National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air conditioner model

  1. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  2. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Jon

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  3. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  4. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. 13 EER Window Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13 EER Window Air Conditioner 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Broadway Apartment Building with WACs in NYC Pradeep Bansal, bansalpk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National...

  6. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  7. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  8. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with a clean one can lower your air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%. For central air conditioners, filters are generally located somewhere along the return duct's...

  9. Model-Based Commissioning for Filters in Room Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Kitagawa, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Goto, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a model that can estimate filter resistance. Two sorts of value are used as inputs to estimate filter resistance. One is the power consumed by the fan in the indoor unit and the other is the thermal performance. For the room air...

  10. Development of a room air conditioner design model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penson, Steven Brad

    1988-01-01

    AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Page . 12 . 12 . 20 . 33 . 38 . 48 . 50 . 56 Conclusions. Recommendations. REFERENCES APPENDIX A . 57 . 57 . 59 . 61 VITA . 66 LZST OP TABLES Table Page 2. 1 Major output parameters from the ORNL model 3. 1 Effect of tube.... Efficiency improvements are evaluated with the aid of a computer model. The model chosen for this analysis was the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) heat pump model [5] . The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model is a FORTRAN computer program developed...

  11. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  12. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  13. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models...

  14. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    acquisition guidance for residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that...

  15. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    poor service procedures, and inadequate maintenance. Improper installation of a central air conditioner can result in leaky ducts and low airflow. Many times, the...

  16. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy Efficiency Standard October...

  17. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    11, 2012, to YMGI Group, LLC (YMGI) regarding through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic model TTWC-18K-31B. DOE enforcement testing revealed that this model...

  18. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE testing in support of the ENERGY STAR program has revealed that an Electrolux Gibson air conditioner (model GAH105Q2T1) and an Equator clothes washer (model EZ 3720 CEE), both...

  19. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mean for me? A ductless mini-split air conditioner is easier to install than a central air conditioning system. A ductless mini-split air conditioner provides zoned air...

  20. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  1. The effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grisham, Phillip Ryan

    2001-01-01

    Corrosion of air conditioner outdoor heat exchangers (condensers) poses a significant problem for consumers living in coastal regions. This research sought to experimentally determine effects of galvanic corrosion on air conditioner condenser coils...

  2. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mini-Split Air Conditioners A ductless mini-split air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoLUke1138. A ductless...

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air...

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential central air conditioners (CACs), which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  5. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    1990-01-01

    a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat...

  6. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with a representative from the Department of Energy (DOE) to discuss proposed amended test procedures for central air conditioners and how they would impact ICM manufacturers....

  7. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  8. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  9. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  10. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  11. Establish the Commercial Pacakge Air Conditioners and Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commercial package air conditioners, heat pumps, and commercial warm air furnaces is an action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  12. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more energy than allowed under federal...

  13. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    integrated with an air conditioner unit and air/water heatan air conditioner unit and air/water heat exchanger Source:system and a standard air/water heat exchanger. Figure A-

  14. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore »R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  15. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  17. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a...

  18. The Natural gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Heat from Burner Combined Heat Delivered (25 kW) Ambient (10 kW) Paul Schwartz, CEO...

  19. Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

  20. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-06-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Notice of Data Availability

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-11-19: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  4. Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of return air leakage from hot/humid attic spaces on the performance of a residential air conditioner. Tests were conducted in psychrometric facilities where temperatures and humidities...

  5. The Impact of Energy Recovery on Window Air-conditioner Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Q.; Tang, C.; Liao, K.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental energy recovering air-conditioner can produce fresh air exchange heat with exhaust air in the heat exchanger, which has no additional moving parts. The EER of the experimental air-conditioner (EAC) is increased by 17.4~37.3 percent...

  6. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    its years of service. Neglecting necessary maintenance ensures a steady decline in air conditioning performance while energy use steadily increases. Check out our Energy...

  7. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    before proper dehumidification occurs, making the area feel "clammy" and uncomfortable. Central air-conditioning systems need to be sized by professionals. Explore our Energy...

  8. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles...

  9. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...

  10. Rating of Mixed Split Residential Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domanski, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    require that manufac- turers derive cooling ratings for unitary systems by testing a sample of sufficient size to meet certain specified statistical confidence levels. For split unitary systems comprising an outdoor unit and an indoor coil assembly...(95), SEER, and recommended indoor volumetric flow rate of air, are publicly available. The procedure also assumee that the matched indoor section is available for inspection and evaluation of the indoor coil capacity and the indoor fan power...

  11. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject DevelopsforReportingResourcesDepartmentDepartment ofRoom Air

  12. DOE Investigates Possible Air Conditioner Efficiency Violations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional|Certify AirDepartment of

  13. List of Room Air Conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedList of RefuelingRoom Air Conditioners

  14. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners— Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home, which can result in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters.

  15. The Impact of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neal, L.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand Leon Neal North Carolina Alternate Energy Corporation Research Triangle Park, N.C. ABSTRACT Electric utilities have had a number of air conditioner rebate and maintenance... of the equipment), system sizing, and efficiency on the steady-state, coincident peak utility demand of a residential central air conditioning system. The study is based on the results of laboratory tests of a three-ton, capillary tube expansion, split...

  16. A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits...

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile explains how comprehensive performance testing by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory led to simple, affordable methods that homeowners could employ for increasing the energy efficiency of window air conditioners.

  18. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  19. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report is the first of two reports on the project "Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of High Efficiency Commercial Air Conditioners" funded by Houston Lighting and Power Company. The purpose ...

  20. Determination of the Transient Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.; Somasundaram, S.

    1987-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to assesses the dehumidifying performance of residential central air conditioners (CACs). The performance studies were based on factors such as: (i) dynamic performance (ii) the ASHRAE comfort zone, (iii) control...

  1. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Residential Sized Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Boecker, C. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes: (1) the performance improvements possible for central air conditioners and heat pumps using conventional design improvements, (2) the development of a methodology for estimating the seasonal performance of variable speed heat...

  2. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Christensen, C.; Winkler, J.

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

  4. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance costs are assumed to apply to all product types (split or package systems, air conditioners or heat pumps) and

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-06-08: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps, Final Rule

  6. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  7. Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Figure 1 illustrates a typical rooftop (NREL Pix 06451) installation. Building Industry Trends - 10 performance of this equipment has remained relatively constant, close to the minimum standard over this period. An evaluation of data on currently available models from theAirConditioning andRefrigerationInstitute (ARI2000

  8. An Evaluation of the Effects of Refrigerant Charge on a Residential Central Air Conditioner with Orifice Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Ramsey, C. J.; Farzad, M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies have been conducted at Texas A & M University to quantify the effect of over/undercharging on the performance of a residential central air conditioner with two different expansion devices: capillary tubes ...

  9. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with Capillary Tube Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the improper charging on the performance (capacity, EER, power consumption, SEER, and coefficient of degradation) of a residential air conditioner during the steady state (wet and dry coils) and cycling ...

  10. Simulation of Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Residential Central Air-Conditioners in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.; Somasundram, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses the dehumidifying performance of the high efficiency residential central air conditioners (CAC) in hot/humid climates typified by that of Houston and Galveston. The performance study is based on such factors as: (i) weather (ii...

  11. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  12. Desiccant Moisture Exchange for Dehumidification Enhancement of Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    amling mil. Bqe surfam is needed to accomplish the heat ex&ange, so lamberenthian anl wrnpted surfaces have been used. Ihe of heat is ~Wlled by duct* & bypaseirq varying armnrts of air 8ud-1 that all air does not casrtact all the heat exdmqe...

  13. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture from the saturated air leaving an air conditioning (AC) cooling coil to the air returning to the AC unit from the conditioned space. This has the thermodynamic effect of reducing the overall energy...

  14. Development of an Automated Fault Detection System Tool for Unitary Air Conditioners at Undustrial Energy Audits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, P.; Pasmussen, B. P.

    2015-01-01

    Faulty air conditioners are prevalent; as is the related energy inefficiency 57% Of 13,000 systems incorrectly charged 13% Average efficiency loss 10% Efficiency loss due to 30% overcharge 9% Efficiency loss due to 30% undercharge ESL-IE-15... • Refrigerant Type Brochure • Rated Subcooling• Rated Superheat Other • Type of Valve • Avoided Cost of Electricity • Operating Hours • Presence of Accumulator Co In Co Pr Co Out Ev Out Ev In Co In Co Out Ev Pr Ev Out Air side Temperatures Refrigerant side...

  15. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Study to Confirm Target Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant wheel operating in conjunction with a typical air conditioning system. Simulations and laboratory prototypes demonstrate that the cycle has the potential for enhanced humidity control with sensible heat ratios...

  16. The Explorationon the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.

    2014-01-01

    and Municipal Engineering Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual- temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle ESL-IC-14-09-35a... conditioner. However, energy losses caused by secondary heat transfer leave more room for the whole system performance to be improved if they can be avoided. 1 Introduction ?An innovative dual-temperature air-conditioner and the corresponding theoretical...

  17. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  18. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    Comprehensive performance tests lead to enhanced modeling capability and affordable methods to increase energy efficiency.

  19. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Air Conditioner Ready to Change Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact:NewsWebmaster Please enter your name andEnergyAir

  20. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department of Energy Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water HeatersRoom Air

  1. Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of EnergyofDepartmentProcess DocumentPartner: A.O.Air

  2. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergyEvery Thanksgiving, we hearfreezers, aroom air

  3. Product Standards for Air Conditioners (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, BluePoulsenBioSolutions JumpProblems withAir

  4. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availabilty regarding test procedures for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on May 5, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  6. EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.)

  7. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  8. 2014-03-06 Issuance: Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on March 6, 2014.

  9. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  10. Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

    2005-02-17

    -1 EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER COIL FOULING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONERS A Thesis by JEFFREY BRANDON DOOLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF SYSTEM CYCLING, EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW, AND CONDENSER...

  11. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  12. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    against Air-Con, International, requiring the company to stop selling certain air conditioning systems in the U.S. that have been shown to violate minimum energy efficiency...

  13. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    In recent years China's energy consumption has increased rapidly. The problem of high energy consumption intensity and low energy utilization efficiency is serious, and the contradiction between economic development and energy and environmental resources has become increasingly acute, making energy conservation and consumption reduction an important society-wide concern. At the same time, global climate change has and will continue to have profound impacts on human survival and development, and is another major challenge to all countries. In order to accelerate China's energy conservation and emission reduction work, the National Leading Group to Address Climate Change, Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction was founded with Premier Wen Jiabao as the head, and the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction' and 'China's National Program of Addressing Climate Change' were issued, under which China's energy conservation and emission reduction work has been fully deployed. Efforts to promote energy efficiency have been further strengthened in all levels of government, and various policies and measures have progressively been issued and implemented. In addition, based on China's experience with implementing energy-saving priority strategies over the past 20+ years, our government established a goal of a 20% decrease in energy consumption per unit GDP in the 'Eleventh Five-year Development Plan'. Furthermore, in November 2009, in order to support global greenhouse gas emission reduction activities and promote China's low carbon economic development, the government established a further 40-50% reduction in energy consumption per unit GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2005. Improving energy utilization efficiency by scientific and technological progress will undoubtedly play an important role in achieving the above stated objectives. The improvement of energy efficiency of energy consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor products. Promoting the energy efficiency and market shares of main energy-consuming products has become an important determinant of achieving energy conservation and emission reduc

  14. The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

    1992-01-01

    the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system...

  15. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    the energy efficiency of air conditioning products isbetween the energy efficiency of air conditioning productsthe air conditioning testing facilities of energy efficiency

  16. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  17. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    shows that most foreign energy efficien- cy standards arethe measurement of the energy efficien- cies of air/air airshare consists of energy- efficient electric motor products.

  18. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  19. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    use, the water-side economizer and the air-side economizer.The air-side economizer takes advantage of the cool outdoorair is cool enough to provide total cooling. The water-side economizer

  20. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baone, Chaitanya A; Xu, Yan; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  1. Dirty Air Conditioners: Energy Implications of Coil Fouling Jeffrey Siegel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/ UC Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkeley National Laboratory ABSTRACT Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices. Introduction Residential air conditioning is responsible. For typical residential heat pump and air conditioning #12;systems, they predict a 10 ­ 25 % average energy

  2. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Summit Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products -- must stop distributing 61 heat pump models and 1 air conditioner model that DOE has determined do not comply with...

  3. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    86 Figure A-4: (a) Physical DEVap concept; (b)Illustration of DEVap air conditioningcontrolled ventilation DEVap Desiccant-enhanced evaporative

  4. Testing and Economic Evaluation of a High Efficiency 10-ton Rooftop Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Davis, M. A.

    2006-11-09

    In 1993, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated a project to design, build and demonstrate a high efficiency commercial rooftop air conditioning unit. The unit was designed by Hibberd Consulting of Westminster, Colorado, and was built...

  5. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  6. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 threeton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion...

  7. Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

    2010-01-01

    (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity...

  8. Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on a Test Bench 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palani, Manivannan

    1992-01-01

    This report presents results from degraded performance measurements of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short...

  9. Improving the Operating Efficiency of Packaged Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Vowles, Mira

    2014-03-10

    This article discusses several control strategies that can significantly reduce energy consumption associated with packaged rooftop units RTUs). Although all of the considered strategies are widely used in built-up air-handing units, they are not commonly used in existing RTUs. Both simulation and field evaluations show that adding these control strategies to existing RTUs can reduce their energy consumption by between 30% and 60%.

  10. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for portable air conditioners, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 13, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  11. 2014-08-19 Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)- Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Registe notice of open meetings regarding the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on August 19, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  12. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment ofHeat Pump Models | Department of

  13. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop...

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  15. 2015-03-24 Issuance: ASRAC; Notice of Intent to Establish the Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group to Negotiate Potential Energy Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding potential Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 24, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  16. PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2010-01-01

    from flat-plate solar collectors and use air cooling forwith flat-plate solar collectors and air cooling; namely,from flat-plate solar collectors. Absorption refrigeration

  17. PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2010-01-01

    from flat-plate solar collectors and use air cooling foroperation with flat-plate solar collectors and air cooling;from flat-plate solar collectors. Absorption refrigeration

  18. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  19. DOE Takes Action to Stop the Sales of Air-Con Air Conditioner Models Shown

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratory | Department ofPotawatomi Community |

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: A Homeowner’s Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Booten

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve energy efficiency, cost savings, and comfort for homeowners.

