National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for agricultural by-products msw

  1. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  2. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A.

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  3. Microsoft Word - MSW Part I

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Preheated air is introduced into the top of the fixed bed to heat and dry the MSW in the ... from the gasifier is cooled and cleaned in a ceramic candle filter and a water scrubber. ...

  4. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the ...

  5. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand...

  6. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic ... Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in ...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  8. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  9. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  10. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  11. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  12. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  13. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  14. Concept design and optimization of MSW management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    The maximum recovery of recyclables from municipal solid waste (MSW) using material recovery facility (MRF) technologies is determined. Two waste streams at Spangdahlem AB, Germany are analyzed; stationary container wastes and commingled recyclables. Three schemes are considered, one for each waste stream, and one for both. Multi-criteria decision making is the methodology. The criteria are recovery and annual benefit minus cost (B-C). Recovery is determined using the recovery factor transfer function of Diaz et al. (1982). Each technology, or unit operation, in a sequence is independent because particle size distribution of each waste component is considered. B-C is based on revenue from sold recyclables, tipping fees saved by not landfilling separated waste, and manual labor and amortized equipment costs. Six unit operations are considered: eddy current separator (ECS), magnet, air classifier, screen, manual sort, and shredder. Sequences one to six operations long are considered. Three heuristics eliminate 42,179 of 55,986 potential sequences as infeasible. The result is domination by a MRF to process both wastes and a tradeoff between 35.7% recovery of the total at an annual B-C of $0.95 million and recovery of 35.6% at an annual B-C of $1.02 million. Hand sort recovers the most, and is economical.

  15. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WASTE/BY-PRODUCT HYDROGEN Ruth Cox DOE/DOD Workshop January 13, 2011 January 13, 2011 Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association The Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association FCHEA ƒ Trade Association for the industry ƒ Member driven - Market focused ƒ Developers, suppliers, customers, nonprofits, government Ad ƒ Advocacy ƒ Safety and standardization ƒ Education ƒ Strategic Alliances Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association O M b Our Members 5 W t /B d t H d Waste/By-product Hydrogen

  16. Agriculture Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Industrial Federal Agriculture SIS Variable Frequency Drives Irrigation Pump Testing Irrigation Hardware Upgrades LESA Agricultural Marketing Toolkit BPA's...

  17. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  18. Oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations banning ocean dumping of sewage sludge coupled with stricter regulations on the disposal of sewage sludge in landfills have forced municipalities, especially those in the northeast United States, to consider alternate methods for disposal of this solid waste. Coincineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) and sludge has proven to be economically attractive for both Europe and Japan, but has not yet proven to be a viable sludge disposal technology in the United States because of a history of operational problems in existing facilities. The most prevalent problem in coincinerating MSW and a dewatered sewage sludge (15 to 25% solids) is incomplete sludge combustion. Incomplete sludge combustion is primarily a function of sludge particle size, occurring when the surface of the sludge particle dries and hardens, while the inner mass is unaffected. This phenomenon is commonly referred to in the industry as the {open_quotes}hamburger effect.{close_quotes} In an effort to promote technology development in this area, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. teamed with the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate a new process being developed for the disposal of a dewatered sewage sludge, {open_quotes}Oxygen-Enriched Coincineration of MSW and Sewage Sludge.{close_quotes} This report provides a comprehensive summary of the pilot demonstration test program for oxygen-enriched coincineration of MSW and sewage sludge. This report describes the pilot test facility, instrumentation, and methods of data collection and data analyses; describes how the tests were executed; and discusses the test results. Recommendations for the future development of this technology in the current marketplace are also provided.

  19. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-15

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%)

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Na; Zhang Hua; Chen Miao; Shao Liming; He Pinjing

    2012-12-15

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  1. How much does the MSW effect contribute to the reactor antineutrino anomaly?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdiviesso, G. A.

    2015-05-15

    It has been pointed out that there is a 5.7 ± 2.3 discrepancy between the predicted and the observed reactor antineutrino flux in very short baseline experiments. Several causes for this anomaly have been discussed, including a possible non-standard forth sterile neutrino. In order to quantify how much non-standard this anomaly really is, the standard MSW effect is reviewed. Knowing that reactor antineutrinos are produced in a dense medium (the nuclear fuel) and is usually detected in a less dense one (water, or scintillator), non-adiabatic effects are expected to happen, creating a difference between the creation and detection mixing angles.

  2. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system - An Italian case study on the quality of MSW data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, A.; Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.

    2011-09-15

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it.

  3. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  4. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  5. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ? Residents perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ? Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ? Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ? Economic compensation possibly affected residents views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about odour and

  6. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  7. Modeling of leachate generation from MSW landfills by a 2-dimensional 2-domain approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellner, Johann

    2010-11-15

    The flow of water through Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills is highly non-uniform and dominated by preferential pathways. Thus, concepts to simulate landfill behavior require that a heterogeneous flow regime is considered. Recent models are based on a 2-domain approach, differentiating between channel domain with high hydraulic conductivity, and matrix domain of slow water movement with high water retention capacity. These models focus on the mathematical description of rapid water flow in channel domain. The present paper highlights the importance of water exchange between the two domains, and expands the 1-dimensional, 2-domain flow model by taking into account water flows in two dimensions. A flow field consisting of a vertical path (channel domain) surrounded by the waste mass (matrix domain) is defined using the software HYDRUS-2D. When the new model is calibrated using data sets from a MSW-landfill site the predicted leachate generation corresponds well with the observed leachate discharge. An overall model efficiency in terms of r{sup 2} of 0.76 was determined for a simulation period of almost 4 years. The results confirm that water in landfills follows a preferential path way characterized by high permeability (K{sub s} = 300 m/d) and zero retention capacity, while the bulk of the landfill (matrix domain) is characterized by low permeability (K{sub s} = 0.1 m/d) and high retention capacity. The most sensitive parameters of the model are the hydraulic conductivities of the channel domain and the matrix domain, and the anisotropy of the matrix domain.

  8. CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Zihong; Li, Jian; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Presented a CFD scheme for modeling MSW incinerator including SNCR process. • Performed a sensitivity analysis of SNCR operating conditions. • Non-uniform distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} in the incinerator. • The injection position of reagent was critical for a desirable performance of SNCR. • A NSR 1.5 was recommended as a compromise of NO{sub x} reduction rates and NH{sub 3} slip. - Abstract: A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas–solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NO{sub x} reduction and reasonable NH{sub 3} slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and

  9. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  10. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gug, JeongIn Cacciola, David Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  11. Determining the Impact of MSW as a Feedstock Blending Agent Presentati...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    herbaceous (e.g., switchgrass) and agricultural residues (e.g., corn stover) as a ... Technologies Office Sugar yield from yard wastes and construction waste 0 10 20 30 40 50 ...

  12. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost.

  14. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this

  15. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  16. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  17. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  18. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) provides financial and technical assistance to help conserve agricultural lands, wetlands, and their related benefits.

  19. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste/By-Product Hydrogen Waste/By-Product Hydrogen Presentation by Ruth Cox, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011 waste_cox.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Biogas Technologies and Integration with Fuel Cells Tri-Generation Success Story: World's First Tri-Gen Energy Station-Fountain Valley Biogas and Fuel Cells

  20. Agricultural Marketing Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural-Marketing-Toolkit Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  1. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers

  2. Kentucky Department of Agriculture

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 quarterly joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Wilbur Frye (Office of Consumer & Environmental Protection, Kentucky Department of Agriculture) described Biofuel Quality Testing in Kentucky.

  3. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  4. Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 20th Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference will be held Feb. 8–10, 2016, in Louisville, Kentucky. The conference will bring together professionals and experts in the agricultural and biological engineering fields. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Terrestrial Feedstocks Technology Manager Sam Tagore will be in attendance. Mr. Tagore will moderate a technical session titled “Ash Reduction Strategies for Improving Biomass Feedstock Quality.” The session will include presentations by researchers from Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory supporting BETO, as well as from university and industry.

  5. Geotechnical characterization of several coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Feng, A.; Deschamps, R.

    1996-11-01

    The generation of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) by utility companies and private industries is increasing and the trend is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. A large roadway embankment is currently under construction using several CCBPs as structural fill. The project site is located on the Purdue University campus in West Lafayette, Indiana. A paved road will be constructed on the crest of this embankment to extend Russell Street, providing convenient access to the southern expansion of Purdue University`s campus. The embankment is approximately 700 feet in length, with a maximum crest height of about 40 feet. The crest will be about 50 feet wide and a maximum base width of 250 feet. A comprehensive geotechnical laboratory testing and field monitoring program is being implemented to evaluate the physical and mechanical characteristics of various CCBPs and to predict the performance of the embankment during and after construction. Preliminary geotechnical laboratory testing results are presented in this paper.

  6. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  7. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.

  8. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  9. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  10. Sustainable Agriculture Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sustainable Agriculture Network Name: Sustainable Agriculture Network Website: clima.sanstandards.org References: Sustainable...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold H. Schobert; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Zhe Lu

    2003-09-30

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand environmental and cost-effective strategies for the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs), mainly unburned carbon in fly ash. Unburned carbon is nowadays regarded as a waste product and its fate is mainly disposal, due to the present lack of efficient routes for its utilization. However, unburned carbon is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatilization process while in the combustor, and therefore, only requires to be activated. Accordingly, the principal objective of this work was to characterize and utilize the unburned carbon in fly ash for the production of activated carbons. The unburned carbon samples were collected from different combustion systems, including pulverized utility boilers, a utility cyclone, a stoker, and a fluidized bed combustor. LOI (loss-on-ignition), proximate, ultimate, and petrographic analyses were conducted, and the surface areas of the samples were characterized by N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The LOIs of the unburned carbon samples varied between 21.79-84.52%. The proximate analyses showed that all the samples had very low moisture contents (0.17 to 3.39 wt %), while the volatile matter contents varied between 0.45 to 24.82 wt%. The elemental analyses show that all the unburned carbon samples consist mainly of carbon with very little hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen In addition, the potential use of unburned carbon as precursor for activated carbon (AC) was investigated. Activated carbons with specific surface area up to 1075m{sup 2}/g were produced from the unburned carbon. The porosity of the resultant activated carbons was related to the properties of the unburned carbon feedstock and the activation conditions used. It was found that not all the unburned carbon samples are equally suited for activation, and furthermore, their potential as activated carbons precursors could be

  12. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  13. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary Teresa; Slezak, Thomas Richard; Messenger, Sharon Lee

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  14. Oregon Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oregon Department of Agriculture Address: 635 Capitol St NE Place: Salem, Oregon Zip: 97301 Phone Number: 503-986-4550 Website:...

  15. Wyoming Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wyoming Department of Agriculture Address: 2219 Carey Avenue Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip: 82002 Phone Number: 307-777-7321 Website:...

  16. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research July ...

  17. LEDSGP/sector/Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPsectorAgriculture < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work Space) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT LEDSGPsectorAFOLU Retrieved from "http:...

  18. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  19. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  20. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, Xi You; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products has become a major concern as issues of emission cleansing and landfill costs continue to rise. Laboratory tests conducted at the Ohio State University have shown that dry FGD by-products possess certain engineering properties that have proven desirable in a number of construction uses. As a follow on to the laboratory program, a field investigation into engineering uses of dry FGD wastes was initiated. In the present work, an FGD by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined.

