanes yielded surfaces with wettabilities from water-wet to oil wet, including specific silanized surfaces functionalized with heteroatoms that yield intermediate wet surfaces. The oil-water contact angles for clean and silanized surfaces, excluding one partially fluorinated surface, correlate linearly with air-water contact angles with a slope of 1.41 (R = 0.981, n = 13). These data were used to examine a previously untested theoretical treatment relating air-water and oil-water contact angles in terms of fluid interfacial energies. Plotting the cosines of these contact angles against one another, we obtain a linear relationship in excellent agreement with the theoretical treatment; the data fit cos {Theta}{sub ow} = 0.667 cos {Theta}{sub ow} + 0.384 (R = 0.981, n = 13), intercepting cos {Theta}{sub ow} = -1 at -0.284. The theoretical slope, based on the fluid interfacial tensions {Theta}{sub wa}, {Theta}{sub ow}, and {Theta}{sub oa}, is 0.67. We also demonstrate how silanes can be used to alter the wettability of the interior of a pore network micromodel device constructed in silicon/silica with a glass cover plate. Such micromodels are used to study multiphase flow phenomena. The contact angle of the resulting interior was determined in situ. An intermediate wet micromodel gave a contact angle in excellent agreement with that obtained on an open planar silica surface using the same silane.

  11. Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullough, Richard D.

    Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air-water interface of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8- trioxanonyl)-2,5-bithiophene), polymer

  12. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    - sor/expander is the key element in a Compressed Air Energy Stor- age (CAES) approach. Efficiency can Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  13. 8/9/12 Global water sustainability flows through natural and human challenges 1/2www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120809141621.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Authorized service center. www.ipepumps.com Water Quality Instruments -- Crude oil, Optical DO, pH, cond Us! EasyWater.com/NoSaltConditioner CR Series Vertical Pumps -- Large stock of pumps and parts

  14. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  15. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  16. Air/water subchannel measurements of the equilibrium quality and mass-flux distribution in a rod bundle. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterner, R.W.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    Subchannel measurements were performed in order to determine the equilibrium quality and mass flux distribution in a four rod bundle, using air/water flow. An isokinetic technique was used to sample the flow in the center, side and corner subchannels of this test section. Flow rates of the air and water in each sampled subchannel were measured. Experiments were performed for two test-section-average mass fluxes (0.333x10/sup 6/ and 0.666x10/sup 6/ lb/sub m//h-ft/sup 2/), and the test-section-average quality was varied from 0% to 0.54% for each mass flux. Single-phase liquid, bubbly, slug and churn-turbulent two-phase flow regimes were achieved. The observed data trends agreed with previous diabatic measurements in which the center subchannel had the highest quality and mass flux, while the corner subchannel had the lowest.

  17. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  18. Lateral Mobility of Amphiphiles Adsorbed at the Air/Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Eric David

    2009-01-01

    Liquid/Vapor Interface of Water. J. Phys. Chem. 1996 , 100,Pratt, L. R. Molecular Dynamics of the Water Liquid/VaporInterface of Water. J. Phys. Chem. 1987 , 91, 4873–4878 21.

  19. First order structure function analysis of statistical scale invariance n the AIRS Observed Water Vapor Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Placella, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    to a rapid in- crease in water potential when dry soil is2011) Validation of heavy-water stable isotope probing forrainfall also causes acute water potential changes that are

  20. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  1. Zeolite Membrane Water Vapor Separation for Building Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanskyi, Oleksandr

    2015-07-17

    -AR0000138 “High-efficiency, on-line membrane air dehumidifier enabling sensible cooling for warm and humid climates”. 2. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Advanced Research Projects Agency... Outdoor air PC Polycarbonate PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane PE Polyethylene PES Polyethersulphone PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PSF Polysulfone PVDF Polyvinylidenefluoride RH Relative humidity SF Separation factor STP Standard conditions...