  1. Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2006-01-01

    time can be known so that its energy consumption can be estimated accurately. In order to verify the simulation accuracy, an actual room equipped with a gas-engine heat pump (GHP) air-conditioning system is studied by both simulation and measurement...

  2. An Evaluation of Improper Refrigerant Charge on the Performance of a Split System Air Conditioner with a Thermal Expansion Valve 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    and was exhausted by the unit fan back into the room through the outdoor coil. PSYCHROMETRIC ROOMS The psychrometric rooms could simulate all testing conditions required for air conditioning and heat pump performance testing. Dew point and room temperatures could..., Including Heat Pumps (1979)[7]. The entering dry bulb temperature for the outdoor coil for steady state and cyclic tests was 82? +/-0.3 F DB and 20% relative humidity. The steady state tests were repeated for outdoor temperatures of 90?, 95?, and 100?F...

  3. Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

    1995-01-01

    evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging...

  4. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    buy a qualified energy-efficient model. In some states, you may still be able to get a rebate on an ENERGY STAR air conditioner purchase through a Recovery Act-funded program....

  5. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Air Conditioners. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, Mass. No.Model User’s Guide. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, Mass. DE-described in the Arthur D. Little model will serve as the

  6. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  7. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  8. User-Oriented Modeling Tools for Advanced Hybrid and Climate-Appropriate Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: University of California, Davis – Davis, CADOE Total Funding: $200,000Cost Share: $339,515Project Term: 2015 – 2017Funding Opportunity: Building University Innovators and Leaders...

  9. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  10. Homeowner's Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve efficiency and comfort for homeowners.

  11. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  12. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  13. Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment S.C. Jain Professor and Research Engineer Dept. Civil, C., "Analysis of Water Modeling of Air Entrainment," in Proceedings of the 48th SFSA Technical An analysis is reported of the water modeling experiments of Bates et al. (1994) to study air entrainment

  14. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  15. Study of an integrated appliance, the air conditioner/heat pump-heat recovery unit-water heater. Final report, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Davies, A.; Fischler, S.

    1981-02-01

    Three integrated heat-pump - heat-recovery-unit - water-heater appliances were tested under various environmental conditions to measure the functional parameters and study the operating characteristics of these systems. It was found that the heat recovery, heat-recovery rate, and heat-recovery efficiency were dependent on the heat-recovery-unit's characteristics. The use of the heat-recovery unit in the system resulted in a reduced work load for the heat pump's compressor and slightly improved the heat-pump's performance. A computer simulation model of the integrated system was developed to study the interactions between several of the pertinent system variables on an hourly basis for selected situations and to estimate energy savings. Two alternative estimation methods that utilize five-degree temperature bin data were also developed. The estimate savings determined by using the alternative methods were about the same as those estimated using the hourly data. Conclusions were also reached concerning the use of water heaters with different tank capacities and on methods of increasing potential energy savings.

  16. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  17. EVALUATION OF A NEW SOLAR AIR CONDITIONER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Benefits to California · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under-16 Grant Funding: $74,547 Term: February 2001 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced

  18. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B) (Building...

  19. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel TravelChallenges |1-01 Audit|3:Analysis:

  20. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power,5 BUDGETUCivilConsortium Commercialization andProcessCommon

  1. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits the BillDepartmentSites | DepartmentLowering65-OCT.Department of

  2. Room Air Conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk, NewMichigan: EnergyRocklinRohm and HaasRomoland,Rooks

  3. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOA Applicantof YearsRevolving Loan Fundsand

  4. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:February 25, 2015 |7Design » Types of

  5. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgram Manager Directoryof Energy Think Outside the Box10 Timeline of

  6. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -Rob Roberts About Us Rob Roberts -Ronald E.

  7. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _s - "U N

  8. Central Air conditioners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio: Energy Resources

  9. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015 TheTechnologies-2015 UpdateremovetoC.RodneyA

  10. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDS on the internetMagneticPlasmaMaintaining Your

  11. Common Air Conditioner Problems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchersOctoberCharles DOE Launches DataA refrigerant leak

  12. Tips: Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 Timeline of Events: 1938-1950 August 2,10Design

  13. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  14. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners Violating Minimum Appliance Standards DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air...

  15. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  16. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con private label do not comport with the...

  17. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  18. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  19. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  20. PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study , C. Honor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study Menut L.1 , C. Honoré2 , L Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable, Paris, France This platform is proposed by the PREV'AIR about PREV'AIR ? please send an e-mail to cecile.honore@ineris.fr 1. Introduction Since 2002, the PREV'AIR

  1. Tips: Air Ducts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tubes in the walls, floors, and ceilings; it carries the air from your home's furnace and central air conditioner to each room. Ducts are made of sheet metal, fiberglass, or other...

  2. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  3. Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session 2: Modelling air pollution across a range of scales Ruth Doherty, Massimo Vieno, Ian Mac) EMEP2009 (less complex) Observations Modelling regional air pollution #12;Nested regions: 50 to 5 to 1 km2 O3 concentration (ppb) NO2 concentration (µg m-3) #12;Modelling Urban air pollution Regional

  4. SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP By ARUN SHENOY Bachelor December, 2004 #12;SIMULATION, MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF A WATER TO AIR HEAT PUMP Thesis Approved................................................................3 2.1. Equation fit water to air heat pump and chiller models...............................3 2

  5. Performance and Portability of an Air Quality Model Donald Dabdub

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Rajit

    and planning for the control of air pollution episodes. The California Institute of Technology (CIT) photochemical model is one such air quality model. It is used to predict the pollution dynamics in the South Coast Air Basin of California. It has also been modified to model pollution in South Korea, Mexico

  6. Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration Christoph Beckermann Associate Beckermann, C., "Water Modeling of Steel Flow, Air Entrainment and Filtration," in Proceedings of the 46th, 1992. #12;Abstract This paper presents an analysis of water modeling of steel pouring to study (1) air

  7. SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botchev, Mike

    SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

  8. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01

    in air pollution risk assessment and management. With thepollution." In: Total Exposure Assessment Methodology: A New Horizon, 166-195, Air and Waste Management

  9. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01

    human exposure to air pollution." SIMS Technical Report No.human exposure to air pollution." Environment International.Annual Meeting of the A i r Pollution Control Association,

  10. Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Sujit K

    Hierarchical Bayesian models for space-time air pollution data Sujit K. Sahu June 14, 2011 sets have led to a step change in the analysis of space-time air pollution data. Accurate predictions-time air pollution data and illustrate the benefits of modeling with a real data example on monitoring

  11. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  12. Distributed GIS for Monitoring and Modeling Urban Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeang, Chen-Hsiang, 1969-

    The progress of technology has made the measurement of air quality and the simulation of complex air pollution models both feasible and cost-effective. However, there is a long way to go in terms of facilitating widespread ...

  13. Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Modeling impact of urban air pollution on health: Preliminary results and testing a methodology with hospitals for the study of air pollution impact on specific deceases (old people admitted in emergency morbidity data and pollutants concentrations at the regional/urban scale Health and air quality in France

  14. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption 2005-2030 Consumption (TWh) IND INDO SAS-PAS BRASAS-PAS BRA MEA Figure 4 Air Conditioner Saturation by Region 2005-

  15. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Model-Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Based Diagnostics for Air-Handling Units ­ Salsbury and Diamond 1 ModelModel--Based Diagnostics for Air Handling UnitsBased Diagnostics for Air Handling Units Tim Salsbury and Rick Diamond Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 Introduction In most large air-conditioned buildings, air-handling units

  17. An air pollution trajectory model for Southeast Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Tamera Ann

    1996-01-01

    al. 1994). A hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model was optimized to examine the southeast Texas coastal region for high ozone development. Verification of the optinuzed air pollution model was performed by a case study for a day with high ozone...

  18. Assessing Uncertainty in Spatial Exposure Models for Air Pollution Health Effects Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Spatial analysis of air pollution and mor- tality in Losin studies linking chronic air pollution exposure to health2006. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects with

  19. A PLASMA CHANNEL BEAM CONDITIONER FOR A FREE ELECTRON LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    . In this paper, we give examples of conditioners that might be employed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS is the output wavelength, and is the average beta function in the FEL. For LCLS parameters, the corresponding

  20. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  1. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  2. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    E.1 ACs . . . . . . E.2 Heat pumps . . E.3 Water heaters .heterogeneous ACs or heat pumps. Resource duration curvesas air conditioners, heat pumps, electric water heaters, and

  3. Residential Humidity Control: Exciting New Opportunities with Air Flow Modulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews psychrometric principles and shows how to formulate a psychrometric chart from a single equation. The chart is used to demonstrate the manner in which a conventional single-speed air conditioner adjusts its operating point...

  4. History of the Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Rivoli Theater in New York, Carrier publicly debuted a new type of system that used a centrifugal chiller, which had fewer moving parts and compressor stages than existing...

  5. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program" 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    ) approach in which both demand- side and supply side resources are evaluated. HL&P also recognizes the contribution demand-side programs make to the company's long-term ability to provide reliable and reasonably priced electric service for its... effected, according to EPRI. Numerous large investor-owned electric utilities are presently offering residential load control programs with great success. Arkansas Power & Light, Duke Power Company, Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power t Light...

  6. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    calculation include the installed consumer cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and

  7. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01

    driver, driven by high pressure vapor. DW: main circulationpump driven by high pressure vapor. ~ restrictors ~ checkof the amount of high pressure vapor used to run the pump

  9. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    shell characteristics and occupant behavior) and geographicto forecast (e.g. , occupant behavior and climate). Lee

  10. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    of Energy, DRAFT Marginal Energy Prices Report, July, 1999.energy use by the energy price paid by the household.energy consumption, energy price, discount rate, and central

  11. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    analyze, the energy price projection, and the start year (uncertainty of projections offuture energy prices, the LCC

  12. An Analysis of Efficiency Improvements in Room Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Penson, S. B.

    1988-01-01

    for an Energy-Efficient Economy Washington, DC ABSTRACT Reliable monitoring and measurement of the energy savings resulting from the installation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and power recovered from waste energy (recycled energy) projects... is becoming increasingly important. As a growing number of states and now the federal government look to mandatory energy efficiency portfolio programs such as an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS), CHP and waste heat recovery stands to play a...

  13. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000, December, 1999.trends from EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AE02000) were

  14. Enforcement Policy: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And StatisticsProgramof-SA-02:Innovative Energy AppsA123Enforcement| Department of

  15. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22, 2014 TheMonday March 3, 2014, a

  16. Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(Million Cubicthrough 1996) inNatural Gas Heat Pump and

  17. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterprise ServersHotDepartmentof

  18. Novel Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartmentNew JerseyEnergybenefits of61075 LisaLaboratory, Oak

  19. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFrom theHighI _s - "U NMeasure

  20. List of Central Air conditioners Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds JumpOxiranchemRemodelersList ofList

  1. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect HighHighin a Bent

  2. 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s i s t a n t S eOF 1121DaveOF THE DEPARTMENT

  3. Air Conditioner Regional Standards Brochure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONYDepartment of Energy with7:00AM EST9

  4. Enforcement Policy Statement: Off Mode Standards for Central Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographiclighbulbs - high-resolution JPG20,1LLC |Compliance Period

  5. Electrolux Gibson Air Conditioner and Equator Clothes Washer Fail DOE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof EnergyBreakout2 DOEof EnergyEnergy

  6. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartmentHigh-Efficiency Parking

  7. Four Central Air Conditioners Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent LampFort Collins, ColoradoEfficiency Standard |

  8. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-SavingofCode |DepartmentVampire

  9. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICES of Experience955

  10. Ductless Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sectorfor $1.14 Per GallonDataEnergyDuctDuctless

  11. Central Air Conditioner Enforcement Policy Statement | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment|Marketing, LLCEfficiencyCOP 21:Department of Energy Bill ValdezApril

  12. Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    -city densification may limit air pollution, carbon emissions, and energy use through reduced transportation of the most important environmental problems is air pollution, mostly induced by vehicle traffic1 Ontologies for the Integration of Air Quality Models and 3D City Models Claudine Metral Institut

  13. Modelling the e#ects of air pollution on health using Bayesian Dynamic Generalised Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bath, University of

    (2004)). Large multi­city studies such as `Air pollution and health: a European approach' (APHEA across a number of US and European cities. Short­term e#ects of air pollution on health are estimatedModelling the e#ects of air pollution on health using Bayesian Dynamic Generalised Linear Models

  14. Radio-Frequency Beam Conditioner for Fast-Wave Free-Electron Generators of Coherent Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    to Physical Review Letters Radio-Frequency Beam ConditionerDE-AC03-76SF00098 LBL-31006 RADIO-FREQUENCY BEAM CONDITIONERIbaraki, 305, Japan. RADIO-FREQUENCY BEAM CONDITIONER FOR

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Develop distributed HVAC components to supplement the central HVAC system to reduce the energy required by current compressed gas air conditioners by at least one-third.

  16. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  17. Statistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    are calculated with R, a language for statistical computing. The routine STEP in R is used to remove variablesStatistical post processing of model output from the air quality model LOTOS-EUROS Annemiek Pijnappel De Bilt, 2011 | Stageverslag #12;#12;Statistical post processing of model output from the air

  18. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  19. Air Quality Modeling in the South Coast Air Basin of California: What Do the Numbers Really Mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    photochemical air quality models are used by regulatory agencies to design emission control strategies that lead models. For instance, it reported statistical errors in the prediction of O3 and NOx concentration and emission controls. Fine et al.2 identified different sources of uncertainty on air quality models

  20. Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Air Pollution Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lite; Hou, Qinzhi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the problem of the two-dimensional air pollution model. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is called the semidiscrete formulation. We show the existence and uniqueness of the ODE system and provide the error estimates for the numerical error.

  1. Hybrid Control Models of Next Generation Air Traffic Management ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    Hybrid Control Models of Next Generation Air Traffic Management ? C. Tomlin, G. Pappas, J. Lygeros the overcrowding of large urban airports and the need to more efficiently handle larger numbers of aircraft malfunctions, ATC malfunctions (e.g. power failure), shifting winds (that cause changes in approach patterns

  2. InMAP: a new model for air pollution interventions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-10-29

    Mechanistic air pollution models are essential tools in air quality management. Widespread use of such models is hindered, however, by the extensive expertise or computational resources needed to run most models. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations – the air pollution outcome generally causing the largest monetized health damages – attributable to annual changes in precursor emissions. InMAP leverages pre-processed physical andmore »chemical information from the output of a state-of-the-science chemical transport model (WRF-Chem) within an Eulerian modeling framework, to perform simulations that are several orders of magnitude less computationally intensive than comprehensive model simulations. InMAP uses a variable resolution grid that focuses on human exposures by employing higher spatial resolution in urban areas and lower spatial resolution in rural and remote locations and in the upper atmosphere; and by directly calculating steady-state, annual average concentrations. In comparisons run here, InMAP recreates WRF-Chem predictions of changes in total PM2.5 concentrations with population-weighted mean fractional error (MFE) and bias (MFB) R2 ~ 0.99. Among individual PM2.5 species, the best predictive performance is for primary PM2.5 (MFE: 16 %; MFB: 13 %) and the worst predictive performance is for particulate nitrate (MFE: 119 %; MFB: 106 %). Potential uses of InMAP include studying exposure, health, and environmental justice impacts of potential shifts in emissions for annual-average PM2.5. Features planned for future model releases include a larger spatial domain, more temporal information, and the ability to predict ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. The InMAP model source code and input data are freely available online.« less

  3. Modeling air pollution in the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, J.D.

    1998-12-31

    The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) is a set of interactive computer models for integrated assessment of the Acid Rain Provisions (Title IV) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. TAF is designed to execute in minutes on a personal computer, thereby making it feasible for a researcher or policy analyst to examine quickly the effects of alternate modeling assumptions or policy scenarios. Because the development of TAF involves researchers in many different disciplines, TAF has been given a modular structure. In most cases, the modules contain reduced-form models that are based on more complete models exercised off-line. The structure of TAF as of December 1996 is shown. Both the Atmospheric Pathways Module produce estimates for regional air pollution variables.

  4. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  5. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Richard C; Sjoreen, Andrea L; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7 Radiation dose was calculated assuming complete release of the building inventory as information was lacking regarding the portion of the building inventory expected to be released. Thus the results are derived using an extremely conservative release as documented in the Preliminary Hazard Screening report.7 To more closely approximate the result of a release, one must estimate the fraction of the total inventory released and multiply the results described above by that fraction. An example of how this calculation is accomplished is provided. Should an actual uncontrolled release occur, the results of this modeling effort could only be used to establish a rough order-of-magnitude for the event.

  6. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  7. AIR INGRESS ANALYSIS: PART 2 – COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; Hans Gougar; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2011-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena Identification and Ranking Studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the in-the core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of the lower plenum graphite can lead to a loss of structural support. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to the release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to a reactor safety. Computational fluid dynamic model developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two-dimensional and three-dimensional CFD results for the quantitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. A portion of results of the density-driven stratified flow in the inlet pipe will be compared with results of the experimental results.

  8. Flexible Two-Level Parallel Implementations of a Large Air Pollution Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostromsky, Tzvetan

    Flexible Two-Level Parallel Implementations of a Large Air Pollution Model Tzvetan Ostromsky1, Frederiksborgvej 399 P. O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. zz@dmu.dk Abstract. Large scale air pollution models of such an air pollution model becomes in many cases a huge computational problem, a challenging task

  9. Monte Carlo Adaptive Technique for Sensitivity Analysis of a Large-scale Air Pollution Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    Monte Carlo Adaptive Technique for Sensitivity Analysis of a Large-scale Air Pollution Model Ivan of input parameters contribution into output variability of a large- scale air pollution model]. This model simulates the transport of air pollutants and has been developed by Dr. Z. Zlatev and his

  10. 20.18 Optimization Problems in Air Pollution Modeling Ivan Dimov, and Zahari Zlatev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    20.18 Optimization Problems in Air Pollution Modeling Ivan Dimov, and Zahari Zlatev ABSTRACT. The appearance of optimization problems in the field of air pollution modeling and their importance arising in air pollution modeling will be considered. We shall present a review of some approaches

  11. Creation of the model and implementation of the simulation of dispersion of air pollution in urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    Creation of the model and implementation of the simulation of dispersion of air pollution in urban..............................................................................................................1 1.2. Types of models of dispersion of air pollution was creation of the mathematical model and application of the simulation of dispersion of vehicular air

  12. Model Reduction for Indoor-Air Behavior in Control Design for Energy-Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gugercin, Serkan

    Model Reduction for Indoor-Air Behavior in Control Design for Energy-Efficient Buildings Jeff models for the indoor-air environment in control design for energy efficient buildings. In one method by a desire to incorporate models of the indoor-air environment in the design of energy efficient buildings

  13. Assessing Seasonal Confounding and Model Selection Bias in Air Pollution Epidemiology Using Positive and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Assessing Seasonal Confounding and Model Selection Bias in Air Pollution Epidemiology Using July 15, 1999 #12;Abstract Much of the evidence for health e ects of particulate air pollution has come standards for ambient air pollutants to protect the public from adverse e ects. Much of the evidence for air

  14. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  15. Application of receptor modeling to indoor air emissions from electroplating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadden, R.A.; Liao, S.L.; Scheff, P.A.; Franke, J.E.; Conroy, L.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Public Health

    1998-12-01

    In work areas containing multiple sources of the same air pollutant, it is useful for control purposes to be able to separate out the contribution from each individual source. In this study, the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was used to allocate the contributions from multiple sources to area concentration measurements in three electroplating shops. Shop 1 was a room with a single copper electroplating line; shop 2 was a large bay containing a chromium conversion coating line, a continuous chromium electroplating line, and several manual electroplating operations; shop 3 contained a piston chrome plating line, a decorative chrome plating line, and manual and barrel zinc coating lines. The receptor modeling approach uses the elemental composition of one or more source categories to determine what fraction of an area sample is contributed by each source. In most cases the CMB model predicted over 90% of the measured concentrations. The allocation procedure explained 100% of the copper measured at three locations in shop 1, with contributions of 95 to 98% from the plating line and the rest from air outside the room. For shop 2, a two-source model explained 100% of the chromium measured at five sampling locations. For shop 3, the percent contributions of chromium from the piston plating line and the decorative plating line were consistent with distance from each of the sources.

  16. Timevarying coe#cient models for the analysis of air pollution and health outcome data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bath, University of

    Time­varying coe#cient models for the analysis of air pollution and health outcome data Duncan Lee and Gavin Shaddick Abstract In this paper, a time­varying coe#cient model is developed for air pollution and mortality data, which allows for an interaction between the e#ect of air pollution and time. Such temporal e

  17. Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheichl, Robert

    Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health Duncan Lee, Gavin://www.bath.ac.uk/math-sci/BICS #12;Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health. Duncan Lee (1), Gavin to air pollution on respiratory mortality in the elderly (aged 65 and above) in London, England, between

  18. Particulate air quality model predictions using prognostic vs. diagnostic meteorology in central California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Hua

    Particulate air quality model predictions using prognostic vs. diagnostic meteorology in central a , Michael J. Kleeman c,* a Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, 1 Prognostic meteorological fields Data assimilation UCD/CIT air quality model California Regional Particulate

  19. Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engel, Jonathan

    Look both ways: IE's Sarav Arunachalam models air pollution near roadways IE Research Associate and depletion of air pollution within the first 550 yards downwind of the roadway and look at exposure patterns for sensitive populations within that region. By modeling pollutant dispersion by air movement, scientists can

  20. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  1. A machine learning model of Manhattan air pollution at high spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeler, Rachel H. (Rachel Heiden)

    2014-01-01

    A machine-learning model was created to predict air pollution at high spatial resolution in Manhattan, New York using taxi trip data. Urban air pollution increases morbidity and mortality through respiratory and cardiovascular ...

  2. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into the utility grid: Category 1. Residential power conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Ferraro, A.; Tompkins, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    The development of power conditioners for residential photovoltaic applications of approximately 5 to 30 kW is reported. The interface of the inverter and the solar array, as well as the ac utility is investigated including the effects of array input current, utility impedance, and injected harmonic currents. The trade-off study of alternate power conversion schemes are covered which results in a recommended approach. A conceptual design of the recommended approach, including performance results obtained from an inverter simulated is presented. (LEW)

  3. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    room air stratification and thermal comfort. INTRODUCTIONsuch as thermal decay and room air stratification, properlystratification and its implications on energy performance; 5) implications of system design and operation on thermal

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of Short term Bronchiolitis Air Pollution Association using Semi Parametric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesbah, Mounir

    1 Longitudinal Analysis of Short term Bronchiolitis Air Pollution Association using Semi Parametric of ambient air pollution on infant bronchiolitis hospital consultations. Infant bronchiolitis is a frequent pollution, semi parametric models. 1.1 Introduction Time-series studies of air pollution and health

  5. COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF LARGE AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostromsky, Tzvetan

    COMPUTATIONAL CHALLENGES IN THE NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF LARGE AIR POLLUTION MODELS I. DIMOV , K. GEORGIEVy, TZ. OSTROMSKY , R. J. VAN DER PASz, AND Z. ZLATEVx Abstract. The air pollution, and especially the reduction of the air pollution to some acceptable levels, is an important environmental problem, which

  6. IMPROVED SEMI-PARAMETRIC TIME SERIES MODELS OF AIR POLLUTION AND MORTALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    IMPROVED SEMI-PARAMETRIC TIME SERIES MODELS OF AIR POLLUTION AND MORTALITY Francesca Dominici series analyses of air pollution and health attracted the attention of the scientific community, policy makers, the press, and the diverse stakeholders con- cerned with air pollution. As the Environmental

  7. An Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    are important for predicting pollutants regulated by National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). NAAQS pollutants, include CO, NO2, PM2.5, PM10, O3, and SO2, are considered deleterious to public health and airAn Investigation of the Limitations in Plume Rise Models used in Air Quality Forecast Systems 1

  8. Modelling air pollution abatement in deep street canyons by means of air scrubbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Giovanni, Marina; Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Monaco, Alessio; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Deep street canyons are characterized by weak ventilation and recirculation of air. In such environment, the exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants is enhanced, with a consequent worsening of both safety and health. The main solution adopted by the international community is aimed at the reduction of the emissions. In this theoretical study, we test a new solution: the removal of air pollutants close to their sources by a network of Air Pollution Abatement (APA) devices. The APA technology depletes gaseous and particulate air pollutants by a portable and low-consuming scrubbing system, that mimics the processes of wet and dry deposition. We estimate the potential pollutant abatement efficacy of a single absorber by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The presence of the scrubber effectively creates an additional sink at the bottom of the canyon, accelerating its cleaning process by up to 70%, when an almost perfect scrubber (90% efficiency) is simulated. The efficacy of absorber is not...

  9. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial ...

  10. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  11. OLAF ---A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jörg

    OLAF --- A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air Polluting.2 The Air Dispersion Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3 Ecology and Chemokinetics 17 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.3 Meteorological Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6.1.4 Pollutant Data

  12. Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

    2004-09-30

    The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

  13. Demand models for U.S. domestic air passenger markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eriksen, Steven Edward

    1978-01-01

    The airline industry in recent years has suffered from the adverse effects of top level planning decisions based upon inaccurate demand forecasts. The air carriers have recognized the immediate need to develop their ...

  14. Using Product Specific Simulation Models in a Tool for Manual Commissioning of Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eriksson, J.

    2003-01-01

    . Cetetherm IQHeat. Cetetherm. Ronneby. Sweden. 3. Portland Energy Conservation Inc. Methods for automated and continuous commissioning of build- ings. Air-Conditioning and refrigeraration technol- ogy institute, Arlington, Virginia. 4. T. Haasl, D... SPECIFIC SIMULATION MODELS IN A TOOL FOR MANUAL COMMISSIONING OF AIR HANDLING UNITS JÖRGEN ERIKSSON ÅF-INSTALLATION AB GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN ABSTRACT This short paper describes an outline of a tool for manual commissioning of air handling units...

  15. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  16. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Chao Yong Eric J. Barth.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu ABSTRACT A high pressure combined air-fuel injection system is designed and tested for an experimental free the compressor's reservoir, and high pressure fuel to mix and then inject into a combustion chamber. This paper

  17. Ecological Modelling 185 (2005) 513529 Air quality prediction in Milan: feed-forward neural networks,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corani, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 185 (2005) 513­529 Air quality prediction in Milan: feed-forward neural December 2004; accepted 3 January 2005 Abstract Ozone and PM10 constitute the major concern for air quality of Milan. This paper addresses the problem of the prediction of such two pollutants, using to this end

  18. Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled with CHIMERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled Keywords: Atmospheric composition European air quality Anthropogenic emissions a b s t r a c t Regional inputs data like anthropogenic surface emissions of NOx, VOCs and particulate matter. These emissions

  19. Parallel Implementation of a Large-Scale 3-D Air Pollution Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostromsky, Tzvetan

    Parallel Implementation of a Large-Scale 3-D Air Pollution Model Tzvetan Ostromsky1 and Zahari-4000 Roskilde, Denmark, zz@dmu.dk; http://www.dmu.dk/AtmosphericEnvironment Abstract. Air pollution component of the environment, where the pollutants can be transported over very long distances. Therefore

  20. Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Linking Satellite Ammonia Retrievals with the AIRPACT Air Quality Modeling System. 1 Ayrton Bryan program under grant number 0754990 Introduction Ammonia (NH3) is an important atmospheric pollutant to retrieve ammonia spectra and derive nadir profiles. AIRPACT (Air Indicator Report for Public Awareness

  1. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  2. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  3. Air dispersion modeling of particulate matter from ground-level area sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meister, Michael Todd

    2000-01-01

    State Air Pollution Regulatory Agencies (SAPRAs) often use dispersion modeling to predict downwind concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from a facility. As such, a facility may be granted or denied an operating permit ...

  4. Development of models for series and parallel fan variable air volume terminal units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furr, James C., Jr

    2007-09-17

    Empirical models of airflow output and power consumption were developed for series and parallel fan powered variable air volume terminal units at typical design pressure conditions. A testing procedure and experimental setup were developed to test...

  5. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: 2. Modeling results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panday, Arnico K.

    After completing a 9-month field experiment studying air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we set up the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 to simulate the Kathmandu Valley's meteorology with a ...

  6. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; D'Anna, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  7. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease slightly if a more stable wind class is assumed, where very little vertical mixing occurs. It is recommended that previous reports which used fixed values for calculating the air dispersion coefficient be updated to reflect the new meteorological data, such as the WIPP Safety Analysis Report and the WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment. It is also recommended that uncertainty be incorporated into the calculations so that a more meaningful assessment of risk during accidents can be achieved.

  8. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  9. Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    Pollution Control in a Manufacturing System Stochastic Models for Analysis and Control of Air Pollution in a Manufacturing System Jan, 1, 2005 Technical Report SOPTL-05-01 Missouri University of Science models that can be used for controlling pollution in a manufacturing system. The models are developed

  10. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 65 (2004) 557577 Parallel runs of a large air pollution model on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 65 (2004) 557­577 Parallel runs of a large air pollution 20 January 2004; accepted 21 January 2004 Abstract Large-scale air pollution models can successfully. The mathematical description of a large-scale air pollution model will be discussed in this paper. The principles

  11. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2011-01-01

    heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermal waterheater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar thermal water

  12. Improvements to a Transport Model of Asphalt Binder Oxidation in Pavements: Pavement Temperature Modeling, Oxygen Diffusivity in Asphalt Binders and Mastics, and Pavement Air Void Characterization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Rongbin

    2012-07-16

    ) and image processing techniques. From these imaging techniques, three pavement air void properties, radius of each air void (r), number of air voids (N), and average shell distance between two air voids (rNFB) were obtained to use as model inputs...

  13. Flow conditioner for fuel injector for combustor and method for low-NO.sub.x combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Partha; Smith, Kenneth O.; Ritz, Frank J.

    2013-09-10

    An injector for a gas turbine combustor including a catalyst coated surface forming a passage for feed gas flow and a channel for oxidant gas flow establishing an axial gas flow through a flow conditioner disposed at least partially within an inner wall of the injector. The flow conditioner includes a length with an interior passage opening into upstream and downstream ends for passage of the axial gas flow. An interior diameter of the interior passage smoothly reduces and then increases from upstream to downstream ends.

  14. Mathematical modeling of air pollution emissions and dispersion near intersections 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelli, James Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Administration (PHWA) RFP No. DTPB61-80-8-00340 under Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) Project So. 2-8-81-541 and is intended to provide an improved perspective in the analysis of highway air pollution hot spots. The study was directed toward... of the free-flowing traffic. Since the dispersion nomographs were derived for a receptor height of 1. 8 metres (5. 9 ft), additional nomographs are presented relating roadway/receptor separa- tion and actual receptor height to a height correction factor, z...

  15. Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model developmen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A first-order, lumped capacitance model is used to describe the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment. The model is...

  16. Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayeski, Nicholas

    Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

  17. Investigating the photo-oxidation of model indoor air pollutants using field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ireland, Christopher P.; Ducati, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    and Photobiology A.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Investigating the photo-oxidation of model indoor air pollutants using field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry Christopher P. Ireland* and Caterina Ducati Department of Materials... such as deodorizers or floor cleaners, removal of these is a key priority, particularly as many VOCs are known to be mutagenic or carcinogenic [11]. Whilst air purification techniques such as filtration via activated carbon [12] or thermal advanced oxidation processes...

  18. Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California B. H. KAHN Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute radiative transfer model has been developed for application to cloudy satellite data assimilation

  19. Multiscale models of atmospheric mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Christopher D.

    by atomic bromine (Br) in the tropo- sphere by combining kinetic data for the Hg-Br system with modeledMultiscale models of atmospheric mercury: bromine chemistry, air-sea exchange, and global transport rights reserved. #12;iii Dissertation Advisor Author Professor Daniel J. Jacob Christopher D. Holmes

  20. From Modelica Models to Fault Diagnosis in Air Handling Units Raymond Sterling1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    From Modelica Models to Fault Diagnosis in Air Handling Units Raymond Sterling1 , Peter Struss2 Engineering, Ryan Institute, NUI Galway, Ireland 2 Computer Science Department, Technische Universität München raymond.sterling@nuigalway.ie, struss@in.tum.de Abstract This paper presents a methodology for model

  1. Model of the Air System Transients in a Fuel Cell Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochersberger, Kevin

    Model of the Air System Transients in a Fuel Cell Vehicle by John P. Bird Thesis submitted W. Ellis January 30, 2002 Blacksburg, Virginia Keywords: Fuel Cell, System Modeling, Simulation, Fuel Cell Vehicle #12;1 Abstract This thesis describes a procedure to measure the transient effects

  2. Far-field dispersal modeling for fuel-air-explosive devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, M.W.

    1990-05-01

    A computer model for simulating the explosive dispersal of a fuel agent in the far-field regime is described and is applied to a wide variety of initial conditions to judge their effect upon the resulting fuel/air cloud. This work was directed toward modeling the dispersal process associated with Fuel-Air-Explosives devices. The far-field dispersal regime is taken to be that time after the initial burster charge detonation in which the shock forces no longer dominate the flow field and initial canister and fuel mass breakup has occurred. The model was applied to a low vapor pressure fuel, a high vapor pressure fuel and a solid fuel. A strong dependence of the final cloud characteristics upon the initial droplet size distribution was demonstrated. The predicted fuel-air clouds were highly non-uniform in concentration. 18 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Critical analysis of thermodynamic cycle modeling of adsorption cooling systems for light-duty vehicle air conditioning applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    -duty vehicle air conditioning applications Amir Sharafian, Majid Bahrami n Laboratory for Alternative Energy Keywords: Adsorption cooling system Vehicle air conditioning Thermodynamic cycle Fully dynamic modeling a b different operating conditions for light-duty vehicles air conditioning applications. Available ACS

  4. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  5. THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING BAYESIAN MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING University. The authors thank Alex Guenther for supplying the high frequency ozone concentration measurements a multiscale Bayesian model for separating ozone (O 3 ) concentration turbulent fluctuations from such inherent

  6. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  7. Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of air quality model resolution on uncertainty associated with health impacts* Tammy M interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

  8. Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing and Modeling Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution among Rural Women in Guatemala Lisa pollution in rural areas of developing countries. It is estimated that about half (53%) of all households in the poor countries of Latin American use biofuels (wood, dung and/or crop residues) to cook. Combustion by

  9. Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Modelling to Deliver More Accurate and Instantaneous Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahu, Sujit K

    Bayesian Spatio-Temporal Modelling to Deliver More Accurate and Instantaneous Air Pollution concentrations in the atmosphere. Many urban and suburban areas have high levels of ozone concentrations, but many ru- ral areas also have high ozone levels as winds carry emissions hundreds of miles from

  10. Use of Air Modeling to Reduce Facility Demolition Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Dennis; Sanford, Peter; Parsons, Duane A.

    2003-02-26

    DOE faces the problem of decommissioning facilities contaminated with plutonium, uranium, and beryllium. The standard process has been to remove the contaminated process equipment from a facility, and then decontaminate the residual radiological and hazardous contamination from the facility structure to an ''unconditional release'' level. The facility would then be taken down as a clean demolition. Several beryllium-contaminated facilities were identified that will be particularly difficult to decontaminate to these release levels. A number of alternative decommissioning approaches were investigated that would require less decontamination, and thus reduced cost and schedule. Initial alternative approaches proposed erection of barriers (i.e. building-size tent structures with ventilation controls) to minimize the release of contamination to the environment. More recently we have investigated methods to control contamination at the structure surfaces before and during demolition, and model the risk posed to the workers, public, and the environment by the small residual material actually dispersed. This approach promises to minimize decontamination by removing only the highest contamination levels, and eliminates the need for erecting large contamination control structures along with the attendant ventilation equipment and administrative controls. The modeling has demonstrated the regulatory acceptability of this approach, and the approach is ready to be discussed with the regulators and the public.

  11. Air quality modeling for emergency response applications. [MATHEW; ADPIC; FEM3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Chan, S.T.; Knox, J.B.; Dickerson, M.H.; Lange, R.

    1985-12-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for real-time assessments of the consequences from accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. For the dispersion of hazardous heavier-than-air gases, a time-dependent, three-dimensional finite element model (FEM3) is used. These models have been evaluated extensively against a wide spectrum of field experiments involving the release of chemically inert tracers or heavier-than-air gases. The results reveal that the MATHEW/ADPIC models are capable of simulating the spatial and temporal distributions of tracer concentration to within a factor of 2 for 50% of the measured tracer concentrations for near surface releases in relatively flat terrain and within a factor of 2 for 20% of the comparisons for elevated releases in complex terrain. The FEM3 model produces quite satisfactory simulations of the spatial and temporal distributions of heavier-than-air gases, typically within a kilometer of the release point. The ARAC consists of a centralized computerized emergency response system that is capable of supporting up to 100 sites and providing real-time predictions of the consequence of transportation accidents that may occur anywhere. It utilizes pertinent accident information, local and regional meteorology, and terrain as input to the MATHEW/ADPIC models for the consequence analysis. It has responded to over 150 incidents and exercises over the past decade.

  12. Air pollution modelling using a graphics processing unit with CUDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molnar, Ferenc; Meszaros, Robert; Lagzi, Istvan; 10.1016/j.cpc.2009.09.008

    2010-01-01

    The Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a powerful tool for parallel computing. In the past years the performance and capabilities of GPUs have increased, and the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) - a parallel computing architecture - has been developed by NVIDIA to utilize this performance in general purpose computations. Here we show for the first time a possible application of GPU for environmental studies serving as a basement for decision making strategies. A stochastic Lagrangian particle model has been developed on CUDA to estimate the transport and the transformation of the radionuclides from a single point source during an accidental release. Our results show that parallel implementation achieves typical acceleration values in the order of 80-120 times compared to CPU using a single-threaded implementation on a 2.33 GHz desktop computer. Only very small differences have been found between the results obtained from GPU and CPU simulations, which are comparable with the effect of stochastic tran...

  13. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    fluid. The indoor unit includes a capillary tube and a DX evaporator with copper tubes and aluminium fins. The outdoor unit includes a high performance tube-in-tube water-cooled condenser connected to a hermetic rotary compressor. The cooling tower...

  14. Enforcement Policy Statement: Split-System Central Air Conditioners Without HSVC

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSof 2005 at Iowa WindEnergy1-03 - October 24,2-05 -2, Split-System

  15. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    degree-day cooling degree-hour coefficient of alienationas measured by cooling degree hours (CDH), and total heatas measured by cooling degree hours (CDH), and total heat

  16. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    leakage than when the hose is removed with refrigerant in gas phase or if a quick con- nect/disconnect sealing valve

  17. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    of California Statewide Aggregator Demand Response Programs.Analysis of AMP Aggregator Demand Response Program. Preparedof California Statewide Aggregator Demand Response Programs.

  18. An Investigation of Alternative Methods for Measuring Static Pressure of Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Grant Benson

    2013-08-12

    , with the two smallest units additionally being tested in Scenario 1 with an over-sized duct. The scenario tests were required to be within 5% power and 2.5% airflow of a baseline test following ASHRAE Standard 37. he results for Scenario 1 have shown...

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2008-01-01

    because of the higher electricity rates, higher hours ofin use patterns and electricity rates between commercial andUEC), marginal electricity rates, and discount rates.

  20. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    accessed on 11th February 2011. IEA 4E M&B, 2010 “4E Mappingusing CO2 as working fluid, IEA Heat Pump Center Newsletter,Source: Catalog searches, IEA 4E M&B 2010, Baillargeon, 2011

  1. Air Conditioner Efficiency Under Hot Dry and Hot Humid Conditions - The Utility Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amarnath, A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the recent growth of social media, rhetorical theory which addresses authorship in this realm has been slow to develop. Static terms such as "reader," "writer," and "author" are often used to refer to the roles ...

  2. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    regions. In addition, the SCADA was not available for allData Real Time Visibility SCADA 5 minutes or less Limited

  3. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    L ABORATORY China Energy Efficiency Round Robin TestingNeed to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Energy Consumingfor Implementing the China Energy Efficiency Label System (

  4. Analysis of Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Other Products

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    A series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

  5. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. PAC TP NOPR.pdf...

  6. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01

    93 Figure I-1: Electricty Use for a Specific Feeder in Santerritory. Figure I-1: Electricty Use for a Specific Feeder

  7. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Nihar

    2014-01-01

    utility company issues a demand response message in the formsystem receives the demand response message through aas an effective demand response program that achieves

  8. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Values of the Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Gradesavin g standards and energy efficiency rat- ings. Energymanufacturers, and energy efficiency testing laboratories

  9. Ex Parte Communication on Central Air-Conditioner Test Procedure - ICM

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22, 2014 TheMonday March 3, 2014, a group

  10. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 -RobSSL INDepartment ofJune 28, 2011 "Just doDepartment

  11. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling (Program Document) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmallTechnicalSheldon Glashow and-DConnect Program

  12. 2015-02-12 Issuance: Test Procedures for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8 2 of 8of EnergyEnableNotice ofof

  13. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioners |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 AdvanceEnergyDepartment of

  14. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartmentEP9425Violating Minimum Appliance

  15. Five ENERGY STAR Room Air Conditioners Fail Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14,EnergyFinancingWIPP |DepartmentOpening

  16. YMGI Through-the-Wall Air Conditioner Determined Noncompliant With Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.Energy WindWorkplaceEnvironmentalY-12

  17. Save Money and Stay Cool with an Efficient, Well-Maintained Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMay 13, 2015reports issuedExperienceEnergy|

  18. Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuildingTheEasements30, 2008: US portion ofof

  19. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominate anDepartmentAssThis orderHighDOEOrderHeat Pump

  20. DOE Requires Manufacturers to Halt Sales of Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10nominateEnergy U.S.Safety,of Energy|

  1. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01

    , Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System... 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air- conditioning systems reaches up to 12...

  2. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic

  3. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, W.K.; Hubbard, B.

    1999-02-09

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion is disclosed. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner`s operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system. 13 figs.

  5. Performance Modeling of an Air-Based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, R. D.; Brandemuehl, M. J.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a collector design that utilizes unglazed photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors preheating air for glazed air heating modules. The performance modeling of these collectors is examined both individually and in series. For each collector type, a dynamic, finite difference, first-law model has been created using literature correlations for friction. The models were compared to performance data, calibrating the models by scaling of friction terms for best fit. The calibrated models generally agree well with the experimental data; even during sudden changes to ambient conditions. The root mean square error between the unglazed PV/T model and experiment results for the useful thermal energy gain and the outlet air temperature are 7.12 W/m{sup 2} and 1.07 C, respectively. The annual source energy performance of the building-integrated PV/T (BIPV/T) array is then simulated for residential applications in seven climate zones of the United States of America. The performance of the BIPV/T array is characterized by the amount of net electrical energy and useful thermal energy produced. The useful thermal energy is defined as the amount of energy offset by the BIPV/T system for water heating and space conditioning. A BIPV/T system composed 87.5% of PV modules, and 12.5% of glazed air heating modules, offsets the same amount of source energy as a roof-mounted PV system of the same area. This array composition increases the thermal energy gain by 47% over a BIPV/T array composed solely of PV modules.

  6. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  7. Seasonal versus Episodic Performance Evaluation for an Eulerian Photochemical Air Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Brown, Nancy J.; Harley, Robert A.; Bao, Jian-Wen; Michelson, Sara A; Wilczak, James M

    2010-04-16

    This study presents detailed evaluation of the seasonal and episodic performance of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system applied to simulate air quality at a fine grid spacing (4 km horizontal resolution) in central California, where ozone air pollution problems are severe. A rich aerometric database collected during the summer 2000 Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) is used to prepare model inputs and to evaluate meteorological simulations and chemical outputs. We examine both temporal and spatial behaviors of ozone predictions. We highlight synoptically driven high-ozone events (exemplified by the four intensive operating periods (IOPs)) for evaluating both meteorological inputs and chemical outputs (ozone and its precursors) and compare them to the summer average. For most of the summer days, cross-domain normalized gross errors are less than 25% for modeled hourly ozone, and normalized biases are between {+-}15% for both hourly and peak (1 h and 8 h) ozone. The domain-wide aggregated metrics indicate similar performance between the IOPs and the whole summer with respect to predicted ozone and its precursors. Episode-to-episode differences in ozone predictions are more pronounced at a subregional level. The model performs consistently better in the San Joaquin Valley than other air basins, and episodic ozone predictions there are similar to the summer average. Poorer model performance (normalized peak ozone biases <-15% or >15%) is found in the Sacramento Valley and the Bay Area and is most noticeable in episodes that are subject to the largest uncertainties in meteorological fields (wind directions in the Sacramento Valley and timing and strength of onshore flow in the Bay Area) within the boundary layer.

  8. Energy Savings Through Application of Model Predictive Control to an Air Separation Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, T. C.; Scharf, P. F.

    1996-01-01

    signs for cryogenic air separation plants. Equally important is the adherence of operating conditions to their optimal values, a task assigned to the plant's control system. This paper addresses the application of Model Predictive Control (MPC... maintain the plant at an optimal operating state. REFERENCE 1. Daryanian, B., Bohn, R.E., and Tabors, R.D., "Op timal Demand-Side Response to Electricity Spot Prices for Storage-Type Customers", IEEE Transac tions on Power Systems, 4(3), 897...

  9. A model for residual stress evolution in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, B. G.; Singh, J. P.; Grimsditch, M.

    2000-02-28

    Ruby fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that residual stress in air-plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings is a function of the local interface geometry. The stress profile of a simulated rough interface characterized by ``peaks'' and ``valleys'' was modeled with a finite-element approach that accounted for thermal mismatch, oxide scale growth, and top coat sintering. Dependence of the stress profile on interface geometry and microstructure was investigated, and the results were compared with measured stresses.

  10. Analyzing FLUENT CFD models and data to develop fundamental codes to assess the effects of graphite oxidation in an HTGR air ingress accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran, Caroline A

    2010-01-01

    The primary product of this thesis is a faster running computer code to model air ingress events in high temperature gas reactors as a potential subroutine for nodal codes such as MELCOR to model air ingress events. Because ...

  11. Golden Opportunity: Order (2014-CE-20003) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Golden Opportunity had failed to certify that certain models of room air conditioners, central air conditionersheat pumps, and residential clothes washers comply with the...

  12. Modeling the Air Flow in the 3410 Building Filtered Exhaust Stack System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Barnett, J. M.; Suffield, Sarah R.

    2013-01-23

    Additional ventilation capacity has been designed for the 3410 Building filtered exhaust stack system. The updated system will increase the number of fans from two to three and will include ductwork to incorporate the new fan into the existing stack. Stack operations will involve running various two-fan combinations at any given time. The air monitoring system of the existing two-fan stack was previously found to be in compliance with the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard, however it is not known if the modified (three-fan) system will comply. Subsequently, a full-scale three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the modified stack system has been created to examine the sampling location for compliance with the standard. The CFD modeling results show good agreement with testing data collected from the existing 3410 Building stack and suggest that velocity uniformity and flow angles will remain well within acceptance criteria when the third fan and associated ductwork is installed. This includes two-fan flow rates up to 31,840 cfm for any of the two-fan combinations. For simulation cases in which tracer gas and particles are introduced in the main duct, the model predicts that both particle and tracer gas coefficients of variance (COVs) may be larger than the acceptable 20 percent criterion of the ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 standard for each of the two-fan, 31,840 cfm combinations. Simulations in which the tracers are introduced near the fans result in improved, though marginally acceptable, COV values for the tracers. Due to the remaining uncertainty that the stack will qualify with the addition of the third fan and high flow rates, a stationary air blender from Blender Products, Inc. is considered for inclusion in the stack system. A model of the air blender has been developed and incorporated into the CFD model. Simulation results from the CFD model that includes the air blender show striking improvements in tracer gas mixing and tracer particle dispersion. The results of these simulations suggest the air blender should be included in the stack system to ensure qualification of the stack.

  13. A model for an under floor air distribution system Y.J.P. Lina,*, P.F. Lindenb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    ; improved thermal comfort; improved ventilation efficiency and indoor air quality; reduced energy useA model for an under floor air distribution system Y.J.P. Lina,*, P.F. Lindenb a Energy gains that occur above the occupied zone are isolated from the calculation of the required space supply

  14. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  15. Development of an air quality model for fugitive dust from mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winges, K.D.

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes a new air quality model, the EMAQ model, and compares it with the standard ISC model. The performance of the EMAQ model is discussed and its accuracy is commented upon. It is not yet determined if the EMAQ model can accurately simulate fugitive dust and a thorough evaluation is yet to be made which would determine if it has the ability to simulate changing wind directions and wind speeds with downwind distance, the ability to simulate pit-retention, the effect of meteorology and other factors on the deposition parameters. The hope is that the tools presented here are a step in the right direction which will eventually lead to reliable fugitive dust impact prediction.

  16. Improved model for the analysis of air fluorescence induced by electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; J. Rosado

    2008-07-24

    A model recently proposed for the calculation of air-fluorescence yield excited by electrons is revisited. Improved energy distributions of secondary electrons and a more realistic Monte Carlo simulation including some additional processes have allowed us to obtain more accurate results. The model is used to study in detail the relationship between fluorescence intensity and deposited energy in a wide range of primary energy (keVs - GeVs). In addition, predictions on the absolute value of the fluorescence efficiency in the absence of collisional quenching will be presented and compared with available experimental data.

  17. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  18. Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

    2012-11-01

    The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

  19. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory automobile heat pump model: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, D.M.

    1993-05-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the steady-state performance of vapor compression automobile air conditioners and heat pumps. The code is based on the residential heat pump model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Most calculations are based on fundamental physical principles, in conjunction with generalized correlations available in the research literature. Automobile air conditioning components that can be specified as inputs to the program include open and hermetic compressors; finned tube condensers; finned tube and plate-fin style evaporators; thermal expansion valve, capillary tube and short tube expansion devices; refrigerant mass; evaporator pressure regulator; and all interconnecting tubing. The program can be used with a variety of refrigerants, including R134a. Methodologies are discussed for using the model as a tool for designing all new systems or, alternatively, as a tool for simulating a known system for a variety of operating conditions.

  20. Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2013-01-01

    central air-conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers,central air-conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers,air-conditioners and heat pumps, units are added to the

  1. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01

    target residential water heaters and air conditioners usingStrategies for Water Heaters and Air Conditioners Voluntaryor snapback of load. Water heaters and air conditioners have

  2. Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, G.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Bahrami, D.; Halecky, N.

    2009-10-01

    A coupled thermal-hydrologic-airflow model is developed, solving for the transport processes within a waste emplacement drift and the surrounding rockmass together at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Natural, convective air flow as well as heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during post-closure are explicitly simulated, using the MULTIFLUX model. The conjugate, thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the rockmass are solved with the TOUGH2 porous-media simulator in a coupled way to the in-drift processes. The new simulation results show that large-eddy turbulent flow, as opposed to small-eddy flow, dominate the drift air space for at least 5000 years following waste emplacement. The size of the largest, longitudinal eddy is equal to half of the drift length, providing a strong axial heat and moisture transport mechanism from the hot to the cold drift sections. The in-drift results are compared to those from simplified models using a surrogate, dispersive model with an equivalent dispersion coefficient for heat and moisture transport. Results from the explicit, convective velocity simulation model provide higher axial heat and moisture fluxes than those estimated from the previously published, simpler, equivalent-dispersion models, in addition to showing differences in temperature, humidity and condensation rate distributions along the drift length. A new dispersive model is also formulated, giving a time- and location-variable function that runs generally about ten times higher in value than the highest dispersion coefficient currently used in the Yucca Mountain Project as an estimate for the equivalent dispersion coefficient in the emplacement drift. The new dispersion coefficient variation, back-calculated from the convective model, can adequately describe the heat and mass transport processes in the emplacement drift example.

  3. A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Zeig, M.; Claridge, D. E.; Wei, G.; Bruner, H.; Turner, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    A Method for Simulating Heat Recovery Systems Using AirModel in Implementations of the ASHRAE Simplified Energy Analysis Procedure Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Marvin..., TX W. Dan Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor & Director Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Abstract A method for simulating heat recovery systems using AirModel in implementations of the ASHRAE simplified...

  4. Modeling dispersions in initial conditions for air-launched rockets and their effect on vehicle performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beerer, Ingrid Mary

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in air-launched rockets as a method for lofting satellites into orbit motivates the need to investigate the unique challenges that air launch presents. This thesis explores how uncertainties in an air-launched ...

  5. A comparison of discrete and flow-based models for air traffic flow management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phu, Thi Vu

    2008-01-01

    The steady increase of congestion in air traffic networks has resulted in significant economic losses and potential safety issues in the air transportation. A potential way to reduce congestion is to adopt efficient air ...

  6. Assessing Uncertainty in Spatial Exposure Models for Air Pollution Health Effects Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    assessing air pollution exposure within cities as a priorityof air pollution exposure within cities or the associ- atedpollution levels are spatially autocorrelated within cities, and

  7. Experimental investigation and modeling of a direct-coupled PV/T air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahsavar, A.; Ameri, M.

    2010-11-15

    Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems refer to the integration of photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies into one single system, in that both useful heat energy and electricity are produced. The impetus of this paper is to model a direct-coupled PV/T air collector which is designed, built, and tested at a geographic location of Kerman, Iran. In this system, a thin aluminum sheet suspended at the middle of air channel is used to increase the heat exchange surface and consequently improve heat extraction from PV panels. This PV/T system is tested in natural convection and forced convection (with two, four and eight fans operating) and its unsteady results are presented in with and without glass cover cases. A theoretical model is developed and validated against experimental data, where good agreement between the measured values and those calculated by the simulation model were achieved. Comparisons are made between electrical performance of the different modes of operation, and it is concluded that there is an optimum number of fans for achieving maximum electrical efficiency. Also, results show that setting glass cover on photovoltaic panels leads to an increase in thermal efficiency and decrease in electrical efficiency of the system. (author)

  8. Modelling of an afterglow plasma in air produced by a pulsed discharge This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Vasco

    the subjectofintenseresearchduetoalargenumberofapplications in various domains such as atmospheric chemistry [1, 2], air pollution cleaning [3, 4Modelling of an afterglow plasma in air produced by a pulsed discharge This article has been. Technol. 19 (2010) 055001 (14pp) doi:10.1088/0963-0252/19/5/055001 Modelling of an afterglow plasma in air

  9. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  10. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  11. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  12. Attempt to estimate measurement uncertainty in the Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zettlemoyer, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force Toxic Chemical Dispersion (AFTOX) model is a Gaussian puff dispersion model that predicts plumes, concentrations, and hazard distances of toxic chemical spills. A measurement uncertainty propagation formula derived by Freeman et al. (1986) is used within AFTOX to estimate resulting concentration uncertainties due to the effects of data input uncertainties in wind speed, spill height, emission rate, and the horizontal and vertical Gaussian dispersion parameters, and the results are compared to true uncertainties as estimated by standard deviations computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The measurement uncertainty uncertainty propagation formula was found to overestimate measurement uncertainty in AFTOX-calculated concentrations by at least 350 percent, with overestimates worsening with increasing stability and/or increasing measurement uncertainty.

  13. Air Dispersion Modeling of Mine Waste in the Southeast Missouri Old Lead Belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Michael Lehman

    1999-10-01

    Past lead ore processing conducted in the Southeast Missouri Old Lead Belt since the 1700s has left numerous large areas of lead contamination in elevated piles of fine gravel waste called “chat” and dried-out tailings ponds. Wind suspension and atmospheric dispersion are known to transport these materials to the surrounding communities where the lead could pose a human health threat through inhalation or ingestion of the deposited contamination. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential wind suspension rates, perform dispersion modeling of the tailings and chat sources, and determine ground surface deposition rates and potential soil concentrations of lead in the surrounding areas. The results can be used to prioritize soil sampling locations, site air monitors, help identify the source of soil lead contamination, and to help develop remediation plans. Numerous, large complex sources in the region were parameterized into 33 area sources with the aid of digital aerial photos, digitized typographic maps, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, and site inspections. An AP-42 particulate emission model was used to estimate lower- and upper-bound hourly emission rates using six years of hourly wind speed data obtained from the St. Louis Airport. The emissions model accounted for wind speed, precipitation, source-specific aggregate size, fraction of vegetation cover, and site-specific lead concentrations. An alternative simplified method to calculate emissions from elevated chat piles was developed. The Fugitive Dust Model (FDM) was then used to calculate long-term average and maximum 24-hour deposition rates of lead over a 200 km2 region. Soil concentrations were estimated from modeled deposition rates, time of deposition (80 y) and an assumed surface (0-5.08 cm) mixing depth. Model performance was evaluated by comparing lower- and upper- bound modeled predictions to both air and soil sampling data obtained at two sites. The predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratios calculated using the geometric mean of the lower- and upper-bound modeled concentrations ranged from a low of 0.84 at 300 m to a high of 1.4 at 1800 m, with an average of 1.1. The P/O ratios tended to increase slightly at distances beyond about 1 km. These P/O ratios demonstrate exceptional model performance for the particular sampling transect (location and direction) investigated.

  14. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, J. M.; Turner, W. J.N.; Walker, I. S.; Singer, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector’s energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level.

  15. STOMP Sparse Vegetation Evapotranspiration Model for the Water-Air-Energy Operational Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; White, Mark D.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2005-09-15

    The Water-Air-Energy (WAE) Operational Mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) numerical simulator solves the coupled conservation equations for water mass, air mass, and thermal energy in multiple dimensions. This addendum describes the theory, input file formatting, and application of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) scheme for STOMP that is based on a sparse vegetation evapotranspiration model. The SVAT scheme is implemented as a boundary condition on the upper surface of the computational domain and has capabilities for simulating evaporation from bare surfaces as well as evapotranspiration from sparsely vegetated surfaces populated with single or multiple plant species in response to meteorological forcings. With this extension, the model calculates water mass, air mass and thermal energy across a boundary surface in addition to root-water transport between the subsurface and atmosphere. This mode represents the barrier extension of the WAE mode and is designated as STOMP-WAE-B. Input for STOMP-WAE-B is specified via three input cards and include: atmospheric conditions through the Atmospheric Conditions Card; time-invariant plant species data through the Plant Properties Card; and time varying plant species data through the Boundary Conditions Card. Two optional cards, the Observed Data and UCODE Control Cards allow use of STOMP-WAE with UCODE in an inverse mode to estimate model parameters. STOMP-WAE was validated by solving a number of test problems from the literature that included experimental observations as well as analytical or numerical solutions. Several of the UNSAT-H verification problems are included along with a benchmark simulation derived from a recently published intercode comparison for barrier design tools. Results show that STOMP is able to meet, and in most cases, exceed performance of other commonly used simulation codes without having to resort to may of their simplifying assumptions. Use of the fully coupled STOMP simulator to guide barrier design will result in optimized designs with reduced construction costs; reduced environmental impacts at borrow sites; and minimized post-closure care and monitoring needs, while meeting regulatory requirements.

  16. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    - sor/expander is the key element in a Compressed Air Energy Stor- age (CAES) approach. Efficiency can Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  17. The Electrochemical Surface Potential Due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcel D. Baer; Abraham C. Stern; Yan Levin; Douglas J. Tobias; Christopher J. Mundy

    2013-07-05

    We demonstrate that the driving forces for ion adsorption to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and a term that is of the form of a negative electrochemical surface potential. We carefully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory. Our research suggests that the electrochemical surface potential due to point charge models provides anions with a significant driving force to the air-water interface. This is contrary to the results of ab initio simulations that indicate that the average electrostatic surface potential should favor the desorption of anions at the air-water interface. The results have profound implications for the studies of ionic distributions in the vicinity of hydrophobic surfaces and proteins.

  18. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (Advanced Notice of ProposedCentral Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps, and Furnaces (Directair conditioners and heat pumps, furnaces, refrigerators and

  19. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  20. International Conference 'Transport and Air Pollution' 2008, Graz EMISSION FACTOR MODELLING FOR LIGHT VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - 16th International Conference 'Transport and Air Pollution' 2008, Graz EMISSION FACTOR in Europe: The European MEET (Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport) project. Transport and Air Pollution, Graz : Austria (2008)" #12;- 2 - 16th International Conference 'Transport

  1. Modeling Air Quality Near Freeways Using a Three Dimensional Eulerian Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kota, Sri Harsha

    2010-10-12

    experiment, conducted at Michigan in 1976. Sensitivity of the model to meteorology and traffic-related parameters are studied in detail. In the second case, the spatial distribution of ozone, carbon monoxide, NOx and 1,3-Butadiene near a simulated 8-lane...

  2. Method and apparatus for analog signal conditioner for high speed, digital x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warburton, William K. (1300 Mills St., Menlo Park, CA 94025); Hubbard, Bradley (Santa Cruz, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A signal processing system which accepts input from an x-ray detector-preamplifier and produces a signal of reduced dynamic range for subsequent analog-to-digital conversion. The system conditions the input signal to reduce the number of bits required in the analog-to-digital converter by removing that part of the input signal which varies only slowly in time and retaining the amplitude of the pulses which carry information about the x-rays absorbed by the detector. The parameters controlling the signal conditioner's operation can be readily supplied in digital form, allowing it to be integrated into a feedback loop as part of a larger digital x-ray spectroscopy system.

  3. 14th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes 2-6 October 2011, Kos, Greece THE "VOTRE AIR" PROJECT : DEVELOPMENT OF A MODELLING TOOL TO ASSESS THE REAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    resolution modelling tools like Urban'Air well reproduce the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants OF THE SYSTEM The "Votre Air" project has been designed to monitor the atmospheric pollution over Paris center of pollutants concentrations computed by the air dispersion model are immediately corrected by the assimilation

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  5. Mechanistic modeling of the interrelationships between indoor/outdoor air quality and human exposure in a GIS framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Purushothaman, V.; Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric contaminants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) is often based on measured data from fixed ambient (outdoors) Air Monitoring Stations. This results in an artificial characterization of indoor exposures, as concentrations and physicochemical attributes of indoor pollutants vary significantly and are different from corresponding outdoor values. A mechanistically-based modeling approach is presented here that aims to improve estimates for the outdoor/indoor relationships of photochemical pollutants and of associated fine particles and, subsequently, of human exposure assessments. New approaches for refining the spatial, temporal, and indoor/outdoor patterns of gas phase photochemical contaminants and PM are currently being developed and tested. These approaches are combined with information from either ambient monitoring networks or from ambient air quality models that consider aerosol physics and chemistry coupled with gas phase photochemistry (e.g. UAM-AERO). This process utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Relational Database (RD) methods, to facilitate detailed exposure scenario construction (involving e.g. the geographic location of an individual considered in time) and to aid in the estimation of population exposure over selected geographic areas. The combination of monitor data or air quality modeling with microenvironmental modeling in a GIS framework can potentially provide a useful platform for more accurate assessments of human exposure to co-occurring gas and particulate phase air pollutants.

  6. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  7. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  8. Addendum to the Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Model for Residential Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Energy Calculations. Masters Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder. Wenzel, T.; Kooney, J.; Rosenquist, G.; Sanchez,...

  9. LG: Proposed Penalty (2014-SE-15011) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    September 26, 2014 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that LG Electronics USA, Inc. manufactured and distributed noncompliant room air conditioner basic model...

  10. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be quickly detected using pressure monitoring outside the concrete lining.

  11. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock cavernsCompressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Lined Rock Cavernscompressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock

  12. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    Williams, Compressed air energy storage: Theory, resources,for the compressed air energy storage technology by thefor compressed air energy storage power generation, Japan

  13. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  14. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) Marketed Production (Million Cubic84.

  15. Central Air Conditioners","Heat Pumps","Individual Air Conditioners","District Chilled Water","Central Chillers","Packaged

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative StandardFeet) Marketed Production (Million Cubic84.5.

  16. A response surface model of the air quality impacts of aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma?ek, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    Aviation demand is expected to double in the coming decades, and there are growing concerns about its impacts on the environment. Governments seek to mitigate the impacts of aviation on climate, air quality, and noise by ...

  17. Modeling the pneumatic relay valve of an s-cam air brake 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilayannur Natarajan, Shankar

    2005-08-29

    Statistics indicate that defects in brake system contribute significantly to fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles. Hence there is a need for developing preventive and active safety measures for assessing the performance of an air brake system...

  18. Modeling VOC sorption of building materials and its impact on indoor air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jinsong, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by building materials can have significant effect on the indoor VOC concentration levels and indoor air quality in buildings. The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  19. An automotive engine model for air-fuel ratio control using cylinder pressure information 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nana, Emmanuel Tomdio

    1997-01-01

    Increasingly strict emission standards require very accurate and fast air-fuel ratio (AFR) control in combustion engines. This thesis addresses the design methodology currently used for synthesizing a control system for an automotive internal...

  20. United States Air Force fighter jet maintenance Models : effectiveness of index policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, John M. (John Michael)

    2013-01-01

    As some of the most technically complex systems in the world, United States fighter aircraft require a complex logistics system to sustain their reliable operation and ensure that the day-to-day Air Force missions can be ...

  1. Feedback Model of Air Transportation System Change: Implementation Challenges for Aviation Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L.

    The U.S. air transportation system faces substantial challenges in implementing new aviation information systems to meet future demand. These challenges need to be understood and addressed in order to successfully meet ...

  2. Transitions of cloud-topped marine boundary layers characterized by AIRS, MODIS, and a large eddy simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias; Fetzer, E. J.; Teixeira, J.; Suselj, Kay

    2013-08-16

    Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.

  3. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air-filled pores of cementitious materials. The ARM also combines the individual transport models constructed for each E-Area disposal facility into a single model, and was ultimately used to analyze the LFRG concern regarding the potential for atmospheric plume overlap at the SRS boundary during the IC period. To evaluate the plume overlap issue, a conservative approach was adopted whereby the MEI at the SRS boundary was exposed to the releases from all E-Area disposal facilities simultaneously. This is equivalent to a 100% overlap of all atmospheric plumes emanating from E-Area. Should the dose received from this level of atmospheric plume overlap still fall below the permissible exposure level of 10 mrem/yr, then the LFRG concern would be alleviated. The structuring of the ARM enables this evaluation to be easily performed. During the IC period, the peak of the 'total plume overlap dose' was computed to be 1.9E-05 mrem/yr, which is five orders of magnitude lower than the 10 mrem/yr PA performance objective for the atmospheric release pathway. The main conclusion of this study is that for atmospheric releases from the E-Area disposal facilities, plume overlap does not cause the total dose to the MEI at the SRS boundary during the IC to exceed the Performance Assessment (PA) performance objective. Additionally, the potential for plume overlap was assessed in the post-Institutional Control period. Atmospheric plume overlap is less likely to occur during this period but conceivably could occur if the prevailing wind direction shifted so as to pass directly over all EArea disposal facilities and transport airborne radionuclides to the MEI at the 100 m point of compliance (POC). This concern was also demonstrated of little concern, as the maximum plume overlap dose was found to be 1.45E+00 mrem/yr (or {approx}15% of the performance measure) during this period and under these unlikely conditions.

  4. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    and Cost of Conserved Energy Given estimates of retail price, UEC, marginal electricity prices and discount rates, calculation

  5. Development of empirical temperature and humidity-based degraded-condition indicators for low-tonnage air conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, James Bonner

    1997-01-01

    was equipped with the ability to use either a short-tube orifice (STO) or a thermal expansion valve (TXV). The degraded conditions studied include low evaporator airflow, high and low-charge, and a blocked condenser coil. The work presented in this thesis...

  6. Development of Temperature and Humidity-Based Indicators for Diagnosing Problems in Low Tonnage, Split System Air Conditioners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watt, J. B.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    with the ability to use either a short-tube orifice (STO) or a thermal expansion valve (TXV). The degraded conditions studied include low evaporator airflow, high- and low- charge, and a blocked condenser coil. The empirical work was performed to identify.... The original work showed that low-cost temperature sensors can be used to detect the degraded conditions studied. However, it also showed that the temperature-based indicators of low evaporator airflow depend on three loading factors; outdoor...

  7. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    in use patterns and electricity rates between commercial andRates Residential electricity rates are much lower thanin India. Residential electricity rates are subsidized to a

  8. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2014-01-01

    Current and future electricity demand from Room ACs andof ACs to the Peak Electricity Demand In this section, weseasonal variation in electricity demand in both sectors,

  9. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  10. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  11. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    Bengtsson K. , 2002, “Gas Turbines – Sources or Sinks forParticle Emissions from Gas Turbines, Technical reportGrowth from Natural Gas Turbines. ,” Prep. [31] Lobo P. ,

  12. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    REPORT: TEST RESULTS FOR A COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT WITHTEST RESULTS FOR A COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT WITH OXIDATIONfired natural gas, combined cycle power plants, however,

  13. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Study of Coal in India's Future Energy Scope. Tata EnergyLabeling and Energy Efficiency Standards in India. Indianproducts: The case of India." Energy Policy 36(9): CLASP .

  14. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    2015-01-01

    from the stack of the turbine engine in comparison to thoseparticles from gas turbine engines; the second phase [15] offrom the stack of the turbine engine in comparison to those

  15. Assessing the Impact of Measurement Policy on the Accuracy of Certified Energy Efficiency Ratio for Split-System Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Bingyi

    2013-01-01

    20740-6001. [15] ASHRAE (1995). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 116-95,Volume 32, pg. ASHRAE (2009). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 37-2009,GA, 30329. ASHRAE (2007). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 51-2007,

  16. The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    mode, setting outer curtain can conserve energy for 40.9% and 20.4% compared with no curtain and inner curtain states, respectively. In winter high speed mode is the most efficient for saving energy which can decrease 40.3% and 30.9% compared with low...

  17. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0 - 19 Publicationsresearch reveals the effects of

  18. NREL Demonstrates Game-Changing Air Conditioner Technology (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 NationalNO FEAR Act Notice NONPSRS:3367

  19. NREL Solves Residential Window Air Conditioner Performance Limitations (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 NationalNO FEAR ActUsingStudy013 Denver West

  20. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in electrical energy storage system: a criticalcurrent and future energy storage technologies for electricwind- diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote

  1. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Pelca, Dominique; Fausser, Christian; Merckx, Jacques; Mitchell, Barrett R

    2015-01-01

    Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical ...

  2. Development of a model to calculate mechanical specific energy for air hammer drilling systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okuchaba, Boma Jeremiah

    2009-05-15

    drilling time could be reduced. Real-time monitoring of Mechanical Specific Energy will enable drilling engineers to detect when the optimum drilling rate for a given set of drilling parameters is not being achieved. Numerous works have been done on air...

  3. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response. IModeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions Chin-Yao Chang, Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, and Karanjit Kalsi Abstract-- Demand-side control is playing an increasingly

  4. Natural history of severe decompression sickness after rapid ascent from air saturation in a porcine model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlman, Andreas

    Natural history of severe decompression sickness after rapid ascent from air saturation Parker, and Paul Weathersby. Natural history of severe decompression sick- ness after rapid ascent from to describe the untreated natural history of severe decompression sickness (DCS) after direct ascent from

  5. Impacts of Static Pressure Reset on VAV System Air Leakage, Fan Power and Thermal Energy - Part I: Theoretical Model and Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Feng, J.; Wang, Z.; Wu, L.; Zheng, K.; Pang, W.

    2007-01-01

    pressure reset has also applicable advantages over the existing constant static pressure set point and two typical reset methods. This paper present the theoretical models to express the impacts of static pressure reset on fan airflow, fan head, air leakage...

  6. Duct Design Impacts on Energy Consumptions and Life Cycle Costs for Residential Central Heating and Cooling Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Peng

    2015-08-10

    In this study, a series of laboratory measurements was conducted on residential air handling units (AHUs) and air conditioners to characterize their performance at typical installed conditions. In addition, performance models of blowers and air...

  7. Identifying Contributions of On-road Motor Vehicles to Urban Air Pollution Using Travel Demand Model Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Bai, Song; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Health Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution. University ofon-road motor vehicles to urban air pollution, using travelon-road motor vehicles to urban air pollution using travel

  8. Clean Air Interstate Rule: Changes and Modeling in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    On December 23, 2008, the D.C. Circuit Court remanded but did not vacate the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), overriding its previous decision on February 8, 2008, to remand and vacate CAIR. The December decision, which is reflected in Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO) , allows CAIR to remain in effect, providing time for the Environmental Protection Agency to modify the rule in order to address objections raised by the Court in its earlier decision. A similar rule, referred to as the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), which was to set up a cap-and-trade system for reducing mercury emissions by approximately 70%, is not represented in the AEO2010 projections, because it was vacated by the D.C. Circuit Court in February 2008.

  9. Development of a modeling framework to predict indoor air concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Loy, M.D.; Nazaroff, W.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Daisey, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental and Energy Technologies Div.

    1998-12-31

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are an important but largely unstudied class of indoor air pollutants. SVOCs have been well-studied as outdoor air pollutants, but much less effort has been focused on understanding the factors affecting their concentrations in indoor air. Because of these compounds` low (10-6 to 10 Pa at room temperature) vapor pressures, they readily partition into condensed phases from the gas phase. In outdoor air, this phenomenon is important as a source of secondary organic aerosol and as a mechanism for long range transport and persistence of SVOCs in the atmosphere as particle-phase species. Indoor environments include another potential condensed phase besides the airborne particle phase: surface materials such as carpet, wallboard, upholstery, ceiling tiles, linoleum, and many others. Adsorption to these materials has a markedly different effect on indoor contaminant concentrations because the condensed phase is stationary. Unlike the airborne particle phase, for which ventilation is a significant removal mechanism, the only significant pathway for removal of reversibly sorbed pollutants from the indoor environment is desorption into the gas phase followed by ventilation. Because buildings generally have a large surface area to gas-phase volume ratio, the net removal of SVOCs from the indoor environment via this mechanism is likely to be very slow. Compounds re-emitted from one surface are likely to quickly re-absorb to another. This paper presents an analysis of the factors affecting indoor concentrations of SVOCs including ventilation, gas-particle partitioning, gas phase sorption on indoor surfaces, particle deposition, and oxidative radical chemistry and estimates their relative importance to facilitate simplification of numerical simulations of indoor pollutant concentrations.

  10. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  11. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    time integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle oftime integrated energy balance term in the 5 th cycle ofof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  12. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Calculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thCalculated time integrated energy balance term in the 5 thof air tightness and energy balance Hyung-Mok Kim 1 , Jonny

  13. Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public-private partnership has helped one Air Force base reduce its energy costs and convert to 25 percent renewable energy. Nellis Air Force Base, just north of Las Vegas, took a big step in 2007 when it installed a 14.2-megawatt, 70,000-panel photovoltaic solar array that reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 24,000 tons a year. Built partly on a landfill, the field of solar panels takes advantage of two resources plentiful in Nevada: sunshine and empty land. At its unveiling in December of 2007, the Nellis array was the largest solar panel installation in North America. The project was originally expected to produce about 30,000 megawatt-hours of electricity per year, but Steven Dumont, Air Combat Command Energy Manager, says it’s actually producing closer to 32,000 megawatt-hours, which is about 8 percent above expectations. Despite this success, Dumont said he nearly didn’t pursue the project.

  14. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Phifer, M.

    2010-07-30

    An air and radon pathways analysis was conducted for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. Additionally, the dose to the MEI was estimated at a seepage outcrop located 1600 m from the facility. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  15. Modeling Improvements for Air Source Heat Pumps using Different Expansion Devices at Varied Charge Levels Part II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes steady-state performance simulations performed on a 3-ton R-22 split heat pump in heating mode. In total, 150 steady-state points were simulated, which covers refrigerant charge levels from 70 % to 130% relative to the nominal value, the outdoor temperatures at 17 F (-8.3 C), 35 F (1.7 C) and 47 F (8.3 C), indoor air flow rates from 60% to 150% of the rated air flow rate, and two types of expansion devices (fixed orifice and thermostatic expansion valve). A charge tuning method, which is to calibrate the charge inventory model based on measurements at two operation conditions, was applied and shown to improve the system simulation accuracy significantly in an extensive range of charge levels. In addition, we discuss the effects of suction line accumulator in modeling a heat pump system using either a fixed orifice or thermal expansion valve. Last, we identify the issue of refrigerant mass flow mal-distribution at low charge levels and propose an improved modeling approach.

  16. Description and preliminary validation of a model for natural convection heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have proposed a transient, quasi-two-dimensional, numerical model for interzone heat flow and airflow in passive solar buildings. The paths for heat flow and airflow are through connecting apertures such as doorways, hallways, and stairways. The model includes the major features that influence interzone convection as determined from the results of our flow visualization tests and temperature and airflow measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes laminar and turbulent quasi-steady boundary-layer equations at vertical heated or cooled walls which are coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange air and energy through the aperture which is modelled by a Bernoulli equation. Preliminary results from the model are in general agreement with data obtained in full-scale buildings and laboratory experiments. The model predicts room-core temperature stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/ F/ft) and maximum aperture velocities of 0.08 m/s (15 ft/min.) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 1/sup 0/F.

  17. Air Monitoring Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-24

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as demolition plans are finalized.

  18. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F-AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2007-09-17

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is located within F-Area in the General Separations Area (GSA) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as seen in Figure 1. The GSA contains the F and H Area Separations Facilities, the S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility, the Z-Area Saltstone Facility, and the E-Area Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities. The FTF is a nearly rectangular shaped area and comprises approximately 20 acres, which is bounded by SRS coordinates N 76,604.5 to N 77,560.0 and E 52,435.0 to E 53,369.0. SRS is in the process of preparing a Performance Assessment (PA) to support FTF closure. As part of the PA process, an analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential magnitude of gaseous release of radionuclides from the FTF over the 100-year institutional control period and 10,000-year post-closure compliance period. Specifically, an air and radon pathways analysis has been conducted to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  19. Air Dispersion Modeling of Radioactive Releases During Proposed PFP Complex Demolition Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2011-01-11

    This report is part of the planning process for the demolition of the 234-5Z, 236-Z, 242-Z, and 291-Z-1 structures at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) demolition planning effort by making engineering estimates of potential releases for various potential demolition alternatives. This report documents an analysis considering open-air demolition using standard techniques. It does not document any decisions about the decommissioning approaches; it is expected that this report will be revisited as the final details of the demolition are developed.

  20. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  1. Green River air quality model development: meteorological and tracer data, July/August 1982 field study in Brush Valley, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lee, R.N.; Orgill, M.M.; Zak, B.D.

    1984-06-01

    Meteorological and atmospheric tracer studies were conducted during a 3-week period in July and August of 1982 in the Brush Creek Valley of northwestern Colorado. The objective of the field experiments was to obtain data to evaluate a model, called VALMET, developed at PNL to predict dispersion of air pollutants released from an elevated stack located within a deep mountain valley in the post-sunrise temperature inversion breakup period. Three tracer experiments were conducted in the valley during the 2-week period. In these experiments, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) was released from a height of approximately 100 m, beginning before sunrise and continuing until the nocturnal down-valley winds reversed several hours after sunrise. Dispersion of the sulfur hexafluoride after release was evaluated by measuring SF/sub 6/ concentrations in ambient air samples taken from sampling devices operated within the valley up to about 8 km down valley from the source. An instrumented research aircraft was also used to measure concentrations in and above the valley. Tracer samples were collected using a network of radio-controlled bag sampling stations, two manually operated gas chromatographs, a continuous SF/sub 6/ monitor, and a vertical SF/sub 6/ profiler. In addition, basic meteorological data were collected during the tracer experiments. Frequent profiles of vertical wind and temperature structure were obtained with tethered balloons operated at the release site and at a site 7.7 km down the valley from the release site. 10 references, 63 figures, 50 tables.

  2. Efficiency of clay-TiO2 nanocomposites on the photocatalytic eliminationof a model hydrophobic air pollutant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibanova, Daria; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Clay-supported TiO2 photocatalysts can potentially improve the performance of air treatment technologies via enhanced adsorption and reactivity of target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, a bench-top photocatalytic flow reactor was used to evaluate the efficiency of hectorite-TiO2 and kaolinite-TiO2, two novel composite materials synthesized in our laboratory. Toluene, a model hydrophobic VOC and a common indoor air pollutant, was introduced in the air stream at realistic concentrations, and reacted under UVA (gamma max = 365 nm) or UVC (gamma max = 254 nm) irradiation. The UVC lamp generated secondary emission at 185 nm, leading to the formation of ozone and other short-lived reactive species. Performance of clay-TiO2 composites was compared with that of pure TiO2 (Degussa P25), and with UV irradiation in the absence of photocatalyst under identical conditions. Films of clay-TiO2 composites and of P25 were prepared by a dip-coating method on the surface of Raschig rings, which were placed inside the flow reactor. An upstream toluene concentration of ~;;170 ppbv was generated by diluting a constant flow of toluene vapor from a diffusion source with dry air, or with humid air at 10, 33 and 66percent relative humidity (RH). Toluene concentrations were determined by collecting Tenax-TA (R) sorbent tubes downstream of the reactor, with subsequent thermal desorption -- GC/MS analysis. The fraction of toluene removed, percentR, and the reaction rate, Tr, were calculated for each experimental condition from the concentration changes measured with and without UV irradiation. Use of UVC light (UV/TiO2/O3) led to overall higher reactivity, which can be partially attributed to the contribution of gas phase reactions by short-lived radical species. When the reaction rate was normalized to the light irradiance, Tr/I gamma, the UV/TiO2 reaction under UVA irradiation was more efficient for samples with a higher content of TiO2 (P25 and Hecto-TiO2), but not for Kao-TiO2. In all cases, reaction rates peaked at 10percent RH, with Tr values between 10 and 50percent higher than those measured under dry air. However, a net inhibition was observed as RH increased to 33percent and 66percent, indicating that water molecules competed effectively with toluene for reactive surface sites and limited the overall photocatalytic conversion. Compared to P25, inhibition by co-adsorbed water was less significant for Kao-TiO2 samples, but was more dramatic for Hecto-TiO2 due to the high water uptake capacity of hectorite.

  3. OLAF _ A General Modeling System to Evaluate and Optimize the Location of an Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fliege, Jörg

    ........................17 3.1.1The Standard Model ....................17 3.1.2Metabolism.1.2The Objective Function ..................40 5.1.3The Gradient of the Objective Function

  4. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  5. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems part IV: underfloor plenum testing and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Jin, Hui

    2007-01-01

    for implementation in EnergyPlus. A secondary goal was toCFD database for implementation into EnergyPlus Comparisonbetween EnergyPlus and CFD plenum model predictions

  6. Neural networks as nonlinear models in Air Force personnel analysis: a prospectus and exploratory results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiggins, Vince L.

    1996-01-01

    recently demonstrated capabilities in areas important to personnel research such as statistical analysis, decision modeling, control, and forecasting. An extensive review of the neural network literature indicates that these networks have proven superior...

  7. Modeling Regional Air Quality Using the Near-Explicit Master Chemical Mechanism 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jingyi

    2014-08-01

    structure, allowing an explicit calculation of SOA formation from individual model species. Earlier attempts in this area were aimed at developing mechanisms for regional SOA using a small number of representative species (Griffin et al., 2002b; Griffin...

  8. Computer model for gas turbine blade cooling; including a comparison of steam to air as a cooling medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortman, Daniel William

    1982-01-01

    with reasonable heat transfer character1stics were available, no air from the axial air com- pressor would need to be utilized. Steam is a widely suggested alter- native cool1ng med1um to air because 1ts h1gher specific heat suggests that it would prov1de...

  9. Using a chemistry transport model to account for the spatial variability of exposure-concentrations in epidemiologic air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    -concentrations in epidemiologic air pollution studies Myrto Valari and Laurent Menut Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique as exposure surrogates in time-series studies of the association between ambient air pollution and health surrogates for use in time-series studies of air pollution short-term health effects. Pollutant

  10. Mechanical Air Distribution Interactions with the House System in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    as it is with the air conditioner. When a heat pump can no longer meet the demand it falls back on strip heat resulting in a very large loss in system operating efficiency, not just longer run times. Return leaks can also draw in gases like radon as we... LIABILITY Consider for a moment the liability associated with designing or building a home in which interac- tions between the home and the equipment are found to introduce carbon monoxide, large quantities of moisture, radon. allergens, or particulates...

  11. New Appliance Tax Credits, Rebates, and Incentives for Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air conditioners Clothes washers Dishwashers Freezers Furnaces (oil and gas) Heat pumps (air source and geothermal) Refrigerators Room air conditioners Water heaters State...

  12. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  13. AIR-EARTH INTERFACE MODEL FOR RESTORING RIPARIAN HABITATS1 Robert M . Dixon2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (AEI) Model involves four interrelated and interacting AEI processes--desertification, infiltration, imprintation and revegetation--each of which will be briefly outlined on the following pages. Desertification Definitions Generally, desertification is a land degradation pro- cess, triggered by human disturbances, which

  14. Comprehensive ecosystem model-experiment synthesis using multiple datasets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: model performance and compensating biases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Anthony P [ORNL] [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL] [ORNL; DeKauwe, Martin G [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry] [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Asao, Shinichi [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hickler, Thomas [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany] [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Huntinford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom] [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lomas, Mark [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University] [Duke University; Parton, William [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Prentice, I. Collin [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Shusen [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)] [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS); Wang, Yingping [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research] [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Warlind, David [Lund University, Sweden] [Lund University, Sweden; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL] [ORNL; Woodward, F. Ian [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Oren, Ram [Duke University] [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data to test the sensitivities of terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In this study, a broad set of 11 TEMs were compared to 22 years of data from two contrasting FACE experiments in temperate forests of the south eastern US the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge forest. We evaluated the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration and Leaf Area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Encouragingly, many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. Daily transpiration model errors were often related to errors in leaf area phenology and peak LAI. Our analysis demonstrates that the simulation of LAI often drives the simulation of transpiration and hence there is a need to adopt the most appropriate of hypothesis driven methods to simulate and predict LAI. Of the three competing hypotheses determining peak LAI (1) optimisation to maximise carbon export, (2) increasing SLA with canopy depth and (3) the pipe model the pipe model produced LAI closest to the observations. Modelled phenology was either prescribed or based on broader empirical calibrations to climate. In some cases, simulation accuracy was achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, NPP accuracy was sometimes achieved with counter-balancing biases in nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake. Combined analysis of parallel measurements aides the identification of offsetting biases; without which over-confidence in model abilities to predict ecosystem function may emerge, potentially leading to erroneous predictions of change under future climates.

  15. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 10571064 UNSTEADY FLAMELET MODELING OF TURBULENT HYDROGEN-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsch, Heinz

    1057 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 1057-air diffusion flame. An unsteady flamelet is solved interactively with a CFD solver for the tur- bulent flow Modeling of combustion in turbulent diffusion flames has been shown to be already rather success- ful [1

  16. Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation of Air Flow in Data Centres Based on a Quasi-3D Approach for Energy Optimisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation of Air Flow in Data Centres Based on a Quasi-3D Approach. To this end, different solutions were proposed. On one side, researchers have focused on how to adapt is much faster and more economical than building an actual layout. However, a CFD simulation can last 24

  17. AeroSys: Order (2011-SCE-1624)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered AeroSys, Inc. (AeroSys) to pay a $100,000 civil penalty after finding AeroSys had (1) failed to certify that certain models of space-constrained central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps comply with the applicable energy conservation standards; and (2) manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. units of noncompliant models of space-constrained central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps.

  18. Comparing three vegetation monoterpene emission models to measured gas concentrations with a model of meteorology, air chemistry and chemical transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolander, S.; He, Q.; Mogensen, Ditte; Zhou, L.; Back, J.; Ruuskanen, T.; Noe, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Aaltonen, H.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, Michael

    2014-10-07

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are essential in atmospheric chemistry because of their chemical reactions that produce and destroy tropospheric ozone, their effects on aerosol formation and growth, and their potential influence on global warming. As one of the important BVOC groups, monoterpenes have been a focus of scientific attention in atmospheric research. Detailed regional measurements and model estimates are needed to study emission potential and the monoterpene budget on a global scale. Since the use of empirical measurements for upscaling is limited by many physical and biological factors such as genetic variation, temperature and light, water availability, seasonal changes, and environmental stresses, comprehensive inventories over larger areas are difficult to obtain.

  19. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  20. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-M.

    2012-01-01

    and R. Scharf, Huntroft CAES: More than 20 years ofbase case for modeling of CAES in a lined rock cavern. TableFigure 2. Components of a CAES system (modified from http://

  1. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  2. AeroSys: Order (2010-CE-01/0201 and 2010-SE-0302)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered AeroSys, Inc. to pay a $25,000 civil penalty after finding AeroSys had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. various models of air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps that did not comport with the applicable energy conservation standards. In addition, AeroSys had distributed air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps without submitting the required certification reports.

  3. On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

    2010-01-01

    This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

  4. Formative time of breakdown modeled for the ignition of air and n-butane mixtures using effective ionization coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Popugaev, S. D.; Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Jiao, C. Q.

    2008-12-15

    It is shown that simulations of ignition by electric arc discharge in n-butane and air mixtures have interesting features, which deviate from results obtained by simple extension of calculations based on methanelike fuels. In particular, it is demonstrated that lowering the temperature of the n-butane-air mixture before ignition under certain conditions will actually decrease the ignition stage time as well as the required electric field.

  5. A Home Cooling Strategy for Lower Energy Bills | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air conditioner has difficulty achieving low humidity, consider adding a dehumidifying heat pipe as a retrofit to your system. For room or window air conditioners, inspect the...

  6. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted Air Conditioners This presentation was...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Filter by Subject energy conservation, consumption, and utilization (3) energy efficiency (3) manufacturers (3) air conditioners (2) efficiency (2) aceee (1) air-conditioner...

  8. Model Code for the Prevention of Residential HAC Distribution System Leakage and HAC-Induced Building Leakage, 1994 Edition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wemhoff, P.

    1994-01-01

    program, thou h Its attachment by pi Ing Is analo ous to that opan externa11~-mounte8air conditioner. The AD standards are contained in Part 3280, and the HUD regulations in Part 3282, of 24 CFR Ch. XX installed and site-installed space conditioning...C-:+:-- -' plenum chamber. i 2. Enclosed support platforms conta air stream 3. Through-wall, through-floor, and I ceiling returns. (d) Return Air Requirements (e) HUD-Regulated Manufactured Hon Buildings 1. System design. 2 Closure requirements. (0 Air...

  9. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  10. Midea: ENERGY STAR Referral (MWF-08CR)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of Westpointe-brand room air conditioner model MWF-08CR to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  11. Friedrich: ENERGY STAR Referral (SM18M30)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred the matter of Friedrich room air conditioner model SM18M30 to the EPA for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification.

  12. Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2002-01-01

    the indoor air quality, This paper presents modeling, optimization procedures and optimal airflow control sequences....

  13. Identifying Traffic-Related Air Pollution Hotspots in the Built Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    for imporvemetns in air pollution models. Atmospheric2010). Traffic-related air pollution: A critical review offor vehicle-related air pollution exposure in minority and

  14. Childhood Cancer and Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in Pregnancy and Early Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    al. 2008) or sophisticated air pollution modeling strategiestraffic-related air pollution expo- sures in relation toassocia- tions between air pollution and cancer are not

  15. Eddy current evaluation of air-gaps in aeronautical multilayered assemblies using multi-frequency a behavioral model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Eddy current evaluation of air-gaps in aeronautical multilayered assemblies using multi in an aeronautical multilayered metallic assembly, by the means of the eddy current method. A behavioural multi, either for simulated or experimental data. KEYWORDS: Non-destructive evaluation, eddy currents, multi

  16. Advanced chemistry-transport modeling and observing systems allow daily air quality observations, short-term forecasts, and real-time analyses of air quality at the global and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    , French legislation has been adapted in such a way that the local authorities in charge of air pollution can now inform the public and take emergency decisions re- lated to air pollution control not onlyOLOGICAL SOCIETy | #12;air quality monitoring system. In case of a pollution episode, when concentrations exceed

  17. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    E. , (2000). Spectral analysis of air pollutants. Part 1:time series and analyses of air quality model outputs will

  18. 3, 35433588, 2003 3-D air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution modelling L. M. Frohn et al. Title Page Abstract hemispheric nested air pollution model L. M. Frohn, J. H. Christensen, J. Brandt, C. Geels, and K. M. Hansen 2003 Correspondence to: L. M. Frohn (lmf@dmu.dk) 3543 #12;ACPD 3, 3543­3588, 2003 3-D air pollution

  19. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  20. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustin Mihi andAir Leaks inAir

  1. An Integrated Air Handling Unit System for Large Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Liu, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated air handling unit system (OAHU) for large commercial buildings. The system introduces outside air into the interior section and circulates the return air to the exterior section. Detailed analytical models...

  2. Dehumidifying Heat Pipes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to flow to the evaporator end of the pipe to begin the cycle again. Most models of heat pumps and central air conditioners can be retrofitted with dehumidifying heat pipes....

  3. DOE Institutes Enforcement Action Against AeroSys, Inc. for Failure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    testing methodology and therefore improperly certified the following air conditioners and heat pump basic models: THDC-18R, THDC-18S, THDC-18T, THDC-24R, THDC-24S, THDC-24T,...

  4. Department of Energy Announces Testing for AeroSys, Inc. Products...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AeroSys, Inc. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models Shown to Violate Minimum Efficiency Standards DOE Institutes Enforcement...

  5. Heat Controller: Order (2011-CE-1507)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Heat Controller, Inc. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Heat Controller had failed to certify that certain models of room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Two-Phase Flow of HCFC-22 and HFC-134a through Short Tube Orifices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongchan, K.

    2008-01-23

    and pressure conditions were those typically found in air-conditioner and heat pump applications. Effects of each operating parameters and short tube geometry on the flow rate were discussed and included in the modeling. Both an analytical and semi...

  7. Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a high Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). The current minimum is 13 SEER for central air conditioners. ENERGY STAR models are 14.5 SEER or more. Learn more about the...

  8. LG: Noncompliance Determination (2014-SE-15011) | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    July 30, 2014 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to LG Electronics USA, Inc. finding that room air conditioner basic model LT143CNR does not comport with the...

  9. YMGI: Noncompliance Determination (2011-SCE-1605)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to YMGI Group, LLC, finding that YMGI's through-the-wall split system central air conditioner basic model TTWC-18K-31B fails to meet applicable DOE energy conservation standards.

  10. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy in Industry, West Point, NY, July 19-22. 1 Modeling and Simulation of Air Compressor Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    of Air Compressor Energy Use Chris Schmidt, Energy & Resource Solutions, Inc. Kelly Kissock, Department compressor energy use to estimate energy savings in compressed air systems from air use reduction and other of this method to estimate energy savings from changing control modes and reducing air use is described

  11. YMGI: Order (2011-SCE-1605)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered YMGI Group LLC to pay a $31,400 civil penalty after finding (1) YMGI had failed to certify that certain models of residential central air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standards and (2) YMGI had distributed in commerce model TTWC-18K-31B, a through-the-wall air conditioner that does not meet the applicable energy conservation standard.

  12. A systems-theoretic security model for large scale, complex systems applied to the US air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laracy, Joseph R. (Joseph Raymond)

    2007-01-01

    Classical risk-based or game-theoretic security models rely on assumptions from reliability theory and rational expectations economics that are not applicable to security threats. Additionally, these models suffer from ...

  13. Business Case for Energy Efficiency in Support of Climate Change Mitigation, Economic and Societal Benefits in the Republic of Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    dispenser or homebar door No CCE below Tariff Residential Freezers Split Room Air Conditioners Motors

  14. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  15. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  16. Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scottish Air Pollution and Health Workshop Session 4 Joint Research Policy Needs and Interactions needs and how can we work together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution together effectively on these to reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in Scotland. Modelling

  17. Optimal Supply Angle of Upside Air Supply in Manned Spacecraft Cabin-Based Air Age 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Z.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The age of air in the workaround of a manned spacecraft cabin that contain astronauts, apparatus and simple living establishments was numerically simulated by use of commercial software and a standard k-e turbulence model. An air inlet installed...

  18. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  19. Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Anupama

    2011-08-08

    and petrochemical industries to ozone formation in the atmosphere. Source-oriented emissions needed to drive the model were generated using a revised Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model version 2.4. VOC/NOx ratios are found to be a critical factor...

  20. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged bynuevo sistemaAir

  1. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry-climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-04-16

    We test the current generation of global chemistry-climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model-measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfully matched. The observedmore »summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80% of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The observed linear relationship showing increases in ozone by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes is also matched.« less

  2. MathCAD model for the estimation of cost and main characteristics of air-cushion vehicles in the preliminary design stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougoulidis, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    In the naval architecture terminology, the term ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) refers to this category of vehicles, in which a significant portion of the weight (or all the weight) is supported by forces arising from air pressures ...

  3. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate global chemistry–climate modeling of surface ozone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schnell, J. L.; Prather, M. J.; Josse, B.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Bergmann, D.; Zeng, G.; Plummer, D. A.; Sudo, K.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We test the current generation of global chemistry–climate models in their ability to simulate observed, present-day surface ozone. Models are evaluated against hourly surface ozone from 4217 stations in North America and Europe that are averaged over 1° × 1° grid cells, allowing commensurate model–measurement comparison. Models are generally biased high during all hours of the day and in all regions. Most models simulate the shape of regional summertime diurnal and annual cycles well, correctly matching the timing of hourly (~ 15:00 local time (LT)) and monthly (mid-June) peak surface ozone abundance. The amplitude of these cycles is less successfullymore »matched. The observed summertime diurnal range (~ 25 ppb) is underestimated in all regions by about 7 ppb, and the observed seasonal range (~ 21 ppb) is underestimated by about 5 ppb except in the most polluted regions, where it is overestimated by about 5 ppb. The models generally match the pattern of the observed summertime ozone enhancement, but they overestimate its magnitude in most regions. Most models capture the observed distribution of extreme episode sizes, correctly showing that about 80 % of individual extreme events occur in large-scale, multi-day episodes of more than 100 grid cells. The models also match the observed linear relationship between episode size and a measure of episode intensity, which shows increases in ozone abundance by up to 6 ppb for larger-sized episodes. We conclude that the skill of the models evaluated here provides confidence in their projections of future surface ozone.« less

  4. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, Comboflair® was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The Comboflair® system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The Comboflair® system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The Comboflair® system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  5. Modeling and Control of Passive Chilled Beams with Underfloor Air Distribution of Ventilation in Office Buildings in Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negandhi, Vanita K

    2015-08-10

    other. Finally, summertime stratification measurements were taken in the offices and were combined with a CFD model of a single zone in Star CCM+ 9.04 to establish temperature and airflow profiles in the zones. These comfort studies were conducted...

  6. A modeling investigation of canopy-air oxygen isotopic exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide in a soybean field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    of terrestrial vegetation to the global CO2 and H2O cycles. In this paper, a simple isotopic land surface model theory of leaf water isotopic composition, a canopy kinetic fractionation factor, and a big with CO2 and H2O exchange in terrestrial ecosystems. Cuntz et al. [2003a, 2003b] and Hoffmann et al. [2004

  7. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  8. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  9. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate if factories put out half as much carbon monoxide", or "what if car traffic is reduced by one-third". Using, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and amount of sunlight are a few of these components. The model takes

  10. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  11. PREV'AIR, a platform for air quality monitoring and fore-, Menut, L.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    with trends in emission levels. Forecasts and observation maps of air pollutants - ozone, nitrogen dioxide on the pollutant. The air quality maps published every day are the result of numerical simula- tions performed using chemistry-transport models that allow the calculation of the evolution of air pollutant

  12. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  13. Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Measuring air pollution using a mobile, bicycle-based platform Steve Hankey University-walkability Physical activity Air pollution 2 #12;Approach: Mobile, bicycle-based sampling Air pollution measurements;Results: Exposure by mode 11 #12;Next steps: Land-use regression model Air pollution measurements LUR

  14. Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phenomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing's very large parallel computational architectures. Aerospace Engineering Doctoral Defense Numerical

  15. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  17. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  18. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Industrial, Residential, Multifamily Residential Savings Category: Lighting, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Building...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Chillers, Heat Pumps, Air conditioners, Heat recovery, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats,...