National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for agri ethanol products

  1. Agri Ethanol Products LLC AEPNC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Products LLC AEPNC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agri-Ethanol Products LLC (AEPNC) Place: Raleigh, North Carolina Zip: 27615 Product: Ethanol producer and project...

  2. Mid America Agri Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mid America Agri Products Place: Madrid, Nebraska Zip: 69150 Product: Ethanol producer located in Madrid, Nebraska. Coordinates:...

  3. Agri Energy Funding Solutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Omaha, Nebraska Zip: 68137-2495 Sector: Biomass, Wind energy Product: AGRI-ENERGY FUNDING SOLUTIONS is a market consultant for BioDiesel, Ethanol as well as Biomass...

  4. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  5. Sunrise Agri Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agri Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunrise Agri Fuels Place: Bird Island, Minnesota Zip: 55310 Sector: Biomass Product: Manufacturer of Biomass Fuel Pellets for Pellet...

  6. Agri Source Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Agri-Source Fuels Place: Pensacola, Florida Zip: 32505 Product: Biodiesel producer located in Florida that owns a plant in Dade City. References: Agri-Source...

  7. Agri Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Agri-Energy Inc Place: Nashville, Tennessee Zip: 37201 Product: Biodiesel producer, located in Nashville, Tennessee. References: Agri-Energy Inc1 This...

  8. AgriFuel Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: AgriFuel Company Place: Cranford, New Jersey Sector: Biofuels Product: AgriFuel produces and markets biofuels refined from waste vegetable oil,...

  9. East Kansas Agri Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kansas Agri Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: East Kansas Agri-Energy Place: Garnett, Kansas Zip: 66032 Product: Dry-mill bioethanol producer Coordinates: 32.609607,...

  10. American Agri diesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    American Agri diesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Agri-diesel LLC Place: Colorado Springs, Colorado Product: Biodiesel producer in Colorado. References: American...

  11. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ethanol Plant Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History Fuel Ethanol 969 975 994 987 978 999 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) W W W W W W 2010-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 889 892 913 904 897 917 2010-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) W W W W W W 2010-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) W W W W W W

  12. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 30,256 29,621 28,543 30,139 29,594 31,075 1981-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 876 854 692 664 664

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on AddThis.com... More in this section...

  14. Agri Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Agri-Energy LLC Place: Luverne, Minnesota Zip: 56156 Product: Corn trader and bioethanol producer. References: Agri-Energy LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  15. Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass Inventors: Audrey Gasch, Jeffrey Lewis Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryEthanol production from cellulosic biomass can make a significant contribution toward decreasing our dependence on fossil fuels. However, the fermentation of biomass can be problematic. One bottleneck in this process is the toxicity of ethanol to microbes

  16. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  17. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  18. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E.; Horton, Philip G.; Ben-Bassat, Arie

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  19. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Beall, David S.; Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H.; Guimaraes, Walter V.; Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Wood, Brent E.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  20. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  1. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  2. Commonwealth AgriEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Commonwealth AgriEnergy Place: Hopkinsville, Kentucky Zip: 42241 Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock Coordinates: 36.867275, -87.487699 Show Map...

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production September 3, 2014 - 12:05pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON - Project LIBERTY, the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock, announced the start of production today. Once operating at full, commercial-scale, the biorefinery in Emmetsburg, Iowa will produce 25 million gallons

  5. Agri capital GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    capital GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: agri.capital GmbH Place: Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 48155 Product: Muenster-based agri.capital develops and...

  6. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  7. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  8. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to...

  9. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Below is information about the student activity...

  10. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  11. Genes and Mechanisms for Improving Cellulosic Ethanol Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuels and chemicals faster and cheaper is vital for biofuel and biorefining applications. ... biomass, and ethanol tolerance is important for the production of ethanol as a biofuel. ...

  12. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  13. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  14. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  15. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  16. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  17. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  18. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  19. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  20. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  1. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    All Petrolem Reports U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity Release Date: June 23, 2015 | Next Release Date: June 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 Go This is the fifth release of U.S. Energy Information Administration data on fuel ethanol production capacity. EIA first reported fuel ethanol production capacities as of January 1, 2011 on November 29, 2011. This new report contains production capacity data for all operating U.S. fuel ethanol production plants as of January

  2. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  3. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  4. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports improved ethanol yields following the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. Profiles for ethanol production from 45 g/L xylose when grown on a medium containing ergosterol, linoleic acid, Tween-80, a mixture of the three lipids and no lipids (control) are presented. The enhancement in the amount of ethanol produced was most pronounced after 72 h fermentation.

  5. AgriKomp GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: D-91732 Product: A major German and international group specializing in biogas plants. Subdidiaries France, Italy, Czech Rep, Poland References: agriKomp GmbH1 This...

  6. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  7. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  8. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  9. The U.S. Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry: Biobased Products and Bioenergy Initiative Success Stories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the history of ethanol production in the United States and describes innovations in dry-mill ethanol production.

  10. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  11. Comparison of ethanol production by different Zymomonas strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1981-04-01

    A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different strains of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some strains being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some strains were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one strain grew well but produced no levan. One strain, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other strains and was chosen as a starting strain for genetic improvement of ethanol production.

  12. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Model | Department of Energy Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to the FY 2005 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals. This assessment containins research results from 2006 and 2007. PDF icon 43205.pdf More Documents & Publications Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of

  13. More Efficient Ethanol Production from Mixed Sugars Using Spathaspora Yeast

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal More Efficient Ethanol Production from Mixed Sugars Using Spathaspora Yeast Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryEthanol obtained from the fermentation of grains and sugars is being blended with gasoline to bolster dwindling petroleum supplies. The alcohol increases combustion efficiency and octane value, and can be fermented from renewable corn cobs, stalks, cane and grasses. Still, it is essential

  14. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  15. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  16. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The process showed increased productivity and efficiency, therefore increasing potential sustainability of biofuel production. Todd Pray, ABPDU Program Head, said the ABPDU looks ...

  17. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Mc Cutchen, Carol M.; Li; Xu; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  18. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  19. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  20. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  1. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 3550% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  2. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  3. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Presentation) | Department of Energy Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 04_h2gen_low-cost_h2_distributed_production_systems.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System

  4. East Kansas Agri-Energy, LLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 1.6 MW CHP application at East Kansas Agri-Energy, LLC in Garnett, Kansas.

  5. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  6. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  7. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  8. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  9. Greater Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohio Ethanol LLC GO Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greater Ohio Ethanol, LLC (GO Ethanol) Place: Lima, Ohio Zip: OH 45804 Product: GO Ethanol is a pure play ethanol...

  10. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  11. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  12. Fact #681: June 27, 2011 U.S. Ethanol Production, 2001-2010 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1: June 27, 2011 U.S. Ethanol Production, 2001-2010 Fact #681: June 27, 2011 U.S. Ethanol Production, 2001-2010 Ethanol production has been rising rapidly over the last 10 years driven largely by government standards requiring the use of renewable fuels. The first Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) was established in 2005 and required the use of 4 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2006 and 7.5 billion gallons by 2012. In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act superseded and

  13. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  14. Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arcuri, Edward J. (Del Mar, CA); Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

  15. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  16. Phelps County Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phelps County Ethanol Place: Nebraska Product: Focused on ethanol production. References: Phelps County Ethanol1 This article is...

  17. A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions AUTHORS: Eric Benson and Chris Ederer E-mail Addresses: eric.benson@theloganschool.o...

  18. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  19. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  20. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  1. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  2. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  3. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  4. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  5. Sioux River Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sioux River Ethanol LLC Place: Hudson, South Dakota Zip: 57034 Product: Farmer owned ethanol producer, Sioux River Ethanol is...

  6. Cardinal Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cardinal Ethanol LLC Place: Winchester, Indiana Zip: 47394 Product: Cardinal Ethanol is in the process of building an ethanol plant in...

  7. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Fuel from farms: a guide to small-scale ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-02-01

    A guide on fermentation processes with emphasis on small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as a source of raw material is published. The current status of on-farm ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors is presented. Decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in decision making are included. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Diagrams of fermentors and distilling apparatus are included. (DC)

  9. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  11. Southridge Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Southridge Ethanol Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75219 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Southridge Ethanol is a renewable energy company...

  12. Diversified Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Diversified Ethanol Place: Northbrook, Illinois Zip: 60062 Product: A division of OTCBB-traded ONYI that is building an ethanol plant in...

  13. Ace Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ace Ethanol Place: Stanley, Wisconsin Zip: 54768 Product: Producer of corn-based ethanol in Wisconsin. Coordinates: 44.958844,...

  14. Dakota Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dakota Ethanol Place: Wentworth, South Dakota Zip: 57075 Product: Farmer Coop owner of a 189m litres per year ethanol plant Coordinates:...

  15. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-07-05

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  17. Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

  18. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  19. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  20. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  1. Byone Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Byone Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Byone Ethanol Place: Brazil Product: Ethanol Producer References: Byone Ethanol1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  2. Highwater Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Highwater Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Highwater Ethanol Place: Lamberton, Minnesota Zip: MN 56152 Product: Highwater Ethanol LLC is the SPV behind the 195mLpa ethanol...

  3. South Louisiana Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Louisiana Ethanol LLC Place: Louisiana Product: Ethanol production equipment provider. References: South Louisiana Ethanol LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  4. Production of ethanol by immobilized Saccharomyces bayanus in an extractive fermentation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barros, M.R.A.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An extractive fermentation system using immobilized yeast cells was developed to study the ethanol production at high sugar concentrations. Organic acids were used as extracting solvents of ethanol and their toxicity was tested in free and k-carrageenan entrapped cell preparations. Immobilization seems to protect cells against solvent toxicity, when long-chain organic acids, e.g., oleic acid, were used, probably due to steric and diffusional limitations, the free cells not being viable at high oleic acid concentrations. The entrapped cells also present a high metabolic activity than their free counterparts at high glucose concentrations. A solution of 300 g/L of glucose was totally fermented by the immobilized yeast cells, which when free cannot normally convert more than 200 g/L. In situ recovery of ethanol by oleic acid in a batch immobilized cell system led to higher ethanol productivities and to the fermentation of 400 g/L, when an oleic acid/medium ratio of 5 was used.

  5. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  7. Elimination of hydrogenase post-translational modification blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  8. Pacific Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pacific Ethanol Address: 400 Capitol Mall, Suite 2060 Place: Sacramento, California Zip: 95814 Region: Bay Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Ethanol production Website:...

  9. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  10. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1983-07-01

    The commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 to 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source was assessed. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (IGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstocks for the production of ethanol.

  11. Millennium Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Millennium Ethanol, LLC Place: Marion, South Dakota Zip: 57043 Product: Millennium Ethanol is a group of more than 900 South Dakotan...

  12. East Coast Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: East Coast Ethanol Place: Columbia, South Carolina Zip: 29202 Product: East Coast Ethanol was formed in August 2007 through a merger...

  13. Marysville Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marysville Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Marysville Ethanol LLC Place: Marysville, Michigan Zip: 48040 Product: Developing a 50m gallon ethanol plant in Marysville,...

  14. Great Valley Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Great Valley Ethanol LLC Place: Bakersfield, California Product: Developing a 63m gallon ethanol plant in Hanford, CA...

  15. Central Indiana Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indiana Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Indiana Ethanol LLC Place: Marion, Indiana Zip: 46952 Product: Ethanol producer developina a 151 mlpa plant in Marion,...

  16. SRSL Ethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SRSL Ethanol Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: SRSL Ethanol Limited Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Product: Mumbai-based ethanol subsidiary of Shree Renuka Sugars...

  17. Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kansas Ethanol LLC Place: Lyons, Kansas Zip: 67554 Product: Constructing a 55m gallon ethanol plant in Rice County, Kansas...

  18. Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc Place: Hastings, Nebraska Product: Ethanol producer and supplier References: Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc1 This...

  19. Heartland Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heartland Ethanol LLC Place: Knoxville, Tennessee Zip: 37929 Product: Knoxville, TN based ethanol developer. Coordinates: 35.960495,...

  20. Standard Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standard Ethanol LLC Place: Nebraska Product: Nebraska based ethanol producer that operates two plants References: Standard Ethanol LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  1. Ethanol Capital Funding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Capital Funding Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Capital Funding Place: Atlanta, Georgia Zip: 30328 Product: Provides funding for ethanol and biodiesel plants....

  2. Michigan Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Michigan Ethanol LLC Place: Caro, Michigan Zip: 48723-8804 Product: Ethanol productor in Caro, Michigan. Coordinates: 43.488705,...

  3. Siouxland Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siouxland Ethanol LLC Place: Jackson, Nebraska Zip: 68743 Product: Startup hoping to build a USD 80m ethanol manufacturing plant near...

  4. Platinum Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Platinum Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Platinum Ethanol LLC Place: Arthut, Iowa Product: Developed a 110m gallon (416m litre) ethanol plant in Arthur, IA....

  5. Nedak Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nedak Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nedak Ethanol LLC Place: Atkinson, Nebraska Zip: 68713 Product: NEDAK Ethanol, LLC is a Nebraska limited liability company,...

  6. North Country Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Country Ethanol LLC Place: Rosholt, South Dakota Zip: 57260 Product: 20mmgy (75.7m litresy) ethanol producer....

  7. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Show Me Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Show Me Ethanol, LLC Place: Carrollton, Missouri Zip: 64633 Product: Developing an ethanol project in Carrollton, Missouri....

  8. Western Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Western Ethanol Company LLC Place: Placentia, California Zip: 92871 Product: California-based fuel ethanol distribution and...

  9. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Andy Aden Technical Report NREL/TP-510-43205 May 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No.

  10. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10-46214 August 2009 Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model D. Humbird and A. Aden National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-510-46214 August 2009 Biochemical

  11. Bushmills Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bushmills Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bushmills Ethanol Place: Atwater, Minnesota Zip: 56209 Product: A group of local agricultural producers and investors working to...

  12. Northstar Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northstar Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Northstar Ethanol Place: Lake Crystal, Minnesota Zip: 56055 Product: Corn-base bioethanol producer in Minnesotta References:...

  13. Sunnyside Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunnyside Ethanol Place: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Zip: PA 15237 Product: Pennsylvania based company created for the specific purpose of...

  14. Ethanol India | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol India Place: Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India Sector: Biofuels Product: Maharashtra-based biofuels consultancy firm. References: Ethanol...

  15. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  16. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  17. Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc (MEPI) Place: O'Neill, Nebraska Zip: 68763 Product: Focused on ethanol production....

  18. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  19. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

    2009-08-01

    An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

  20. James Valley Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    James Valley Ethanol LLC Place: Gronton, South Dakota Zip: 57445 Product: Farmers owned cooperative that built and operates an ethanol production facility. Coordinates: 29.72369,...

  1. Tall Corn Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tall Corn Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tall Corn Ethanol LLC Place: Coon Rapids, Iowa Zip: 50058 Product: Farmer owned bioethanol production company which owns a...

  2. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  3. Accounting for all sugars produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schell, Daniel J.; Dowe, Nancy; Chapeaux, Alexandre; Nelson, Robert S.; Jennings, Edward W.

    2016-04-01

    This study explored integrated conversion of corn stover to ethanol and highlights techniques for accurate yield calculations. Acid pretreated corn stover (PCS) produced in a pilot-scale reactor was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resulting sugars were fermented to ethanol by the glucose–xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. The calculations account for high solids operation and oligomeric sugars produced during pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, which, if not accounted for, leads to overestimating ethanol yields. The calculations are illustrated for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of PCS at 17.5% and 20.0% total solids achieving 80.1% and 77.9% conversion of cellulose and xylan tomore » ethanol and ethanol titers of 63 g/L and 69 g/L, respectively. In the future, these techniques, including the TEA results, will be applied to fully integrated pilot-scale runs.« less

  4. California Ethanol Power CE P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power CE P Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Ethanol & Power (CE+P) Place: Florida Product: US ethanol project developer. References: California Ethanol & Power...

  5. Conesul Sugar and Ethanol Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conesul Sugar and Ethanol Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name: Conesul Sugar and Ethanol Plant Place: Brazil Product: Brazilian ethanol producer References: Conesul Sugar and...

  6. Grupo Maris Capital ethanol refinery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maris Capital ethanol refinery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Grupo Maris (Capital ethanol refinery) Place: Nuporanga, Brazil Product: 32,000 m3 ethanol refinery owner...

  7. Baicheng Tingfeng Ethanol Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tingfeng Ethanol Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Baicheng Tingfeng Ethanol Co Ltd Place: Baicheng, Jilin Province, China Zip: 137000 Product: The company is a ethanol...

  8. DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol Place: Itasca, Illinois Zip: 60143 Product: DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol is a...

  9. Tampa Bay Area Ethanol Consortium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bay Area Ethanol Consortium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tampa Bay Area Ethanol Consortium Place: Tampa, Florida Sector: Biomass Product: Consortium researching ethanol from...

  10. National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition NEVC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Vehicle Coalition NEVC Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC) Place: Jefferson City, Missouri Zip: 65109 Product: The National Ethanol...

  11. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  12. BlueFire Ethanol

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construct and operate a facility that converts green waste and lignocellulosic fractions diverted from landfills or Southern California Materials Recovery Facilities to ethanol and other products.

  13. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  14. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc. Corporate HQ: Sacramento, CA Proposed Facility Location: Boardman, OR Description: The team will design and build a demonstration cellulosic ethanol plant in Boardman, Oregon, expanding the production of ethanol beyond the Midwest U.S. CEO or Equivalent: Neil Koehler, CEO Participants: BioGasol, LLC; and U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Joint Bioenergy Institute (DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories) Production: * Capacity of 2.7

  15. Center Ethanol Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Center Ethanol Company LLC Place: Illinois Product: Illinois based company building a 54m gallon ethanol plant in Sauget, IL. References:...

  16. US Ethanol Vehicle Coalition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vehicle Coalition Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Ethanol Vehicle Coalition Place: Jefferson City, Missouri Zip: 65109 Product: The National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition is the...

  17. Ethanol Capital Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Capital Management Place: Tucson, Arizona Zip: 85711 Product: Manages funds investing in Ethanol plants in the US Coordinates:...

  18. Blue Flint Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Flint Ethanol Place: Underwood, North Dakota Zip: ND 58576 Product: Joint Venture bentween Great River Energy and Headwaters...

  19. Prairie Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Prairie Ethanol LLC Place: Loomis, South Dakota Product: Farmer owned bioethanol project development and managment team. Coordinates:...

  20. Great Plains Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Great Plains Ethanol Place: Chancellor, South Dakota Zip: 57015 Product: Limited liability company owned by its 500 members which owns and...

  1. Missouri Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Missouri Ethanol LLC Place: Laddonia, Missouri Product: 45mmgy (170.3m litresy) ethanol producer. Coordinates: 39.24073, -91.645599 Show Map Loading map......

  2. BlueFire Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BlueFire Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: BlueFire Ethanol Place: Irvine, California Zip: 92618 Sector: Hydro Product: US biofuel producer that utilises a patented...

  3. Badger State Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Badger State Ethanol LLC Place: Monroe, Wisconsin Zip: 53566 Product: Dry-mill bioethanol producer References: Badger State...

  4. Iowa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Iowa Ethanol LLC Place: Hanlontown, Iowa Zip: 50451 Product: Corn-base bioethanol producer in Iowa Coordinates: 43.28456,...

  5. Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc Place: Las Vegas, Nevada Zip: 89145 Sector: Biofuels Product: Holds proprietary...

  6. Frontier Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Frontier Ethanol LLC Place: Gowrie, Iowa Product: Owner and operator of a bioethanol plant near Gowrie, Iowa. Coordinates: 42.28227,...

  7. Ethanol Management Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Management Company Place: Colorado Product: Biofuel blender located in Denver, Colorado. References: Ethanol Management Company1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  8. Ethanol Grain Processors LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Grain Processors, LLC Place: Obion, Tennessee Zip: TN 38240 Product: Tennessee-based ethanol producer. Coordinates:...

  9. Kaapa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kaapa Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaapa Ethanol LLC Place: Minden, Nebraska Zip: 68959 Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock Coordinates:...

  10. Gulf Ethanol Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gulf Ethanol Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gulf Ethanol Corp Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77055 Sector: Biomass Product: Focused on developing biomass preprocessing...

  11. Didion Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Didion Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Didion Ethanol LLC Place: Cambria, Wisconsin Zip: 53923 Product: Also Didion Milling LLC, Grand River Distribution LLC....

  12. Atlantic Ethanol Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Ethanol Capital Place: Washington, Washington, DC Product: Biofuel Investor in Caribbean and Central American region....

  13. Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Fuel Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Platte Valley Fuel Ethanol Place: Central City, Nebraska Product: Bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock References:...

  14. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Metal Oxide-Promoted Rh Nanocatalyst for Selective Production of Ethanol from Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Kraus

    2010-09-30

    The objective is to develop a process that will convert synthesis gas from coal into ethanol and then transform the ethanol into hydrogen. Principal investigators from Iowa State University include Dr. George Kraus, Dr. Victor Lin, Marek Pruski, and Dr. Robert Brown. Task 1 involves catalyst development and catalyst scale up. Mesoporous manganese silicate mixed oxide materials will be synthesized, characterized and evaluated. The first-and secondgeneration catalysts have been prepared and scaled up for use in Task 2. The construction of a high-pressure reactor system for producing synthetic liquid fuel from simulated synthesis gas stream has been completed as the first step in Task 2. Using the first- and second generation catalysts, the reactor has demonstrated the production of synthetic liquid fuel from a simulated synthesis gas stream.

  15. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  16. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  17. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  18. Northern Lights Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lights Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Northern Lights Ethanol LLC Place: Big Stone City, South Dakota Zip: 57216 Product: 75mmgy (283.9m litresy) ethanol producer....

  19. Prairie Creek Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Prairie Creek Ethanol LLC Place: Goldfield, Iowa Zip: 50542 Product: Prairie Creek Ethanol, LLC had planned to build a 55m gallon...

  20. Tharaldson Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tharaldson Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tharaldson Ethanol LLC Place: Casselton, North Dakota Zip: 58012 Product: Owner of a USD 200m 120m-gallon ethanol plant in...

  1. United Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Ethanol LLC Place: Wisconsin Product: Developed a 43m gallon ethanol plant in Milton, Wisconsin. References: United Ethanol LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  2. Horizon Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Horizon Ethanol LLC Place: Jewell, Iowa Zip: 50130 Product: 60mmgy (227.1m litrey) ethanol producers in Jewell, Iowa. Coordinates:...

  3. First United Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: First United Ethanol LLC Place: Camilla, Georgia Zip: 31730 Product: First United Ethanol LLC (FUEL) was formed to construct a 100 MGY...

  4. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  5. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  6. Ethanol 2000 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol 2000 Place: Bingham lake, Minnesota Zip: 56118 Product: Farmer-owned bioethanol producer References: Ethanol 20001 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  7. Orion Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Orion Ethanol Place: Pratt, Kansas Zip: 67124 Product: A Kansas-based ethanol producer. Coordinates: 38.209925, -81.383804 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  8. Ozark Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ozark Ethanol Place: Missouri Zip: 64762 Product: Missouri-based bioethanol producer planning to develop a 204m-litre per year ethanol plant in Vernon County. References: Ozark...

  9. Bootheel Agri Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 63801 Product: Developer of a now-postponed 100m gallon (378m litre) per year bioethanol plant in Sikeston, Missouri. Coordinates: 36.876525, -89.588284 Show Map Loading...

  10. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  11. Ethanol Production from Rice-Straw Hydrolysate Using Zymomonas Mobilis in a Continuous Fluidized-Bed Reactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    deJesus, D.; Nghiem, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Rice-straw hydrolysate obtained by the Arkenol's concentrated acid hydrolysis process was fermented to ethanol using a recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain capable of utilizing both glucose and xylose in a continuous fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). The parameters studied included biocatalyst stability with and without antibiotic, feed composition, and retention time. Xylose utilization in the presence of tetracycline remained stable for at least 17 days. This was a significant improvement over the old strain, Z. mobilis CP4 (pZB5), which started to lose xylose utilization capability after seven days. In the absence of tetracycline, the xylose utilization rate started to decrease almost immediately. With tetracycline in the feed for the first six days, stability of xylose utilization was maintained for four days after the antibiotic was removed from the feed. The xylose utilization rate started to decrease on day 11. In the presence of tetracycline using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 48 g/L glucose and 13 g/L xylose at a retention time of 4.5 h, 95% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion occurred. The ethanol concentration was 29 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed or 94% of the theoretical yield. Using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 83 g/L glucose and 28 g/L xylose, 92% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion were obtained. The ethanol concentration was 48 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.45 g/ g sugar consumed or 88% of the theoretical yield. Maximum productivity of 25.5 g/L-h was obtained at a retention time of 1.9 h. In this case, 84% xylose conversion was obtained.

  12. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  13. Ethanol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state. In France, ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. Prompted by the increase in oil prices in the 1970s, Brazil introduced a...

  14. BlueFire Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. Corporate HQ: Irvine, California Proposed Facility Location: Mecca, California Description: The project will construct and operate a facility that will convert green waste and lignocellulosic fractions diverted from landfills or Southern California Materials Recovery Facilities to ethanol and other products. CEO or Equivalent: Arnold Klann, CEO Participants: Burrtec Waste Industries, JGC Corporation, Brinderson, Roelsien, MECS Inc. NAES, PetroDiamond Production: 19 million

  15. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  17. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF U.S. STEEL CORPORATION--AGRI-CHEMICAL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF U.S. STEEL CORPORATION--AGRI-CHEMICAL (former Armour Fertilizer Works) Bartow, Florida Work performed by the Health and Safety Research Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 March 1980 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites-- Remedial Action Program ..- _ "." --~ ____- - .___ _ --.. U.S. STEEL CORPORATION--AGRI-CHEMICAL (former Armour

  18. Henan Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Henan Tianguan Fuel Ethanol Co Ltd Place: Nanyang, Henan Province, China Product: Project developer of a bioethanol...

  19. Utica Energy LLC formerly Algoma Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utica Energy LLC formerly Algoma Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Utica Energy LLC (formerly Algoma Ethanol) Place: Oshkosh, Wisconsin Product: Utica Energy, founded by 5...

  20. Levelland Hockley County Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Levelland Hockley County Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: LevellandHockley County Ethanol LLC Place: Levelland, Texas Zip: 79336 Product: LevellandHockley County...

  1. Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems EORS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems EORS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems (EORS) Place: Clayton, Georgia Product: Ethanol Oil Recovery Systems (EORS), a green technology...

  2. Central Minnesota Ethanol Cooperative CMEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Cooperative CMEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Minnesota Ethanol Cooperative (CMEC) Place: Minnesota Zip: 56345 Sector: Hydro Product: CMEC produces 200 proof...

  3. Green Renewable Energy Ethanol and Nutrition Holding LLC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol and Nutrition Holding LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Renewable Energy Ethanol and Nutrition-Holding, LLC Place: Palm, Pennsylvania Zip: 18070 Product: A local...

  4. Pacific Ethanol Inc formerly Accessity Corporation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Inc formerly Accessity Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pacific Ethanol Inc (formerly Accessity Corporation) Place: Fresno, California Zip: 93711 Product:...

  5. Gateway Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gateway Ethanol LLC (formerly Wildcat Bio-Energy LLC) Place: Pratt, Kansas Zip: 67124 Product:...

  6. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli strains co-expressing Zymomonas PDC and ADH genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell; Alterthum, Flavio

    1991-01-01

    A novel operon and plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activities of Zymomonas mobilis are described. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of microorganisms or eukaryotic cells and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of microorganisms or cells.

  7. US Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Place: Vancouver, Washington State Zip: 98660 Product: Ethanol producer in the north-west. References: US Ethanol LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  8. Elkhorn Valley Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elkhorn Valley Ethanol LLC Place: Norfolk, Nebraska Zip: 68701 Product: Operates a 40m gallon ethanol plant in Norfolk, Nebraska. Coordinates: 36.846825, -76.285069 Show Map...

  9. Brazil Ethanol Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brazil Ethanol Inc. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10021 Product: A New York City-based firm that had raised USD 10.4m as of 1 May...

  10. JH Kelly LLC Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JH Kelly LLC Ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Name: JH Kelly LLC Ethanol Place: Longview, Washington State Zip: 98632 Product: A joint venture company between JH Kelly and and...

  11. Farmers Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Farmers' Ethanol LLC Place: Adamsville, Ohio Zip: OH 43802 Product: An association of farmers registered on July 12,2002 with a goal...

  12. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    This funding allowed Algenol to successfully scale up its production of algal biofuel from ... Ethanol Fuel Partnership Making Algal Biofuel Production More Efficient, Less Expensive ...

  13. Bioenergy Impacts … Cellulosic Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for its cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Farmers earned additional revenue from selling their leftover corn husks, stalks, and leaves to the POET-DSM biorefinery for production of cellulosic ethanol-a type of biofuel. Biofuels have created extra revenue for farmers

  14. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 17493691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  15. Pacific Ethanol, Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Verenium Biofuels Corporation Corporate HQ: Cambridge, Massachusetts Proposed Facility Location: Jennings, Louisiana Description: Operation and maintenance of a demonstration-scale facility in Jennings, Louisiana with some capital additions. CEO or Equivalent: Carlos A. Riva, President, Chief Executive Officer and Director Participants: Only Verenium Biofuels Corporation Production: * Capacity of 1.5 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol biofuel Technology and Feedstocks: *

  16. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc

  17. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  18. Ethanol Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol Ventures Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1D 3SQ Product: Company aims to deliver at least 378 million litres a year of bioethanol from two Facilities in...

  19. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant. In a scenario with conventional tillage and a 30% stover removal rate, life-cycle GHG emissions for a combined gallon of corn grain and stover ethanol without cover crop adoption or manure application are 49 g CO2eq MJ-1, in comparison with 91 g CO2eq MJ-1 for petroleum gasoline. Adopting a cover crop or applying manure reduces the former ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively. We considered two different life cycle analysis approaches to develop estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for corn stover ethanol, marginal analysis and energy allocation. In the same scenario, this fuel has GHG emissions of 12 20 g CO2eq MJ-1 (for manure and cover crop application, respectively) and 45 48 g CO2eq MJ-1 with the marginal approach and the energy allocation approach, respectively.

  20. US Ethanol Holdings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Ethanol Holdings Place: New York, New York Zip: 10022 Product: Subsidiary of boutique investment bank and advisory firm, Geneva...

  1. EIS-0300: Minnesota Agri-Power Project: Biomass for Rural Development, Granite Falls, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE and the Minnesota Environmental Quality Boards' [MEQB, a Minnesota State agency] decision to support a proposal by the Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) to construct and operate a 75–103 megawatt biomass fueled gasifier and electric generating facility, known as the Minnesota Agri-Power Plant (MAPP), and associated transmission lines and alfalfa processing facilities.

  2. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Slininger et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels (2015) 8:60 DOI 10.1186/S13068-015-0239-6 Biotechnology for Biofuels RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Patricia J Slininger1*, Maureen A Shea-Andersh1, Stephanie R Thompson1, Bruce S Dien1, Cletus P Kurtzman2, Venkatesh Balan3, Leonardo da Costa Sousa3, Nirmal Uppugundla3, Bruce E Dale3 and Michael A Cotta1

  3. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  4. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  5. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  6. Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Introduction of Ethanol Buses and Ethanol Fuel Station Agency...

  7. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 01/29/16 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 View History U.S. 959 969 975 994 987 978 2010-2016 PADD 1 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 2 885 889 892 913 904 897 2010-2016 PADD 3 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 4 W W W W W W 2010-2016 PADD 5 W W W W W W

  8. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  9. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called â??dedicated bioenergy cropsâ? including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  11. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  12. Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Add description and move this content to a more appropriate page name (like "List of ethanol incentives") List of Ethanol Incentives E85 Standards Retrieved from "http:...

  13. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  14. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

  15. Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company CVEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CVEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company (CVEC) Place: NW Benson, Minnesota Zip: 56215 Product: Owns 57.0m litres a year dry mill ethanol plant....

  16. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, Angela

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  17. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol This...

  18. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  19. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  20. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  1. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  2. Cellulosic ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic ethanol Jump to: navigation, search Cellethanol.jpg Cellulosic ethanol is identical to first generation bio ethanol except that it can be derived from agricultural...

  3. Sterling Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Place: Colorado Product: Owned by local investors including farmers, ranchers and business people that primarily reside in north-west Colorado, and set up to build and...

  4. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on AddThis.com... More

  6. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  8. Ethanol Extraction Technologies Inc EETI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Extraction Technologies Inc EETI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Extraction Technologies Inc (EETI) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10036-2601 Product: New York-based...

  9. International Ethanol Trade Association IETHA | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trade Association IETHA Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Ethanol Trade Association (IETHA) Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Product: Association of 48 globally...

  10. Pacific Ethanol Inc the former | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc the former Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pacific Ethanol Inc (the former) Place: Fresno, California Zip: 93711 Product: California-based developer of bioethanol plants....

  11. Appendix D: 2012 Cellulosic Ethanol Success, Bioenergy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    produce cellulosic ethanol at commercial-scale costs that are competitive with gasoline production at 110barrel of crude oil. Many industry partners are also demonstrating...

  12. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Design and build a demonstration cellulosic ethanol plant in Boardman. PDF icon pacificethanol_fact_sheet_040308.pdf More Documents & Publications Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc

  13. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  14. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanogenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high level of ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol

  15. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Basics Ethanol is a widely used, domesti- cally produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Fuel ethanol contains the same chemical compound as beverage alcohol, but it is denatured with a small amount of gasoline or other chemicals during the production process, making it unsafe for human consumption. Ethanol's primary market drivers are the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard requiring its use and

  16. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc

  17. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol beers in 6 to 12 hours using either a consecutive batch or continuous cascade implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The consecutive batch technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  18. Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercial-Scale | Department of Energy Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale Florida Project Produces Nation's First Cellulosic Ethanol at Commercial-Scale July 31, 2013 - 1:37pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department today recognized the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol production at INEOS Bio's Indian River BioEnergy Center in Vero Beach, Florida. Developed through a joint venture between

  19. Role of water activity in ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.P.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    A separate role for water activity in the conversion of sugars to ethanol by two strains of yeast is identified. During fermentation of both single and mixed sugar substrates, the water activity was shown to remain constant during the logarithmic growth phase. This is despite the changes in concentration of substrates and production, the constancy reflecting the fact that the greater influence of ethanol on the solution activity is counterbalanced, in the early stages of the fermentation, by its low yield. The end of the log phase of growth coincides with the start of a period of gradually decreasing water activity. For the more ethanol-tolerant strain UQM66Y, growth was found to cease at a constant value of water activity while that for the less tolerant strain UQM70Y depended on both ethanol concentration and water activity. It is argued that water activity is a more appropriate variable than ethanol concentration for describing some of the nonspecific inhibitory effects apparent in ethanol fermentations. A straightforward method for the calculation of water activity during such fermentations based on the use of solution osmolarity is presented.

  20. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  1. Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w Fuel Ethanol ...

  2. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  3. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  4. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Lignocellulosic biomass is

  5. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Title: Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Lignocellulosic biomass

  6. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading × You are accessing a

  7. Ethanol Fuels Incentives Applied in the U.S.: Reviewed from California's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This report describes measures employed by state governments and by the federal government to advance the production and use of ethanol fuel in the United States. The future of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel poses a number of increasingly-important issues and decisions for California government, as the state becomes a larger consumer, and potentially a larger producer, of ethanol.

  8. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbanchuk, John M.

    2008-02-20

    Despite the challenges to profitability the ethanol industry continues to expand. Total ethanol production for 2007 is estimated at nearly 6.5 billion gallons, 33 percent more than 2006. This study estimates the contribution of the ethanol industry to the American economy in 2007.

  9. GS Global Biodiesel JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Biodiesel JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Global Biodiesel JV Place: Iowa Product: JV between GS AgriFuels and Global Ethanol set-up to develop a plant that will...

  10. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol production in place * U.S. 13.4 billion galsyear mostly from corn starch * Brazil 6.3 billion galsyear from cane sugar * Rest of world 2.8 billion galsyear *...

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Blends to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends E15

  12. Leaders in Future and Current Technology Teaming Up to Improve Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production Leaders in Future and Current Technology Teaming Up to Improve Ethanol Production For more information contact: Gary Schmitz, 303-275-4050 email: Gary Schmitz Golden, Colo., May 30, 2001 - Under a cooperative research and development agreement, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is teaming with Broin and Associates, Inc., a major ethanol producer, to develop new technologies to improve the efficiency of U.S. ethanol production. The

  13. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nations dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  14. Grain ethanol as a petroleum substitute: a perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alston, T.G.

    1980-04-01

    Present tax exemptions for gasohol are more than sufficient to move ethanol into the gasoline market in a number of states. The principal near-term response to this profit opportunity, production of ethanol from feed grains, matches a limited biomass resource to an enormous market. This report estimates upper-bound prices for feed grains resulting from gasohol tax exemptions and concludes that grain price increases could be substantial. As shown else-where by Alston and Asbury, industrial uses constitute a more economical market for grain ethanol, one in which the product is now competitive with ethanol derived from petroleum and natural gas liquids. Without tax exemptions for gasohol, grain ethanol would now be displacing petroleum in the industrial market at a net economic gain, rather than in the fuel market at a net economic loss. The present analysis indicates that this industrial market for ethanol could grow significantly, principally by use of grain ethanol as an intermediate in production of chemicals now derived from petroleum and natural gas.

  15. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  16. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007 Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007 The survey covers plant operations in corn dry mills, wet mills,plant type, ownership structure, capacity, feedstocks, production volumes, coproducts, PDF icon anl_ethanol_analysis_2007.pdf More Documents & Publications Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States EA-1628: Final

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links on Digg Find

  19. National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Ethanol Conference was held Feb. 15—17 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Bioenergy Technologies Office Technology Manager Alicia Lindauer was in attendance to help communicate the goals of the Energy Department’s Fuel-Engine Co-Optimization (formerly known as Optima) initiative. She participated in a panel titled "A Conversation About the Future of U.S. Biofuels Policy," where she discussed the environmental and economic benefits of the initiative.

  20. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  1. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  2. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf PDF icon EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents &...

  3. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasch, Audrey P. (Madison, WI); Lewis, Jeffrey A. (Madison, WI)

    2012-05-15

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  4. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  6. Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyness, E.; Doelle, H.W.

    1981-07-01

    General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate at high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. The metabolic quotients for sucrose utilization, qs, and ethanol production, qp (g/g.hr), are unsuitable for describing sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis as the logarithmic phase of growth precedes the phase of highest substrate utilization (g/liter.hr) and ethanol production (g/liter.hr) in batch culture. (Refs. 10).

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics on AddThis.com... More in this

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations on

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Feedstocks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks on AddThis.com... More in this section...

  10. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  11. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium...

  12. Chief Ethanol Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chief Ethanol Fuels Place: Hastings, NE Website: www.chiefethanolfuels.com References: Chief Ethanol Fuels1 Information About Partnership...

  13. Evergreen Securities formerly Ethanol Investments | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Securities formerly Ethanol Investments Jump to: navigation, search Name: Evergreen Securities (formerly Ethanol Investments) Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC2V 5DE...

  14. Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene in a Stratified Autothermal Millisecond Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, MJ; Michor, EL; Fan, W; Tsapatsis, M; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2011-08-10

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions.

  15. Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Verenium Biofuels Fact Sheet Pacific Ethanol, Inc Verenium Pilot- and Demonstration-Scale Biorefinery

  16. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  17. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shihui; Pan, Chongle; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Engle, Nancy L; Zhou, Wen; Dam, Phuongan; Xu, Ying; Dice, Lezlee T; Davison, Brian H; Brown, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanogenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high level of ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol stress response have not been elucidated fully. In this study, ethanol stress responses were investigated using systems biology tools. Medium supplementation with an initial 47.3 g/L (6% v/v) ethanol reduced Z. mobilis ZM4 glucose consumption, growth rate and ethanol productivity compared to that of untreated controls. Metabolomic profiling showed that ethanol-treated ZM4 cells accumulated greater amounts of glycerol during the entire fermentation process, which may indicate an important role for this metabolite. A proteomic analysis of early exponential growth identified about one thousand proteins, or approximately 56% of the predicted ZM4 proteome. Proteins related to metabolism and stress response such as chaperones and key regulators were more abundant in the early ethanol stress condition. Transcriptomic studies indicated the response of ZM4 to ethanol is dynamic, complex and involves many genes from all the different functional categories. There were fewer genes significantly differentially expressed in the exponential phase compared to that of stationary phase and early stationary phase. Most down-regulated genes were related to translation and ribosome biogenesis, while the ethanol-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes and metabolism. Correlations among the transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolism were examined and among significantly expressed genes or proteins, we observe higher correlation coefficients when fold-change values are higher. This systems biology study elucidates key Z. mobilis ZM4 metabolites, genes and proteins that form the foundation of its distinctive physiology and its multifaceted response to ethanol stress.

  18. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microvi Biotechnologies, a leading innovator of biocatalytic processes, together with the Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit (ABPDU) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab...

  19. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Iowa Ethanol Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  20. Analysis of the Efficiency of the U.S. Ethanol Industry 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, May

    2008-03-27

    In 2007, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) conducted a survey of US ethanol production plants to provide an assessment of the current US ethanol industry. The survey covers plant operations in both corn dry mills and wet mills. In particular, it includes plant type, ownership structure, capacity, feedstocks, production volumes, coproducts, process fuel and electricity usage, water consumption, and products transportation and distribution. This report includes a summary and analysis of these results.

  1. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from various plant materials collectively known as "biomass." Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in E85, an alternative fuel that

  2. Nebraska's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nebraska. Registered Energy Companies in Nebraska's 3rd congressional district Chief Ethanol Fuels Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc Husker Ag LLC Kaapa Ethanol LLC Mid America Agri...

  3. Kansas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district Conestoga Energy Partners LLC ESE Alcohol Gateway Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC Kansas Ethanol LLC Nesika Energy LLC Orion Ethanol Reeve Agri Energy Inc...

  4. Heartland Corn Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    55396 Product: Heartland Corn Products is farmer-owned cooperative that produces corn-derived ethanol. Coordinates: 48.47373, -120.177559 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Weifeng Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-?B expression. - Highlights: THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. THC reduced NF-?B expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  6. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumait, Necy; Cuzens, John; Klann, Richard

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  7. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J.; Confer, K.

    2011-03-01

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

  8. Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbur, D.

    1998-05-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.

  9. Ethanol's Effect on Grain Supply and Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides graphical information about ethanol's effect on grain supply and prices, uses of corn, and grain price trends.

  10. Four Cellulosic Ethanol Breakthroughs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Four Cellulosic Ethanol Breakthroughs Four Cellulosic Ethanol Breakthroughs September 3, 2014 - 1:11pm Addthis Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery 1 of 10 Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery The mechanical building (front), solid/liquid separation building (left), and anaerobic digestion building (back) at POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY biorefinery in Emmetsburg, Iowa. Image: Courtesy of POET-DSM Stacking up biomass 2 of 10 Stacking up biomass The biomass stackyard, where corn waste is stored at POET-DSM's

  11. BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. A proposal issued by BlueFire Ethanol Inc,describing a project that will give DOE understanding of a new biological fermentation process not using enzymes. PDF icon BlueFire Ethanol, Inc. More Documents & Publications Applicant Organization: BlueFire Ethanol Pacific Ethanol, Inc

  12. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  13. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  14. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Ethanol Engines (VSSP 12) Presented by Robert Wagner Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. May 20, 2009 Lee Slezak Vehicle Technologies U.S. Department of Energy David Smith Sentech Inc Keith Confer, John MacBain Delphi Automotive Systems Project ID: vssp_12_wagner 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of

  16. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOE/EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting May 19, 2009 Kevin Stork Vehicle Technologies Program Shab Fardanesh and Joan Glickman Office of the Biomass Program This presentation does not contain any proprietary or classified information Project ID: ft_05_knoll Collaborators Kevin Stork DOE OVT Shab Fardanesh DOE OBP Joan Glickman DOE OBP Wendy Clark

  17. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    By all accounts, 2009 was a volatile year for the American economy, and the ethanol industry was no exception. The combination of unstable commodity prices and weak motor fuel demand caused by the worst recession in decades presented a significant challenge for ethanol producers. Commodity prices retreated from the record levels set during the 2008 commodity price bubble, but the effects of the bubble and its subsequent burst were felt well into 2009. The bursting of the bubble was followed by consolidation and ownership changes, as new entrants to the ethanol industry acquired plants idled by bankrupt firms. As a result, both industry capacity and production increased.

  18. Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A2: Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment). September 2013. Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends (Other Equipment) Manufacturer Product Model Ethanol Compatibility Bravo Systems Fiberglass Fittings Series F, FF, FPE, FR, F Retrofit- S, RPE Retrofit-Si, F BLR, F D-BLR-S, TBF E0-E100 Bravo Systems Spill Buckets B3XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Tank Sumps & Covers B4XX E0-E100 Bravo Systems Transition Sumps (planter, walkover, H-20 rated) B5XX, B6XX, B7XX, B8XX

  19. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  20. Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic Ethanol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biorefineries - Energy Innovation Portal Microbial Fuel Cells for Recycle of Process Water from Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefineries Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA method was invented at ORNL for removing inhibitor compounds from process water in biomass-to-ethanol production. This invention can also be used to produce power for other industrial processes. DescriptionLarge amounts of water are used in the processing of cellulosic

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Development to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure

  2. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Cellulosic Ethanol BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Cellulosic Ethanol This infographic was created by students from Williamsburg HS for Architecture and Design in Brooklyn, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge encourages young people to improve their foundational understanding of bioenergy, which is a broad and complex topic. The ideas

  3. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium Corporation received EERE funds to operate a 1.4 million gallon per year demonstration plant in Jennings, Louisiana, to convert agricultural residues and energy crops to cellulosic ethanol. The project's goal was to implement a technology that had been demonstrated in a laboratory at commercial scale. The plant

  4. Kinder Morgan Central Florida Pipeline Ethanol Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    KINDER MORGAN CENTRAL FLORIDA PIPELINE ETHANOL PROJECT  In December 2008, Kinder Morgan began transporting commercial batches of denatured ethanol along with gasoline shipments in its 16-inch Central Florida Pipeline (CFPL) from Tampa to Orlando, making CFPL the first transmarket gasoline pipeline in the United States to do so. The 16-inch pipeline previously only transported regular and premium gasoline.  Kinder Morgan invested approximately $10 million to modify the line for ethanol

  5. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Carriera, Laura H.

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  6. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  7. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowal, A.; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N; Liu, P; Frenkel, A; Adzic, R

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts1, 2. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO2/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO2, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  8. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Kowal, A.; Li, M.; Shao, M.; Sasaki, K.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Marinkovic, N.S. Liu, P.; Frenkel, A.I.

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO{sub 2}, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  9. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, Andr S.; Batalho, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jos; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through reninangiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  10. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  11. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Benefits and Considerations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations on Digg Find More

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Laws and Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel

  15. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  16. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  17. DuPont Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery Opening

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility, opening in Nevada, Iowa, on October 30, will be the largest cellulosic ethanol plant in the world. The U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Director, Jonathan Male, alongside senior government officials, DuPont leaders and staff, and local farmers will attend the grand opening ceremony and plant tour.

  18. Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nanyang Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - Nanyang AgencyCompany Organization: BioEthanol for...

  19. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

  20. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery...

  1. AE Biofuels Inc formerly American Ethanol Inc | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AE Biofuels Inc formerly American Ethanol Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: AE Biofuels Inc. (formerly American Ethanol Inc.) Place: Cupertino, California Zip: CA 95014...

  2. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  3. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The...

  4. Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report - La Spezia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Experiences from Ethanol Buses and Fuel Station Report...

  5. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  6. Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment AgencyCompany Organization Organization of American...

  7. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  8. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  9. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis ...

  10. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well Engineered ...

  11. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol...

  12. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II.

  13. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

  14. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

  15. Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyness, Ed.; Doelle, H.W.

    1981-07-01

    General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate a high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. 10 refs.

  16. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  17. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  18. Running Line-Haul Trucks on Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    I magine driving a 55,000-pound tractor- trailer that runs on corn! If you find it difficult to imagine, you can ask the truck drivers for Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) what it's like. For the past 4 years, they have been piloting four trucks powered by ethyl alcohol, or "ethanol," derived from corn. Several advantages to operating trucks on ethanol rather than on conventional petro- leum diesel fuel present themselves. Because ethanol can be produced domestically, unlike most of our

  19. Fuel ethanol and South Carolina: a feasibility assessment. Volume II. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of producing ethanol from carbohydrates in the State of South Carolina is discussed. It is preliminary in the sense that it provides partial answers to some of the questions that exist concerning ethanol production in the state, and is not intended to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. A great deal more work needs to be done as ethanol fuels become a more significant element in South Carolina's energy mix. The existing carbohydrate resource base in the state is reviewed, the extent to which this base can be increased is estimated, and importation of out-of-state feedstocks to expand the base further is discussed. A discussion of the economics of ethanol production is provided for farm-scale and commercial-sized plants, as is a general discussion of environmental impacts and state permitting and approval requirements. Several other considerations affecting the small-scale producer are addressed, including the use of agricultural residues and manure-derived methane to fuel the ethanol production process. Research needs are identified, and brief case studies for Williamsburg and Orangeburg counties are provided.

  20. Ethanol Pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    A paper discussing the various ethanol pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Safety Testing Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories Ethanol Dispenser Safety Testing on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Underwriters Laboratories

  2. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanolmethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanolmethanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanolmethanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 12 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanolmethanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  3. QER- Comment of ND Ethanol Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, Attached please find comments from the North Dakota Ethanol Council regarding infrastructure constraints in preparation for the OER Public Meeting, which will be held in Bismarck, N.D., on August 8. Sincerely, Deana Wies

  4. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  5. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft005_west_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Station Locations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for

  8. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Qin, Zhangcai; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  9. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  10. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils

  11. Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-291

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  12. BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The process could also be applied to biofuel production to make a cellulosic ethanol facility more commercially viable. Learn more from the Genomatica press release....

  13. Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

  14. BETO Project Improves Production of Renewable Chemical from Cellulosic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The process could also be applied to biofuel production to make a cellulosic ethanol facility more commercially viable. Learn more from the Genomatica press release. ...

  15. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  16. Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October November 30, 2015 - 2:07pm Addthis The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Photo courtesy of DuPont. The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Photo courtesy of DuPont. The

  17. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, John; Weatherwax, Sharlene; Ferrell, John

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 79, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energys Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  18. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  19. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  20. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  1. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  3. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

  4. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. ethanol vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  5. Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols Syngas from Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol and Alcohols into Syngas Ethanol and alcohols can be converted into syngas using a robust autothermal reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of carbon

  6. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on

  7. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Mid-Level Ethanol Blends 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ft_05_knoll.pdf More Documents & Publications Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program Biofuels Quality Surveys Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009

  8. Renewable Fuels Association’s National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Elless, a BETO technology manager, will be representing BETO at the 20th anniversary of the National Ethanol Conference.

  9. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass | Department of Energy Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012. PDF icon Thermochemical Ethanol via

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Surpasses 1 Million Gallons Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania's Ethanol Corridor Project Surpasses 1 Million Gallons on Google Bookmark Alternative

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Dispenser Certified (August 2010) Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Ethanol Blender Pump Dispenser Certified (August 2010) on Google Bookmark Alternative

  12. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  13. EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

  14. Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ethanol from 5-Carbon Sugars (LDRD %23 105944). (Conference) | SciTech Connect Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of Ethanol from 5-Carbon Sugars (LDRD %23 105944). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of Ethanol from 5-Carbon Sugars (LDRD %23 105944). Abstract not provided. Authors: Sapra, Rajat ; Reichmuth, David ; Kozina, Carol L. ; Sale, Kenneth L. ; Keasling, Jay ; Tang,

  15. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with much progress. However, the current state of biological technology is not deemed to be ready commercially. A preliminary estimate of capital and operating costs of a 12000 gallon per day gasification/biological facility was developed for comparison purposes. In addition, during the biological organism screening and testing, some possible alternative products were identified. One such possibility is the biological production of bio-diesel. Additional research is necessary for further evaluation of all of the biological concepts.

  16. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  17. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  18. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  1. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will have the opportunity to investigate alternative catalysts for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide, which will be used as a model system for the breaking down of cellulose into sugar. After identifying other potential catalysts, students will develop their own research question about catalysts and conduct an additional experiment of their own design to investigate their question.

  2. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glassner, David A. (4454 Satinwood Rd., Okemos, MI 48864); Jain, Mahendra K. (3950 Jonquil La., Okemos, MI 48864); Datta, Rathin (442 W. Melrose Ave., #3, Chicago, IL 60657)

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  3. Genetic alteration of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Strain improvement by mutagenesis with UV resulted in Zymomonas mobilis strains which were highly EtOH and temperature tolerant and which were able to produce more than 100 g EtOH /h at EtOH concentrations of 80-90 g/L. Genetic engineering has the potential of producing strains with the ability to ferment starch and cellulose directly to EtOH.

  4. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  5. Assessment of the Electrohol process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol electrogeneratively. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevino, A.A.

    1985-04-10

    Preliminary process economics data for the electrogenerative process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol were generated based on patent information. The technology was assessed in four alternative processing options. The Electrohol process is viable in the US only if integrated to the production of 190 pf ethanol from corn in a large scale unit. To be competitive, the Electrohol process must show yields in excess of 93%. Its attractiveness depends on corn prices remaining under $2.90/bu and DDG selling for more than $132/T. A corn price of $2.00/bu is needed to make a farm-size corn-based processing alternative competitive. A plant based on the fermentation of molasses proved too expensive under the US economic assumptions. The Electrohol technology based on purchased ethanol cannot compete with the existing ethylene-based process under current conditions. To become attractive, the Electrohol process must have access to cheap ethanol ($1.43/gal). The zero electricity generation mode is the most attractive mode of operation for the Electrohol technology in the US. The penalty for low levels of generation (0.130 kwh/kg AcH) is, however, negligible. The optimum operating mode in W. Europe is the generation of 0.312 kwh/kg AcH. In Japan, the low generation level is perferred (0.130 kwh/kg AcH). In general, higher energy prices improve the competitiveness of the Electrohol processing alternatives.

  6. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for ???°Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  8. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  9. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small moleculesilica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing watersilica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  10. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biorefinery Groundbreaking | Department of Energy Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia Biorefinery Groundbreaking October 6, 2007 - 4:21pm Addthis SOPERTON, GA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today attended a groundbreaking ceremony for Range Fuels' biorefinery - one of the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol biorefineries - and made the following statement.

  11. Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    experimental and simulation study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined experimental and simulation study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined experimental and simulation study Dissociation dynamics of the temporary negative ions of ethanol and acetaldehyde formed by the low-energy electron attachments is investigated by using the anion

  12. Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel Certification Bill Woebkenberg, Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Senior Engineer, Mercedes-Benz PDF icon b13_woebkenberg_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With

  13. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR PDF icon deer10_diewald.pdf More Documents & Publications Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future SCR-DPF Integrations

  14. The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol At the February 12, 2009 joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Andy Aden (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) discussed the current state of technology for cellulosic ethanol - How close are we? PDF icon aden_20090212.pdf More Documents & Publications Integrated Biorefinery Process Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: Clarification of Ethanol Certification Limits for Legacy Equipment (December 2008) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  16. EERE Success Story-Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Facility | Department of Energy Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility EERE Success Story-Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium Corporation received EERE funds to operate a 1.4 million gallon per year demonstration plant in Jennings, Louisiana, to convert agricultural residues and energy crops to cellulosic ethanol. The project's goal was to implement a technology that had been demonstrated in a

  17. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of alternative ethanol/water separation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eakin, D.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Cysewski, G.R.; Petty, S.E.; Maxham, J.V.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary evaluation indicates that separation of ethanol and water can be accomplished with less energy than is now needed in conventional distillation processes. The state of development for these methods varies from laboratory investigation to commercially available processes. The processes investigated were categorized by type of separation depending on their ability to achieve varying degrees of ethanol/water separation. The following methods were investigated: ethanol extraction with CO/sub 2/ (the A.D. Little process); solvent extraction of ethanol; vacuum distillation; vapor recompression distillation; dehydration with fermentable grains; low temperature blending with gasoline; molecular sieve adsorption; and reverse osmosis.

  19. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  20. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  1. Issues and Methods for Estimating the Percentage Share of Ethanol...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration 1 Issues and Methods for Estimating the Share of Ethanol in the Motor Gasoline Supply U.S. Energy Information Administration October 6, 2011...

  2. Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Presentation of Results Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Ethanol Usage in Urban Public Transportation - Presentation of Results AgencyCompany...

  3. Ask a scientist: Ethanol & car performance | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 issue of Argonne Now, the laboratory science magazine. Ask a scientist: Ethanol & car performance September 13, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Does ethanol extend or decrease your gas mileage? -Tommy Holly, via Facebook JEHLIK: In a one-to-one comparison in a regular engine, ethanol will decrease your mileage. This is because the energy content of a gallon of ethanol is lower than the energy in a gallon of gasoline-it only has about 70% of the energy. The reason why is purely chemical: the chemical

  4. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis For Corn Stover Lignocellulosic Biomass to ...

  5. NREL Industry Partners Move Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Forward...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Industry Partners Move Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Forward Lab Contributes Scientific Foundation for Making Biofuel from Non-Food Sources May 15, 2008 Collaborative ...

  6. Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... representative from biofuels company POET-DSM stand between square and round bales of corn stover stock piled outside of POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. ...

  7. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 | Department of Energy Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 PDF

  8. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  9. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-12-15

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  10. Pilot Scale Integrated Biorefinery for Producing Ethanol from Hybrid Algae: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-389

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, P. T.

    2013-11-01

    This collaboration between Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will provide valuable information regarding Direct to Ethanol technology. Specifically, the cooperative R&D will analyze the use of flue gas from industrial sources in the Direct to Ethanol process, which may demonstrate the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously producing a valuable product, i.e., ethanol. Additionally, Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will develop both a techno-economic model with full material and energy balances and an updated life-cycle analysis to identify greenhouse gas emissions relative to gasoline, each of which will provide a better understanding of the Direct to Ethanol process and further demonstrate that it is a breakthrough technology with varied and significant benefits.

  11. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils,

  13. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  14. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  15. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  16. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  17. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

  18. Low-temperature aqueous-phase reforming of ethanol on bimetallic PdZn catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Haifeng; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Yong; Dayte, Abhaya

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic PdZn catalysts supported on carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to be selective for CO-free H-2 production from ethanol at low temperature (250 degrees C). On Pd, the H-2 yield was low (similar to 0.3 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and the CH4/CO2 ratio was high (similar to 1.7). Addition of Zn to Pd formed the intermetallic PdZn beta phase (atomic ratio of Zn to Pd is 1) with increased H-2 yield (similar to 1.9 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and CH4/CO2 ratio of <1. The higher H-2 yield and low CH4 formation was related to the improved dehydrogenation activity of the L1(0) PdZn beta phase. The TOF increased with particle size and the CNTs provided the most active and selective catalysts, which may be ascribed to pore-confinement effects. Furthermore, no significant changes in either the supports or the PdZn beta particles was found after aqueous-phase reforming (APR) indicating that the metal nanoparticles and the carbon support are hydrothermally stable in the aqueous phase at elevated temperatures and pressures (>200 degrees C, 65 bar). No CO was detected for all the catalysts performed in aqueous-phase reaction, indicating that both monometallic Pd and bimetallic PdZn catalysts have high water-gas shift activity during APR. However, the yield of H-2 is considerably lower than the theoretical value of 6 H-2 per mole ethanol which is due to the presence of oxygenated products and methane on the PdZn catalysts.

  19. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  20. Plants in Your Gas Tank: From Photosynthesis to Ethanol

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    With ethanol becoming more prevalent in the media and in gas tanks, it is important for students to know from where it comes. This module uses a series of activities to show how energy and mass are converted from one form to another. It focuses on the conversion of light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis. It then goes on to show how the chemical energy in plant sugars can be fermented to produce ethanol. Finally, the reasons for using ethanol as a fuel are discussed.

  1. Preliminary energy balance and economic of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    A small-scale ethanol plant was designed, built, tested, and modified over the past 18 months. The plant currently operating is the second design. A third, and probably final, design will be installed and operating within a few months. The current plant produces approximately 30 gal/hr of 190-proof alcohol on a continuous basis. The new plant will produce 50 gal/hr of 200-proof alcohol. A key feature is the relatively low process heat requirement, which is achieved by extensive use of waste-heat recovery heat exchangers. This is manifested in the low temperatures of the process output streams. Acting on the request of the Office of Alcohol Fuels, US Department of Energy, and at the invitation of the owners, representatives from the Solar Energy Research Institute evaluated the energy balance on the plant. The objective was to help clear up the controversy surrounding the net energy benefit of ethanol production. Although the study was site-specific to the plant and limited in scope, it is indicative of the potential performance of grain-to-ethanol plants in general.

  2. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Sun, Junming; Smith, Colin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-02

    ZnxZryOz mixed oxides were studied for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Reaction conditions (temperature, residence time, ethanol molar fraction, steam to carbon ratio), catalyst composition, and pretreatment conditions were investigated, aiming at high-yield production of isobutene under industrially relevant conditions. An isobutene yield of 79% was achieved with an ethanol molar fraction of 8.3% at 475 C on fresh Zn1Zr8O17 catalysts. Further durability and regeneration tests revealed that the catalyst exhibited very slow deactivation via coking formation with isobutene yield maintained above 75% for more than 10 h time-on-stream. More importantly, the catalysts activity in terms of isobutene yield can be readily recovered after in situ calcination in air at 550 C for 2.5 h. XRD, TPO, IR analysis of adsorbed pyridine (IR-Py), and nitrogen sorption have been used to characterize the surface physical/chemical properties to correlate the structure and performance of the catalysts.

  3. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-15

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  4. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  5. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  6. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  7. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an article in Scientific Reports on its new method to directly convert biomass-derived ethanol to a hydrocarbon blendstock and is continuing work with...

  8. Commercial Ethanol Turns Dross to Dollars for Rural Iowans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu Sept. 23 announced the Department finalized a $105 million loan guarantee to support the development of one of the nation's first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants.

  9. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  10. Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vssp_12_wagner.pdf More Documents & Publications Ignition Control for HCCI High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engines Expanding Robust HCCI Operation (Delphi CRADA)

  11. Effects of ethanol on small engines and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettis, M.D.

    1995-01-09

    With the support of the Missouri Corn Merchandising Council and the Department of Energy, Northwest Missouri State University conducted an applied research project to investigate the effects of the commercially available ethanol/gasoline fuel blend on small engines. The study attempted to identify any problems when using the 10% ethanol/gasoline blend in engines designed for gasoline and provide solutions to the problems identified. Fuel economy, maximum power, internal component wear, exhaust emissions and engine efficiency were studied.

  12. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 | Department of Energy Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 This study was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in response to Section 243 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). Section 243 directs DOE

  13. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  14. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The Foundation of an Advanced Bioindustry Cellulosic Technology Advances-Thomas Foust, Director, National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory PDF icon b13_foust_op-1.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Process Design

  15. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B: End Use and Fuel Certification Paul Machiele, Center Director for Fuel Programs, Office of Transportation & Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PDF icon b13_machiele_2-b.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels The

  16. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology to explain the underlying process. Photo courtesy Oak Ride National Laboratory. Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion

  17. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis For Corn Stover | Department of Energy Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis For Corn Stover Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis For Corn Stover This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of

  18. NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Algae | Department of Energy NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae February 11, 2016 - 5:07pm Addthis A new biorefinery process developed by scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) has proven to be significantly more effective at

  19. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

  20. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  1. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  2. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  3. Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply U.S. imports of fuel ethanol were low until 2004 when imports began to rise sharply. By 2006 imports of fuel ethanol reached a record high of 735.8 million gallons. As domestic supply of fuel ethanol increased to meet demand, imports of fuel ethanol began to drop after 2006. By 2010, imports declined to pre-2004 levels. Annual U.S. Imports of Fuel

  4. Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opens October 30 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opens October 30 Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opens October 30 October 26, 2015 - 2:52pm Addthis The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Photo courtesy of DuPont. The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Photo courtesy of DuPont. The DuPont cellulosic

  5. EERE Success Story-Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in October | Department of Energy Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October EERE Success Story-Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October November 30, 2015 - 2:07pm Addthis The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Photo courtesy of DuPont. The DuPont cellulosic ethanol facility in Nevada, Iowa, will produce about 30 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year.

  6. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  7. Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

  8. EERE Success Story-Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership | Department of Energy Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership EERE Success Story-Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 21, 2015 - 10:35am Addthis Algenol is a company located in Fort Myers, FL that is working with its unique photosynthetic algae to take carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere and produce a variety of affordable and sustainable biofuels. The scale-up of this work by Algenol was funded in part by the U.S.

  9. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-in-the-Loop | Department of Energy Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss049_shidore_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Evaluation of the Fuel Economy Impacts of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) using Engine-in-the-Loop Cold-Start Performance and

  10. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 2, 2015 - 11:28am Addthis Algenol is a company located in Fort Myers, FL that is working with its unique photosynthetic algae to take carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere and produce a variety of affordable and sustainable biofuels. The scale-up of this work by Algenol was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technology Office's

  11. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 21, 2015 - 10:35am Addthis Algenol is a company located in Fort Myers, FL that is working with its unique photosynthetic algae to take carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere and produce a variety of affordable and sustainable biofuels. The scale-up of this work by Algenol was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technology Office's

  12. EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV June 1, 2011 EA-1848:...

  13. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

  14. Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1,000-hour performance runs of its patent-pending Generation 2.0 Co-Located Cellulosic Ethanol process at its cellulosic ethanol pilot plant in St. Joseph, Missouri. This is an...

  15. Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ICM Inc. announced successful completion of two 1,000-hour performance runs of its patent-pending Generation 2.0 Co-Located Cellulosic Ethanol process at its cellulosic ethanol pilot plant in St....

  16. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol...

  17. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 ?g/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 ?g/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1? and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: Chronic ethanol feeding causes oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammation in lungs of ADH deer mice. Chronic ethanol feeding generates FAEEs (nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) in lungs of ADH deer mice. Chronic ethanol feeding induces CYP2E1 in the lungs of ADH deer mice. Lack of ER homeostasis due to a prolonged ethanol feeding could trigger inflammation.

  18. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jrgen; Nrskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ?5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

  19. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification.more » Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.« less

  20. Source/Sink Matching for U.S. Ethanol Plants and Candidate Deep Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2008-09-18

    This report presents data on the 140 existing and 74 planned ethanol production facilities and their proximity to candidate deep geologic storage formations. Half of the existing ethanol plants and 64% of the planned units sit directly atop a candidate geologic storage reservoir. While 70% of the existing and 97% of the planned units are within 100 miles of at least one candidate deep geologic storage reservoir. As a percent of the total CO2 emissions from these facilities, 92% of the exiting units CO2 and 97% of the planned units CO2 emissions are accounted for by facilities that are within 100 miles of at least one potential CO2 storage reservoir.

  1. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  2. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  3. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for ethanol.

  4. Light-Induced Passivation of Si by Iodine Ethanol Solution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Guhaabiswas, D.; Anderson-Jackson, L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observations of light-activated passivation of silicon surfaces by iodine-ethanol solution.

  5. Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic Ethanol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic Ethanol Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic Ethanol April 19, 2013 - 11:24am Addthis In September 2012, scientists at DOE national laboratories successfully demonstrated technical advances required to produce cellulosic ethanol that is cost competitive with petroleum. Cellulosic ethanol is fuel produced from the inedible, organic material abundant in agricultural waste, including grasses, farm

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in Classic Cars Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides Tips for Using Ethanol in Classic Cars on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Goss' Garage Provides

  7. Source: Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol Blends.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    A1: Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends. September 2013. Tank Manufacturer Compatibility with Ethanol Blends Manufacturer Compatibility Statement Fiberglass 1 Containment Solutions Tanks manufactured after January 1, 1995 are all compatible with ethanol blends up to 100% (E100) (UL Listed) Owens Corning Single Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and 1994 are approved to store up to 10% ethanol (E10) Double Wall Tanks Tanks manufactured between 1965 and July 1, 1990 are

  8. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  9. Feasibility study of a corn-to-ethanol plant in Sardis, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    A feasibility study for a corn-to-ethanol plant in Panola County, Mississippi was carried out. This area is well suited for the production of ethanol from corn, as it has a mild climate, a plentiful supply of wood fuel, and a well-developed agricultural infrastructure. The project was designed for 5 million gallons per year, using the ACR Process, a process proven in 6 plants now operating. It was determined to be technically feasible for this size. However, without a state financial incentive such as a gasoline excise tax or sales tax exemption, the plant is not economically feasible in Mississippi. Even though a 4 cents per gallon federal excise tax exemption will likely remain, the economics without any other incentive are not strong enough to obtain financing or equity funds. While the Mississippi legislature decided not to consider a financial incentive in their 1982 session, an attempt will be made to introduce a proposal for a suitable exemption during the 1983 legislative session. Until then, the project is on hold.

  10. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in CC bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2C4 product distributions.

  11. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  12. Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs October 19, 2015 - 12:38pm Addthis ICM Inc. announced successful completion of two 1,000-hour performance runs of its patent-pending Generation 2.0 Co-Located Cellulosic Ethanol process at its cellulosic ethanol pilot plant in St. Joseph, Missouri. This is an important step toward the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass and energy sorghum.

  13. Pathways for Ethanol Dehydrogenation and Dehydration Catalyzed by Ceria (111) and (100) Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beste, Ariana; Overbury, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We have performed computations to better understand how surface structure affects selectivity in dehydrogenation and dehydration reactions of alcohols. Ethanol reactions on the (111) and (100) ceria surfaces were studied starting from the dominant surface species, ethoxy. We used DFT (PBE+U) to explore reaction pathways leading to ethylene and acetaldehyde and calculated estimates of rate constants employing transition state theory. To assess pathway contributions, we carried out kinetic analysis. Our results show that intermediate and transition state structures are stabilized on the (100) surface compared to the (111) surface. Formation of acetaldehyde over ethylene is kinetically and thermodynamically preferred onmore » both surfaces. Our results are consistent with temperature programmed surface reaction and steady-state experiments, where acetaldehyde was found as the main product and evidence was presented that ethylene formation at higher temperature originates from changes in adsorbate and surface structure.« less

  14. Pathways for Ethanol Dehydrogenation and Dehydration Catalyzed by Ceria (111) and (100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed computations to better understand how surface structure affects selectivity in dehydrogenation and dehydration reactions of alcohols. Ethanol reactions on the (111) and (100) ceria surfaces were studied starting from the dominant surface species, ethoxy. We used DFT (PBE+U) to explore reaction pathways leading to ethylene and acetaldehyde and calculated estimates of rate constants employing transition state theory. To assess pathway contributions, we carried out kinetic analysis. Our results show that intermediate and transition state structures are stabilized on the (100) surface compared to the (111) surface. Formation of acetaldehyde over ethylene is kinetically and thermodynamically preferred on both surfaces. Our results are consistent with temperature programmed surface reaction and steady-state experiments, where acetaldehyde was found as the main product and evidence was presented that ethylene formation at higher temperature originates from changes in adsorbate and surface structure.

  15. Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office(BETO) IBR Project Peer Review *© 2015 ICM, Inc. All Rights Reserved. *1 Recovery Act: Pilot Integrated Cellulosic Biorefinery Operations to Fuel Ethanol Award Number: DE-EE0002875 March 23, 2015 Demonstration and Market Transformation Program Douglas B. Rivers, Ph.D. ICM, Inc. Project Goal Statement  Leverage its existing pilot plant  Operate the pilot cellulosic integrated biorefinery using a biochemical platform with pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis technology coupled with

  16. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate March 25, 2015 Principal Investigator Thomas P. Binder ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND COMPANY 2 Where does ADM fit with the IBR? * Ensuring a supply of technology for future growth is a priority for ADM Research * Corn stover utilization may enable continued growth in starch supply while starting a new industry around a currently underutilized material James R Randall Research Center Decatur, IL ARCHER DANIELS MIDLAND COMPANY 3 Quad

  17. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment Caley Johnson, Emily Newes, Aaron Brooker, and Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Steve Peterson Lexidyne, LLC Paul Leiby, Rocio Uria Martinez, and Gbadebo Oladosu Oak Ridge National Laboratory Maxwell L. Brown Colorado School of Mines Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-63698 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance

  18. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  19. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  20. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    3-3861 September 2013 Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process