  2. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  3. Studien-und Prfungsordnung der Universitt Stuttgart fr den auslandsorientierten Studiengang Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Air Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering (WASTE) mit Abschluss Master Quality Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) beschlossen. Der Rektor hat Control, Solid Waste and Waste Water Process Engineering" (WASTE) überblickt werden, die Fähigkeit

  4. Experimental investigation of small-scale breaking waves : flow visualization across the air-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Angus Kai

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of breaking waves significantly affect air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, mass and energy across the ocean interface. Breaking waves also contribute considerable loading to offshore and coastal structures, and ...

  5. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Income Residential Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors U.S....

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ranges from 6... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Custom...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low Income Residential Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractors Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, DuctAir sealing, Windows, Custom...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Pool Pumps Cape Light Compact- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Through a...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agency at (405) 232-0199. Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing,...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    efficient equipment including furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, geothermal and air-source heat pumps, water heaters, refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes washers, dehumidifiers,...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to commercial and agricultural customers for the purchase of energy efficient appliances, central air conditioners, air source and geothermal heat pumps, water heaters, and...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE Gross Receipts...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Boilers, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE TVA- Mid-Sized...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    include efficient central air conditioners, central air-source heat pumps, electric heat pump water heaters, furnace blower fans, programmable thermostats, refrigerator...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE Anaheim Public...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Compressed air, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air,...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed air, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential, Agricultural Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contractors Savings Category: Solar Photovoltaics, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, DuctAir sealing, Windows,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    built prior to May 1, 1989. There is no... Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing,...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Category: Water Heaters, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed air, Motor VFDs, Agricultural Equipment, CustomOthers pending...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors, Insulation CaliforniaFIRST...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cooling equipment. Rebates are available for energy efficiency water heaters; air-source, dual fuel, and geothermal heat pumps; central air conditioners; and electric thermal...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    third-party ow... Eligibility: Schools Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Equipment Insulation, Air conditioners, DuctAir sealing,...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Other EE, LED Lighting...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors Sonoma County-...

  17. B.Jhne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water GasTransfer, 1995 by AEON Verlag I Physical and Chemical Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    of the Influence of Marine Biota on the Carbon Dioxide Ocean- Atmosphere Exchange in High Latitudes P. Prinos M Mixing in the Upper Ocean and Air-Sea Gas Transfer ð #12;B.Jähne and E. Monahan (eds.), Air-Water Gas. Hwang Spatial Measurements of Small-Scale Ocean Waves J. Klinke B. Jähne Measurements of Short Ocean

  18. Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr Outline & notes for water lecture #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), Tihuanaco (altoplano ­Peru/Bolivia, likewise extensive drought) B. history and current situation stacked dam 1935, Aswan 1971 ii. serves ~ 1/5 power, and high % of irrigation water iii. 3 gorges in China

  19. VOLUME 85, NUMBER 9 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 AUGUST 2000 Turbulence and Wave Breaking Effects on Air-Water Gas Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    -made systems. For instance, in waste water treatment where bioremediation is used in large man-made water Breaking Effects on Air-Water Gas Exchange Evelyn J. Boettcher,1 Jay Fineberg,1,2 and Daniel P. Lathrop1 1 gravity waves on air-water gas exchange in standing waves. We identify two regimes that govern aeration

  20. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-waterair...

  1. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    become significant. The general conclusion is that, while the benefit to an individual using this concept may be positive, the impact on water temperature is excessive....

  2. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09

    Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20...

  3. Standard Test Method for Water Penetration of Flat Plate Solar Collectors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the resistance of flat plate solar collectors to water penetration when water is applied to their outer surfaces with a static air pressure at the outer surface higher than the pressure at the interior of the collector. 1.2 This test method is applicable to any flat plate solar collector. 1.3 The proper use of this test method requires a knowledge of the principles of pressure and deflection measurement. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific precautionary information is contained in Section 6.

  4. Enforcement Policy Statement: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSof 2005 at Iowa WindEnergy1-03 - October 24,2-05 -2, Split-System

  5. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    degree-day cooling degree-hour coefficient of alienationas measured by cooling degree hours (CDH), and total heatas measured by cooling degree hours (CDH), and total heat

  6. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    leakage than when the hose is removed with refrigerant in gas phase or if a quick con- nect/disconnect sealing valve

  7. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    of California Statewide Aggregator Demand Response Programs.Analysis of AMP Aggregator Demand Response Program. Preparedof California Statewide Aggregator Demand Response Programs.

  8. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12

    , with the two smallest units additionally being tested in Scenario 1 with an over-sized duct. The scenario tests were required to be within 5% power and 2.5% airflow of a baseline test following ASHRAE Standard 37. he results for Scenario 1 have shown...

  9. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: University of California, Davis – Davis, CADOE Total Funding: $200,000Cost Share: $339,515Project Term: 2015 – 2017Funding Opportunity: Building University Innovators and Leaders...

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2008-01-01

    because of the higher electricity rates, higher hours ofin use patterns and electricity rates between commercial andUEC), marginal electricity rates, and discount rates.

  11. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    accessed on 11th February 2011. IEA 4E M&B, 2010 “4E Mappingusing CO2 as working fluid, IEA Heat Pump Center Newsletter,Source: Catalog searches, IEA 4E M&B 2010, Baillargeon, 2011

  12. Air Conditioner Efficiency Under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarnath, A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the recent growth of social media, rhetorical theory which addresses authorship in this realm has been slow to develop. Static terms such as "reader," "writer," and "author" are often used to refer to the roles ...

  13. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    regions. In addition, the SCADA was not available for allData Real Time Visibility SCADA 5 minutes or less Limited

  14. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    L ABORATORY China Energy Efficiency Round Robin TestingNeed to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy Consumingfor Implementing the China Energy Efficiency Label System (

  15. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  16. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. PAC TP NOPR.pdf...

  17. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    93 Figure I-1: Electricty Use for a Specific Feeder in Santerritory. Figure I-1: Electricty Use for a Specific Feeder

  18. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    utility company issues a demand response message in the formsystem receives the demand response message through aas an effective demand response program that achieves

  19. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Values of the Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Gradesavin g standards and energy efficiency rat- ings. Energymanufacturers, and energy efficiency testing laboratories

  20. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22, 2014 TheMonday March 3, 2014, a group

  1. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -RobSSL INDepartment ofJune 28, 2011 "Just doDepartment

  2. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling (Program Document) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmallTechnicalSheldon Glashow and-DConnect Program

  3. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8 2 of 8of EnergyEnableNotice ofof

  4. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioners |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 AdvanceEnergyDepartment of

  5. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment ofHeat Pump Models | Department of

  6. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425Violating Minimum Appliance

  7. Five ENERGY STAR Room Air Conditioners Fail Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPP |DepartmentOpening

  8. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.Energy WindWorkplaceEnvironmentalY-12

  9. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015reports issuedExperienceEnergy|

  10. Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuildingTheEasements30, 2008: US portion ofof

  11. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominate anDepartmentAssThis orderHighDOEOrderHeat Pump

  12. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergy U.S.Safety,of Energy|

  13. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Replacement: 50 Dishwasher Replacement: 20 Freezer: 25 Room Air Conditioner: 25 Water Heater: 50 Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters: 100 Circulating Fans: 25 - 75...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  15. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  16. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt....

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery,...

  19. Town of Carrboro - Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Photovoltaics Water Heaters Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats Building...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Biomass, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Savings Category: Solar Water Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Pool Heating, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and geothermal heat pumps, central air conditioners, electric water heaters and heat pump water heaters. All rebates will be listed as a billing credit on the member's...

  3. Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Ling Cheng; Mamoru Ishii [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Beus, Stephen G. [Bechtel Bettis, Inc., Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Post Office Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. Miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions. (authors)

  4. Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X. Sun; S. Kim; L. Cheng; M. Ishii; S.G. Beus

    2001-10-31

    The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in a cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 20-cm in width and 1-cm in gap. The miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions.

  5. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  6. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  7. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    the initial water table, the larger the vacuum, and the longer the time to reach the maximum vacuum table is close to the interface of the two layers. Keywords Sand box . Groundwater hydraulics

  8. Gaseous and particulate water-soluble organic and inorganic nitrogen in rural air in southern Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Benitez, Juan M; Cape, J Neil; Heal, Mathew R

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous daily measurements of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), ammonium and nitrate were made between July and November 2008 at a rural location in south-east Scotland, using a ‘Cofer’ nebulizing sampler for the gas phase and collection...

  9. Subantarctic Mode Water formation : air-sea fluxes and cross-frontal exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, James

    2010-01-01

    found that Ekman transport of cold and fresh water from thetransports of nearly 30 Sv approximately counterbalance in the surface layer. Coldcold or warm core rings or as deviations from a long- term mean, have been shown to transport

  10. Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Subsurface Air, Water and Soil in Western Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, Masami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori-cho, Osaka, 590-0494 (Japan)

    2008-08-07

    Surveys of radon concentrations in western Japan were carried out to estimate the contents not only of waters in the environment but also in soil gas. The maximum concentration measured for drinking water as public supply exceeded the 1991 United States Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limit for drinking water (11 Bq L{sup -1}) but did not exceed that of several European countries (100 Bq L{sup -1}). Overall, the concentrations of radon in subsurface water ranged from 1 to 100 Bq L{sup -1} and those in surface water were below 1 Bq L{sup -1} in a residential area. Fifty nine samples in soil gas at 4 Prefectures of the Kinki district were analyzed together with 19 samples of interest due to karst and uranium mining sites from another two Prefectures to compare with the above samples. The cumulative frequency of the {sup 222}Rn-concentrations both in environmental water and soil gas showed a log-normal distribution. Surveys of natural radioactivity in soils were also carried out with a Ge(Li) detector to determine the concentrations.

  11. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  12. Mass transfer of volatile organic compounds from drinking water to indoor air: The role of residential dishwashers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard-Reed, C.; Corsi, R.L.; Moya, J.

    1999-07-01

    Contaminated tap water may be a source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in residential indoor air. To better understand the extent and impact of chemical emissions from this source, a two-phase mass balance model was developed based on mass transfer kinetics between each phase. Twenty-nine experiments were completed using a residential dishwasher to determine model parameters. During each experiment, inflow water was spiked with a cocktail of chemical tracers with a wide range of physicochemical properties. In each case, the effects of water temperature, detergent, and dish-loading pattern on chemical stripping efficiencies and mass transfer coefficients were determined. Dishwasher headspace ventilation rates were also measured using an isobutylene tracer gas. Chemical stripping efficiencies for a single cycle ranged from 18% to 55% for acetone, from 96% to 98% for toluene, and from 97% to 98% for ethylbenzene and were consistently 100% for cyclohexane. Experimental results indicate that dishwashers have a relatively low but continuous ventilation rate that results in significant chemical storage within the headspace of the dishwasher. In conjunction with relatively high mass transfer coefficients, low ventilation rates generally lead to emissions that are limited by equilibrium conditions after approximately 1--2 min of dishwasher operation.

  13. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Commercial Air?Source Heat Pumps Air?Cooled Chillers Water?Heaters Gas Furnaces Air-Source Heat Pumps Boilers CentralAir Conditioners Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric

  14. 10Tips to Lower Electric and Water Bills Find air leaks (such as around

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    for a free home energy review. You may be able to get a free low-flow shower head and energy saving light bulbs with the review! 7 Get a low-flow shower head. Ask your local water district for one-- it should

  15. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  16. Sensitivity of Low Sloped Roofs Designs to Initial Water and Air Leakage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karagiozis, A.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

    2002-01-01

    , Espoo, Finland Andre Desjarlais. B.Sc.E Program Manager, Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge TN, 37831-6070 ABSTRACT Liquid water in low sloped roofs almost always causes problems. Roofs are designed only... in Finland (area varying from 200 m2 up to 5 000 m2). A laboratory hot box apparatus (Kouhia and Nieminen, 1999) was also used to further quantify the performance of the grooved roof ventilation system and to show the thermal consequences...

  17. An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric-resistance water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;/ ABSTRACT An air-to-air heat pump (COP-3.11 at 470 F (8.30C)) run alternately with an electric and heat pumps. *. . ..-.' thereby making effective use of normally rejected energy. There are numerous and heat pumps. Analytical studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORN.) have shown

  18. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  19. Dose rate estimates from irradiated light-water-reactor fuel assemblies in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W.R.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-01-31

    It is generally considered that irradiated spent fuel is so radioactive (self-protecting) that it can only be moved and processed with specialized equipment and facilities. However, a small, possibly subnational, group acting in secret with no concern for the environment (other than the reduction of signatures) and willing to incur substantial but not lethal radiation doses, could obtain plutonium by stealing and processing irradiated spent fuel that has cooled for several years. In this paper, we estimate the dose rate at various distances and directions from typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies as a function of cooling time. Our results show that the dose rate is reduced rapidly for the first ten years after exposure in the reactor, and that it is reduced by a factor of {approx}10 (from the one year dose rate) after 15 years. Even for fuel that has cooled for 15 years, a lethal dose (LD50) of 450 rem would be received at 1 m from the center of the fuel assembly after several minutes. However, moving from 1 to 5 m reduces the dose rate by over a factor of 10, and moving from 1 to 10 m reduces the dose rate by about a factor of 50. The dose rates 1 m from the top or bottom of the assembly are considerably less (about 10 and 22%, respectively) than 1 m from the center of the assembly, which is the direction of the maximum dose rate.

  20. Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2013-01-01

    central air-conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers,central air-conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers,air-conditioners and heat pumps, units are added to the

  1. Energy and water vapor transport across a simplified cloud-clear air interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallana, Luca; De Santi, Francesca; Iovieno, Michele; Tordella, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simplified physics of the could interface where condensation, evaporation and radiation are neglected and momentum, thermal energy and water vapor transport is represented in terms of the Boussinesq model coupled to a passive scalar transport equation for the vapor. The interface is modeled as a layer separating two isotropic turbulent regions with different kinetic energy and vapor concentration. In particular, we focus on the small scale part of the inertial range as well as on the dissipative range of scales which are important to the micro-physics of warm clouds. We have numerically investigated stably stratified interfaces by locally perturbing at an initial instant the standard temperature lapse rate at the cloud interface and then observing the temporal evolution of the system. When the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial one, we observe a spatial redistribution of the kinetic energy which produce a concomitant pit of kinetic energy within the mixing layer. In this sit...

  2. Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  3. Tug of War at Air-Water Interface: Understanding Lipid-Nanoparticle and Lipid-Protein Interaction Associated With Lung Surfactants at a Molecular Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Aishik

    2015-05-31

    Lung surfactants [LS] are a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that line the air-water interface in the alveoli of the lungs. They lower the work of breathing by reducing the surface tension and also form a line of ...

  4. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  5. Envir202b Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Envir202b ­ Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 F. Stahr The River Dammed: Proposed Removal of the Lower Snake River Dams ­ A Case Study Assignment & Schedule for Day 2 We will next work as your group will be asked to answer the following questions: 1) What changes (if any) to the dams

  6. Process for analyzing CO[sub 2] in air and in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, J.E.; Akse, J.R.; DeHart, J.

    1999-06-08

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO[sub 2] into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte phase. CO[sub 2] is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO[sub 2] with the membrane into a first CO[sub 2] sample phase and a second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species in the second CO[sub 2] analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO[sub 2] to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO[sub 2] in the first CO[sub 2] sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO[sub 2] species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument. 43 figs.

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Motor VFDs, Yes; specific technologies not...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eligibility: Residential Savings Category: Biomass, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Windows, Roofs, Other EE ConserFund...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Air conditioners, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Pool Pumps Pacific Power- FinAnswer Express Pacific Power's FinAnswer...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ceiling Fan, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motors, Other EE Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric)- Commercial and Industrial Energy...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government Savings Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls,...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Combined Heat & Power, Lighting, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners,...