  1. IGCC and PFBC By-Products: Generation, Characteristics, and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    The following report is a compilation of data on by-products/wastes from clean coal technologies, specifically integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). DOE had two objectives in providing this information to EPA: (1) to familiarize EPA with the DOE CCT program, CCT by-products, and the associated efforts by DOE contractors in the area of CCT by-product management and (2) to provide information that will facilitate EPA's effort by complementing similar reports from industry groups, including CIBO (Council of Industrial Boiler Owners) and EEI USWAG (Edison Electric Institute Utility Solid Waste Activities Group). The EERC cooperated and coordinated with DOE CCT contractors and industry groups to provide the most accurate and complete data on IGCC and PFBC by-products, although these technologies are only now being demonstrated on the commercial scale through the DOE CCT program.

  2. Management of by-products from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kofod, J.

    1998-07-01

    The world production of by-products from power plants is in excess of 500 Mt/year. Most of it consists of coal fly ash and bottom ash, but an increasing share is made up of by-products from flue gas desulfurization processes. In some countries less than 10% of the by-products are utilized, whereas the utilization ratio is as high as 90% in others. In the EU about half of the by-products is utilized, but according to the EU's policy the degree of utilization should be increased. Coal fly ash can be used in concrete pursuant to the provisions of the European standard EN 450, Fly Ash for Concrete. In addition quality fly ash can be used in the production of cement and gas concrete and in the building industry. Road construction and soil amendment can also make use of this material. Gypsum produced as a result of the flue gas desulfurization process can be used as wall boards, in the building industry and in the production of cement. Also other by-products from the flue gas desulfurization processes can be used for industrial purposes. By-products where utilization is no option will be disposed of. According to the EU's environmental legislation most of the by-products from the power plants are categorized as non-hazardous waste. This papers discusses how to design a landfill deposit for power plant residues in accordance with applicable EU-directives. However, as can be seen from the conclusion it will become increasingly difficult in the future to deposit these residues. This will urge power producers to cooperate with relevant industries to ensure utilization of a larger part of the by-products and to create solutions that will be profitable to both parties.

  3. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix E.) J. Jennings. ERC Environmental and Energy Services, Co. ERCEPO-49. (190) Empirical Impact Evaluation of the Energy Savings Resulting From BPA's Stage II Irrigation...

  4. Long-term stability of disposed cementitious by-products materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Longlet, J.J.; Parks, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    There is considerable interest in using cementitious coal combustion by-products in waste disposal applications. Among coal combustion residuals, cementitious materials include high-calcium fly ash, dry process flue gas desulfurization by-products, and {open_quotes}clean coal{close_quotes} by-products (various fluidized bed combustion and sorbent injection by-products that utilize lime or limestone for scrubbing SO{sub 2}). Hydration of almost all of these by-products results in ettringite formation. When formed, ettringite structure phases are effective at immobilizing trace elements in oxyanion speciation, particularly selenite, selenate and borate. However, the long-term stability of the matrix is in question. We have studied the stability of the ettringite-based cement matrices in laboratory tests, and through examining cores obtained from disposed materials ranging in age from one to twelve years. Results relating to the effects of carbonation on ettringite in these hydrated by-products, and to the formation of thaumasite in disposed materials will be presented.

  5. Mathias Agricultural Energy Efficiency Grant program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mathias Agriculture Energy Efficiency program offered by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) provides grants to farms and businesses in agricultural sector to offset 50% of the cost of energ...

  6. Randolph EMC- Agricultural Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agricultural members of Randolph EMC (REMC) who upgrade to energy-efficientCFL bulbs in agricultural facilities are eligible for an incentive to help cover the initial cost of installation. The...

  7. Industrial and Agricultural Production Efficiency Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    food processing, cold storage, agricultural, greenhouses, irrigation districts, and waterwastewater treatment. Standard prescriptive incentives include lighting, green motor...

  8. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Managed by ORAU Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program Home About USDA ARS About ORISE Current Research Opportunities Site Map Contact ORISE Facebook Twitter Applicants Welcome to the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program will serve as the next step in the educational and professional development of scientists and engineers interested in agricultural related

  9. Advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-product utilization laboratory evaluation: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the utilization potential of by-products from the following advanced SO/sub 2/ control processes: Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion; Calcium Spray Drying; Limestone Furnace Injection; Sodium Sorbent Injection; and Calcium Sorbent Injection. Utilization applications identified as potentially feasible (from both technical and market perspectives) in the preliminary investigation (EPRI CS-5269) were evaluated through small-scale laboratory testing. The applications considered were primarily low to medium technology process and medium to high volume use applications. The laboratory test results were evaluated in concert with by-product physical, chemical and extract characteristics (developed during EPRI Research Project 2708-1) and a market assessment. Then, an economic evaluation was performed for each utilization application based upon a typical or hypothetical by-product marketing situation in which an advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-product could be substituted for a competing material on a local project or in a local product. Finally, based on the major factors considered in this project (laboratory characterization, technical feasibility evaluation, and economic and market assessments), the utilization potential for each application considered was rated as high, medium or low, and future research needs were identified. The following utilization applications were found to have a high potential for the majority of the calcium-based advanced SO/sub 2/ control by-products: road base, soil and sludge stabilization and grout applications. 76 refs., 18 figs., 70 tabs.

  10. California Department of Food and Agriculture | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Food and Agriculture Name: California Department of Food and Agriculture Abbreviation: CDFA Address: 1220 N...

  11. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  12. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  13. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Selected candidates participate in USDA research for one to four years FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in the Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program. The ARS is the

  14. The Future of Biofuels an Agricultural Perspective

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biofuels An Agricultural Perspective Beth J. Calabotta Monsanto Company POPULATION GROWING AT 1.1% EACH YEAR Source: UN Population Division, Monsanto analysis INCOMES GROWING AT 3.5% PER YEAR... $5 BILLION PER DAY Source: IHS Global Insight, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis FOOD DEMAND GROWING AT ~1.75% EACH YEAR Source: IHS Global Insights, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis WATER DEMAND IS GROWING AT ~2% PER YEAR Source: McKinsey Resource Revolution 2011, Monsanto Analysis ENERGY

  15. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reduce poverty and hunger, improve human health and nutrition, and enhance ecosystem resilience through high-quality international agricultural research, partnershp and...

  16. OTEC- Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers programs to agricultural customers.  Interested customers should contact a local OTEC office.

  17. Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Vermont, agricultural operations are eligible for prescriptive and customized incentives for equipment proven to help make farms more efficient. Prescriptive rebates are available for lighting...

  18. WINDExchange: Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Rural Communities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, & Businesses Resources & Tools Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools This page lists...

  19. Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Agricultural Savings Category Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Geothermal Heat Pumps Water Heaters Lighting Heat Pumps CaulkingWeather-stripping Building Insulation...

  20. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    academia, and the private sector. The 15 Research Centers generate and disseminate knowledge, technologies, and policies for agricultural development through the CGIAR...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Schwalb; J.A. Withum

    2003-07-01

    There is some concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products can be emitted into the environment during processing to other products, by volatilization or by dissolution into groundwater. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products after disposal in recycle/reuse applications. In this program, CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL) is conducting a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to address this concern. The objective is to evaluate the potential for Hg emissions by leaching or volatilization, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. The main activities for this quarter were: the re-volatilization study was continued; the literature review was updated; and the ground water study was continued.

  2. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; R.M. Statnick

    2001-09-01

    EPA and state environmental agencies are suggesting that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products is re-emitted into local ecosystems by additional processing to final products (i.e., wallboard, etc.), by dissolution into groundwater, or by reactions with anaerobic bacteria. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications. In this program, CONSOL Energy is conducting a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to address this concern. If the results of this work demonstrate that re-emissions of Hg from waste disposal and by-product utilization are over-stated, additional regulations regarding coal combustion, waste disposal, and waste material utilization will not be required. This will result in continued low energy cost that is beneficial to the national economy and stability of local economies that are dependent on coal. In this quarter, laboratory equipment was assembled and blank test runs were made, manufactured aggregate and spray dryer ash samples were collected and leached, and fly ash and FGD slurry samples from an Ohio bituminous coal-fired utility were collected for leaching.

  5. Landslide remediation on Ohio State Route 83 using clean coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payette, R.; Chen, X.Y.; Wolfe, W.; Beeghly, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the present work, a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product was used to reconstruct the failed portion of a highway embankment. The construction process and the stability of the repaired embankment are examined. State Route 83 in Cumberland, Ohio has been damaged by a slow moving slide which has forced the Ohio Department of Transportation to repair the roadway several times. In the most recent repair FGD by-products obtained from American Electric Power`s Tidd PFBC plant were used to construct a wall through the failure plane to prevent further slippage. In order to evaluate the utility of using coal combustion by-products in this type of highway project the site was divided into three test sections. In the first repair section, natural soil removed form the slide area was recompacted and replaced according to standard ODOT construction practices. In the second section the natural soil was field mixed with the Tidd PFBC ash in approximately equal proportions. The third section was all Tidd ash. The three test sections were capped by a layer of compacted Tidd ash or crushed stone to provide a wearing surface to allow ODOT to open the roadway before applying a permanent asphalt surface. Measurement of slope movement as well as water levels and quality have begun at the site in order to evaluate long term project performance. The completion of this project should lead to increased acceptance of FGD materials in construction projects. Monetary savings will be realized in avoiding some of the disposal costs for the waste, as well as in the reduced reliance on alternative engineering materials.

  6. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  7. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  8. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  10. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  11. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  12. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  13. Renewable Agricultural Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Renewable Agricultural Energy plans to bring five ethanol plants on line by the end of 2009 with a combined annual capacity of at least 1.89bn...

  14. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in...

  15. Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU)- Agricultural Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) offers customized loans for agricultural customer as a part of DESEU’s revolving loan program. Program applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and...

  16. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence May 4, ...

  17. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture DOE 2010 Geothermal Program Peer Review; Low Temperature Demonstration Projects low_silveria_rural_electric_coop.pdf (557.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low

  18. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, C.

    2007-07-01

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  19. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  20. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

    2005-03-01

    There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to

  2. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  3. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural Research and Development Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Place: Wooster, Ohio Zip: OH 44691-4096 Product:...

  4. Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module AgencyCompany Organization: International Livestock Research Institute Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics:...

  5. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  6. USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an...

  7. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Agency...

  8. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan (Redirected from CDKN-Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan) Jump to: navigation,...

  9. A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh1 Overview "There is a plethora of policy strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These...

  10. Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc AWS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Solutions Inc AWS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc (AWS) Place: Westlake Village, California Zip: CA 91361 Product: Agricultural Waste...

  11. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP)...

  12. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. ...

  13. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural ...

  14. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  15. National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two...

  16. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  17. Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Place: South Australia,...

  18. Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy AgencyCompany...

  19. IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change and Agriculture Research Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research AgencyCompany Organization: International...

  20. Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Name...

  1. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  2. FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change (MOSAICC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of...

  3. FAO Climate-Smart Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Website: www.fao.org...

  4. Hazmat work opens up career options for Adam Sayre, agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural economics undergraduate works behind the scenes to ensure quality work on ... Adam will be a freshman at New Mexico State University, studying agricultural economics. ...

  5. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  6. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  7. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1994-08-01

    This report contains three separate monthly reports on the progress to use flue gas desulfurization by-products for the land reclamation of an abandoned mine site in Ohio. Data are included on the chemical composition of the residues, the cost of the project, as well as scheduling difficulties and efforts to allay the fears of public officials as to the safety of the project. The use of by-products to repair a landslide on State Route 541 is briefly discussed.

  9. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commodities and Risk Management | Department of Energy Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management By: Howard Gruenspecht, Acting Administrator, Energy Information Administration Subject: Energy Markets and their Implications on Agriculture

  10. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  11. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elementsincluding alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zincduring sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUBwater interaction.

  12. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  13. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to support the American agricultural economy to strengthen rural communities; to protect and conserve our natural resources; and to provide a safe, sufficient, and nutritious food supply for the American people. The Department's wide range of programs and responsibilities touch the lives of every American every day. Solar resources are available from three offices within

  14. Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry By: Richard Newell, Administrator Energy Information Administration Subject: Development in Energy Markets and their possible implications on Agriculture Final_Testimony(22).pdf (32.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Hearing Before the

  15. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  16. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity vs. turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-04-16

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into 4 categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), and apply the analysis separately to the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for 5 models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. Formore » dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This responses arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled 1% yr−1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally-integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, inital productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in

  17. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-07

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, themore » situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr−1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter

  18. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  19. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  20. United States Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  1. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  2. Agricultural Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: What can we learn...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Land, Climate Focus Area: Agriculture, Land Use Topics: Implementation, GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studies...

  3. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  4. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.

  5. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  6. Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    1998-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  8. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  9. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  10. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  11. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence | Department of Energy Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence May 4, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - TOMORROW, May 5, 2011, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host a

  12. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel | Department of Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The

  13. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    paper outlines a range of practices, approaches and tools aimed at increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems, while also reducing and...

  14. Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Name Identification of Low...

  15. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products July ...

  16. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... forests, municipal solid wastes, urban wood waste, and algae, the report includes an evaluation of biomass supply potentially available through production on agricultural land. ...

  17. Farmers Electric Cooperative- Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Farmers Electric Cooperative offers incentives for its residential and agricultural members to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes and facilities. In order to receive rebates,...

  18. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct ...

  19. Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"","text":"AgriculturalDryingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility" title"Geothermal...

  20. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  1. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    President Project Title: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock ... Design, fabrication, and demonstration of three types of innovative new harvest and ...

  2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Health Atlas (GLiPHA) Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines National Planning...

  3. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976. PDF icon AnalysisAgriculturalLands.pdf More Documents & Publications Mini-Guidance Articles from Lessons Learned Quarterly...

  4. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (69.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Hearing Before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Before ...

  5. LEDSGP/Agriculture Work Space/Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPAgriculture Work SpaceTools < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work SpaceTools) Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership...

  6. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and...

  7. Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Strategy for Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change AgencyCompany...

  8. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  9. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  10. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a feedstock agnostic ionic liquid pretreatment process that: Agriculture Waste Woody Biomass Mixed Feedstocks Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Biofuels Program Contact: Blake...

  12. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  13. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and hauling costs

  14. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and

  15. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) established in the 2014 Farm Bill. It will specifically discuss the implications of ACEP for Tribes and tribal owners.

  16. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  17. Environmental release of mercury from coal utilization by-products: will new mercury controls at power plants make a difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljoe, W.W.; Feeley, T.J., III; Brickett, L.A.; Schroeder, K.T.; Murphy, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-09-30

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) uses the term coal utilization by-products (CUBs) to describe the solid materials produced by the combustion or gasification of coal. The following general observations can be drawn from results of field tests that have been carried out thus far to determine whether new technologies for mercury emission control at coal power plants will affect the release of mercury from CUBs. There appears to be only minimal potential mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization application for CUBs generated using ACI control technologies. There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The amount of mercury leached from CUBs samples tested is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  20. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  1. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  2. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    accomplished in a sustainable manner • Feedstock Infrastructure – An integrated feedstock supply system must be developed and implemented that can serve the feedstock needs of the biorefinery at the cost, quality, and consistency of the set targets • System Profitability – Economic profitability and sustainability need to be ensured for all required participants in the feedstock supply system. For each step in the biomass supply process—production, harvesting and collection, storage, preprocessing, system integration, and transportation—this roadmap addresses the current technical situations, performance targets, technical barriers, R&D needs, and R&D priorities to overcome technical barriers and achieve performance targets. Crop residue biomass is an attractive starting feedstock, which shows the best near-term promise as a biorefinery feedstock. Because crop residue is a by-product of grain production, it is an abundant, underutilized, and low cost biomass resource. Corn stover and cereal straw are the two most abundant crop residues available in the United States. Therefore, this roadmap focuses primarily on the R&D needed for using these biomass sources as viable biorefinery feedstocks. However, achieving the goal of 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock will require the use of other biomass sources such as dedicated energy crops. In the long term, the R&D needs identified in this roadmap will need to accommodate these other sources of biomass as well.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume I. Introduction and background. [Storage losses of 28 products and by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01

    The proposed plant site consists of 1594 acres along the Ohio River in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. An option to purchase the site has been secured on behalf of the Breckinridge Project by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Energy. Figure 1 is an area map locating the site with respect to area cities and towns. The nearest communities to the site are the hamlet of Stephensport, Kentucky, about 3-1/2 miles northeast and Cloverport, Kentucky, which is 6 miles to the southwest. The nearest major cities are Owensboro, Kentucky, 45 road miles to the west and Louisville, Kentucky, 65 miles to the northeast. The Breckinridge facility will convert about 23,000 TPD of run-of-mine (ROM) coal into a nominal 50,000 BPD of hydrocarbon liquids including a significant quantity of transportation fuels. Major products refined for marketing include pipeline gas, propane, butane, 105 RONC gasoline reformate, middle distillate and heavy distillate. By-products include sulfur, anhydrous ammonia, and commercial-grade phenol. Care is being taken to minimize the impact of the facility operations on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment systems have been designed to achieve zero discharge. Waste solids will be disposed of in a carefully designed and well-monitored landfill operation. Also, special design features have been included to minimize air emissions.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  5. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.; Yim, S.P.; Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  6. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team- A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Rates listed below are for farmers who signed up for the program by January 1, 2011; however, the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority still has some funding...

  8. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-source...

  9. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for ...

  10. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  11. National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep017i3237ei3237e.pdf Language: English This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides...

  12. Agricultural and Industrial Process-Heat-Market Sector workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulman, M. J.; Kannan, N. P.; deJong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook summarizes the preliminary data and assumptions of the Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Market Sector prepared in conjunction with the development of inputs for a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy.

  13. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military September 25, 2014 - 12:35pm ...

  14. Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector AgencyCompany Organization United States Department of Agriculture,...

  15. Value-added agriculture offers small agribusinesses additional income

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    potential Value-added agriculture Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Value-added agriculture offers small agribusinesses additional income potential Closing the gap between raw product and end user September 1, 2015 Las Nueve Niñas Winery wine label. Las Nueve Niñas Winery wine label. Contact Community Programs Director Kathy Keith Email Editor Ute Haker Email Instead

  16. ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListPossible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Pros and Cons Given the need for caution, it may still be possible to make a few general comments. With more carbon dioxide in the

  17. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels | Department of Energy Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development

  18. Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Park Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park Engineered Geothermal Systems, Low Temp, Exploration Demonstration Projects. Project goal: to attract new businesses to Klamath and Lake counties for the purpose of capitalizing on our abundant geothermal resources. egs_riley_klamath_lake.pdf (257.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Purchase and Installation of a

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  20. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  1. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-04-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  3. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Walker, Harold; Mitsch, William

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  4. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The following conclusions are drawn from the information presented in this report: (1) Joint efforts by industry and government focused on meeting RTC recommendations for reduction/removal of barriers have met with some success. The most notable of these are the changes in regulations related to CCB utilization by individual states. Regionally or nationally consistent state regulation of CCB utilization would further reduce regulatory barriers. (2) Technology changes will continue to be driven by the CAAA, and emission control technologies are expected to continue to impact the type and properties of CCBs generated. As a result, continued RD and D will be needed to learn how to utilize new and changing CCBs in environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically advantageous ways. Clean coal technology CCBs offer a new challenge because of the high volumes expected to be generated and the different characteristics of these CCBs compared to those of conventional CCBs. (3) Industry and government have developed the RD and D infrastructure to address the technical aspects of developing and testing new CCB utilization applications, but this work as well as constant quality control/quality assurance testing needs to be continued to address both industry wide issues and issues related to specific materials, regions, or users. (4) Concerns raised by environmental groups and the public will continue to provide environmental and technical challenges to the CCB industry. It is anticipated that the use of CCBs in mining applications, agriculture, structural fills, and other land applications will continue to be controversial and will require case-by-case technical and environmental information to be developed. The best use of this information will be in the development of generic regulations specifically addressing the use of CCBs in these different types of CCB applications. (5) The development of federal procurement guidelines under Executive Order 12873 titled

  5. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  6. Global analysis of energy prices and agriculture. Staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, B.J.; Martinez, S.W.; Otradovsky, M.; Stout, J.V.

    1991-09-01

    A multiregion computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to assess the longrun effects of higher energy prices on agricultural production, prices, and trade. An increase in the price of energy enters farmers' cost functions through direct energy use and through the indirect influence of energy prices on intermediate inputs, especially fertilizers. The multiregion feature of the model allows us to include the effects of energy price shocks on economies of other regions and to assess price changes in a global context. Because farming is highly energy-intensive, agricultural output falls more than output in the manufacturing and services sectors of each region of the model. Real returns to farmland, a good indicator of farm welfare, falls in each of the four regions. The U.S. land price declines by 3.5 percent, a drop comparable to that resulting from a 20-percent multilateral agricultural policy liberalization in a similar model.

  7. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  8. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, November 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This second quarterly report describes work during the second three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSI) and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR). The report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the acquisition of by-product samples and their initial analysis. Other efforts during the second quarter have been directed toward identifying the first hazardous waste samples and preparing for their treatment and analysis. Relatively little data has yet been collected. Major presentation of technical details and data will appear for the first time in the third quarterly report. The activity on the project during the second quarter of Phase One, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into seven areas: (1) Acquiring by-products, (2) Analyzing by-products, (3) Identifying, analyzing and treating suitable hazardous wastes, (4) Carrying out the quality assurance/quality control program, (5) Developing background, and (6) Initiating public relations

  9. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistentmore » with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  10. Agricultural Mixed Waster Biorefinery Using Thermal Conversion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This Congressionally-mandated project is supporting efforts to develop a demonstration facility that will use the patented Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) to produce fuel, power and chemicals from poultry waste and agricultural wastes such as animal and vegetable grease and wastewater sludge.

  11. Climate change and agriculture: Current methodologies and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

    1996-12-31

    In the last fifteen years a major methodology has been developed for the assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural production around the world. This methodology consists of coupling dynamic crop growth models, designed to predict plant development and yield as a function of weather, soil, and management input variables, to predictors of climate change for sites within a given region. Such impact studies consist of (1) Definition of area of study and analysis of current climate and agricultural practices; (2) Crop model calibration and evaluation; (3) Development of climate change scenarios from GCMs or historical weather data; (4) Analyses of yield changes under changed climatic conditions; and (5) Development and analysis of adaptation strategies. Crop productivity results of such studies are often used in economic analyses. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US Country Studies Program endorse this modeling approach for the assessment of climate change effects on agriculture. It is useful for assessment studies to continue in the framework of the approved guidelines, in order to build a more complete understanding of likely effects on agricultural production throughout the world, and for more comprehensive results to be available for integrated assessment studies.

  12. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  13. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  14. Final Report: No{sub x} Emissions from By Product Fuel Combustion in Steel Making, September 15, 1996 - October 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershing, David W.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Eddings, Eric G.; Cacciatore, David A.

    1999-01-28

    Exhaust gases from the primary operations in the steel making process are almost exclusively utilized as supplemental fuels within the steel plant. These by-product fuels include blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) which contain mixtures of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and trace amounts of some heavier hydrocarbons and the impurities NH{sub 3} and HCN. These fuels are burned alone or in combination with natural gas to fire the coke ovens, blast furnace stoves utility boilers and metal working furnaces. The utilization of these by-product fuels reduces the waste gas emissions at the steel mill and reduces the requirements for outside fuel sources. However, as with primary fuel sources, the combustion of these by-product fuel blends does produce hazardous pollutants, in particular nitrogen oxides, and because these are atypical fuel blends of varying composition, the pollutant formation is not well understood. The objective of this research was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms controlling NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of by-product fuels from the steel industry and investigate control and design options to minimize emissions. The minimization strategies investigated were constrained by limits on CO and hydrocarbon emissions, both of which increased under fuel-rich combustion scenarios that resulted in reduced NO{sub x} emissions. Also, the minimization strategies were constrained by the need for reasonable heat generation rates in the furnaces that employ these by-product fuels, so that product steel quality is not adversely affected.

  15. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  16. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  17. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  18. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana on July 26–29, 2015, and will examine industry trends and innovations, with a focus on the focus on the economic, political and social factors influencing the industry. Bioenergy Technologies Office Director Jonathan Male, Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and Technology Managers Sam Tagore, Mark Elless, and Steve Thomas will be in attendance.

  19. To the Biorefinery: Delievered Forestland and Agricultural Resources Factsheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Biorefinery: Delivered Forestland and Agricultural Resources It can be challenging and costly to trans- port biomass feedstock supplies from the roadside, or farmgate, to a biorefinery. Given the geographic dispersion and low- bulk density of cellulosic feedstocks, cost- effective scaling of commercial biorefinery operations requires overcoming many challenges. The Biomass Research and Development Board's Feedstock Logistics Interagency Working Group identified four primary barriers related

  20. Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review lowtemp_013_riley.pdf (222.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers,

  1. World agriculture and climate change: Current modeling issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwin, R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies suggest that although global increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns during the next century will affect world agriculture, farmer adaptations are likely to prevent climate change from jeopardizing world food production. The costs and benefits of global climate change, however, are not equally distributed around the world. Agricultural production may increase in high latitude and alpine areas, but decrease in tropical and some other areas. Also, land use changes that accompany climate-induced shifts in cropland and permanent pasture are likely to raise additional social and environmental issues. Despite these advances, some important aspects of climate change have not been adequately simulated in global models. These include the effects that climate-induced changes in water resources are likely to have on agricultural production, the well-documented beneficial effects of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plant growth and water use, and the cooling effects of tropospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide. In addition, past research generally relied on equilibrium climates based on a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Now, however, results from transient climate change experiments are available.

  2. OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Agency...

  3. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  4. Costa Rica-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  5. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  6. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings

  7. Third world applications of pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatom, J.W.; Wellborn, H.W.; Harahap, F.; Sasmojo, S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an appropriate technology for the conversion of agricultural and wood wastes into fuels in underdeveloped nations is discussed. Low temperature pyrolysis offers a promising means of conversion since the char and oil products are storable and easily transportable. The steady-flow, vertical packed bed, partial oxidation pyrolysis process is described and the appropriate technology pyrolytic converter basic design concept is presented. The current status of program in the US and in Papua New Guinea is described. The operation, test results, and economics of the converter are discussed.

  8. Rodigo 1, northern Italy: A geothermal complex for agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faccini, U.; Magnoni, S.; Sordelli, C. )

    1993-04-01

    The Padana Valley is an area rich in warm waters. At Rodigo, near Mantua, a well drilled by Agip supplied 80 m[sup 3]/h of water at 59[degree]C. A cooperative of farmers, with the aid of the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Milan, has developed a complex for agricultural uses of these warm waters: greenhouses, plants for cereal and forage drying and tanks for aquaculture, all utilizing geothermal energy. The Institute of Applied Physics has also installed a continuous radon monitoring station which measures the radon level in the geothermal well.

  9. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  10. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg

  11. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid Waste Processing Div.; Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Technology Branch Country of Publication: United States ...

  12. Comparison between MSW ash and RDF ash from incineration process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Chang, Ni-Bin ; Wang, H.P. ; Lin, K.S. 1 + Show Author Affiliations National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China) and others Publication Date: ...

  13. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  15. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  16. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C.

    2003-07-01

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  17. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quartery report, August 1994--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    This first quarterly report describes work during the first three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSO and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR)). The report states the goals of the project - both general and specific - and then describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. All of this work has been organizational and developmental in nature. No data has yet been collected. Technical details and data will appear for the first time in the second quarterly report and be the major topic of subsequent reports.

  18. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  19. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Feasibility Report -- Agricultural and Forestry Solid Wastes Power Generation Demonstration, December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report on feasibility of using agricultural and forestry wastes for power generation in China

  20. U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development Initiative | Department of Energy Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative April 15, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, April 15, 2011- To support President Obama's goal of reducing America's oil imports by one-third by 2025, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) today jointly announced up to

  1. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy announced a $41 million investment that will drive more efficient biofuels production and feedstock improvements.

  2. Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research | Department of Energy Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research June 7, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns today announced that the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture have jointly selected 11 projects for awards totaling $8.3 million for biobased fuels research that will

  3. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  4. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  5. Use of Xenon Difluoride to Clean Hazardous By-Products in Ion Implanter Source Housings, Turbo Pumps, and Fore-Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despres, J.; Chambers, B.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Letaj, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Tang, Y.; Wilson, S.; Yedave, S.

    2011-01-07

    This paper describes the use of xenon difluoride to clean deposits in the source housing, source turbo pump, and source turbo pump fore-line of ion implanters. Xenon difluoride has previously been shown to be effective in increasing the lifetime of the ion source{sup 1,2} and this paper presents an extension of the technology to other areas within the tool. Process by-products that are deposited in the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line can not only pose productivity issues, in the case of coatings on insulators, but can also be flammable and toxic in the case of deposits formed within the turbo pump and fore-line. The results presented in this paper detail the initial successful examples of using xenon difluoride to clean these deposits.ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is capable of cleaning an insulator in an ion implanter. Typically during use an insulator will become increasingly coated with deposits that could lead to productivity problems. By introducing xenon difluoride into the source housing the insulator residues were effectively cleaned in-situ, thereby extending the maintenance interval and resulting in significant consumable savings.Similar deposits that form in the turbo pump and fore-line could not only lead to production problems due to turbo pump failure or fore-line build-up, but pose significant health risks during the ex-situ cleaning process. Through internal testing ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is able to clean phosphorus and germanium deposits located within a turbo pump. Additionally, testing has demonstrated that the turbo pump fore-line can be cleaned in-situ without the need to remove these components, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of fires. The cleaning reaction progress and by-products were monitored using FTIR spectrometry and thermocouples.In order to efficiently clean the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line xenon difluoride delivery must be optimized. This paper also

  6. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/96 3/31/00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, William E.; Butalia, Tarunjit S.; Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl; Mitsch, William

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohios non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous retention

  7. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  8. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasson, E.M.; Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevin, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` program is one of the largest programs ever undertaken by the Mining Engineering Department of Southern Illinois university, both in terms of complexity and in terms of funding. Total funding over the expected four-year extent of the program, including both Department of Energy, matching Southern Illinois University funds, and contributed funds, this program exceeds three million dollars. The number of cooperating organizations adds to the management complexity of the program. It was believed, therefore, that sound management plan and management base is essential for the efficient and effective conduct of the program. This first quarter period (i.e., October 1--December 31, 1993) was developed to establishing the management base, developing a sound management plan, developing a test plan, and developing sound fiscal management and control. Actual technical operations, such as residue sample acquisition, residue analyses, groundwater sample acquisition and analyses, and material handling studies will get underway early in the next quarter (i.e., January 1--March 31, 1994). Some early results of residue analyses and groundwater analyses should be available by the end of the second quarter. These results will be reported in the next Technical Progress Report.

  10. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA (CEQ, 1980)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976.

  11. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976.

  12. Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of organic waste Municipal solid wastes (MSW) For every 1 million tons of ... generated from 4.5 MGD of waste water Agricultural waste (i.e. dairy waste) About ...

  13. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  14. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  15. The potential of wetlands for mitigating adverse effects of agricultural drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Agricultural runoff has been clearly identified as a major contributor to the failure of much of the surface water in the United States to meet designated use objectives. Control of agricultural drainage is very problematic. The agriculture industry strongly resists mandated controls, and warns of potential catastrophic consequences in food shortages should production methods be altered. Yet concern grows over the long and short term impact of a variety of contaminants - particularly sediments, nutrients, and pesticides - released to our waters as part of normal agricultural practices. For quite some time, wetlands have been explored for their potential in treating sewage (from both municipal and private systems) and acid mine drainage. Much less work has been done looking at the potential for wetlands to treat agricultural drainage. yet, wetlands may offer tremendous potential for mitigating problems of agricultural runoff while offering farmers desirable (or at least acceptable) uses of marginal land. This paper has two objectives. First, the opportunities for wetlands to be used as agricultural drainage treatment facilities are described. Processes are identified which trap or degrade pollutants, with particular attention given to long-term environmental fate. Second, an experimental wetlands system recently developed in Northwest Ohio is used as an example of system implementation. Emphasis will be given to how the system was developed to optimize pollutant removal within the physical constraints of the site. Preliminary performance data with respect to water quality changes will also be presented.

  16. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Biofuels Research | Department of Energy Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research July 22, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced today the joint selection of awards of up to $6.3 million towards fundamental genomics-enabled research leading

  17. 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in Orlando, Florida, from July 17–20, 2016. The meeting is a forum to expand awareness of current agricultural and biological engineering advances and innovations. Bioenergy Technologies Office Program Manager Alison Goss Eng will be presenting at the meeting, and Director Jonathan Male and Technology Managers Sam Tagore and Mark Elless will be in attendance.

  18. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  19. Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, Jay; Neufeldt, Heinrich; Jahn, Margaret M; Lezaks, David P; Meinke, Jan H; Scholes, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be climate-smart when it contributes to increasing food security, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This new concept now dominates current discussions in agricultural development because of its capacity to unite the agendas of the agriculture, development and climate change communities under one brand. In this opinion piece authored by scientists from a variety of international agricultural and climate research communities, we argue that the concept needs to be evaluated critically because the relationship between the three dimensions is poorly understood, such that practically any improved agricultural practice can be considered climate-smart. This lack of clarity may have contributed to the broad appeal of the concept. From the understanding that we must hold ourselves accountable to demonstrably better meet human needs in the short and long term within foreseeable local and planetary limits, we develop a conceptualization of climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that can be shown to bring us closer to safe operating spaces for agricultural and food systems across spatial and temporal scales. Improvements in the management of agricultural systems that bring us significantly closer to safe operating spaces will require transformations in governance and use of our natural resources, underpinned by enabling political, social and economic conditions beyond incremental changes. Establishing scientifically credible indicators and metrics of long-term safe operating spaces in the context of a changing climate and growing social-ecological challenges is critical to creating the societal demand and political will required to motivate deep transformations. Answering questions on how the needed transformational change can be achieved will require actively setting and testing hypotheses to refine and characterize our concepts of safer spaces for social-ecological systems across scales. This effort will demand prioritizing key

  20. Using landscape typologies to model socioecological systems: Application to agriculture of the United States Gulf Coast

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Preston, Benjamin L.; King, Anthony Wayne; Mei, Rui; Nair, Sujithkumar Surendran

    2016-02-11

    Agricultural enterprises are vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. Improved understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in agricultural systems is important for projecting and managing future climate risk. At present, three analytical tools dominate methodological approaches to understanding agroecological vulnerability to climate: process-based crop models, empirical crop models, and integrated assessment models. A common weakness of these approaches is their limited treatment of socio-economic conditions and human agency in modeling agroecological processes and outcomes. This study proposes a framework that uses spatial cluster analysis to generate regional socioecological typologies that capture geographic variance inmore » regional agricultural production and enable attribution of that variance to climatic, topographic, edaphic, and socioeconomic components. This framework was applied to historical corn production (1986-2010) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region as a testbed. The results demonstrate that regional socioeconomic heterogeneity is an important driving force in human dominated ecosystems, which we hypothesize, is a function of the link between socioeconomic conditions and the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems. Meaningful representation of future agricultural responses to climate variability and change is contingent upon understanding interactions among biophysical conditions, socioeconomic conditions, and human agency their incorporation in predictive models.« less

  1. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  2. Overview of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops with emphasis on the Tennessee Valley. Bulletin Y-171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roetheli, J.C.; Pile, R.S.; Young, H.C.

    1982-02-01

    An overview is presented of the factors and concerns associated with producing fuel alcohol from agricultural crops. Areas covered include: an assessment of energy used in agriculture; a categorization of grain crop production, land suitable for energy crop production, and livestock production in the 201-county TVA region; a summary of technical and economic information on fuel alcohol production; a discussion of acreages required to produce fuel for benchmark farms in the Tennessee Valley and possible erosion impacts; and a discussion of other pertinent advantages and disadvantages of fuel alcohol production from crops.

  3. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation | Department of Energy Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation October 2, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels that can be used by the Department of Defense and the private transportation sector. | Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy. DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to

  4. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military | Department of Energy Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military January 30, 2015 - 5:49pm Addthis In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy,

  5. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  6. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  7. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of Navy, on September 19, 2014, to announce awards for three commercial-scale biorefinery projects that will help meet the transportation needs of the U.S. military and private sector.

  8. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  9. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  10. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  11. Population array and agricultural data arrays for the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, K.W.; Duffy, S.; Kowalewsky, K.

    1998-07-01

    To quantify or estimate the environmental and radiological impacts from man-made sources of radioactive effluents, certain dose assessment procedures were developed by various government and regulatory agencies. Some of these procedures encourage the use of computer simulations (models) to calculate air dispersion, environmental transport, and subsequent human exposure to radioactivity. Such assessment procedures are frequently used to demonstrate compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Knowledge of the density and distribution of the population surrounding a source is an essential component in assessing the impacts from radioactive effluents. Also, as an aid to calculating the dose to a given population, agricultural data relevant to the dose assessment procedure (or computer model) are often required. This report provides such population and agricultural data for the area surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  13. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  14. OSTIblog Articles in the National Agriculture Library Topic | OSTI, US Dept

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Agriculture Library Topic Eleanor Frierson: A Tribute to the Grande Dame of Government Science Information Partnerships by Dr. Walt Warnick 13 May, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 7446 EFrierson%2872%29.jpg Eleanor Frierson: A Tribute to the Grande Dame of Government Science Information Partnerships Read more about 7446 Eleanor Frierson, who passed away in April 2013, was the grande dame of partnerships to improve public access to

  15. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting March 29, 2013 Kristen Johnson Sustainability Lead Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 Overview * National priorities and the Renewable Fuel Standard * Overview of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) - Mission - Key RDD&D Activities * DOE's Billion-Ton Update: National Resource Assessment * DOE's Commitment to Sustainability *

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  17. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  18. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  19. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ags ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  20. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  1. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  2. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  3. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  4. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  5. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  6. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  7. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000–2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input

  8. Mitigating climate change through managing constructed-microbial communities in agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Cyd E.; Bever, James D.; Labbe, Jessy; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-10-27

    The importance of increasing crop production while reducing resource inputs and land-use change cannot be overstated especially in light of climate change and a human population growth projected to reach nine billion this century. Here, mutualistic plant microbe interactions offer a novel approach to enhance agricultural productivity while reducing environmental costs. In concert with other novel agronomic technologies and management, plant-microbial mutualisms could help increase crop production and reduce yield losses by improving resistance and/or resilience to edaphic, biologic, and climatic variability from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives.

  9. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  10. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  11. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  12. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  14. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  15. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  16. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  17. Clusters of antibiotic resistance genes enriched together stay together in swine agriculture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong -Guan; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundancemore » of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk.Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance

  18. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  19. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  20. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  1. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  3. Evaluation of the potential for agricultural development at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RG Evans; MJ Hattendorf; CT Kincaid

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animalhlish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. World population is projected to double to more than 12 billion people, straining already stressed worldwide agricultural resources. The current world surpluses in many commodities will not last when faced with increasing population, decreasing ocean fisheries, and rapid loss of productive lands from soil salivation and erosion. The production of pharmaceuticals from bioengineered plants and animals will undoubtedly add more pressure on the already limited (and declining) arable land base. In addition there will be pressure to produce crops that can help reduce the world's dependence on petroleum and be used for chemical plant feedstock. These external, formidable pressures will necessitate increasing investments in irrigation infi-a-structures in many areas of the world to increase productivity. Intensive greenhouse culture and aqua-culture also will be greatly expanded. There will be large economic and social pressures to expand production in areas such as the Pacific Northwest. Agricultural exports will continue to be important The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Both of these are potentially highly productive area: for producing food and export capital. The environmental concerns will be large however, the favorable growing conditions, high-quality (low-salinity) abundant water supplies and minimal problems with salivation of soils make the Pacific Northwest a very desirable region for economically sustainable expansion from a world perspective.

  4. Formation of deposits on the surfaces of superheaters and economisers of MSW incinerator plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichelt, J.; Pfrang-Stotz, G.; Bergfeldt, B.; Seifert, H.; Knapp, P.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of deposits depends on the temperature profile and boiler geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mineralogy of deposits defines critical and uncritical zones in the boiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical zones in boilers can be characterised by a classification systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific measures to enhance energy efficiency can be defined. - Abstract: Mineralogical and chemical investigations of deposits from superheaters and economisers from a MSWI plant in Mannheim, Germany, lead to a classification system which provides information about the most critical parameters leading to fouling and corrosion. With the help of this classification system parameters like the geometry of boilers and the waste input can be changed in order to prolong run times between revisions and enhance energy efficiency of MSWI plants.

  5. Monitoring the fate of chlorine from MSW sampling through combustion. Part II. Combustion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domalski, E.S.; Churney, K.L.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Parris, R.M.; Chesler, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion measurements were carried out in a multi-kilogram capacity flow calorimeter on cellulose and cellulose/sand samples in 100% oxygen and several oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. Some measurements were made on cellulose/sand samples, which had 1 mass % of polyvinylchloride (PVC) as part of their composition, to study the conditions related to the formation/destruction of chlorinated organic compounds as combustion products. Qualitative identifications of a significant variety of chlorinated organic compounds have been made. 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. ABB`s investigations into air toxic emissions from fossil fuel and MSW combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Since passage of the Clean Air Act, Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has been actively developing a knowledge base on the Title 3 hazardous air pollutants, more commonly called air toxics. As ABB is a multinational company, US operating companies are able to call upon work performed by European counterparts, who have faced similar legislation several years ago. In addition to the design experience and database acquired in Europe, ABB Inc. has been pursuing several other avenues to expand its air toxics knowledge. ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) is presently studying the formation of organic pollutants within the combustion furnace and partitioning of trace metals among the furnace outlet streams. ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) has reviewed available and near-term control technologies and methods. Also, both ABB CE and ABBES have conducted source sampling and analysis at commercial installations for hazardous air pollutants to determine the emission rates and removal performance of various types of equipment. Several different plants hosted these activities, allowing for variation in fuel type and composition, boiler configuration, and air pollution control equipment. This paper discusses the results of these investigations.

  7. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  8. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  9. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  10. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  11. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco

    2008-06-18

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  12. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco

    2008-06-18

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  13. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-165-2251, Vermont Department of Agriculture, Montpelier, Vermont

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, M.S.; Wilcox, T.G.

    1992-08-01

    On January 8, 1992, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Helath (NIOSH), received a request for a hazard evaluation from Senator Patrick Leahy's office in Montpelier, Vermont. The request was for NIOSH to evaluate the indoor environmental quality at the Vermont Department of Agriculture, due to the prevalence of respiratory and irritative symptoms among employees there following renovations in their building. One worker was advised to leave work due to respiratory illness. On March 5, 1992, NIOSH investigators interviewed workers and collected air samples for 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PC) and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Air samples were collected in renovated rooms on the first floor, carpeted and uncarpeted rooms on the second floor, and outside. First floor space was converted from laboratories to offices in August of 1991, and included painting, plastering, varnishing, and carpeting. Some second floor areas were carpeted and painted following the first floor work. Medical interviews revealed that five of the 10 workers were currently experiencing symptoms which included, headache (5 employees), excessive fatigue (3), eye irritation (2), throat irritation (2), and nasal congestion (1). The symptomatic workers reported that their symptoms had begun after their move to the first floor.

  14. Agricultural approaches of remediation in the outside of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Saso, Michitaka; Umeda, Miki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines agricultural approaches of remediation activity done in contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. About the decontamination examination of contaminated areas, we have tried the land scale test of a rice field before and after planting by the use of currently recommended methods. Since farmers would carry out the land preparation by themselves, generation of secondary radioactive waste should be as low as possible through the decontamination works. For the radioactive nuclide migration control of rice by wet rice production, several types of decontamination methods such as zeolite addition and potassium fertilization in the soil have been examined. The results are summarized in the 4 following points. 1) Plowing and water discharge are effective for removing radioactive cesium from rice field. 2) Additional potassium fertilization is effective for reducing cesium radioactivity in the product. 3) No significant difference is observed with or without the zeolite addition. 4) Very low transfer factor of cesium from soil to brown rice has been obtained compared with literature values.

  15. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  16. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  17. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  18. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco [University of Udine, Italy

    2010-01-08

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  19. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  20. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  1. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  2. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  3. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  4. Production of energy and high-value chemicals from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colucci-Raeos, J.A.; Saliceti-Piazza, L.; Herncndez, A.

    1996-12-31

    Landfills have been used for decades in Puerto Rico as the only alternative for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). In the present, 7,300 metric tons (8,000 tons) of MSW are generated on a daily basis, of which about 43% are generated in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Garbage dumps in the Metropolitan Area have an estimated useful life of two years from now. Furthermore, Puerto Rico`s average daily per capita generation exceeds that of US and is almost as twice as that of Europe. A novel alternative for the disposal of MSW needs to be implemented. The University of Puerto Rico (Department of Chemical Engineering), in a collaborative effort with the Sandia National Laboratory, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Puerto Rico`s Energy Affairs Administration, and the Institute of Chemical Engineers of Puerto Rico, have conceptualized a research program that would address the utilization of MSW and other agricultural residues for the generation of energy and/or high-value chemical products. The concept, {open_quotes}biorefinery{close_quotes} would consist of the collection of MSW and other agricultural wastes, separation of materials for recycling (glass, ceramics, metals), and use of gasification and/or hydrolysis of the screened material to produce energy and/or chemicals (such as alcohols and oxyaromatics).

  5. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  6. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  7. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  8. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  9. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  10. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a 'very good quality' for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  11. Next Release Date: August 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6. Waste energy consumption by type of waste and energy-use sector, 2010 (trillion Btu) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Total 36 169 17 247 469 Landfill Gas 3 107 10 93 213 MSW Biogenic 1 28 4 3 130 165 Other Biomass 2 5 59 4 23 91 MSW = Municipal Solid Waste. 1 Includes paper and paper board, wood, food, leather, textiles and yard trimmings. 2 Agriculture byproducts/crops, sludge waste, and other biomass solids, liquids and gases. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components due

  12. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  13. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  14. Plasma furnace treatment of metallurgical by-product streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whellock, J.G.; Heanley, C.P.; Chapman, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    It is a common misconception that plasma furnace technology only has application for exotic and very high temperature processes. With the increasing importance placed on waste minimization and the environmental constraints imposed on heavy metals present in byproducts from mainstream operations, plasma technology is finding widespread application. Tetronics is a premier supplier of plasma tundish heating systems for the steel industry. More recently the company has found growing interest in electric arc furnace dust treatment, lead blast furnace slag treatment and metal recovery, copper, nickel and cobalt scavenging from primary smelter slags, dross treatment, platinum group metals (PGM) recovery from catalysts and vitrification and detoxification of heavy metal contaminated waste byproducts. The principal advantages of the plasma arc technology are the close metallurgical control of the furnace environment, minimal off-gas handling requirements and overall high energy efficiency of the processes. A number of applications in the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry are described.

  15. Browse OSTIblog Articles by Products | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE Research and Development (R&D) Project Summaries DOepatents DOepatents is a searchable database of patent information resulting from DOE-sponsored research and development ...

  16. Bioelectrochemical Treatment of Gaseous By-products - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or interior portions a proton-conducting medium, and (iii) said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the bioelectrochemical device. The invention is also...

  17. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  18. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. HEIN; J.Y. HWANG; M.G. MCKIMPSON; R.C. GREENLUND; X. HUANG

    1998-10-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCo) Class F fly ash is the first material to be worked on in this project. A head sample was taken and a screen analysis performed. Each size fraction was evaluated for LOI content. Table 1 shows the distribution of the as-received material by size and LOI content. From the data, 80% of the as-received material is finer than 400 mesh and the LOI content goes from high at coarse fractions and decreases to a low at the finest size fraction. SEM chemical analysis identified the as-received fly ash to mainly consist of silica (46%), aluminum oxide (21%), and iron in various forms (16%). The high iron content presents an extreme case as compared to other fly ash samples we have evaluated previously. Its effect on product testing applications could identify physical and chemical limitations as product testing progresses. Because of the high iron content, it was realized that magnetic separation would be incorporated into the early part of the pilot plant flowsheet to remove magnetic iron and, hopefully, reduce the total iron content. More analytical data will be presented in the next reporting period.

  19. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  20. Browse OSTIblog Articles by Products | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Green Energy DOE PAGES(Beta) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGESBeta) DOE Research & Development (R&D) Accomplishments The DOE R&D Accomplishments is a central ...

  1. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to $8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department Agriculture in collaboration with the Energy Department announced that up to $8.7 million in funding will be made available through the Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil by supporting the development of bioenergy feedstocks, biofuels, and biobased products.

  2. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  3. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  4. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  5. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  6. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  7. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 9. Science Applications, Incorporated Phase 2 - definition study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the effort required to implement the design of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Engineering Test Facility, SCEA-ETF. This report is a basic blueprint for the Phase 2 activities which have as a goal the construction of the ETF. These activities have been broken down into five major tasks, namely Project Management; Engineering and Design; Procurement/Fabrication; Construction, Installation and Checkout; and Operation and Maintenance. The type of activities required under each of these tasks are described followed by a detailed work breakdown structure. The Phase 2 project organization is discussed. A 13 month schedule for the total project is also given. Lastly, two appendices discuss cost adjustment factors for an ETF located in the KSA, and an update of the commercial system cost estimate based on preliminary cost quotations for the ETF. The results show a 63% cost increase for the KSA ETF primarily due to higher construction costs and greater well depth. The commercial system cost required an adjustment upwards of 7.7%.

  8. Agricultural Improvement Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Like Minnesota's Stock Loan Program, this is a "participation loan," where loans are made by individual financial institutions working with the RFA. The RFA has a Master Participation Agreement...

  9. Agricultural Energy Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The maximum total amount of loans that can be outstanding to a borrower at any time is $1,355,000. The percent of the project funded by VACC is negotiable. Loans are provided at variable rates, a...

  10. WINDExchange: Agricultural Podcasts

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    agriculturalpodcasts.asp A series of radio interviews on wind energy aimed at a rural stakeholder audience produced by WINDExchange and the National Association of Farm...

  11. Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loans are available in amounts of up to $40,000 per farm family, with up to $160,000 ($40,000 per farmer) available for joint projects. The program currently offers a fixed interest rate of 3%...

  12. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application

  13. Why Do Global Long-term Scenarios for Agriculture Differ? An overview of the AgMIP Global Economic Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Cai, Yongxia; Calvin, Katherine V.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Nelson, Gerald; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; van Meijl, Hans

    2013-12-02

    Recent studies assessing plausible futures for agricultural markets and global food security have had contradictory outcomes. Ten global economic models that produce long-term scenarios were asked to compare a reference scenario with alternate socio-economic, climate change and bioenergy scenarios using a common set of key drivers. Results suggest that, once general assumptions are harmonized, the variability in general trends across models declines, and that several common conclusions are possible. Nonetheless, differences in basic model parameters, sometimes hidden in the way market behavior is modeled, result in significant differences in the details. This holds for both the common reference scenario and for the various shocks applied. We conclude that agro-economic modelers aiming to inform the agricultural and development policy debate require better data and analysis on both economic behavior and biophysical drivers. More interdisciplinary modeling efforts are required to cross-fertilize analyses at different scales.

  14. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  15. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  16. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  17. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Solid waste programs updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The module focuses on EPA`s efforts in two areas: municipal and industrial solid waste. The garbage that is managed by the local governments is known as municipal solid waste (MSW). Garbage excluded from hazardous waste regulation but not typically collected by local governments is commonly known as industrial solid waste. This category includes domestic sewage and other wastewater treatment sludge, demolition and construction wastes, agricultural and mining residues, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes.

  18. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  19. Opportunities to assist developing countries in the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals. Report of the Committee on Health and Environment. Volume 1. Research paper(Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-02-18

    This report was prepared to examine opportunities for promoting the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals, and of alternatives such as integrated pest management. Volume one provides an overview of the economic, health, and environmental costs developing countries incur from improper pesticide and chemical use and presents detailed action recommendations for the Agency for International Development (AID). Volume two provides source information: included are sections on AID's and other donors' environmental policies, the activities of other US government agencies operating abroad, and lessons learned from integrated pest management programs, along with a 35-page bibliography.

  20. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled. Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Y. L.; Dick, W. A.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3∙0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This

  1. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agricultural Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.

  2. Joint environmental assessment 1997--2001 of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Curly Top Virus Control Program for Bureau of Land Management and Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The DOE, Naval Petroleum reserves in California (NPRC), proposes to sign an Amendment to the Cooperative Agreement and Supplement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) to extend the term of the Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) in California. This program involves Malathion spraying on NPRC lands to control the beet leafhopper, over a five year period from 1997 through 2001. It is expected that approximately 330 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) and approximately 9,603 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2) will be treated with Malathion annually by CDFA during the course of this program. The actual acreage subject to treatment can vary from year to year. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in a Joint Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1011) with the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acting as lead agency, in consultation with the CDFA, and the DOE acting as a cooperating agency. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the conduct of the Curly Top Virus Control Program in California is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is consequently issuing a FONSI.

  3. Agricultural Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  4. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional",122,1.5 " Solar","-","-" " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood Waste","-","-" " MSW... Conventional",391,1.2 " Solar","-","-" " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood Waste","s","*" " MSW ...

  5. Delaware Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional","-","-" " Solar","-","-" " Wind",2,0.1 " WoodWood Waste","-","-" " MSW... Conventional","-","-" " Solar","-","-" " Wind",3,"*" " WoodWood Waste","-","-" " MSW ...

  6. Mapping intra-field yield variation using high resolution satellite imagery to integrate bioenergy and environmental stewardship in an agricultural watershed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hamada, Yuki; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-31

    Biofuels are important alternatives for meeting our future energy needs. Successful bioenergy crop production requires maintaining environmental sustainability and minimum impacts on current net annual food, feed, and fiber production. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine under-productive areas within an agricultural field in a watershed using a single date; high resolution remote sensing and (2) examine impacts of growing bioenergy crops in the under-productive areas using hydrologic modeling in order to facilitate sustainable landscape design. Normalized difference indices (NDIs) were computed based on the ratio of all possible two-band combinations using the RapidEye and the National Agriculturalmore » Imagery Program images collected in summer 2011. A multiple regression analysis was performed using 10 NDIs and five RapidEye spectral bands. The regression analysis suggested that the red and near infrared bands and NDI using red-edge and near infrared that is known as the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index (RENDVI) had the highest correlation (R2 = 0.524) with the reference yield. Although predictive yield map showed striking similarity to the reference yield map, the model had modest correlation; thus, further research is needed to improve predictive capability for absolute yields. Forecasted impact using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model of growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) on under-productive areas based on corn yield thresholds of 3.1, 4.7, and 6.3 Mg·ha-1 showed reduction of tile NO3-N and sediment exports by 15.9%–25.9% and 25%–39%, respectively. Corresponding reductions in water yields ranged from 0.9% to 2.5%. While further research is warranted, the study demonstrated the integration of remote sensing and hydrologic modeling to quantify the multifunctional value of projected future landscape patterns in a context of sustainable bioenergy crop production.« less

  7. Experimental research on emission and removal of dioxins in flue gas from a co-combustion of MSW and coal incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Zhaoping . E-mail: zzhong@seu.edu.cn; Jin Baosheng; Huang Yaji; Zhou Hongcang; Lan Jixiang

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental study of dioxins removal from flue gas from a co-combustion municipal solid waste and coal incinerator by means of a fluidized absorption tower and a fabric filter. A test rig has been set up. The flow rate of flue gas of the test rig is 150-2000 m{sup 3}/h. The system was composed of a humidification and cooling system, an absorption tower, a demister, a slurry make-up tank, a desilter, a fabric filter and a measurement system. The total height of the absorption tower was 6.5 m, and the diameter of the reactor pool was 1.2 m. When the absorbent was 1% limestone slurry, the recirculation ratio was 3, the jet rate was 5-15 m/s and the submerged depth of the bubbling pipe under the slurry was 0.14 m, the removal efficiency for dioxins was 99.35%. The concentration of dioxins in the treated flue gas was 0.1573 x 10{sup -13} kg/Nm{sup 3} and the concentration of oxygen was 11%. This concentration is comparable to the emission standards of other developed countries.

  8. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  9. Analysis of methods and models for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes in the agricultural sector of the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Alternative methods for quantifying the economic impacts associated with future increases in the ambient concentration of CO/sub 2/ were examined. A literature search was undertaken, both to gain a better understanding of the ways in which CO/sub 2/ buildup could affect crop growth and to identify the different methods available for assessing the impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes on crop yields. The second task involved identifying the scope of both the direct and indirect economic impacts that could occur as a result of CO/sub 2/-induced changes in crop yields. The third task then consisted of a comprehensive literature search to identify what types of economic models could be used effectively to assess the kinds of direct and indirect economic impacts that could conceivably occur as a result of CO/sub 2/ buildup. Specific attention was focused upon national and multi-regional agricultural sector models, multi-country agricultural trade models, and macroeconomic models of the US economy. The fourth and final task of this research involved synthesizing the information gathered in the previous tasks into a systematic framework for assessing the direct and indirect economic impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced environmental changes related to agricultural production.

  10. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A. Tolis, Athanasios I. Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  11. Tokamak reactor for treating fertile material or waste nuclear by-products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotschenreuther, Michael T.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Valanju, Prashant M.

    2012-10-02

    Disclosed is a tokamak reactor. The reactor includes a first toroidal chamber, current carrying conductors, at least one divertor plate within the first toroidal chamber and a second chamber adjacent to the first toroidal chamber surrounded by a section that insulates the reactor from neutrons. The current carrying conductors are configured to confine a core plasma within enclosed walls of the first toroidal chamber such that the core plasma has an elongation of 1.5 to 4 and produce within the first toroidal chamber at least one stagnation point at a perpendicular distance from an equatorial plane through the core plasma that is greater than the plasma minor radius. The at least one divertor plate and current carrying conductors are configured relative to one another such that the current carrying conductors expand the open magnetic field lines at the divertor plate.

  12. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i.e. Florida) are oversupplied as well. While the total US demand for ultrafine pozzolan is currently equal to demand, there is no reason to expect a significant increase in demand. Despite the technical merits identified in the pilot plant work with regard to beneficiating the entire pond ash stream, market developments in the Ohio River Valley area during 2006-2007 were not conducive to demonstrating the project at the scale proposed in the Cooperative Agreement. As a result, Cemex withdrew from the project in 2006 citing unfavorable local market conditions in the foreseeable future at the demonstration site. During the Budget Period 1 extensions provided by the DOE, CAER has contacted several other companies, including cement producers and ash marketing concerns for private cost share. Based on the prevailing demand-supply situation, these companies had expressed interest only in limited product lines, rather than the entire ash beneficiation product stream. Although CAER had generated interest in the technology, a financial commitment to proceed to Budget Period 2 could not be obtained from private companies. Furthermore, the prospects of any decisions being reached within a reasonable time frame were dim. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007. The activities presented in this report were carried out during the Cooperative Agreement period 08 November 2004 through 31 March 2007.

  13. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ladwig

    2005-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of selenium species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.

  14. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  15. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  16. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-09-30

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station.

  17. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  18. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. A mobile demonstration unit has been designed and constructed for field demonstration. The demonstration unit was hauled to the test site on trailers that were place on a test pad located adjacent to the ash pond and re-assembled. The continuous test unit will be operated at the Ghent site and will evaluate three processing configurations while producing sufficient products to facilitate thorough product testing. The test unit incorporates all of the unit processes that will be used in the commercial design and is self sufficient with respect to water, electricity and processing capabilities. Representative feed ash for the operation of the filed testing unit was excavated from a location within the lower ash pond determined from coring activities. Approximately 150 tons of ash was excavated and pre-screened to remove +3/8 inch material that could cause plugging problems during operation of the demonstration unit.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  20. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two different co-processed fuel oils were tested: one that had been partially hydrotreated, and the other a product of fractionation before hydrotreating. Task 5 focused on examining refining methods that would utilize coal and produce thermally stable jet fuel, included delayed coking and solvent extraction. Delayed coking was done on blends of decant oil and coal, with the goal to produce a premium carbon product and liquid fuels. Coking was done on bench scale and large laboratory scale cokers. Two coals were examined for co-coking, using Pittsburgh seam coal and Marfork coal product. Reactions in the large, laboratory scaled coker were reproducible in yields of products and in quality of products. While the co-coke produced from both coals was of sponge coke quality, minerals left in the coke made it unacceptable for use as anode or graphite grade filler.

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  5. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  6. Wastewater treatment with biomass carriers made from steelmaking by-product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritome, Kiyoshi; Miki, Osamu; Okuno, Yoshio

    1995-07-01

    It is economical to use microorganisms in wastewater treatment. In steelmaking, ammonia liquor from coke-oven plant, for example, is treated using microorganisms. To treat wastewater efficiently in biological processes, the following conditions are necessary: appropriate conditions for activities of microorganisms; proper concentration of microorganisms in reactor; effective contact of wastewater and microorganisms; and reliable separation of treated wastewater and microorganisms. Three types of biomass carriers made from granulated slag to satisfy these conditions have been developed. Research efforts have been under way to apply these carriers in reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater. Developed biomass carriers can reduce the volume of COD oxidation reactor and promise easy operation compared with the conventional activated sludge processes. This result has been substantialized in sewage treatment facilities, factory wastewater treatment facilities and deodorization facilities. For the future, nitrate reduction in stainless pickling wastewater with fixed-bed biomass carriers will be also investigated.

  7. H.R. 5299: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies for alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agricultural subsidies. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 5299 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to phase out the tax subsidies of alcohol fuels involving alcohol produced from feedstocks eligible to receive Federal agriculture subsidies. The proposed legislative text is included.

  8. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Project ManagementCoordination * Surprise Valley Electric management and staff is ... Project Coordinator anytime significant event occurs 10 | US DOE Geothermal Program ...

  9. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  10. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District Novel Energy Conversion ...

  11. Agriculture Rural Energy Enterprise Development (AREED) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency Topics Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Finance Website http:...

  12. National Agricultural-Based Lubricants (NABL) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honary, Lou

    2013-09-30

    This project, while defined as a one year project from September 30, 2012 – September 30, 2013, was a continuation of a number of tasks that were defined in previous years. Those tasks were performed and were finalized in this period. The UNI-NABL Center, which has been in operation in various forms since 1991, has closed its facilities since September 2013 and will be phasing out in June 2014. This report covers the individual tasks that were identified in the previous reports and provides closure to each task in its final stage.

  13. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Nearly two-thirds of all foreign doctorates are staying in the U.S. 10 years after graduation ORISE report suggests foreign doctorate recipients routinely take regular employment in the U.S. after completing postdoctoral appointments FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 5, 2014 FY14-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of foreign, science and engineering doctorate students who remain in the United States after graduation has declined slightly over the past five

  14. Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT)1 Briefly about Ex-ACT A set of linked Microsoft Excel sheets (19) Based on land use and management practices Using IPCC* default...

  15. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  16. Entergy Arkansas- Agricultural Energy Solutions Program Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Presecriptive Option offers predetermined incentives on a wide variety of energy efficiency measures including Compact Flourescent Light Bulbs and high performance flourescent bulb replacemen...

  17. Agricultural Biomass Income Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The credit is effective for biomass originating between January 1, 2011, and January 1, 2020. The credit is worth $5 per wet ton. Eligible projects must apply to the Taxation and Revenue...

  18. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technology is expected to produce biofuel that reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 80% compared to fossil fuel and help make California a leader in advanced biofuel production. ...

  19. Integrated Ingredients Dehydrated Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    197.00x109 Btuyr 57.70 GWhyr Delat T 55.00 F Load Factor 1.00 Contact Michael Stewart; 775-331-4111 References Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1...

  20. International Fund for Agricultural Development | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    were not so much failures in food production, but structural problems relating to poverty and to the fact that the majority of the developing world's poor populations were...

  1. Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    water heater installed, additional 25 bonus if electric dryer installed Energy Star Television: 50 Summary Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA)...

  2. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  3. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Logos Technologies and EERE are partnering with Edeniq of Visalia to build a plant that will produce cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass, wood chips, and corn leaves, stalks, and husks--all plentiful, nonfood feedstock sources in California.

  4. ARM - Lesson Plans: Sea Water and Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  5. Department of Interior, Energy & Agriculture Collaborative Biofacility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... communities, entrepreneurs, and others turn residues from forest restoration activities into marketable forest products andor energy products. Susan L. LeVan-Green, Program ...

  6. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other countries with above-average stay rates include Iran, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Thailand, Jordan, Brazil, South Africa, Chile, New Zealand and Indonesia all have the ...

  7. Agricultural Outlook Forum | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services | Department of Energy Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement between a federal agency and a utility company for the implementation of energy conservation measures and demand side management services. A detailed description of the template is also available below. Download the template agreement. (722.15 KB) Download the model agreement

  8. H. R. 1198: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to restore the application of the credit for producing fuels from a nonconventional source to steam produced from agricultural byproducts, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, February 28, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill would allow a tax credit for steam produced from solid agricultural byproducts (including sugar cane residues, but not including timber byproducts). The bill applies to steam produced which is sold after December 31, 1989, the effective date of this amendment. Steam produced which is used by the taxpayer in his trade or business would be treated as having been sold by the taxpayer to an unrelated person on the date on which it is used.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-04-01

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

  10. 32 U.S...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Nonrenew able Total 879,274 884,281 886,934 893,775 898,331 MSW Municipal Solid Waste. PV Photovoltaic. 1 Includes total capacity w hose primary energy source is MSW. 2 ...

  11. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    One type of biomass feedstock is the organic portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The organic portion of MSW is composed of yard wastes, food scraps, and other biomass ...

  12. Division of Energy and Mineral Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    boundary - Wind resource - Existing transmission lines - Digital elevation model - ... - Energy Recovery Facility * 5 MW power plant, - 150 tonsday MSW * Pyrolysis...

  13. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  14. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  15. OSTIblog Articles in the National Agriculture Library Topic ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eleanor Frierson, who passed away in April 2013, was the grande dame of partnerships to improve public access to federal and international science information. For 10 years, she ...

  16. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Transfer ...

  17. FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emissions can be reduced and sinks created in biomass and soils while increasing resilience and productivity. The project will contribute to ongoing research and implementation...

  18. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite ... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; EVALUATION; FIBERS; FOOD; GENETIC ENGINEERING; IRRIGATION; ...

  19. A Compendium of Transfer Factors for Agricultural and Animal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tables of transfer factors are listed by element and information source for beef, eggs, fish, fruit, grain, leafy vegetation, milk, poultry, and root vegetables. Authors: Staven, ...

  20. NREL and Colombian Oil Firm Unlocking Agricultural Waste Feedstocks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... greenhouse gases and reducing reliability on foreign sources of oil, Elander said. The experience gained in processing these two biomass feedstocks will be directly applicable to ...

  1. Computerized simulation of fuel consumption in the agriculture industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontana, C.; Rotz, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate conventional and ethanol fuel consumption for crop production. The model was validated by obtaining a close comparison between simulated and actual diesel requirements for farms in Michigan. Parameters for ethanol consumption were obtained from laboratory tests using total fueling of spark-ignition engines and dual-fueling of diesel engines with ethanol. Ethanol fuel will always be more economically used in spark-ignition engines than in dual-fueled diesel engines. The price of gasoline must inflate at least 14 percent/yr greater than that of ethanol and diesel must inflate at least 23 percent/yr more than ethanol to allow economic use of ethanol as tractor fuel within the next 5 years.

  2. Departments of Energy and Agriculture Announce Bioenergy Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    improve plant feedstocks for the production of biofuels, biopower, and bio-based products. ... "Biofuels and bio-based products offer the potential of homegrown American resources that ...

  3. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels ... DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels ...

  4. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels Memorandum of Understanding Between the ... on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels This is the text of the Memorandum of ...

  5. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    capable of producing "drop-in" biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the ... Emerald Biofuels: To build an 82 million gallon per year refinery on the Gulf Coast using ...

  6. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by supporting the development of bioenergy feedstocks, biofuels, and biobased products. ... three areas: feedstock development, biofuels and biobased products development, or ...

  7. Benton PUD- Commercial and Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interested customers should visit the program website for more information.  To check the availability of funding 2012 incentives, contact Kevin Fisher at (509) 585-5395.

  8. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  9. Xcel Energy- Agriculture, Schools and Government Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel Energy offers financial incentives toward energy efficient equipment installations including: Lighting, HVAC, Compressed Air, Refrigeration, VFDs, Information Systems and Renewables.

  10. Modelling of a downdraft gasifier fed by agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, I.-S.; Karagiannidis, A.; Gkouletsos, A.; Perkoulidis, G.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of software for downdraft gasification simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the syngas heating value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the temperature effect in reduction zone in syngas concentration. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric model for a downdraft gasifier was developed in order to simulate the overall gasification process. Mass and energy balances of the gasifier were calculated and the composition of produced syngas was predicted. The capacity of the modeled gasifier was assumed to be 0.5 MW, with an Equivalence Ratio (EQ) of 0.45. The model incorporates the chemical reactions and species involved, while it starts by selecting all species containing C, H, and O, or any other dominant elements. Olive wood, miscanthus and cardoon were tested in the formulated model for a temperature range of 800-1200 Degree-Sign C, in order to examine the syngas composition and the moisture impact on the supplied fuel. Model results were then used in order to design an olive wood gasification reactor.

  11. Notice of Intervention from Dept of Agriculture.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Notice of Intent: Wave Energy Test Facility Inside U.S. Waters Notice of Intent: Wave Energy Test Facility Inside U.S. Waters July 21, 2016 - 12:53pm Addthis Notice of Intent: Wave Energy Test Facility Inside U.S. Waters The Energy Department's Water Power Program intends to issue a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to construct a national wave energy test facility inside U.S. federal or state waters. To support the full-scale testing of MHK wave energy devices, up to $40

  12. Mexico-Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the emission reduction potential in the sector is small and primarily focused on methane reduction, though more diversified carbon trading opportunities can be pursued....

  13. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, fabrication, and demonstration of three types of innovative new harvest and biomass handling machines will be completed, including a single-pass mowing and baling ...

  14. Best Practices-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    successfully in more than one region and are interdisciplinary, reflecting the complex nature of the problems addressed. The examples chosen have emerged from consultation with FAO...

  15. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project Database...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries. The database currently holds 497 project entries from 11 different databases, including formal crediting scheme registries and third party compilations."...

  16. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are ...

  17. Modelling Agricultural Trade and Policy Impacts in Less Developed...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that there is a need for greater investment in the sector, both to achieve immediate poverty reduction and to stimulate broader pro-poor economic development. This is a core...

  18. Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:globalresearchalliance. References Global...

  19. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  20. List of Agricultural Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Windows Biodiesel Daylighting Ethanol Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Methanol Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Solar Thermal Electric Solar...

  1. Agricultural energy. Vol. 1. Solar energy livestock production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Forty-nine papers and twenty-three abstracts are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper and the abstracts were listed by title. (MHR)

  2. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningProgramsAgriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 4 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  3. National Planning for GHG Mitigation in Agriculture: A Guidance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ease of Use: Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep018i3324ei3324e.pdf Language: English A significant proportion of developing countries have expressed an interest in...

  4. Comments from Dept of Agriculture 08-28-13.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  5. LEDSGP/Agriculture Work Space/Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPAgriculture Work SpaceTools < LEDSGP Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission...

  6. Mr. A. F. Vondrasek Vice President and General Manager Agricultural...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of those facilities utilized under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) raw materials ... These measurements, made at randomly selected 2 ,- .- points, consisted of gamma-ray ...

  7. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of International Cooperation. NDRC plans to coordinate the participation of other Chinese Government ministries under this MOU. The USDA and DOE plan to coordinate the...

  8. On-site energy production from agricultural residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiler, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    Tests with a 61 cm diameter fluidized-bed combustor revealed that raw cotton gin trash could be efficiently burned while satisfying Federal standards for particulate emissions. Certain chemicals within cotton gin trash zone can cause slagging or caking of ash and bed particles in the combustion zone. They can also corrode and accumulate on the heat recovery equipment. These problems are not considered insurmountable and methods of control are being studied. Raw cotton gin trash was also converted into a low Btu gas using fluidized-bed technology. Tests with a 30 cm diameter gasifier revealed that raw gin trash could be converted to a combustible gas, containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heating value of the gas ranged from 3.65 to 5.29 MJ/m3 and about 50 percent of the heat value of the raw trash was converted to combustible gases. Economic analyses have shown that these techniques can be economically competitive with present fuels in specific situations.

  9. Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries: Policy Options for Innovations and Technology Diffusion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  10. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase II) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princess No. 3 coal seam with values of 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}5} feet/min. range.

  11. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase 11) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princes No. 3 coal seam with values of 1x10{sup -3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} feet/min range.

  12. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 3, Product development of gypsum, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in Figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compunction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  13. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  14. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 2, Product development of magnesium hydroxide, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    In the way of background information about 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The first generation process begun in 1973, called the Thiosorbic® Process, was a technical breakthrough that offered significantly improved operating and performance characteristics compared with competing FGD technologies. The process is described as Flow Diagram "A" in figure 1. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the sludge solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable.

  15. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  16. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, December 30, 1996--March 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project is to utilize coal ashes to process hazardous materials such as industrial waste water treatment residues, contaminated soils, and air pollution control dusts from the metal industry and municipal waste incineration. This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon continuing evaluation of aged samples from Phase 1, planning supportive laboratory studies for Phase 2, completing scholarly work, reestablishing MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., as the subcontractor for the field work of Phase 2, proposing two presentations for later in 1997, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  17. Missouri Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy ... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 564 2.6 Solar - - Wind 459 2.1 WoodWood Waste - - MSW...

  18. Nebraska Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy ... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 278 3.5 Solar - - Wind 154 2.0 WoodWood Waste - - MSW...

  19. Alaska Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy ... - - Hydro Conventional 414 20.1 Solar - - Wind 7 0.4 WoodWood Waste - - MSW...

  20. Kentucky Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Primary Renewable Energy Capacity Source Hydro Conventional Primary Renewable Energy ... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 824 4.0 Solar - - Wind - - WoodWood Waste 52 0.3 MSW...

  1. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WasteLandfill Gas Primary Renewable Energy Generation Source Municipal Solid Waste... Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional 122 1.5 Solar - - Wind - - WoodWood Waste - - MSW...

  2. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  3. Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology used to split the heat content of municipal solid waste (MSW) into its biogenic and non-biogenic shares.

  4. Turn Your Halloween Pumpkins Into Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced in the United States every year. ... commercialization of fuel and power production from waste, including yard and food wastes. ...

  5. WIPP WASTE MINIMIZATION PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NMSW - New Mexico Special Waste MSW - Municipal Solid Waste C&D - Construction and ... Proposed waste streams that could generate hazardous wastes are reviewed regularly to ...

  6. BT16 Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Municipal Solid Waste Resources Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass ... trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. ...

  7. Market Drivers for Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MARKET DRIVERS FOR BIOFUELS Brian Duff Chief Engineer Bioenergy Technologies Office 3 rd Annual MSW to Biofuels Summit, Orlando, FL February 20-21, 2013 2 | Bioenergy Technologies ...

  8. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters

  9. Nature and Waste Management P Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Management P Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nature and Waste Management (P) Ltd. Place: Kolkata, West Bengal, India Zip: 700027 Product: Kolkatta-based MSW composting...

  10. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... supply with characterization of feedstock inputs and gasification products (syngas and slag) * Expected Outcomes: - Non-proprietary: MSW characterization, processing data, thermal ...

  11. British Thermal Units (Btu) - Energy Explained, Your Guide To...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill Gas and Biogas Biomass & the Environment See also: Biofuels Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel Ethanol Use of Ethanol Ethanol & the ...

  12. Connecticut Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-","-" "WoodWood Waste",9,2,2,1,"s" "MSW BiogenicLandfill Gas",755,728,732,758,739 "Other ...

  13. Delaware Renewable Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...l","-","-","-","-","-" "Solar","-","-","-","-","-" "Wind","-","-","-","-",3 "WoodWood Waste","-","-","-","-","-" "MSW BiogenicLandfill Gas","s",48,163,126,136 "Other ...

  14. "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... composition for 2006 reported in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006 MSW Characterization Data Tables, http:www.epa.govepaoswernon-hwmuncplpubs06data.pdf. " "8 ...

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    MSW Municipal Solid Waste. - No data reported. 1 Includes glass, steel, aluminum, other nonferous metals, plastic, rubber, other materials, and miscellaneous inorganic w astes. ...

  16. 62 U.S...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0.016 MSW Municipal Solid Waste. * Less than 500 billion Btu. 1 Includes glass, steel, aluminum, other nonferous metals, plastic, rubber, other materials, and miscellaneous ...

  17. Section 2, Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and algal production and harvesting and different objectives ... resources, dedicated energy crops 1 , and select MSW ... past 2017 are a linear interpolation of costs ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) (United States) USDOE Office of ... lignocellulosic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) can be used as renewable ...

  19. BioGold Fuels Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through joint ventures a lower-cost, higher-output system for the production of diesel fuel derived from Municipal Solid Waste ("MSW"). References: BioGold Fuels...

  20. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  1. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  2. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Development and evaluation of lime enhanced refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1996-12-31

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments throughout the US. There are two technologies currently in use for the combustion of MSW: (1) mass burning in which unprocessed MSW is burned in a heat recovery furnace, and (2) a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) product, which consists of the organic (combustible) fraction of MSW which has been processed to produce a more homogeneous fuel product than raw MSW. The RDF is either marketed to outside users or combusted on-site in a dedicated or existing furnace. In an attempt to alleviate the problems encountered with RDF as a feedstock, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of North Texas (UNT) under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a multi-phase research study to investigate the development of a low-cost binder that would improve the quality of RDF pellets.

  8. Facing America's trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    One coherent MSW (municipal solid waste) policy is that trash touches virtually all the threads of the social fabric. Products and packaging, yard waste all eventually become part of the MSW stream. The system that produces MSW is so complex and dynamic that no single option is guaranteed in and of itself to solve MSW problems. In fact, it is not clear that there is a single given combination of options that is best. What is clear, however, is that unless there is development of a more comprehensive approach, the Nation will continue to have problems with capacity, siting, and costs for MSW management. Many of the options described in this paper have been suggested before. They have not been acted on, however, and problems have worsened.

  9. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A. Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  10. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  11. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  14. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  16. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. The development and testing of collapsible intermodal containers for the handling and transport of coal combustion residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, J.L.; Thomasson, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    SEEC, Incorporated, is developing a collapsible intermodal container (CIC{trademark}) designed for containment and transport of fly ash and other dry-flowable bulk commodities. The CIC is specially configured to ride in open top rail cars, but as an intermodal container, it also rides in barges and on flat bed trailers. This allows SEEC to use unit coal train back haul capacity to transport fly ash to markets at and near coal mines. SEEC`s goals for this project were to design a CIC for handling and transporting dry fly ash, and then demonstrate the CIC technology. During this project, SEEC has performed extensive initial design work, leading to the manufacture of three prototype CICs for demonstration. Preliminary tests to examine safety issues included finite element analyses and an overload test in which the CIC was lifted while carrying weight in excess of its rated capacity. In both cases, the CIC met all safety requirements. With the above information satisfying possible safety concerns in hand, SEEC worked with SIU and other cooperators to plan and carry out field demonstration and testing of three CICs. This demonstration/testing including filling the CICs with fly ash, transporting them in a coal hopper car, handling with standard intermodal equipment, and emptying by inverting (two CICs) and by vacuuming (one CIC). Results were very positive. Filling with fly ash, transporting, and intermodal handling went very well, as did emptying by vacuum. Emptying by inverting was less successful, but most of the problems were predicted ahead of time, and were mostly due to lack of fly ash fluidizing equipment as much as anything. Throughout the testing, valuable information was gathered that will greatly accelerate refinement of both the CIC and the system of CIC handling.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  19. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  20. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria