National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for agricultural crop byproducts

  1. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  2. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  3. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ags ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  4. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  5. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  6. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

  7. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand...

  8. H. R. 1198: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to restore the application of the credit for producing fuels from a nonconventional source to steam produced from agricultural byproducts, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 28, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill would allow a tax credit for steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts (including sugar cane residues, but not including timber byproducts). The bill applies to steam produced which is sold after December 31, 1989, the effective date of this amendment. Steam produced which is used by the taxpayer in his trade or business would be treated as having been sold by the taxpayer to an unrelated person on the date on which it is used.

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  10. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, clean coal combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered allowable under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  12. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  13. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  14. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers. The by-product FGD materials also showed good potential as a granular substrate for turning volatile liquid herbicides into a dry, spreadable form. It was also shown that a significant amount of other fertilizer compounds, such as elemental sulfur, could be successfully incorporated into the pelleted products, if desired.

  15. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  16. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  17. Agriculture Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Industrial Federal Agriculture SIS Variable Frequency Drives Irrigation Pump Testing Irrigation Hardware Upgrades LESA Agricultural Marketing Toolkit BPA's...

  18. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  19. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  20. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0481 JULY 2015 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Final PEIS Responsible Federal Agency: U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Title: Engineered High Energy

  1. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  3. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  4. PETRO: Higher Productivity Crops for Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The 10 projects that comprise ARPA-Es PETRO Project, short for Plants Engineered to Replace Oil, aim to develop non-food crops that directly produce transportation fuel. These crops can help supply the transportation sector with agriculturally derived fuels that are cost-competitive with petroleum and do not affect U.S. food supply. PETRO aims to redirect the processes for energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in plants toward fuel production. This would create dedicated energy crops that serve as a domestic alternative to petroleum-based fuels and deliver more energy per acre with less processing prior to the pump.

  5. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurementsmore » of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.« less

  6. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  7. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Christopher Daly and Michael Halbleib PRISM Climate Group Sun Grant Western Region GIS Center Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon, USA Sun Grant Initiative  Consortium of the nation's land-grant universities addressing national bioenergy and bioproduct challenges  Five Regional University Centers  Engaging agricultural and natural resource colleges in every state and territory Regional Feedstock Partnership U.S. Department of Agriculture

  8. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Takle, Gene

    2013-03-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  9. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; et al

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  10. agricultural pumping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agricultural pumping - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  11. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  12. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolate catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.

  13. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  14. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Site (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic

  15. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  16. Agricultural Outlook Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture on February 19–20 in Crystal City, Virginia, the theme of the 91st Annual Agricultural Outlook Forum will be centered on “Smart Agriculture in the 21st Century.”

  17. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) provides financial and technical assistance to help conserve agricultural lands, wetlands, and their related benefits.

  18. Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at Berkeley Lab have created a process to produce olefins from polyols that may be biomass derived. The team is also the first to introduce a method of producing high purity allyl alcohol at a large scale by

  19. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the foreign trade deficit in the U.S. and about 45% of the total annual U.S. oil consumption of 34 quads (1 quad = 1015 Btu, Lynd et al. 1991). The 22 quads of oil consumed by transportation represents approximately 25% of all energy use in the US and excedes total oil imports to the US by about 50%. This oil has environmental and social costs, which go well beyond the purchase price of around $15 per barrel. Renewable energy from biomass has the potential to reduce dependency on fossil fhels, though not to totally replace them. Realizing this potential will require the simultaneous development of high yielding biomass production systems and bioconversion technologies that efficiently convert biomass energy into the forms of energy and chemicals usable by industry. The endpoint criterion for success is economic gain for both agricultural and industrial sectors at reduced environmental cost and reduced political risk. This paper reviews progress made in a program of research aimed at evaluating and developing a perennial forage crop, switchgrass as a regional bioenergy crop. We will highlight here aspects of research progress that most closely relate to the issues that will determine when and how extensively switchgrass is used in commercial bioenergy production.

  20. Agricultural Marketing Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural-Marketing-Toolkit Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  1. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  2. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  3. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  4. Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor","

  5. Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Blast Pulping Liquor NAICS Furnace/Coke Petroleum or Wood Chips, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Total Oven Gases Waste Gas Coke Black Liquor Bark Total United States 311 Food 11 0 7 0 0 1 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 5 0 2 0 0 * 311221 Wet Corn Milling * 0 * 0 0 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty

  6. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett [US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  7. Kentucky Department of Agriculture

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 quarterly joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Wilbur Frye (Office of Consumer & Environmental Protection, Kentucky Department of Agriculture) described Biofuel Quality Testing in Kentucky.

  8. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCCs Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  9. Potential producers and their attitudes toward adoption of biomass crops in central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    A recent study by the University of Florida, Center for Biomass Programs (1996) showed that biomass crops have potential as a new agricultural commodity in central Florida. Both herbaceous and woody biomass crops have high yields, and weather and soil conditions are favorable. In the Polk County area over 40,371 ha (100,000 A) of phosphate-mined land and about 161,486 ha (400,000 A) of pastureland may be available for biomass production at low opportunity cost. Phosphate land is owned by a few mining companies while pastureland is owned by or rented to cattlemen. Infrastructure for large-scale crop production, such as in the Midwest United States, does not presently exist in central Florida. Personal interviews were conducted with phosphate company managers and a mail survey was conducted with 940 landowners, with at least 16 ha (40 A) of agricultural land. Data were gathered related to decision making factors in growing biomass and other new crops. Results suggested that economic factors, particularly availability of an established market and an assured high return per acre were considered the most important factors. Lack of familiarity with new crops was an important barrier to their adoption. Potential net returns and production costs were considered the most important information needed to make decisions about growing biomass crops.

  10. Geotechnical characterization of several coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Feng, A.; Deschamps, R.

    1996-11-01

    The generation of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) by utility companies and private industries is increasing and the trend is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. A large roadway embankment is currently under construction using several CCBPs as structural fill. The project site is located on the Purdue University campus in West Lafayette, Indiana. A paved road will be constructed on the crest of this embankment to extend Russell Street, providing convenient access to the southern expansion of Purdue University`s campus. The embankment is approximately 700 feet in length, with a maximum crest height of about 40 feet. The crest will be about 50 feet wide and a maximum base width of 250 feet. A comprehensive geotechnical laboratory testing and field monitoring program is being implemented to evaluate the physical and mechanical characteristics of various CCBPs and to predict the performance of the embankment during and after construction. Preliminary geotechnical laboratory testing results are presented in this paper.

  11. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  12. Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 20th Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference will be held Feb. 8–10, 2016, in Louisville, Kentucky. The conference will bring together professionals and experts in the agricultural and biological engineering fields. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Terrestrial Feedstocks Technology Manager Sam Tagore will be in attendance. Mr. Tagore will moderate a technical session titled “Ash Reduction Strategies for Improving Biomass Feedstock Quality.” The session will include presentations by researchers from Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory supporting BETO, as well as from university and industry.

  13. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  14. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  15. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, Xi You; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has become a major concern as issues of emission cleansing and landfill costs continue to rise. Laboratory tests conducted at the Ohio State University have shown that dry FGD by-products possess certain engineering properties that have proven desirable in a number of construction uses. As a follow on to the laboratory program, a field investigation into engineering uses of dry FGD wastes was initiated. In the present work, an FGD by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined.

  16. DOE Seeks Your Novel Ideas for Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have innovative ideas about technologies and concepts for the recovery of rare earth elements? Are these ideas applicable to recovery from coal and coal byproducts? If so, the Department of Energy needs your input.

  17. Management of by-products from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofod, J.

    1998-07-01

    The world production of by-products from power plants is in excess of 500 Mt/year. Most of it consists of coal fly ash and bottom ash, but an increasing share is made up of by-products from flue gas desulfurization processes. In some countries less than 10% of the by-products are utilized, whereas the utilization ratio is as high as 90% in others. In the EU about half of the by-products is utilized, but according to the EU's policy the degree of utilization should be increased. Coal fly ash can be used in concrete pursuant to the provisions of the European standard EN 450, Fly Ash for Concrete. In addition quality fly ash can be used in the production of cement and gas concrete and in the building industry. Road construction and soil amendment can also make use of this material. Gypsum produced as a result of the flue gas desulfurization process can be used as wall boards, in the building industry and in the production of cement. Also other by-products from the flue gas desulfurization processes can be used for industrial purposes. By-products where utilization is no option will be disposed of. According to the EU's environmental legislation most of the by-products from the power plants are categorized as non-hazardous waste. This papers discusses how to design a landfill deposit for power plant residues in accordance with applicable EU-directives. However, as can be seen from the conclusion it will become increasingly difficult in the future to deposit these residues. This will urge power producers to cooperate with relevant industries to ensure utilization of a larger part of the by-products and to create solutions that will be profitable to both parties.

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  19. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  20. Sustainable Agriculture Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sustainable Agriculture Network Name: Sustainable Agriculture Network Website: clima.sanstandards.org References: Sustainable...

  1. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  2. Power Lines and Crops Can Be Good Neighbors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    Two of the Pacific Northwests greatest economic assets are its wealth of agriculture and its clean and reliable electricity fueled largely by hydropower. Sometimes the two intersect. Transmission lines carrying electricity to the regions farms, businesses and homes must, of necessity, span large areas where people grow crops and orchards. To ensure a safe and reliable flow of electricity across these expanses, trees and other vegetation must be managed to certain standards. At the same time, the Bonneville Power Administration which owns and operates three-quarters of the regions high-voltage transmission recognizes the importance of our regions agricultural bounty. We are committed to working with individuals and agricultural communities to facilitate ongoing land-use activities in transmission rights-of-way as long as those uses are compatible with transmission safety and reliability standards. Our goal with vegetation management is to keep you and your property safe while protecting the reliability of our regions electricity system. By working together, BPA and landowners can protect the system and public safety.

  3. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture DOE 2010 Geothermal Program Peer Review; Low ...

  4. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands. 

  5. CropEnergies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: CropEnergies Place: Mannheim, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 68165 Sector: Biofuels Product: A German biofuels company focused on bioethanol production for use as...

  6. Engineered High Energy Crop (EHEC) Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... are identifying crop species that produce large quantities of biomass with minimal inputs. ... produce large quantities of biomass with minimal inputs, but they are also developing ...

  7. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  8. Advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-product utilization laboratory evaluation: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the utilization potential of by-products from the following advanced SO/sub 2/ control processes: Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion; Calcium Spray Drying; Limestone Furnace Injection; Sodium Sorbent Injection; and Calcium Sorbent Injection. Utilization applications identified as potentially feasible (from both technical and market perspectives) in the preliminary investigation (EPRI CS-5269) were evaluated through small-scale laboratory testing. The applications considered were primarily low to medium technology process and medium to high volume use applications. The laboratory test results were evaluated in concert with by-product physical, chemical and extract characteristics (developed during EPRI Research Project 2708-1) and a market assessment. Then, an economic evaluation was performed for each utilization application based upon a typical or hypothetical by-product marketing situation in which an advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-product could be substituted for a competing material on a local project or in a local product. Finally, based on the major factors considered in this project (laboratory characterization, technical feasibility evaluation, and economic and market assessments), the utilization potential for each application considered was rated as high, medium or low, and future research needs were identified. The following utilization applications were found to have a high potential for the majority of the calcium-based advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-products: road base, soil and sludge stabilization and grout applications. 76 refs., 18 figs., 70 tabs.

  9. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  10. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  11. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistentmore » with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  12. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  13. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 20002008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input data and by designing more efficient parallel computing capability to quantitatively assess errors associated with the simulation of C budget components. The modularized design of the GAMS makes it flexible to be updated and adapted for different agricultural models so long as they require similar input data, and to be linked with socio-economic models to understand the effectiveness and implications of diverse C management practices and policies.

  14. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  15. EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement...

  16. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the project objectives for the integration of advanced logistical systems and focused bioenergy harvesting technologies that supply crop residues and energy crops in a large bale...

  17. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place: India Sector: Biofuels...

  18. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  19. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  20. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research July ...

  1. LEDSGP/sector/Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPsectorAgriculture < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work Space) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT LEDSGPsectorAFOLU Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Oregon Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oregon Department of Agriculture Address: 635 Capitol St NE Place: Salem, Oregon Zip: 97301 Phone Number: 503-986-4550 Website:...

  3. Wyoming Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wyoming Department of Agriculture Address: 2219 Carey Avenue Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip: 82002 Phone Number: 307-777-7321 Website:...

  4. Illinois biomass resources: annual crops and residues; canning and food-processing wastes. Preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, A A

    1980-06-01

    Illinois, a major agricultural and food-processing state, produces vast amounts of renewable plant material having potential for energy production. This biomass, in the form of annual crops, crop residues, and food-processing wastes, can be converted to alternative fuels (such as ethanol) and industrial chemicals (such as furfural, ethylene, and xylene). The present study provides a preliminary assessment of these Illinois biomass resources, including (a) an appraisal of the effects of their use on both agriculture and industry; (b) an analysis of biomass conversion systems; and (c) an environmental and economic evaluation of products that could be generated from biomass. It is estimated that, of the 39 x 10/sup 6/ tons of residues generated in 1978 in Illinois from seven main crops, about 85% was collectible. The thermal energy equivalent of this material is 658 x 10/sup 6/ Btu, or 0.66 quad. And by fermenting 10% of the corn grain grown in Illinois, some 323 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in 1978. Another 3 million gallons of ethanol could have been produced in the same year from wastes generated by the state's food-processing establishments. Clearly, Illinois can strengthen its economy substantially by the development of industries that produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. In addition, a thorough evaluation should be made of the potential for using the state's less-exploitable land for the growing of additional biomass.

  5. The global gridded crop model intercomparison: Data and modeling protocols for Phase 1 (v1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.; Müller, C.; Deryng, D.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Boote, K. J.; Büchner, M.; Foster, I.; Glotter, M.; Heinke, J.; Iizumi, T.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Mueller, N. D.; Ray, D. K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A. C.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-02-11

    We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project consist of global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12–15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and scenarios over the historical period from 1948 to 2012. The primary outcomes of the project include (1) a detailed comparison of the major differences and similarities among global models commonly used for large-scale climate impact assessment, (2) an evaluation of model and ensemble hindcasting skill, (3) quantification of key uncertainties from climate input data, model choice, and other sources, and (4) a multi-model analysis of the agricultural impacts of large-scale climate extremes from the historical record.

  6. The global gridded crop model intercomparison: Data and modeling protocols for Phase 1 (v1.0)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, J.; Müller, C.; Deryng, D.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Boote, K. J.; Büchner, M.; Foster, I.; Glotter, M.; Heinke, J.; Iizumi, T.; et al

    2015-02-11

    We present protocols and input data for Phase 1 of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison, a project of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP). The project consist of global simulations of yields, phenologies, and many land-surface fluxes using 12–15 modeling groups for many crops, climate forcing data sets, and scenarios over the historical period from 1948 to 2012. The primary outcomes of the project include (1) a detailed comparison of the major differences and similarities among global models commonly used for large-scale climate impact assessment, (2) an evaluation of model and ensemble hindcasting skill, (3) quantification ofmore » key uncertainties from climate input data, model choice, and other sources, and (4) a multi-model analysis of the agricultural impacts of large-scale climate extremes from the historical record.« less

  7. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  8. Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource...

  9. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  10. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains three separate monthly reports on the progress to use flue gas desulfurization by-products for the land reclamation of an abandoned mine site in Ohio. Data are included on the chemical composition of the residues, the cost of the project, as well as scheduling difficulties and efforts to allay the fears of public officials as to the safety of the project. The use of by-products to repair a landslide on State Route 541 is briefly discussed.

  11. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix E.) J. Jennings. ERC Environmental and Energy Services, Co. ERCEPO-49. (190) Empirical Impact Evaluation of the Energy Savings Resulting From BPA's Stage II Irrigation...

  12. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  13. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, X.Y.; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the present work, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined. State Route 83 in Cumberland, Ohio has been damaged by a slow moving slide which has forced the Ohio Department of Transportation to repair the roadway several times. In the most recent repair FGD by-products obtained from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant were used to construct a wall through the failure plane to prevent further slippage. In order to evaluate the utility of using coal combustion by-products in this type of highway project the site was divided into three test sections. In the first repair section, natural soil removed form the slide area was recompacted and replaced according to standard ODOT construction practices. In the second section the natural soil was field mixed with the Tidd PFBC ash in approximately equal proportions. The third section was all Tidd ash. The three test sections were capped by a layer of compacted Tidd ash or crushed stone to provide a wearing surface to allow ODOT to open the roadway before applying a permanent asphalt surface. Measurement of slope movement as well as water levels and quality have begun at the site in order to evaluate long term project performance. The completion of this project should lead to increased acceptance of FGD materials in construction projects. Monetary savings will be realized in avoiding some of the disposal costs for the waste, as well as in the reduced reliance on alternative engineering materials.

  14. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...man-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of ...

  15. D1 Fuel Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: D1 Fuel Crops Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 2RE Product: London-based JV between BP and D1 oils focusing on the...

  16. Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    shows potential to produce biofuel crops Nebraska shows potential to produce biofuel crops December 9, 2009 - 11:12am Addthis Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Utilizing sites ...

  17. Mathias Agricultural Energy Efficiency Grant program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mathias Agriculture Energy Efficiency program offered by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) provides grants to farms and businesses in agricultural sector to offset 50% of the cost of energ...

  18. Randolph EMC- Agricultural Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agricultural members of Randolph EMC (REMC) who upgrade to energy-efficientCFL bulbs in agricultural facilities are eligible for an incentive to help cover the initial cost of installation. The...

  19. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  20. Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor","

  1. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  2. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  3. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  4. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  5. Industrial and Agricultural Production Efficiency Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    food processing, cold storage, agricultural, greenhouses, irrigation districts, and waterwastewater treatment. Standard prescriptive incentives include lighting, green motor...

  6. Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Breakout Session 1B-Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Potential Yield Mapping of Dedicated Energy Crops Chris Daly, Director, PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University PDF icon daly_biomass_2014.pdf More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Terrestrial Feedstocks Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop Black Warrior: Sub-soil gas and fluid

  7. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution of Profitability (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water

  8. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  9. California Department of Food and Agriculture | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Food and Agriculture Name: California Department of Food and Agriculture Abbreviation: CDFA Address: 1220 N...

  10. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  11. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  12. Kinetic Model for the Radical Degradation of Tri-Halonitromethane Disinfection Byproducts in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Mezyk; Bruce J. Mincher; William J. Cooper; S. Kirkham Cole; Robert V. Fox; Pieror R. Gardinali

    2012-10-01

    The halonitromethanes (HNMs) are byproducts of the ozonation and chlorine/chloramine treatment of drinking waters. Although typically occurring at low concentrations HNMs have high cytotoxicity and mutagenicity, and may therefore represent a significant human health hazard. In this study, we have investigated the radical based mineralization of fully-halogenated HNMs in water using the congeners bromodichloronitromethane and chlorodibromonitromethane. We have combined absolute reaction rate constants for their reactions with the hydroxyl radical and the hydrated electron as measured by electron pulse radiolysis and analytical measurements of stable product concentrations obtained by 60Co steady-state radiolysis with a kinetic computer model that includes water radiolysis reactions and halide/nitrogen oxide radical chemistry to fully elucidate the reaction pathways of these HNMs. These results are compared to our previous similar study of the fully chlorinated HNM chloropicrin. The full optimized computer model, suitable for predicting the behavior of this class of compounds in irradiated drinking water is provided.

  13. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  14. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  15. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-? levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ? BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ? BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ? Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ? BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ? BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  16. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Selected candidates participate in USDA research for one to four years FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in the Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program. The ARS is the

  17. The Future of Biofuels an Agricultural Perspective

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Biofuels An Agricultural Perspective Beth J. Calabotta Monsanto Company POPULATION GROWING AT 1.1% EACH YEAR Source: UN Population Division, Monsanto analysis INCOMES GROWING AT 3.5% PER YEAR... $5 BILLION PER DAY Source: IHS Global Insight, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis FOOD DEMAND GROWING AT ~1.75% EACH YEAR Source: IHS Global Insights, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis WATER DEMAND IS GROWING AT ~2% PER YEAR Source: McKinsey Resource Revolution 2011, Monsanto Analysis ENERGY

  18. ARM - Lesson Plans: Sea Water and Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea Water and Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Sea Water and Agriculture Objective The objectives of this activity are to help students to understand that even a small rise in sea level can lead to salinization of valuable agricultural land and to

  19. Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Vermont, agricultural operations are eligible for prescriptive and customized incentives for equipment proven to help make farms more efficient. Prescriptive rebates are available for lighting...

  20. OTEC- Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers programs to agricultural customers.  Interested customers should contact a local OTEC office.

  1. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    academia, and the private sector. The 15 Research Centers generate and disseminate knowledge, technologies, and policies for agricultural development through the CGIAR...

  2. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host a media conference call to highlight Obama ... WHAT: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu will host a media conference ...

  3. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home About USDA ARS About ORISE Current Research Opportunities Site Map Contact ORISE Facebook Twitter Applicants Welcome to the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research...

  4. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reduce poverty and hunger, improve human health and nutrition, and enhance ecosystem resilience through high-quality international agricultural research, partnershp and...

  5. Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Agricultural Savings Category Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Geothermal Heat Pumps Water Heaters Lighting Heat Pumps CaulkingWeather-stripping Building Insulation...

  6. WINDExchange: Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Rural Communities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, & Businesses Resources & Tools Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools This page lists...

  7. Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    1998-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

  8. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  9. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demands March 23, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability Peer Review Drs. Indrajeet Chaubey and Ben Gramig Purdue University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement 2 * Overall goal is to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple energy crops and removal of crop residues * Assessment conducted in two watersheds representative of

  10. Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration | Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop Integration Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop Integration August 5, 2015 - 4:47pm Addthis How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy's

  11. EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Impact Statement | Department of Energy 1: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Summary This Programmatic EIS (PEIS) evaluates the potential environmental impacts of implementing one or more programs to catalyze the deployment of engineered high energy crops (EHECs). A main component of the proposed EHEC programs would be providing financial assistance to

  12. Agronomic Suitability of Bioenergy Crops in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, Rocky; Baldwin, Brian; Lang, David

    2011-10-01

    In Mississippi, some questions need to be answered about bioenergy crops: how much suitable land is available? How much material can that land produce? Which production systems work best in which scenarios? What levels of inputs will be required for productivity and longterm sustainability? How will the crops reach the market? What kinds of infrastructure will be necessary to make that happen? This publication helps answer these questions: ???????????????????????????????¢???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????¢ Which areas in the state are best for bioenergy crop production? ???????????????????????????????¢???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????¢ How much could these areas produce sustainably? ???????????????????????????????¢???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????¢ How can bioenergy crops impact carbon sequestration and carbon credits? ???????????????????????????????¢???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????¢ How will these crops affect fertilizer use and water quality? ???????????????????????????????¢?????????????

  13. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  14. Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Draft Programmatic Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Engineered High Energy Crop Programs Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement DOEEIS-0481 DECEMBER 2014 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK...

  15. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture DOE 2010 Geothermal Program Peer Review; Low Temperature Demonstration Projects PDF icon low_silveria_rural_electric_coop.pdf More Documents & Publications Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature

  16. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  17. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

  18. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  19. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  20. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  1. Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Department of Agriculture Partner: Farm Service Agency Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass...

  2. Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU)- Agricultural Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) offers customized loans for agricultural customer as a part of DESEU’s revolving loan program. Program applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and...

  3. Renewable Agricultural Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Renewable Agricultural Energy plans to bring five ethanol plants on line by the end of 2009 with a combined annual capacity of at least 1.89bn...

  4. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in...

  5. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    through region-specific crop selection (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air

  8. Functional Genomics of Drought Tolerance in Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Hengfu [ORNL; Chen, Rick [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Ye, Ning [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Cheng, Zong-Ming [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the predicted trends in climate change, drought will increasingly impose a grand challenge to biomass production. Most of the bioenergy crops have some degree of drought susceptibility with low water-use efficiency (WUE). It is imperative to improve drought tolerance and WUE in bioenergy crops for sustainable biomass production in arid and semi-arid regions with minimal water input. Genetics and functional genomics can play a critical role in generating knowledge to inform and aid genetic improvement of drought tolerance in bioenergy crops. The molecular aspect of drought response has been extensively investigated in model plants like Arabidopsis, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops are limited. Crops exhibit various responses to drought stress depending on species and genotype. A rational strategy for studying drought tolerance in bioenergy crops is to translate the knowledge from model plants and pinpoint the unique features associated with individual species and genotypes. In this review, we summarize the general knowledge about drought responsive pathways in plants, with a focus on the identification of commonality and specialty in drought responsive mechanisms among different species and/or genotypes. We describe the genomic resources developed for bioenergy crops and discuss genetic and epigenetic regulation of drought responses. We also examine comparative and evolutionary genomics to leverage the ever-increasing genomics resources and provide new insights beyond what has been known from studies on individual species. Finally, we outline future exploration of drought tolerance using the emerging new technologies.

  9. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP)...

  10. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National ... Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of ...

  11. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. ...

  12. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of ...

  13. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation October 2, 2014 - ...

  14. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the ...

  15. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to ...

  16. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to 8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative Department of Agriculture and Energy ...

  17. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture Invest 210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest ...

  18. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  19. National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two...

  20. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  1. FAO Climate-Smart Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Website: www.fao.org...

  2. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural Research and Development Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Place: Wooster, Ohio Zip: OH 44691-4096 Product:...

  3. Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module AgencyCompany Organization: International Livestock Research Institute Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics:...

  4. A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh1 Overview "There is a plethora of policy strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These...

  5. Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Place: South Australia,...

  6. IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change and Agriculture Research Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research AgencyCompany Organization: International...

  7. Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Name...

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  9. FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change (MOSAICC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of...

  10. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  11. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Agency...

  12. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan (Redirected from CDKN-Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan) Jump to: navigation,...

  13. Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy AgencyCompany...

  14. USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an...

  15. Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc AWS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Solutions Inc AWS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc (AWS) Place: Westlake Village, California Zip: CA 91361 Product: Agricultural Waste...

  16. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elementsincluding alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zincduring sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUBwater interaction.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  18. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    courtesy Patty Campbell; click to view larger. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on farms By Payal Marathe * July 7, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint We ask a lot...

  19. Synthetic biology and crop engineering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic biology and crop engineering Synthetic biology and crop engineering Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Jonathan Burbaum, Program Director, Department of Energy, Office of Science, ARPA-E PDF icon b13_burbaum_2-a.pdf More Documents & Publications EIS-0481: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic

  20. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

  1. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commodities and Risk Management | Department of Energy Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management By: Howard Gruenspecht, Acting Administrator, Energy Information Administration Subject: Energy Markets and their Implications on Agriculture PDF icon

  2. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  3. Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry By: Richard Newell, Administrator Energy Information Administration Subject: Development in Energy Markets and their possible implications on Agriculture PDF icon Final_Testimony(22).pdf More Documents & Publications Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the House Natural

  4. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to support the American agricultural economy to strengthen rural communities; to protect and conserve our natural resources; and to provide a safe, sufficient, and nutritious food supply for the American people. The Department's wide range of programs and responsibilities touch the lives of every American every day. Solar resources are available from three offices within

  5. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This abstract highlights a project that will develop a single pass cut and chip harvesting system for short rotation woody crops that will improve the harvesting and logistic costs of processing woody crops.

  6. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding,...

  7. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  8. Evaluation of the potential for agricultural development at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RG Evans; MJ Hattendorf; CT Kincaid

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animalhlish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. World population is projected to double to more than 12 billion people, straining already stressed worldwide agricultural resources. The current world surpluses in many commodities will not last when faced with increasing population, decreasing ocean fisheries, and rapid loss of productive lands from soil salivation and erosion. The production of pharmaceuticals from bioengineered plants and animals will undoubtedly add more pressure on the already limited (and declining) arable land base. In addition there will be pressure to produce crops that can help reduce the world's dependence on petroleum and be used for chemical plant feedstock. These external, formidable pressures will necessitate increasing investments in irrigation infi-a-structures in many areas of the world to increase productivity. Intensive greenhouse culture and aqua-culture also will be greatly expanded. There will be large economic and social pressures to expand production in areas such as the Pacific Northwest. Agricultural exports will continue to be important The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Both of these are potentially highly productive area: for producing food and export capital. The environmental concerns will be large however, the favorable growing conditions, high-quality (low-salinity) abundant water supplies and minimal problems with salivation of soils make the Pacific Northwest a very desirable region for economically sustainable expansion from a world perspective.

  9. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  10. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military ...

  12. United States Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  13. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  14. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  15. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lopscience iopscience.iop.org Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My lOPscience Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region- specific crop selection This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text. View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more Download details: IP Address: 192.107.175.131 This content was downloaded on 30/07/2015 at 20:46 Please note that terms

  16. Agricultural Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: What can we learn...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Land, Climate Focus Area: Agriculture, Land Use Topics: Implementation, GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studies...

  17. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Director Principal Investigator: Fred Circle, President Project Title: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for...

  18. Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integration | Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Study Benefits of Bioenergy Crop Integration Share Topic Energy Energy sources Renewable energy Browse By - Any - Energy -Energy efficiency --Vehicles ---Alternative fuels ---Automotive engineering ---Diesel ---Electric drive technology ---Hybrid & electric vehicles ---Hydrogen & fuel cells ---Internal combustion ---Powertrain research --Building design ---Construction --Manufacturing -Energy sources

  19. Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  1. Environmental release of mercury from coal utilization by-products: will new mercury controls at power plants make a difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljoe, W.W.; Feeley, T.J., III; Brickett, L.A.; Schroeder, K.T.; Murphy, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-09-30

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) uses the term coal utilization by-products (CUBs) to describe the solid materials produced by the combustion or gasification of coal. The following general observations can be drawn from results of field tests that have been carried out thus far to determine whether new technologies for mercury emission control at coal power plants will affect the release of mercury from CUBs. There appears to be only minimal potential mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization application for CUBs generated using ACI control technologies. There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The amount of mercury leached from CUBs samples tested is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  3. A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOPER, S.E.; BROWN, W.S.; WREATHALL, J.

    2005-02-02

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with information sources and an application context identified, a set of strawman job aids was developed, which was then presented to prospective users for critique and comment. Work is currently under way to develop training materials and refine the job aids in preparation for a pilot evaluation.

  4. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  5. Abstract: Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header Despite the projected increase in demand for woody biomass from short rotation woody crops (SRWC) and the wide array of benefits associated with their production and use, the expansion and rapid deployment of these systems has been restricted by their high cost of production and in some situations a lack of market acceptance because of poor quality chips from first

  6. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  7. Biomass fuel from woody crops for electric power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.; Wright, L.L.; Huston, M.A.; Schramm, W.E.

    1995-06-22

    This report discusses the biologic, environmental, economic, and operational issues associated with growing wood crops in managed plantations. Information on plantation productivity, environmental issues and impacts, and costs is drawn from DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development as well as commercial operations in the US and elsewhere. The particular experiences of three countries--Brazil, the Philippines, and Hawaii (US)--are discussed in considerable detail.

  8. Methods for generating or increasing revenues from crops

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Keith, Kevin; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-03-20

    The present invention provides methods of doing business and providing services. For example, methods of increasing the revenue of crops are provided. To this end, the method includes the use of a nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and mini chromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  9. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7/109 Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop July 2007 Prepared by Lynn Wright Consultant to Bioenergy Resources and Engineering Systems Environmental Sciences Division DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members

  10. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  11. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Walker, Harold; Mitsch, William

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD-lined basins. The FGD-lined basins had a greater richness of plant species but lower total plant productivity than did the claylined basins. Future research work investigating the use of FGD materials in the construction of landfill caps and liners, and wetland experiments at the medium to full-scale level is recommended.

  12. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  13. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to support the American agricultural economy to strengthen rural communities; to protect and conserve our natural resources; and to provide a safe, sufficient, and nutritious food supply for the American people. The Department's wide range of programs and responsibilities touch the lives of every American every day. Solar resources are available from three offices within USDA: Rural Utilities Service programs finance the basic

  14. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence | Department of Energy Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence May 4, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - TOMORROW, May 5, 2011, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host a

  15. Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park Engineered Geothermal Systems, Low Temp, Exploration Demonstration Projects. Project goal: to attract new businesses to Klamath and Lake counties for the purpose of capitalizing on our abundant geothermal resources. PDF icon egs_riley_klamath_lake.pdf More Documents & Publications Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program

  16. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The project has completed 1,500 hours of

  17. Departments of Energy and Agriculture Announce Bioenergy Projects in 10

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    States | Department of Energy Departments of Energy and Agriculture Announce Bioenergy Projects in 10 States Departments of Energy and Agriculture Announce Bioenergy Projects in 10 States July 17, 2014 - 12:21pm Addthis News Media Contact (202)586-4940 WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) today announced the selection of 10 projects that will receive funding aimed at accelerating genetic breeding programs to improve plant feedstocks

  18. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel | Department of Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The

  19. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  20. Farmers Electric Cooperative- Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Farmers Electric Cooperative offers incentives for its residential and agricultural members to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes and facilities. In order to receive rebates,...

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Health Atlas (GLiPHA) Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines National Planning...

  2. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  3. LEDSGP/Agriculture Work Space/Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPAgriculture Work SpaceTools < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work SpaceTools) Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership...

  4. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced ...

  5. Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"","text":"AgriculturalDryingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility" title"Geothermal...

  6. Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Name Identification of Low...

  7. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and...

  8. Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Strategy for Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change AgencyCompany...

  9. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    paper outlines a range of practices, approaches and tools aimed at increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems, while also reducing and...

  10. NREL and Colombian Oil Firm Unlocking Agricultural Waste Feedstocks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Colombian Oil Firm Unlocking Agricultural Waste Feedstocks for Biofuel Collaboration with Ecopetrol examines converting sugar cane bagasse to biofuel August 7, 2013 The ...

  11. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976. PDF icon AnalysisAgriculturalLands.pdf More Documents & Publications Mini-Guidance Articles from Lessons Learned Quarterly...

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume I. Introduction and background. [Storage losses of 28 products and by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01

    The proposed plant site consists of 1594 acres along the Ohio River in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. An option to purchase the site has been secured on behalf of the Breckinridge Project by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Energy. Figure 1 is an area map locating the site with respect to area cities and towns. The nearest communities to the site are the hamlet of Stephensport, Kentucky, about 3-1/2 miles northeast and Cloverport, Kentucky, which is 6 miles to the southwest. The nearest major cities are Owensboro, Kentucky, 45 road miles to the west and Louisville, Kentucky, 65 miles to the northeast. The Breckinridge facility will convert about 23,000 TPD of run-of-mine (ROM) coal into a nominal 50,000 BPD of hydrocarbon liquids including a significant quantity of transportation fuels. Major products refined for marketing include pipeline gas, propane, butane, 105 RONC gasoline reformate, middle distillate and heavy distillate. By-products include sulfur, anhydrous ammonia, and commercial-grade phenol. Care is being taken to minimize the impact of the facility operations on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment systems have been designed to achieve zero discharge. Waste solids will be disposed of in a carefully designed and well-monitored landfill operation. Also, special design features have been included to minimize air emissions.

  13. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.; Yim, S.P.; Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  14. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. NREL: International Activities - Biomass Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Resource Assessment Map showing annual productivity of marginal lands in APEC economies. Biomass resource assessments quantify the existing or potential biomass material in a given area. Biomass resources include agricultural crops and residues; dedicated energy crops; forestry products and residues; animal wastes; residues and byproducts from food, feed, fiber, wood, and materials processing plants; as well as post-consumer residues and wastes, such as municipal solid wastes and

  16. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  17. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  20. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

  1. The combined effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on crop systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Heagle, A.S.; Shafer, S.R.; Heck, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) in the troposphere have risen in the last century due to industrialization. Current levels of tropospheric O{sub 3} suppress growth of crops and other plants, and O{sub 3} concentrations may continue to rise with changes in global climate. On the other hand, projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the next 50 to 100 years are expected to cause significant increases in growth of most species. Since elevated concentrations of these gases will co-occur, it is important to understand their joint action. Until recently, however, the combined effects of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} have received little attention. Most publications on combined CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} effects have described experiments conducted in greenhouse or controlled-environment facilities. To date, data on responses of agricultural species to the combined gases have come from experiments with radish, tomato, white clover, tobacco, or wheat. In most cases, CO{sub 2} stimulated and O{sub 3} suppressed growth of the plant tissues studied, and CO{sub 2} usually attenuated development of O{sub 3}-induced visible injury. Some data have indicated a tendency for CO{sub 2}, in concentrations up to double the current ambient level, to attenuate effects of O{sub 3} on growth, but statistical analyses of such data often have not supported such a conclusion. In this paper, the results of a recent field experiment with soybean are reported, and the results are compared to other similar research with elevated atmospheric concentrations of both O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  2. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) established in the 2014 Farm Bill. It will specifically discuss the implications of ACEP for Tribes and tribal owners.

  3. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and

  4. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  5. Transgenic crops get a test in the wild

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherfas, J.

    1991-02-22

    A novel British research program called PROSAMO - Planned Release of Selected and Modified Organisms - has just produced its first batch of results on the ecological behavior of a genetically manipulated variety of oil seed rape (known to Americans as canola). As expected, the preliminary data indicate that these plants do not outgrow their competitors in the wild, nor is there any evidence that they pass on their foreign genes to other species. PROSAMO is moving on to test other crops with other foreign genes. If these results are as reassuring, scientists around the world will have solid evidence with which to soothe fears.

  6. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  7. Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop Switchgrass as a High-Potential Energy Crop Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop PDF icon ornl_switchgrass.pdf More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Terrestrial Feedstocks Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Sustainability and Strategic Analysis

  8. Methane emission from single cropping rice paddies amended different manures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Daodeng; Tao Zhan

    1996-12-31

    Methane emission fluxes were determined from single cropping rice paddies amended with different manures through a productively comparative experiment. The average fluxes in the whole growth season ranged from 3.92 to 10.96 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The compost amended paddies gave the highest emission fluxes of 10.26 mg/m{sup 2}.hr, while the fluxes from the other manure amended paddies ranked as follows: horse dung biogas digester sediment 10.02, chemical fertilizer only 8.81, nightsoil biogas sediment 7.76, chicken dropping biogas digester sediment 4.48 and pig dung biogas digester sediment 3.92 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The latter 3 sediments gave the significant less ({alpha} < 0.05) fluxes than compost. The highest fluxes peaks of all treated paddies appeared unanimously between the stages of the midtillering and the earing, with a half of total CH{sub 4} emissions were produced in this period which could be chosen as the key period for control of CH{sub 4} emission from the single cropping rice paddies. The positive correlation of the fluxes with the temperatures in 5 cm soil layers and the negative correlation of the fluxes with the rice yields, the soil N and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents were also observed.

  9. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco [University of Udine, Italy

    2010-01-08

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  10. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mgha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%25.9% and 25%39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  11. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The overall objective of this research effort was to provide a potentially commercial thermal treatment of fly ash to decrease the interaction between fly ash and the surfactants used to entrain air in concrete when fly ash replaces a portion of the Portland cement in oncrete. The thermal treatment resulting from this research effort, and described in this report, fulfill the above objective. This report describes the thermal treatment developed and applies the treatment to six different fly ashes subsequently used to prepare concrete test cylinders hat show little or no difference in compressibility when compared to concrete test cylinders prepared using untreated fly ash.

  12. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drop-In Biofuel for Military | Department of Energy Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military September 25, 2014 - 12:35pm Addthis Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of

  13. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  14. National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep017i3237ei3237e.pdf Language: English This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides...

  15. Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team- A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Rates listed below are for farmers who signed up for the program by January 1, 2011; however, the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority still has some funding...

  16. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for ...

  17. ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListPossible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Pros and Cons Given the need for caution, it may still be possible to make a few general comments. With more carbon dioxide in the

  18. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products | Department of Energy Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products July 25, 2012 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to enhance U.S. energy security, reduce America's

  19. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels | Department of Energy Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development

  20. Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector AgencyCompany Organization United States Department of Agriculture,...

  1. Biomass resource potential for selected crops in Hawaii. [Koa haole (giant leucaena); napier and guinea grass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seki, A.

    1982-06-01

    The biomass crops selected for review were koa haole (giant leucaena), napier and guinea grass, and eucalyptus (saligna, grandis, and globulus). The islands examined were Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Molokai. The potential land acreage for growing these crops was estimated grossly. As anticipated, the island of Hawaii had the largest land potential with eucalyptus having the greatest potential land acreage.

  2. SO/sub 2/ dose-response sensitivity classification data for crops and natural vegetation species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, P.M.; Ballou, S.W.

    1980-09-01

    Over the past several years studies have been made on the interaction of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and vegetation by performing field research and by developing analytical procedures for applying field observation data to energy impact assessments. As a result of this work, numerous reports have been prepared on crop-pollutant interactions, such as dose-response data; on the applications of such data to screening approaches for identifying crops at risk; and on models that predict crop yield reductions from point source emissions of SO/sub 2/. Data that were used for these studies, such as the crop-at-risk screening procedure, are presented in this report. Maps are also presented that show the national distribution of SO/sub 2/-sensitive crops and natural vegetation.

  3. Determination of Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP); Issue Date: 12/08/2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sugars, Byproducts, and Degradation Products in Liquid Fraction Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 12/08/2006 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42623 January 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

  5. U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and ...

  6. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  7. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a Densified Large Square Bale Format

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: 1.2.1.4 Principal Investigator: Maynard Herron Co-Principal Investigator: Bob Matousek Performing Organization: AGCO Sub-Recipients: INL, Stinger Inc., OSU, ISU, TAMU, Noble Foundation Project objectives support the adoption and production goals of the Office of Biomass Programs for feedstock adoption and cost

  8. Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review March 23, 2015 Sustainability and Strategic Analysis George Chescheir N. C. State University Jami Nettles Weyerhaeuser Company Goal Statement Develop and disseminate science-based information for sustainable production of biofuel feedstock in a forestry

  9. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  10. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  11. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C.

    2003-07-01

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  12. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  13. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled ''Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  14. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana on July 26–29, 2015, and will examine industry trends and innovations, with a focus on the focus on the economic, political and social factors influencing the industry. Bioenergy Technologies Office Director Jonathan Male, Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and Technology Managers Sam Tagore, Mark Elless, and Steve Thomas will be in attendance.

  15. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  16. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project LabelAgriWaste revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (Quality I) and another one for plastic profile production process (Quality II). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  17. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  18. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; Kara Cafferty; David Muth Jr.; Mark Tomer

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study on Hardin County, Iowa to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. The strategy presented integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) into subfield landscape positions where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeled to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48 to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection) while also improving field level profitability. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 US$ kg-1) and dependent on the acceptable net profit for corn production (ranging from 0 to -1,000 US$ ha-1). This work presents the case that switchgrass can be economically implemented into row crop production landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale and compete against areas of the field operating at a negative net profit.

  19. Results from intercropping fast-growing trees and food crops at Morogoro, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redhead, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    In Morogoro, Tanzania, agroforestry trials were set up to investigate intercropping with primarily eucalypt species. The climate in the region is very similar to Kolar, Karnataka State, India. Three crops-sorghum, bean and maize-were grown annually under Eucalyptus tereticornis at 2.5 m x 2.5 m for three years with a range of weeding practices. Plots that were intercropped with beans showed best results. Shading by the eucalypts after three years resulted in negligible crop yields in all treatments. Three tree spacings of E. camaldulensis (3 m x 3 m, 4 m x 4 m, and 5 m x 5 m) were combined with the intercropping of beans and maize. Beans gave satisfactory yields at all spacings, but the maize showed significantly depressed yields at 3 m x 3 m at 4 m x 4 m, but was similar to pure maize crop at 5 m x 5 m spacing. Overall the extra revenue from a food crop in the first and second year of tree growth increases the return from the land. The short rotation of fast growing trees depleted the soil of nutrients and, as with other crops, the fertility would have to be maintained by applying fertilizer.

  20. Hemicellulolytic organisms in the particle-associated microbiota of the hoatzin crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Malfatti, Stephanie; Garcia-Amado, Maria A.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Tringe, Susannah

    2011-05-31

    The hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) is a South American herbivorous bird, that has an enlarged crop analogous to the rumen, where foregut microbes degrade the otherwise indigestible plant materials, providing energy to the host. The crop harbors an impressive array of microorganisms with potentially novel cellulolytic enzymes. Thie study describes the composition ofthe particle-associated microbiota in the hoatzin crop, combining a survey of 16S rRNA genes in 7 adult birds and metagenome sequencing of two animals. The pyrotag survey demonstrates that Prevotellaceae, are the most abundant and ubiquitous taxa, suggesting that the degradation of hemicellulose is an important activity in the crop. Nonetheless, preliminary results from the metagnome of the particle-associated microbiota of two adult birds show that the crop microbiome contains a high number of genes encoding cellulases (such as GH5) more abundant than those of the termite gut, as well as genes encoding hemicellulases. These preliminary results show that the carbohydate-active enzyme genes in the cropmetagenome could be a source of biochemical catalysts able to deconstruct plant biomass.

  1. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S. Surendran; Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences}; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Wullschleger, Stan D; Kline, Keith L; Wei, Yaxing; Singh, Nagendra; Kang, Shujiang

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  2. Press Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture Secretary Johanns Transcript Press Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture Secretary Johanns ...

  3. OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Agency...

  4. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  5. Costa Rica-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  6. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  7. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEPA | Department of Energy Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of

  8. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  9. Use of Xenon Difluoride to Clean Hazardous By-Products in Ion Implanter Source Housings, Turbo Pumps, and Fore-Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despres, J.; Chambers, B.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Letaj, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Tang, Y.; Wilson, S.; Yedave, S.

    2011-01-07

    This paper describes the use of xenon difluoride to clean deposits in the source housing, source turbo pump, and source turbo pump fore-line of ion implanters. Xenon difluoride has previously been shown to be effective in increasing the lifetime of the ion source{sup 1,2} and this paper presents an extension of the technology to other areas within the tool. Process by-products that are deposited in the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line can not only pose productivity issues, in the case of coatings on insulators, but can also be flammable and toxic in the case of deposits formed within the turbo pump and fore-line. The results presented in this paper detail the initial successful examples of using xenon difluoride to clean these deposits.ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is capable of cleaning an insulator in an ion implanter. Typically during use an insulator will become increasingly coated with deposits that could lead to productivity problems. By introducing xenon difluoride into the source housing the insulator residues were effectively cleaned in-situ, thereby extending the maintenance interval and resulting in significant consumable savings.Similar deposits that form in the turbo pump and fore-line could not only lead to production problems due to turbo pump failure or fore-line build-up, but pose significant health risks during the ex-situ cleaning process. Through internal testing ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is able to clean phosphorus and germanium deposits located within a turbo pump. Additionally, testing has demonstrated that the turbo pump fore-line can be cleaned in-situ without the need to remove these components, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of fires. The cleaning reaction progress and by-products were monitored using FTIR spectrometry and thermocouples.In order to efficiently clean the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line xenon difluoride delivery must be optimized. This paper also details a hardware concept that maximizes xenon difluoride delivery and allows the clean to be done in a way that is viable for production ion implanters.

  10. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 3/31/00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favorably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  11. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings, and the homes on these farms. The expected measurable outcomes of the project were to improve the environment and stimulate the economy by: • Reducing annual fossil fuel emissions by 1,942 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, reducing the total annual energy use on at least 323 small animal farms and 100 farm homes by at least 8,000 kWh and 2,343 therms per farm. • Stimulating the economy by creating or retaining at least 69 jobs, and saving small animal farmers an average of $2,071 per farm in annual energy expenditures. B. Project Scope The MAESTRO team chose the target population of small farms because while all agriculture is traditionally underserved in energy efficiency programs, small farms were particularly underserved because they lack the financial resources and access to energy efficiency technologies that larger farms deploy. The MAESTRO team reasoned that energy conservation, financial and educational programs developed while serving the agricultural community could serve as a national model for other states and their agricultural sectors. The target population was approximately 2,365 small animal farm operations in Missouri, specifically those farms that were not by definition a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO). The program was designed to create jobs by training Missouri contractors and Missouri University Extension staff how to conduct farm audits. The local economy would be stimulated by an increase in construction activity and an increasing demand for energy efficient farm equipment. Additionally, the energy savings were deemed critical in keeping Missouri farms in business. This project leveraged funds using a combination of funds from the Missouri Department of Natural Resources’ Missouri Energy Center and its Soil and Water Conservation Program, from the state's Linked Deposits, MASBDA's agricultural loan guarantee programs, and through the in-kind contribution of faculty and staff time to the project from these agencies and MU. Several hundred Missouri livestock producers were contacted during the MAESTRO project. Of the livestock producers, 254 invited the team to conduct a farm energy assessment which complied with ASABE 612. A total of 147 livestock farm upgrades were implemented, representing 57.5 percent of the farms for which a farm energy assessment was completed. This represented a statewide average annual savings of 1,088,324 kWh and 75,516 therms. The team also reviewed the condition of the livestock producer’s home(s). A total of 106 home energy assessments were completed and 48 individual homes implemented their recommended upgrades, representing 45 percent of the farm homes for which an energy assessment was completed. This represented a statewide average annual savings of 323,029 kWh, and 769.4 therms. More of these farmers likely would have updated their homes but the funding to incentivize them fell short. In spite of the shortfall in incentive funds, some farmers still updated their homes as they saw the value in making these changes to their home.

  12. Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops Improving the Way We Harvest & Deliver Biofuels Crops May 24, 2013 - 9:40am Addthis The self-propelled baler collects and packages bales of feedstock on-site that can be immediately loaded and sent to a biorefinery for use. | Photo courtesy of Antares Group. The self-propelled baler collects and packages bales of feedstock on-site that can be immediately loaded and sent to a biorefinery for use. | Photo courtesy of Antares Group. The

  13. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 20012010 than in 19611970, suggesting that human land use and management contribute to seasonal changes in the CO2 exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  14. Rodigo 1, northern Italy: A geothermal complex for agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faccini, U.; Magnoni, S.; Sordelli, C. )

    1993-04-01

    The Padana Valley is an area rich in warm waters. At Rodigo, near Mantua, a well drilled by Agip supplied 80 m[sup 3]/h of water at 59[degree]C. A cooperative of farmers, with the aid of the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Milan, has developed a complex for agricultural uses of these warm waters: greenhouses, plants for cereal and forage drying and tanks for aquaculture, all utilizing geothermal energy. The Institute of Applied Physics has also installed a continuous radon monitoring station which measures the radon level in the geothermal well.

  15. Department of Interior, Energy & Agriculture Collaborative BiofacilityInitiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interior, Energy & Agriculture Collaborative Biofacility Initiative Faline Haven Office of Tribal Relations USDA Forest Service fhaven@fs.fed.us 202-263-9396 Federal Land Management Agencies 77 million ha 106 million ha 38 million ha 34 million ha 22 million ha The National Forests and Grasslands - 77 million hectares (8% of U.S. Land Area) Ownership of Lands Managed by the Federal Government Total Federal Lands = 283 million hectares (1/3 of US land base) Forest Service/Tribal Relationship

  16. Simulation of the long-term accumulation of radiocontaminants in crop plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckhise, R.G.

    1980-03-01

    Most radiological dose assessment models ignore the long-term buildup of radiocontaminants in the soil. When they estimate levels in crop plants from root uptake, these models account only for the annual input from the source into the soil. Almost all of the models ignore the build-up of contaminants in the soil profile due to the accumulation in the roots and the build-up from the above-ground plant material that is buried by plowing. The model described in this report simulates the entire system involved in the cycling and accumulation of radionuclides in cultivated land. The model, named CROPRE, was developed to predict both the long-term accumulation of radionuclides and the resulting concentrations of radionuclides in vegetation. This model was designed to include: (1) the chronic input of contaminated irrigation water into both the soil compartment and directly onto the surface of the vegetation; (2) the incorporation of radiocontaminants in the soil organic matter pool and their eventual release for re-uptake by subsequent crops; (3) the removal of contaminants from the system when the crops are harvested; and (4) the downward movement of radionuclides and their loss from the system by percolation. The CROPRE model more realistically simulates the cycling of radiocontaminants in crop plants over long periods of time than does the other models. It is recommended that it be incorporated into existing radiation dose commitment models.

  17. Transgenic approaches to altering carbon and nitrogen partitioning in whole plants: assessing the potential to improve crop yields and nutritional quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Bush, Daniel R.

    2015-04-22

    The principal components of plant productivity and nutritional value, from the standpoint of modern agriculture, are the acquisition and partitioning of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compounds among the various organs of the plant. The flow of essential organic nutrients among the plant organ systems is mediated by its complex vascular system, and is driven by a series of transport steps including export from sites of primary assimilation, transport into and out of the phloem and xylem, and transport into the various import-dependent organs. Manipulating C and N partitioning to enhance yield of harvested organs is evident in the earliest crop domestication events and continues to be a goal for modern plant biology. Research on the biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and physiology of C and N partitioning has now matured to an extent that strategic manipulation of these transport systems through biotechnology are being attempted to improve movement from source to sink tissues in general, but also to target partitioning to specific organs. These nascent efforts are demonstrating the potential of applied biomass targeting but are also identifying interactions between essential nutrients that require further basic research. In this review, we summarize the key transport steps involved in C and N partitioning, and discuss various transgenic approaches for directly manipulating key C and N transporters involved. In addition, we propose several experiments that could enhance biomass accumulation in targeted organs while simultaneously testing current partitioning models.

  18. Transgenic approaches to altering carbon and nitrogen partitioning in whole plants: assessing the potential to improve crop yields and nutritional quality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Bush, Daniel R.

    2015-04-22

    The principal components of plant productivity and nutritional value, from the standpoint of modern agriculture, are the acquisition and partitioning of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compounds among the various organs of the plant. The flow of essential organic nutrients among the plant organ systems is mediated by its complex vascular system, and is driven by a series of transport steps including export from sites of primary assimilation, transport into and out of the phloem and xylem, and transport into the various import-dependent organs. Manipulating C and N partitioning to enhance yield of harvested organs is evident in themore » earliest crop domestication events and continues to be a goal for modern plant biology. Research on the biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and physiology of C and N partitioning has now matured to an extent that strategic manipulation of these transport systems through biotechnology are being attempted to improve movement from source to sink tissues in general, but also to target partitioning to specific organs. These nascent efforts are demonstrating the potential of applied biomass targeting but are also identifying interactions between essential nutrients that require further basic research. In this review, we summarize the key transport steps involved in C and N partitioning, and discuss various transgenic approaches for directly manipulating key C and N transporters involved. In addition, we propose several experiments that could enhance biomass accumulation in targeted organs while simultaneously testing current partitioning models.« less

  19. USDA and DOE Fund 10 Research Projects to Accelerate Bioenergy Crop Production and Spur Economic Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC -- The U.S. Departments of Energy and Agriculture have awarded 10 grants totaling $12.2 million to spur research into improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of growing...

  20. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  1. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the issues or problems, simply to identify those topics that deserve our attention as a society. Some of the issues may benefit from legislation at the federal or state levels, others may be more appropriately addressed by the private sector. Participants at the roundtable included over a dozen experts in the areas of microbiology, intellectual property, agricultural biotechnology, microbial genomics, bioterrorism, economic development, biotechnology research, and bioethics. These experts came from federal and state government, industry and academia. The participants were asked to come to the roundtable with a written statement of the top three to five public policy/ ethical issues they viewed as most likely to be significant to the industry and to policy makers over the next several years.

  2. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Feasibility Report -- Agricultural and Forestry Solid Wastes Power Generation Demonstration, December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report on feasibility of using agricultural and forestry wastes for power generation in China

  3. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military | Department of Energy the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military September 19, 2014 - 12:10pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three

  4. U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development Initiative | Department of Energy Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative April 15, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, April 15, 2011- To support President Obama's goal of reducing America's oil imports by one-third by 2025, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) today jointly announced up to

  5. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military | Department of Energy Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military January 30, 2015 - 5:49pm Addthis In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that

  6. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to $8.7 Million

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative | Department of Energy Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to $8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to $8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative March 3, 2015 - 11:00am Addthis The U.S. Department Agriculture in collaboration with the Energy Department announced

  7. Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research | Department of Energy Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research June 7, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns today announced that the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture have jointly selected 11 projects for awards totaling $8.3 million for biobased fuels research that will

  8. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  9. LPG marketers thank the rain gods for hefty crop-drying market in '89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    One of the pleasant bits of news that sprouted in many places across the country last fall concerned the increased LP-gas gallonage for crop drying. It is difficult to predict the farmers or dryers' consumption of propane in any given season. The demand for this fuel in drying operations is determined almost entirely by weather conditions, and since climate remains a perennial question mark, no one knows until the season is well under way how much moisture content the plants will exhibit. In another area, predictions can be complicated by the variations of individual farm practices as well as the evolving technology of drying equipment, including burners. This article, reports on the crop drying market as seen by various LP-gas dealers and others outside the industry.

  10. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report formed the basis for much of the subsequent work under the grant. An explanation of the process is presented as well as the completed work on the four tasks.

  11. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for ???°Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  12. DOE BiomassDevelopment and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header RDD Review Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header March 25, 2015 Terrestrial Feedstocks Timothy A. Volk SUNY ESF This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement * Develop, test and deploy a single pass cut and chip harvester combined with a handling, transportation and storage system that is effective and efficient in a range of

  13. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  14. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  15. Final Technical Report for project entitled "Equipment Request for the Belleville Agricultural Research and Education Center"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Bryan; Nehring, Jarrett; Susan Graham, Brian Klubek

    2013-01-16

    Executive Summary The funding provided by the DOE for this project was used exclusively to purchase research equipment involved with the field development and evaluation of crop production technologies and practices for energy crop production. The new equipment has been placed into service on the SIU farms and has significantly enhanced our research capacity and scope for agronomy and precision ag research to support novel seed traits or crop management strategies for improving the efficiency and productivity of corn and soybeans. More specifically, the precision ag capability of the equipment that was purchased has heightened interest by faculty and associated industry partners to develop collaborative projects. In addition, this equipment has provided SIU with a foundation to be more successful at securing competitive grants in energy crop production and precision ag data management. Furthermore, the enhanced capacity for agronomy research in the southern Illinois region has been realized and will benefit crop producers in this region by learning to improve their operations from our research outcomes.

  16. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA (CEQ, 1980)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976.

  17. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applicant Name: FDC Enterprises Grasslands Services Project Director / Principal Investigator: Fred Circle, President Project Title: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Project Objectives: The primary objectives of this project are to design and fabricate key agricultural harvest equipment improvements that will significantly reduce the harvest, staging, and hauling costs associated with supplying herbaceous energy

  18. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  19. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Pamela J.

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  1. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  2. The potential of wetlands for mitigating adverse effects of agricultural drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Agricultural runoff has been clearly identified as a major contributor to the failure of much of the surface water in the United States to meet designated use objectives. Control of agricultural drainage is very problematic. The agriculture industry strongly resists mandated controls, and warns of potential catastrophic consequences in food shortages should production methods be altered. Yet concern grows over the long and short term impact of a variety of contaminants - particularly sediments, nutrients, and pesticides - released to our waters as part of normal agricultural practices. For quite some time, wetlands have been explored for their potential in treating sewage (from both municipal and private systems) and acid mine drainage. Much less work has been done looking at the potential for wetlands to treat agricultural drainage. yet, wetlands may offer tremendous potential for mitigating problems of agricultural runoff while offering farmers desirable (or at least acceptable) uses of marginal land. This paper has two objectives. First, the opportunities for wetlands to be used as agricultural drainage treatment facilities are described. Processes are identified which trap or degrade pollutants, with particular attention given to long-term environmental fate. Second, an experimental wetlands system recently developed in Northwest Ohio is used as an example of system implementation. Emphasis will be given to how the system was developed to optimize pollutant removal within the physical constraints of the site. Preliminary performance data with respect to water quality changes will also be presented.

  3. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Biofuels Research | Department of Energy Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research July 22, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced today the joint selection of awards of up to $6.3 million towards fundamental genomics-enabled research leading

  4. Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Hoy

    2014-09-01

    Diesel use on farms in the United States has remained relatively constant since 1985, decreasing slightly in 2009, which may be attributed to price increases and the economic recession. During this time, the United States’ harvested area also has remained relatively constant at roughly 300 million acres. In 2010, farm diesel use was 5.4% of the total United States diesel use. Crops accounting for an estimated 65% of United States farm diesel use include corn, soybean, wheat, hay, and alfalfa, respectively, based on harvested crop area and a recent analysis of estimated fuel use by crop. Diesel use in these cropping systems primarily is from tillage, harvest, and various other operations (e.g., planting and spraying) (Figure 3). Diesel efficiency is markedly variable due to machinery types, conditions of operation (e.g., soil type and moisture), and operator variability. Farm diesel use per acre has slightly decreased in the last two decades and diesel is now estimated to be less than 5% of farm costs per acre. This report will explore current trends in increasing diesel efficiency in the farm sector. The report combines a survey of industry representatives, a review of literature, and data analysis to identify nascent technologies for increasing diesel efficiency

  5. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raz-Yaseef, Naama; Billesbach, Dave P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Gunter, Stacey A.; Bradford, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2015-08-31

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land-cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and grazed pasture, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought in the Southern Great Plains, especially during the summer months, raise concern for these ecosystems. We measured ecosystem carbon and water fluxes with eddy-covariance systems over cultivated cropland for 10 years, and over lightly grazed prairie and new switchgrass fields for 2 years each. Growing-season precipitation showed the strongest control over net carbon uptake for all ecosystems, but with a variable effect: grasses (prairie and switchgrass) needed at least 350 mm of precipitation during the growing season to become net carbon sinks, while crops needed only 100 mm. In summer, high temperatures enhanced evaporation and led to higher likelihood of dry soil conditions. Therefore, summer-growing native prairie species and switchgrass experienced more seasonal droughts than spring-growing crops. For wheat, the net reduction in carbon uptake resulted mostly from a decrease in gross primary production rather than an increase in respiration. Flux measurements suggested that management practices for crops were effective in suppressing evapotranspiration and decomposition (by harvesting and removing secondary growth), and in increasing carbon uptake (by fertilizing and conserving summer soil water). In light of future projections for wetter springs and drier and warmer summers in the Southern Great Plains, our study indicates an increased vulnerability in native ecosystems and summer crops over time.

  6. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  7. Hazmat work opens up career options for Adam Sayre, agricultural economist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hazmat work opens up new world of career options Hazmat work opens up career options for Adam Sayre, agricultural economist Agricultural economics undergraduate works behind the scenes to ensure quality work on gloveboxes used for hazardous materials. August 3, 2012 Adam Syare Adam works closely with many aspects of project management and engineering, such as scheduling and procurement. His main role is to capture and track information and questions during the fabrication process. Subcontractors

  8. Atmospheric inversion of the surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distributions of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, Tristram O.

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous USA, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with consideration of the spatial information of crop production and consumption. Spatially distributed 5 county-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous USA are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon 10 fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 Pg C yr? to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US Southeast forest region is weakened from 0.410.12 Pg C yr? 15 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the West region from 0.066 0.04 Pg C yr? to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr?1 because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increase in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop 20 products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides an atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance of a region.

  9. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO₂ observations at 210 stations to infer CO₂ fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated usingmore » a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 2002–2007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 ± 0.03 to 0.42 ± 0.13 Pg C yr⁻¹, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 ± 0.12 to 0.29 ± 0.12 Pg C yr⁻¹. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 ± 0.04 to 0.040 ± 0.02 Pg C yr⁻¹ because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.« less

  10. Atmospheric inversion of surface carbon flux with consideration of the spatial distribution of US crop production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. M.; Fung, J. W.; Mo, G.; Deng, F.; West, T. O.

    2015-01-19

    In order to improve quantification of the spatial distribution of carbon sinks and sources in the conterminous US, we conduct a nested global atmospheric inversion with detailed spatial information on crop production and consumption. County-level cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, soil carbon change, and human and livestock consumption data over the conterminous US are used for this purpose. Time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversions are conducted based on CO? observations at 210 stations to infer CO? fluxes globally at monthly time steps with a nested focus on 30 regions in North America. Prior land surface carbon fluxes are first generated using a biospheric model, and the inversions are constrained using prior fluxes with and without adjustments for crop production and consumption over the 20022007 period. After these adjustments, the inverted regional carbon sink in the US Midwest increases from 0.25 0.03 to 0.42 0.13 Pg C yr?, whereas the large sink in the US southeast forest region is weakened from 0.41 0.12 to 0.29 0.12 Pg C yr?. These adjustments also reduce the inverted sink in the west region from 0.066 0.04 to 0.040 0.02 Pg C yr? because of high crop consumption and respiration by humans and livestock. The general pattern of sink increases in crop production areas and sink decreases (or source increases) in crop consumption areas highlights the importance of considering the lateral carbon transfer in crop products in atmospheric inverse modeling, which provides a reliable atmospheric perspective of the overall carbon balance at the continental scale but is unreliable for separating fluxes from different ecosystems.

  11. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application, indicating greater microbial activity in amended soil and reflecting the lower stability of this OM source, compared to the other, anaerobic digestate types, which showed no consistent effects on MBN compared to the control. Thus, the overall net release of digestate N in different soil types was not regulated by N transfer into the soil microbial biomass, but was determined primarily by digestate properties and the capacity of the soil type to process and turnover digestate N. In contrast to the sandy soil types, where nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) concentrations increased during incubation, there was an absence of NO{sub 3}{sup -} accumulation in the silty clay soil amended with LTAD and DMADMSW. This provided indirect evidence for denitrification activity and the gaseous loss of N, and the associated increased risk of greenhouse gas emissions under certain conditions of labile C supply and/or digestate physical structure in fine-textured soil types. The significance and influence of the interaction between soil type and digestate stability and physical properties on denitrification processes in digestate-amended soils require urgent investigation to ensure management practices are appropriate to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from land applied biowastes.

  12. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as conducting a more comprehensive survey of California growers.

  13. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  14. Enhanced Carbon Concentration in Camelina: Development of a Dedicated, High-value Biofuels Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: UMass is developing an enhanced, biofuels-producing variant of Camelina, a drought-resistant, cold-tolerant oilseed crop that can be grown in many places other plants cannot. The team is working to incorporate several genetic traits into Camelina that increases its natural ability to produce oils and add the production of energy-dense terpene molecules that can be easily converted into liquid fuels. UMass is also experimenting with translating a component common in algae to Camelina that should allow the plants to absorb higher levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), which aids in enhancing photosynthesis and fuel conversion. The process will first be demonstrated in tobacco before being applied in Camelina.

  15. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  16. Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops Timothy Volk, Senior Research Associate, State University of New York—College of Environmental Science and Forestry

  17. Effects of fluoride emissions on enzyme activity in metabolism of agricultural plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeri, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activity of malatedehydrogenase (MDH) in rape seed and rye grass have been investigated. Fluoride, which has been absorbed from the air, seems to act differently from fluoride added to the soil. The action of airborne fluoride compounds resorbed by the plant on the activity of MDH significantly correlated with the distance from an aluminum plant, crop yield, and fluoride content. 5 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  19. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  20. Vulnerability of crops and native grasses to summer drying in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Raz-Yaseef, Naama; Billesbach, Dave P.; Fischer, Marc L.; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Gunter, Stacey A.; Bradford, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2015-08-31

    The Southern Great Plains are characterized by a fine-scale mixture of different land-cover types, predominantly winter-wheat and grazed pasture, with relatively small areas of other crops, native prairie, and switchgrass. Recent droughts and predictions of increased drought in the Southern Great Plains, especially during the summer months, raise concern for these ecosystems. We measured ecosystem carbon and water fluxes with eddy-covariance systems over cultivated cropland for 10 years, and over lightly grazed prairie and new switchgrass fields for 2 years each. Growing-season precipitation showed the strongest control over net carbon uptake for all ecosystems, but with a variable effect: grassesmore » (prairie and switchgrass) needed at least 350 mm of precipitation during the growing season to become net carbon sinks, while crops needed only 100 mm. In summer, high temperatures enhanced evaporation and led to higher likelihood of dry soil conditions. Therefore, summer-growing native prairie species and switchgrass experienced more seasonal droughts than spring-growing crops. For wheat, the net reduction in carbon uptake resulted mostly from a decrease in gross primary production rather than an increase in respiration. Flux measurements suggested that management practices for crops were effective in suppressing evapotranspiration and decomposition (by harvesting and removing secondary growth), and in increasing carbon uptake (by fertilizing and conserving summer soil water). In light of future projections for wetter springs and drier and warmer summers in the Southern Great Plains, our study indicates an increased vulnerability in native ecosystems and summer crops over time.« less

  1. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn L

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  2. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  3. Press Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Johanns Transcript | Department of Energy Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture Secretary Johanns Transcript Press Roundtable with U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman & U.S. Agriculture Secretary Johanns Transcript September 7, 2006 - 8:53am Addthis SECRETARY SAMUEL BODMAN: Good morning, everybody. It's been a while since we've seen each other, so welcome back, and we're glad that we've got a chance to get together. I want to welcome my friend, Secretary

  4. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transportation | Department of Energy Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation October 2, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels that can be used by the Department of Defense and the private transportation sector. | Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy. DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to

  5. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military | Department of Energy Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military January 30, 2015 - 5:49pm Addthis In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy,

  6. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  7. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  8. Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for Short Rotation Woody Crops T.A. Volk, SUNY ESF, Syracuse, NY M. Eisenbies, L.P. Abrahamson, S. Karapetyan, A. Lewis, M. McArdle, J. Posselius, S. Shi, R. Shuren, B. Stanton, B. Summers, J. Zerpa  Funding support and project partners  Project objective  Background on single pass cut and chip system  Harvester effective material capacity (throughput)  Harvesting system efficiency  Harvesting cost improvements  Commercialization of

  9. Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership:Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Sun Grant/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership: Herbaceous Energy Crops and CRP Land for Biomass Production (Award # GO85041; WBS 7.6.2.5) 23-27 March 2015 Technology Area Review: Feedstock Supply and Logistics Vance Owens, Director North Central Sun Grant Center South Dakota State University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  Development of more accurate cost supply information and improved

  10. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  11. Using The Corngrass1 Gene To Enhance The Biofuel Properties Of Crop Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah; Chuck, George

    2015-10-29

    The development of novel plant germplasm is vital to addressing our increasing bioenergy demands. The major hurdle to digesting plant biomass is the complex structure of the cell walls, the substrate of fermentation. Plant cell walls are inaccessible matrices of macromolecules that are polymerized with lignin, making fermentation difficult. Overcoming this hurdle is a major goal toward developing usable bioenergy crop plants. Our project seeks to enhance the biofuel properties of perennial grass species using the Corngrass1 (Cg1) gene and its targets. Dominant maize Cg1 mutants produce increased biomass by continuously initiating extra axillary meristems and leaves. We cloned Cg1 and showed that its phenotype is caused by over expression of a unique miR156 microRNA gene that negatively regulates SPL transcription factors. We transferred the Cg1 phenotype to other plants by expressing the gene behind constitutive promoters in four different species, including the monocots, Brachypodium and switchgrass, and dicots, Arabidopsis and poplar. All transformants displayed a similar range of phenotypes, including increased biomass from extended leaf production, and increased vegetative branching. Field grown switchgrass transformants showed that overall lignin content was reduced, the ratio of glucans to xylans was increased, and surprisingly, that starch levels were greatly increased. The goals of this project are to control the tissue and temporal expression of Cg1 by using different promoters to drive its expression, elucidate the function of the SPL targets of Cg1 by generating gain and loss of function alleles, and isolate downstream targets of select SPL genes using deep sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We believe it is possible to control biomass accumulation, cell wall properties, and sugar levels through manipulation of either the Cg1 gene and/or its SPL targets.

  12. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  13. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  14. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting March 29, 2013 Kristen Johnson Sustainability Lead Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 Overview * National priorities and the Renewable Fuel Standard * Overview of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) - Mission - Key RDD&D Activities * DOE's Billion-Ton Update: National Resource Assessment * DOE's Commitment to Sustainability *

  15. Mr. A. F. Vondrasek Vice President and General Manager Agricultural Chemicals Division

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    01886 APR 8 1986 Mr. A. F. Vondrasek Vice President and General Manager Agricultural Chemicals Division W. R. Grace and Company P.O. Box 471 Bartow, Florida 33830 Dear Mr. Vondrasek: C The Department of Energy is evaluating the radiological condition of sites that were utilized by the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) during the early years of nuclear energy development to determine whether they need remedial action and whether the Department has authority to

  16. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  17. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  18. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  19. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Seleced as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Lynn

    2007-07-01

    Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratorys Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a model or prototype species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  20. Texas Panhandle soil-crop-beef food chain for uranium: a dynamic model validated by experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Wallwork-Barber, K.M.; Rodgers, J.C.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Long-term simulations of uranium transport in the soil-crop-beef food chain were performed using the BIOTRAN model. Experimental data means from an extensive Pantex beef cattle study are presented. Experimental data were used to validate the computer model. Measurements of uranium in air, soil, water, range grasses, feed, and cattle tissues are compared to simulated uranium output values in these matrices when the BIOTRAN model was set at the measured soil and air values. The simulations agreed well with experimental data even though metabolic details for ruminants and uranium chemical form in the environment remain to be studied.

  1. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergys role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  2. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  3. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  4. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  5. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Jr., John W. (Houston, TX)

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  6. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  7. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  8. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  9. Herbaceous crops for energy in Italy: Present status of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenone, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a synthesis of the main results of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company) on herbaceous energy crops. The objective of the program is to evaluate the potentials of different species and cultivars for biomass fuel production in Italy. For the most promising species, all the links of the chain from cultivation to delivery at the plant gate at the lowest possible cost have to be organized. So far the following species gave annual productivities above 20 dry tons/ha: fiber sorghum (Sorghum sp.); miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis); and giant reed (Arundo donax). The highest biomass yields, well above 40 dry tons/ha in several trials, were given by giant reed.

  10. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  11. TERRA: a computer code for simulating the transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1984-11-01

    TERRA is a computer code which calculates concentrations of radionuclides and ingrowing daughters in surface and root-zone soil, produce and feed, beef, and milk from a given deposition rate at any location in the conterminous United States. The code is fully integrated with seven other computer codes which together comprise a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System, CRRIS. Output from either the long range (> 100 km) atmospheric dispersion code RETADD-II or the short range (<80 km) atmospheric dispersion code ANEMOS, in the form of radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates by downwind location, serves as input to TERRA. User-defined deposition rates and air concentrations may also be provided as input to TERRA through use of the PRIMUS computer code. The environmental concentrations of radionuclides predicted by TERRA serve as input to the ANDROS computer code which calculates population and individual intakes, exposures, doses, and risks. TERRA incorporates models to calculate uptake from soil and atmospheric deposition on four groups of produce for human consumption and four groups of livestock feeds. During the environmental transport simulation, intermediate calculations of interception fraction for leafy vegetables, produce directly exposed to atmospherically depositing material, pasture, hay, and silage are made based on location-specific estimates of standing crop biomass. Pasture productivity is estimated by a model which considers the number and types of cattle and sheep, pasture area, and annual production of other forages (hay and silage) at a given location. Calculations are made of the fraction of grain imported from outside the assessment area. TERRA output includes the above calculations and estimated radionuclide concentrations in plant produce, milk, and a beef composite by location.

  12. Enviva Materials LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Richmond, Virginia Zip: 23219 Sector: Biomass Product: Recovering of agricultural, forestry and industrial byproducts in order to supply the biomass power industry....

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  14. Agricultural approaches of remediation in the outside of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Saso, Michitaka; Umeda, Miki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines agricultural approaches of remediation activity done in contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. About the decontamination examination of contaminated areas, we have tried the land scale test of a rice field before and after planting by the use of currently recommended methods. Since farmers would carry out the land preparation by themselves, generation of secondary radioactive waste should be as low as possible through the decontamination works. For the radioactive nuclide migration control of rice by wet rice production, several types of decontamination methods such as zeolite addition and potassium fertilization in the soil have been examined. The results are summarized in the 4 following points. 1) Plowing and water discharge are effective for removing radioactive cesium from rice field. 2) Additional potassium fertilization is effective for reducing cesium radioactivity in the product. 3) No significant difference is observed with or without the zeolite addition. 4) Very low transfer factor of cesium from soil to brown rice has been obtained compared with literature values.

  15. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  16. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  17. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  18. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine surfactant concentrations. To reliably quantify both benchmark surfactants and surfactin, a surfactant ion-selective electrode was used as an indicator in the potentiometric titration of the anionic surfactants with Hyamine 1622. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of a commercial preparation of SLS (STEOL CS-330) and surfactin was assessed using two-phase separation, and water flotation techniques; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption on the rock was determined. Qualitative tests indicated that on a molar basis, surfactin is more effective than STEOL CS-330 in altering wettability of crushed Lansing-Kansas City carbonates from oil-wet to water-wet state. Adsorption isotherms of STEOL CS-330 and surfactin on crushed Lansing-Kansas City outcrop and reservoir material showed that surfactin has higher specific adsorption on these oomoldic carbonates. Amott wettability studies confirmed that cleaned cores are mixed-wet, and that the aging procedure renders them oil-wet. Tests of aged cores with no initial water saturation resulted in very little spontaneous oil production, suggesting that water-wet pathways into the matrix are required for wettability change to occur. Further investigation of spontaneous imbibition and forced imbibition of water and surfactant solutions into LKC cores under a variety of conditions--cleaned vs. crude oil-aged; oil saturated vs. initial water saturation; flooded with surfactant vs. not flooded--indicated that in water-wet or intermediate wet cores, sodium laureth sulfate is more effective at enhancing spontaneous imbibition through wettability change. However, in more oil-wet systems, surfactin at the same concentration performs significantly better.

  19. Fuel from Tobacco and Arundo Donax: Synthetic Crop for Direct Drop-in Biofuel Production through Re-routing the Photorespiration Intermediates and Engineering Terpenoid Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: Biofuels offer renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero. However, traditional biofuels production is limited not only by the small amount of solar energy that plants convert through photosynthesis into biological materials, but also by inefficient processes for converting these biological materials into fuels. Farm-ready, non-food crops are needed that produce fuels or fuel-like precursors at significantly lower costs with significantly higher productivity. To make biofuels cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, biofuels production costs must be cut in half.

  20. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  1. Integrated Assessment of Hadley Centre (HadCM2) Climate-Change Impacts on Agricultural Productivity and Irrigation Water Supply in the Conterminous United States. Part II. Regional Agricultural Production in 2030 and 2095.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Brown, Robert A.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2003-06-30

    This study used scenarios of the HadCM2 GCM and the EPIC agroecosystem model to evaluate climate change impacts on crop yields and ecosystem processes. Baseline climate data were obtained from records for 1961-1990. The scenario runs for 2025-2034 and 2090-2099 were extracted from a HadCM2 run. EPIC was run on 204 representative farms under current climate and two 10-y periods centered on 2030 and 2095, each at CO2 concentrations of 365 and 560 ppm. Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and California are projected to experience significant temperature increases by 2030. Slight cooling is expected by 2030 in Alabama, Florida, Maine, Montana, Idaho, and Utah. Larger areas are projected to experience increased warming by 2095. Uniform precipitation increases are expected by 2030 in the NE. These increases are predicted to expand to the eastern half of the country by 2095. EPIC simulated yield increases for the Great Lakes, Corn Belt and Northeast regions. Simulated yields of irrigated corn yields were predicted to increase in almost all regions. Soybean yields could decrease in the Northern and Southern Plains, the Corn Belt, Delta, Appalachian, and Southeast regions and increase in the Lakes and Northeast regions. Simulated wheat yields exhibited upward yield trends under scenarios of climate change. National corn production in 2030 and 2095 could be affected by changes in three major producing regions. In 2030, corn production could increase in the Corn Belt and Lakes regions but decrease in the Northern Plains leading to an overall decrease in national production. National wheat production is expected to increase during both future periods. A proxy indicator was developed to provide a sense of where in the country, and when water would be available to satisfy change in irrigation demand for corn and alfalfa production as these are influenced by the HadCM2 scenarios and CO2-fertilization.

  2. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant. In a scenario with conventional tillage and a 30% stover removal rate, life-cycle GHG emissions for a combined gallon of corn grain and stover ethanol without cover crop adoption or manure application are 49 g CO2eq MJ-1, in comparison with 91 g CO2eq MJ-1 for petroleum gasoline. Adopting a cover crop or applying manure reduces the former ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively. We considered two different life cycle analysis approaches to develop estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for corn stover ethanol, marginal analysis and energy allocation. In the same scenario, this fuel has GHG emissions of 12 20 g CO2eq MJ-1 (for manure and cover crop application, respectively) and 45 48 g CO2eq MJ-1 with the marginal approach and the energy allocation approach, respectively.

  3. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  4. Agricultural Improvement Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Like Minnesota's Stock Loan Program, this is a "participation loan," where loans are made by individual financial institutions working with the RFA. The RFA has a Master Participation Agreement...

  5. WINDExchange: Agricultural Podcasts

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    agriculturalpodcasts.asp A series of radio interviews on wind energy aimed at a rural stakeholder audience produced by WINDExchange and the National Association of Farm...

  6. Agricultural Energy Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The maximum total amount of loans that can be outstanding to a borrower at any time is $1,355,000. The percent of the project funded by VACC is negotiable. Loans are provided at variable rates, a...

  7. Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loans are available in amounts of up to $40,000 per farm family, with up to $160,000 ($40,000 per farmer) available for joint projects. The program currently offers a fixed interest rate of 3%...

  8. Bioelectrochemical Treatment of Gaseous By-products - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or interior portions a proton-conducting medium, and (iii) said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the bioelectrochemical device. The invention is also...

  9. Proper chip storage methods can reduce wood and byproduct losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maron, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given to help in proper chip storage and inventory. The volume, location, and methods of chip storage affect production cost and require consideration in the design of a storage system.

  10. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  11. Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-02-02

    Researchers at Berkeley Lab have created a process to produce olefins from polyols that may be biomass derived. The team is also the first to introduce a method of producing high purity allyl alcohol at a large scale by using glycerol as the starting material instead propylene, a petroleum feedstock....

  12. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  13. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  14. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning process and offers suggestions as to how the technical and institutional issues could have been resolved faster through early adoption of some of the core principles of sound EDSS design.

  15. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  16. CX-006800: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural ByproductsCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/15/2011Location(s): Ann Arbor, MichiganOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  17. Opportunities to assist developing countries in the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals. Report of the Committee on Health and Environment. Volume 1. Research paper(Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-18

    This report was prepared to examine opportunities for promoting the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals, and of alternatives such as integrated pest management. Volume one provides an overview of the economic, health, and environmental costs developing countries incur from improper pesticide and chemical use and presents detailed action recommendations for the Agency for International Development (AID). Volume two provides source information: included are sections on AID's and other donors' environmental policies, the activities of other US government agencies operating abroad, and lessons learned from integrated pest management programs, along with a 35-page bibliography.

  18. New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change Solution August 1, 2014 - 11:39am Addthis Biogas -- a byproduct of anaerobic digestion or fermentation of materials like sewage, municipal waste, crops and manure -- currently provides enough renewable energy to power the equivalent of almost 70,000 average American homes. | Energy Department file photo. Biogas -- a byproduct of anaerobic digestion

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that includes materials such as agriculture and forest residues, energy crops, and algae. http:energy.goveerevideosenergy-101-biofuels Video Energy 101: Algae-to-Fuel One...

  20. Fundamental to the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in agriculture ranging from more accurate weather forecasting to improved water management decisions and crop yield estimation. CLASIC CLASIC - - LAND LAND Cloud and Land...

  1. index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reports as well as dynamic software tools. Biomass.jpg BIOMASS Biomass includes woody or herbaceous materials from forests, cultivated crops, or agricultural residue....

  2. Biomass Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resource Basics Biomass Resource Basics August 14, 2013 - 1:22pm Addthis Biomass resources include any plant-derived organic matter that is available on a renewable basis. These materials are commonly referred to as feedstocks. Biomass Feedstocks Biomass feedstocks include dedicated energy crops, agricultural crops, forestry residues, aquatic crops, biomass processing residues, municipal waste, and animal waste. Dedicated energy crops Herbaceous energy crops are perennials that are

  3. Joint environmental assessment 1997--2001 of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Curly Top Virus Control Program for Bureau of Land Management and Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The DOE, Naval Petroleum reserves in California (NPRC), proposes to sign an Amendment to the Cooperative Agreement and Supplement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) to extend the term of the Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) in California. This program involves Malathion spraying on NPRC lands to control the beet leafhopper, over a five year period from 1997 through 2001. It is expected that approximately 330 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) and approximately 9,603 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2) will be treated with Malathion annually by CDFA during the course of this program. The actual acreage subject to treatment can vary from year to year. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in a Joint Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1011) with the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acting as lead agency, in consultation with the CDFA, and the DOE acting as a cooperating agency. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the conduct of the Curly Top Virus Control Program in California is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is consequently issuing a FONSI.

  4. Agricultural Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  5. Top Crop Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In Service Owner Horizon-EDPR Developer Horizon-EDPR Location GrundyLivingstonLa Salle Counties IL Coordinates 41.159826, -88.637381 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Regional Feedstock Partnership: Woody Crops Presentation for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... is informing policy and science with data created through its innovative protocol. * The coordinated national structure offers one-of-a-kind data, information, and knowledge on ...

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two different co-processed fuel oils were tested: one that had been partially hydrotreated, and the other a product of fractionation before hydrotreating. Task 5 focused on examining refining methods that would utilize coal and produce thermally stable jet fuel, included delayed coking and solvent extraction. Delayed coking was done on blends of decant oil and coal, with the goal to produce a premium carbon product and liquid fuels. Coking was done on bench scale and large laboratory scale cokers. Two coals were examined for co-coking, using Pittsburgh seam coal and Marfork coal product. Reactions in the large, laboratory scaled coker were reproducible in yields of products and in quality of products. While the co-coke produced from both coals was of sponge coke quality, minerals left in the coke made it unacceptable for use as anode or graphite grade filler.

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  9. Tokamak reactor for treating fertile material or waste nuclear by-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotschenreuther, Michael T.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Valanju, Prashant M.

    2012-10-02

    Disclosed is a tokamak reactor. The reactor includes a first toroidal chamber, current carrying conductors, at least one divertor plate within the first toroidal chamber and a second chamber adjacent to the first toroidal chamber surrounded by a section that insulates the reactor from neutrons. The current carrying conductors are configured to confine a core plasma within enclosed walls of the first toroidal chamber such that the core plasma has an elongation of 1.5 to 4 and produce within the first toroidal chamber at least one stagnation point at a perpendicular distance from an equatorial plane through the core plasma that is greater than the plasma minor radius. The at least one divertor plate and current carrying conductors are configured relative to one another such that the current carrying conductors expand the open magnetic field lines at the divertor plate.

  10. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  11. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  12. Method of preparing (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and byproducts thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1984-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  16. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  18. H.R. 5299: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies for alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agricultural subsidies. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 5299 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies of alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agriculture subsidies. The proposed legislative text is included.

  19. Farm Opportunities Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Farm Opportunity Loan Program (formerly known as the Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program) is designed to finance the purchase of equipment to add value to crops or livestock, adopt best...

  20. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on what prices will be this upcoming winter. RWill a Record Corn Crop Impact Midwest Propane Markets? Earlier this summer, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) forecast the...

  1. International Fund for Agricultural Development | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were not so much failures in food production, but structural problems relating to poverty and to the fact that the majority of the developing world's poor populations were...

  2. Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT)1 Briefly about Ex-ACT A set of linked Microsoft Excel sheets (19) Based on land use and management practices Using IPCC* default...

  3. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Armys ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  4. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Percentage of Temporary Residents Receiving SE Doctorates in 2006 Who Stayed in the United States 2007 to 2011. Click to enlarge table. Among science and engineering...

  5. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Nearly two-thirds of all foreign doctorates are staying in the U.S. 10 years after graduation ORISE report suggests foreign doctorate recipients routinely take regular employment in the U.S. after completing postdoctoral appointments FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 5, 2014 FY14-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of foreign, science and engineering doctorate students who remain in the United States after graduation has declined slightly over the past five

  6. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  7. Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water heater installed, additional 25 bonus if electric dryer installed Energy Star Television: 50 Summary Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA)...

  8. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  9. Entergy Arkansas- Agricultural Energy Solutions Program Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Presecriptive Option offers predetermined incentives on a wide variety of energy efficiency measures including Compact Flourescent Light Bulbs and high performance flourescent bulb replacemen...

  10. National Agricultural-Based Lubricants (NABL) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honary, Lou

    2013-09-30

    This project, while defined as a one year project from September 30, 2012 September 30, 2013, was a continuation of a number of tasks that were defined in previous years. Those tasks were performed and were finalized in this period. The UNI-NABL Center, which has been in operation in various forms since 1991, has closed its facilities since September 2013 and will be phasing out in June 2014. This report covers the individual tasks that were identified in the previous reports and provides closure to each task in its final stage.

  11. Agriculture Rural Energy Enterprise Development (AREED) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency Topics Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Finance Website http:...

  12. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    can do when they work together *A catalyst for many similar opportunities in the area *Demonstrate local ... low-cost 2-Meter soil temperature probes to develop ...

  13. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  14. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technology is expected to produce biofuel that reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 80% compared to fossil fuel and help make California a leader in advanced biofuel production. ...

  15. Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    197.00x109 Btuyr 57.70 GWhyr Delat T 55.00 F Load Factor 1.00 Contact Michael Stewart; 775-331-4111 References Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1...

  16. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  17. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  18. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.

  19. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-04-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e. SO2, HCl, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield, (2) no discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts, and (3) no liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized.

  20. Bical Biomass Industrial Crops Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX15 1BJ Product: Developer and supplier of Miscanthus for electricity generation in Europe. Coordinates: 40.04563, -75.423824 Show Map Loading...

  1. Crops reap benefits of Pantex irrigation system | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    fields of wheat and lush tracts of corn stretch across Pantex land soaking up the Texas sun. Invisible to the eye is what else they're soaking up - an estimated 900,000 gallons a...

  2. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeled to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase ...

  3. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azhar, M. Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-12

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for {sup 60}Co and 30.1 years for {sup 137}Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly cover Research and Development, Research Collaboration, Exchange of Information, Irradiation Services, Training Programs, Education, Exchange of Scientists and Seminars/ Conferences.

  4. Cover crops for erosion control in bioenergy hardwood plantations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with complete competition control. Small berms were built to direct runoff to a sediment fence installed at the down slope ends of each plot. Soil erosion is measured by...

  5. Top Crop Wind Farm (Phase II) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (MW) 198198 MW 198,000 kW 198,000,000 W 198,000,000,000 mW 0.198 GW Number of Units 132 Commercial Online Date 2010 Wind Turbine Manufacturer GE Energy References WENDI1...

  6. Energy Crops Engineered for Increased Sugar Extraction through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a superior biofuel feedstock. Until now, plants with decreased lignin content have exhibited defects such as reduced size or sturdiness that made them unsuitable biofuel ...

  7. The outlook for crops (and biofuels and policy and...)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    biofuel markets Stochastic process to account for different assumptions in oil price, weather patterns, etc. Cellulosic model basics Key assumptions in the biofuel ...

  8. Transposable Elements and Genetic Instabilities in Crop Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Burr, B.; Burr, F.

    1981-04-10

    Transposable elements have long been associated with certain unstable loci in maize and have been intensively studied by McClintock and others. It is known that a transposable element can control the expression of the structural genes at the locus where it resides. These controlling elements in maize are now beginning to be studied at the molecular level. Using recombinant molecular probes we have been able to describe the changes induced by the controlling element Ds at the shrunken locus. Ds elements appear to be large and dissimilar insertions into the wild-type locus - two elements actually map within the transcribed region of the gene. Genetic instabilities have been described in other economically important plants but the bases for these phenomena have not been understood. We believe that it is likely that some of these instabilities are the result of transposable element activity much as in the case of maize.

  9. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Densified Large Square Bale Format | Department of Energy abstract

  10. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues In a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Densified Large Square Bale Format | Department of Energy abstract_1

  11. National Bioenergy Day 2014 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Bioenergy Day 2014 National Bioenergy Day 2014 October 14, 2014 - 3:41pm Addthis Bioenergy, the use of agricultural waste and forestry byproducts to generate heat and energy, will be celebrated during the second annual National Bioenergy Day on October 22, 2014. This is an opportunity to showcase bioenergy facilities and the bioenergy supply chain around the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will celebrate National Bioenergy Day with an educational display about

  12. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  13. Allergy arising from exposure to airborne contaminants in an insect rearing facility: Health effects and exposure control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, D.

    1994-06-01

    In agricultural crop improvement, yield under various stress conditions and limiting factors is assessed experimentally. Of the stresses on plants which affect yield are those due to insects. Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer (corn borer) is a major pest in sweet and field corn in the U.S. There are many ways to fight crop pests such as the corn borer, including (1) application of chemical insecticides, (2) application of natural predators and, (3) improving crop resistance through plant genetics programs. Randomized field trials are used to determine the effectiveness of pest management programs. These trials frequently consist of randomly selected crop plots to which well-defined input regimes are instituted. For example, corn borers might be released onto crop plots in several densities at various stages of crop development, then sprayed with different levels of pesticide. These experiments are duplicated across regions and, in some cases across the country, to determine, in this instance for example, the best pesticide application rate for a given pest density and crop development stage. In order to release these pests onto crop plots, one must have an adequate supply of the insect pest. In winter months studies are carried out in the laboratory to examine chemical and natural pesticide effectiveness, as well as such things as the role of pheromones in moth behavior. The advantage in field trials is that yield data can be garnered directly. In this country, insects are raised for crop research primarily through the US Department of Agriculture, in cooperation with public Land Grant Universities and, by the private sector agricultural concerns - seed companies and others. This study quantifies the airborne allergen exposure of persons working in a Land Grant University entomology lab were allergy to European corn borer was suspected.

  14. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate High-Yield Scenario (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  15. Biofuels - Biomass Feedstock - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Biofuels - Biomass Feedstock Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's process enables an agricultural combine to separate multiple products , e.g. agricultural residue, grain, etc. in a single pass across a field. The remaining material will pass through a secondary thresher separate internodal stem from the plant material and then passed to baler. The crops or

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    87 Section 5. Renewable Energy Renewable energy sources included in the State Energy Data System (SEDS) comprise fuel ethanol, wood, waste, hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. Fuel Ethanol Fuel ethanol is used as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate. A small amount of fuel ethanol is used as an alternative fuel, such as E85. It is typically produced biologically from biomass feedstocks such as agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from agricultural

  17. Potential consequences of GM algae escape on ecosystem services

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    algae; a Risk-Benefit Assessment Richard Sayre Los Alamos National Laboratory New Mexico Consortium Outline * Historical perspective; what has been the impact of GM traits on agriculture? * What are the some of the known potential benefits and risks of GM traits in crops? * How are GM agricultural traits managed? * What is the potential for algae in meeting renewable fuel requirements? * Is their a role for GM traits in algal biomass production? * What are the perceived risks for GM algae? * How

  18. Microsoft Word - DomyCV_long_rev02-22-06_1.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Professional Vitae NAME: Domy C. Adriano DATE: January 15, 2006 adriano@srel.edu Executive Summary Professor Adriano has a distinguished professional career over a period of 40 years in agricultural and environmental sciences. He has demonstrated academic excellence since he was a high school student at San Ildefonso College (Tanay, Rizal,

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants The Governor's Office of Agricultural Policy provides grants through the County Agricultural Investment Program (CAIP) for on-farm energy efficiency and renewable energy production projects, including funding for equipment, structures, or other supplies necessary to convert biomass crops into useable energy or to convert grains and oilseeds into ethanol or biodiesel for use in on-farm equipment. Fuels produced on a farm with assistance through this program may

  20. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that there is a need for greater investment in the sector, both to achieve immediate poverty reduction and to stimulate broader pro-poor economic development. This is a core...

  1. Xcel Energy- Agriculture, Schools and Government Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel Energy offers financial incentives toward energy efficient equipment installations including: Lighting, HVAC, Compressed Air, Refrigeration, VFDs, Information Systems and Renewables.

  2. Benton PUD- Commercial and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interested customers should visit the program website for more information.  To check the availability of funding 2012 incentives, contact Kevin Fisher at (509) 585-5395.

  3. LEDSGP/Agriculture Work Space/Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPAgriculture Work SpaceTools < LEDSGP Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission...

  4. Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the emission reduction potential in the sector is small and primarily focused on methane reduction, though more diversified carbon trading opportunities can be pursued....

  5. On-site energy production from agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiler, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    Tests with a 61 cm diameter fluidized-bed combustor revealed that raw cotton gin trash could be efficiently burned while satisfying Federal standards for particulate emissions. Certain chemicals within cotton gin trash zone can cause slagging or caking of ash and bed particles in the combustion zone. They can also corrode and accumulate on the heat recovery equipment. These problems are not considered insurmountable and methods of control are being studied. Raw cotton gin trash was also converted into a low Btu gas using fluidized-bed technology. Tests with a 30 cm diameter gasifier revealed that raw gin trash could be converted to a combustible gas, containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heating value of the gas ranged from 3.65 to 5.29 MJ/m3 and about 50 percent of the heat value of the raw trash was converted to combustible gases. Economic analyses have shown that these techniques can be economically competitive with present fuels in specific situations.

  6. List of Agricultural Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  7. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of International Cooperation. NDRC plans to coordinate the participation of other Chinese Government ministries under this MOU. The USDA and DOE plan to coordinate the...

  8. Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:globalresearchalliance. References Global...

  9. Value-added agriculture offers small agribusinesses additional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Samuel Aragn's nine grandchildren-like the idea of supporting the northern New Mexico economy by continuing to buy fruit, including wild-harvested chokecherries, from...

  10. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningProgramsAgriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 4 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  11. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  12. Best Practices-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    successfully in more than one region and are interdisciplinary, reflecting the complex nature of the problems addressed. The examples chosen have emerged from consultation with FAO...

  13. Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovations and Technology Diffusion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  14. FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions can be reduced and sinks created in biomass and soils while increasing resilience and productivity. The project will contribute to ongoing research and implementation...

  15. Agricultural energy. Vol. 1. Solar energy livestock production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Forty-nine papers and twenty-three abstracts are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper and the abstracts were listed by title. (MHR)

  16. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries. The database currently holds 497 project entries from 11 different databases, including formal crediting scheme registries and third party compilations."...

  17. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    technology is expected to produce biofuel that reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 80% compared to fossil fuel and help make California a leader in advanced biofuel production. ...

  18. National Planning for GHG Mitigation in Agriculture: A Guidance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ease of Use: Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep018i3324ei3324e.pdf Language: English A significant proportion of developing countries have expressed an interest in...

  19. Notice of Intervention from Dept of Agriculture.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  20. Comments from Dept of Agriculture 08-28-13.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  1. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e., SO{sub 2}, HCI, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield; (2) No discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts; and (3) No liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized. This favorable process economics, superior to all other available alternatives in high-capacity, high-sulfur electric utility service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent supply to agglomerated sulfur blending stock, i.e., comprised principally of ammonium sulfate, much in demand for increased use in worldwide, large-scale agriculture. The growing, potentially vast size of the international market for ammonium sulfate is quantified herein.

  2. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

  3. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape- Text-Alt Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  4. Bioenergy Impacts … Greenhouse Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    researchers at Argonne National Laboratory developed the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to develop non-food biofuels from agricultural residues, forestry trimmings, energy crops, and algae that have greater greenhouse gas reduction benefits compared to petroleum fuels. Greenhouse gas emission data is helping researchers develop more sustainable biofuels

  5. CX-005447: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont Biofuels Initiative: University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, Oilseed Crop and Perennial Grass ResearchCX(s) Applied: B3.1, B5.1Date: 03/02/2011Location(s): Alburgh, VermontOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  8. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quartery report, August 1994--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    This first quarterly report describes work during the first three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSO and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR)). The report states the goals of the project - both general and specific - and then describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. All of this work has been organizational and developmental in nature. No data has yet been collected. Technical details and data will appear for the first time in the second quarterly report and be the major topic of subsequent reports.

  9. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 3, Product development of gypsum, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in Figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compunction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  10. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  11. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  13. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  14. Canola-Based Automotive Oil Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Ira N.; Kammerman, Steven B.

    2009-12-07

    This research project establishes data on the ability of the bioindustry to provide sufficient production of Canola/rapeseed, functioning as a biolubricant, to replace petroleum-based automotive lubricants at competitive prices. In 2005 total sales for lubricants amounted to 2.5 billion gallons. Research was also conducted to determine the attitudes toward adoption of bioproducts, specifically among industries that are large-scale users of automotive lubricants, including government and private industry users. The green technology industry, or bioindustry, uses a variety of plant- and crop-based resources, known as biomass, to produce energy, fuel and many different bioproducts. Rapeseed is categorized as a lignocellulosic biomass. High erucic acid rapeseed is not intended for human consumption thereby negating the food vs. fuel issue that arose with the increased production of corn as a feedstock for use in ethanol. Key findings show that the oil from Canola/rapeseed provides about twice the yield than soybean oil. These seeds also have significantly higher natural lubricity than petroleum, enabling Canola/rapeseed to function in many different capacities where oxidation issues are critical. It also has the most positive energy balance of all common vegetable oils, making it an excellent potential replacement for petroleum-based fuels as well. As a rotating crop, it enhances farm lands, thereby increasing subsequent yields of barley and wheat, thus increasing profit margins. Petroleum-based bioproducts negatively impact the environment by releasing greenhouse gases, sulfur, heavy metals and other pollutants into the air, ground and water. Replacing these products with bio-alternatives is a significant step toward preserving the countrys natural resources and the environment. Further to this, promoting the growth of the green biotechnology industry will strengthen the nations economy, creating jobs in the agriculture, science and engineering sectors, while reducing dependency on unstable foreign oil products. The result of this research benefits the public by proving that Canola/rapeseed is another viable source from which the government, private industry and consumers can choose to reduce their reliance on petroleum products. Research found that our country is not utilizing our capabilities including, land, labor and equipment to its fullest potential. A commercial-scale fully-integrated biorefinery, such as the one outlined in this research project, produces little to no waste and the by-products are also consumable. This model allows for economies of scale that make it possible to produce biolubricants in sufficient quantities and at prices that are competitive with petroleum products. Integrated biorefinery operations and large-scale production levels are necessary to sustain profitability of the entire biorefinery model. It is a practical solution that can be implemented in less than 18 months, and replicated throughout the country. There is ample, viable land available as acreage from the Conservation Reserve Program will soon be increasing as land is being released from this program, meaning that it no longer will be kept fallow while the owners accept subsidies. The 2008 Farm Bill reduced the total number of acres allowed in the CRP program, leaving several million acres of land available over the next few years. All of the necessary technology exists to operate the farming and production of this type of biorefinery project. This is a here and now project that can serve to create jobs in several locations throughout the country. There are experts ready, willing and able to participate, all of whom have vast knowledge in the areas of chemical and oil product manufacturing, farm production, and marketing. Two of the biggest barriers to advancing a commercial-scale biorefinery project are the need for financial support for green technology producers and financial incentives for industrial and private consumers to convert to bio-based products. The U.S. needs closer cooperation between the producers of agricult

  15. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    August 2009 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0

  16. National Bioenergy Day 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bioenergy, the use of agricultural waste and forestry byproducts to generate heat and energy, will be celebrated during the third annual National Bioenergy Day on October 22, 2014. This is an opportunity to showcase bioenergy facilities and the bioenergy supply chain around the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will celebrate National Bioenergy Day with an educational display about the bioenergy supply chain and the bioeconomy in the lobby of the Energy Department’s Forrestal building in downtown Washington, D.C.

  17. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  18. table3.6_02

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. S e l e c t e d W o o d a n d W o o d - R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s B i o m a s s Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and RSE NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Row Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e)

  19. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; Weston, David; Cottingham, Robert; Hartwell, James; Davis, Sarah C.; Silvera, Katia; Ming, Ray; Schlauch, Karen; Abraham, Paul E.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Guo, Hao -Bo; Nair, Sujithkumar S.; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Albion, Rebecca; Ha, Jungmin; Lim, Sung Don; Wone, Bernard W. M.; Yim, Won Cheol; Garcia, Travis; Mayer, Jesse A.; Petereit, Juli; Casey, Erin; Hettich, Robert L.; Ceusters, John; Ranjan, Priya; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Yin, Hengfu; Reyes-Garcia, Casandra; Andrade, Jose Luis; Freschi, Luciano; Beltran, Juan D.; Dever, Louisa V.; Boxall, Susanna F.; Waller, Jade; Davies, Jack; Bupphada, Phaitun; Kadu, Nirja; Winter, Klaus; Sage, Rowan F.; Aguilar, Cristobal N.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jenkins, Jerry; Holtum, Joseph A.M.

    2015-07-07

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO? uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.

  20. A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C.; Borland, Anne M.; Edwards, Erika; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Owen, Nick; Griffiths, Howard; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cestari De Paoli, Henrique; et al

    2015-07-07

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO₂ uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAMmore » crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM gained through intensive and expanded research efforts has potential for high returns on research investment in the foreseeable future. To help realize the potential of sustainable dryland agricultural systems, it is necessary to address scientific questions related to the genomic features, regulatory mechanisms, and evolution of CAM; CAM-into-C3 engineering; and the production of CAM crops. Answering these questions requires collaborative efforts to build infrastructure for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.« less