  15. Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Verdigris Valley Electric Cooperative (VVEC) offers rebates for residential customers who purchase energy efficient home equipment. Rebates are available for room air conditioners, electric water...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conditioners, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Other EE, Tankless Water Heater Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program The...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sensors, air conditioners, duct inspectionsrepair, solar window film, ceiling and wall insulation upgrades, motors, refrigeration equipment and heat pump water heaters. All...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Building Insulation, Motors, CustomOthers pending approval,...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: Geothermal Heat Pumps, Clothes Washers, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Clothes Washers, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Windows, Motors, Motor...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Steam-system upgrades, Building Insulation, Windows, Motor...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Freezers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Building Insulation,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, LED...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    geothermal heat pumps, water heaters, refrigerators and clothes washers. Rebates on heat pumps and air conditioners vary by system efficiency. In addition to these rebates,...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Building Insulation, Windows,...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Building Insulation,...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Windows, Doors, Siding,...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Building Insulation, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    are available for energy efficient central air conditioners, mobile home heat pumps, dual fuel heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, duct sealing and water heaters. Rebates vary...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Other EE, LED Lighting PSEG Long Island- Residential Energy...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Other Distributed Generation...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Landfill Gas, Water Heaters, Lighting, Chillers, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Pumps, Combined Heat & Power, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Water Heaters, Lighting, Furnaces, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Building Insulation, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval,...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fan, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  20. Practical ways to abate air and water pollution worldwide including a unique way to significantly curb global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snell, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    This paper points out that in the next 50 years it will largely be the developing countries of the world which will continue to industrialize rapidly and hence pollute the water and air of not only their countries but that this pollution is becoming global (80% of the World's population.) From the author's 25 years of consulting experience in the developing countries, their greatest need is to have available to them low cost, innovative processes for pollution abatement will be neglected and the whole world will suffer immensely. The paper discusses in some detail the type of innovative low cost methods which have successfully been used in the categories of wastewater and solid wastes and names 6 other categories where many others exist. All these innovative methods need to be discovered, listed, and tested for quality and dependability, and then made widely available. Large Environmental Engineering Universities and International Consulting Engineering firms need to be organized to undertake these important tasks. The paper also points out the connection between Global Warming and the Solid waste industry and shows how it can be controlled inexpensively by employing a new, unique, and rapid method of converting municipal refuse into methane and then using that to make electricity. Information given in this paper could lead to a vast reduction in future pollution, with the resulting better global health and at the same time save trillions of dollars.

  1. Distribution of air-water mixtures in parallel vertical channels as an effect of the header geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchitto, Annalisa; Fossa, Marco; Guglielmini, Giovanni

    2009-07-15

    Uneven phase distribution in heat exchangers is a cause of severe reductions in thermal performances of refrigeration equipment. To date, no general design rules are available to avoid phase separation in manifolds with several outlet channels, and even predicting the phase and mass distribution in parallel channels is a demanding task. In the present paper, measurements of two-phase air-water distributions are reported with reference to a horizontal header supplying 16 vertical upward channels. The effects of the operating conditions, the header geometry and the inlet port nozzle were investigated in the ranges of liquid and gas superficial velocities of 0.2-1.2 and 1.5-16.5 m/s, respectively. Among the fitting devices used, the insertion of a co-axial, multi-hole distributor inside the header confirmed the possibility of greatly improving the liquid and gas flow distribution by the proper selection of position, diameter and number of the flow openings between the supplying distributor and the system of parallel channels connected to the header. (author)

  2. Air-To-Water Heat Pumps with Radiant Delivery in Low Load Homes: Tucson, Arizona and Chico, California (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  3. NBSBR 84-2867 Test Procedures for Rating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    the heating mode. Both air-source and ground water source absorption heat pumps are considered, as well as air, air conditioners, and heat pump units. Key words: Central air conditioners; central heating equipment; heat pumps; heating seasonal performance; cooling seasonal performance; rating procedure; seasonal cost

  4. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , cMarchW W e e l lJ. C.12/2011

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  6. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (Advanced Notice of ProposedCentral Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Furnaces (Directair conditioners and heat pumps, furnaces, refrigerators and

  7. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K. (1300 Mills St., Menlo Park, CA 94025); Hubbard, Bradley (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  8. A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    An adiabatic upward co-current air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large diameter pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regimes were visually observed, carefully analyzed and classified into five, i.e. undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth. Void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with four-sensor optical probes. Both the measured void fraction and the measured IAC demonstrated radial core-peak distributions in most of the flow regimes and radial wall peak in the undisturbed bubbly flow only. The bubble frequency also showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the radial direction in undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flows and showed a core-peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow due to the existence of certain amount of large and deformed bubbles in this flow regime. The measurements of interfacial direction showed that the main and the secondary bubbly flow could be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the probability density function (PDF) of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, {eta}{sub zi}. The local average {eta}{sub zi }at the bubble front or rear hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F} and {eta}{sub zi}{sup R}) reflected the local bubble movement and was in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large diameter pipe quantitatively by the cross-sectional area-averaged {eta}{sub zi }at bubbly front hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F}-bar). Bubbles in the undisturbed bubbly flow moved in a vertical way with some swerving motions and those in other flow regimes moved along the lateral secondary flow with an averaging net upward velocity. (author)

  9. Field monitoring of a variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanney, A.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance was monitored for two years while meeting the space-conditioning and water-heating needs of an occupied residence. Experimental results are presented that show the total energy consumed by the residence was significantly reduced compared to previous years in which electric base-board heat, a wood stove, and window air conditioners were used. During the two space-heating seasons, the variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance used 60% less energy than would have been consumed by an electric furnace with the same air distribution system and a storage-type electric water heater. The monthly space-cooling-only coefficients of performance (COP) ranged from 2.50 to 4.03, whereas the monthly space-heating-only coefficients of performance ranged from a low of 0.91 to a high of 3.33. A proposed index to quantify the overall system performance of integrated water-heating/space-conditioning appliances, referred to as the combined performance factor, ranged from 1.55 to 3.50. The majority of larger values occurred during months in which space cooling dominated. The combined performance factor for the entire two-year study was 2.45. A conventional watt-hour meter supplied by the local electrical utility and an electronic digital power analyzer were used to measure the energy consumption of the variable-speed heat pump to discern if variable-speed equipment introduces errors in conventional utility metering equipment. Measurements made using the two instruments were in excellent agreement. The monthly energy consumption and peak electrical demands of the residence, integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance, supplemental space heater, and water heater are discussed. The influence of outdoor temperature on electrical power demand is presented.

  10. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  11. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  12. RECLAIMing Air, Redefining Democracy : : A History of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market, Environmental Justice, and Risk, 1960 - present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tribbett, Krystal L.

    2014-01-01

    plagued by water, noise, and air pollution. Stewart L.were responding to air, water, and soil pollution in theira ton of wastes into a water (or air) system results in a

  13. FORMALDEHYDE AND TRACER GAS TRANSFER BETWEEN AIRSTREAMS IN ENTHALPY-TYPE AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    ratios for HCHO, water, and dry air were calculated from thethen given up to the colder air- water vapor from the humidcoefficient in air; listed in table 1 for water vapor,

  14. Flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in a horizontal circular micro-channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-01-15

    Adiabatic two-phase air-water flow characteristics, including the two-phase flow pattern as well as the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop, in a circular micro-channel are experimentally studied. A fused silica channel, 320 mm long, with an inside diameter of 0.53 mm is used as the test section. The test runs are done at superficial velocity of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-16 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow pattern map is developed from the observed flow patterns i.e. slug flow, throat-annular flow, churn flow and annular-rivulet flow. The flow pattern map is compared with those of other researchers obtained from different working fluids. The present single-phase experiments also show that there are no significant differences in the data from the use of air or nitrogen gas, and water or de-ionized water. The void fraction data obtained by image analysis tends to correspond with the homogeneous flow model. The two-phase pressure drops are also used to calculate the frictional multiplier. The multiplier data show a dependence on flow pattern as well as mass flux. A new correlation of two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical application. (author)

  15. Performance Method Overview Page 7-1 7 Performance Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , but incorporating all features of Prescriptive Package D. The energy budget includes water heating, space heating charge in air conditioners · Heating and cooling equipment efficiency · High EER air conditioners ventilation · Zonal control · Water heater efficiency and distribution system type Credit for many

  16. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  17. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

  18. Numerical investigation of interfacial transport resistance due to water droplets in proton exchange membrane fuel cell air channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    (GDL) interface is needed in modelling the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC representative case of a PEMFC air flow channel. The results show that the droplets significantly increase Sh of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is an active area of research. The O2 transport loss becomes

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  20. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable...