National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for agri ethanol products

  1. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  2. Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.; Donaldson, T.L.; Worden, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Research progress is described on the development of laboratory-scale columnar bioreactors utilizing the flocculent bacterium, X. mobilis, for ethanol production. X. mobilis forms stable, ball-like aggregates which maintain structural integrity even when subjected to the high shear forces generated in the active 3-phase fluidized-bed reactors. Cell retention and ethanol production were studied using 3 bioreactor configurations. Ethanol productivity appeared to be primarily affected by glucose feed concentration. In addition, it was found that in the absence of nutrients, the level of ethanol productivity can be maintained for at least 1 h before a severe drop occurred. Ethanol inhibition is considered to be a limiting factor in ethanol production. (DMC)

  3. Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2013-06-18

    Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

  4. Agri Ethanol Products LLC AEPNC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendoMassachusetts:Renewable EnergyLLC Jump to:

  5. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  7. Ethanol production by recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

    1995-01-01

    Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

  8. Ethanol production in recombinant hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D.

    2005-02-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  9. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  10. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nearly doubled bio-ethanol productivity, increased conversion yields, and minimized microbial contaminants. The process showed increased productivity and efficiency, therefore...

  11. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  12. A stochastic feasibility study of Texas ethanol production: analysis of Texas Legislature ethanol subsidy proposal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Robert Chope

    2002-01-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in ethanol production has prompted the Texas State Legislature to investigate the feasibility of ethanol production in Texas. The reasons for the increased interest in ethanol production ...

  13. Ethanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    of biomass convert solar energy into plant material, but this conversion requires suitable soil, nutrients.1% of the solar energy. Two early studies by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) con- cerning ethanol productionEthanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses David Pimentel, Tad Patzek

  14. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity) Below is information about the student activity...

  15. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  16. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a midterm forecast for biomass ethanol production under three different technology cases for the period 2000 to 2020, based on projections developed from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System. An overview of cellulose conversion technology and various feedstock options and a brief history of ethanol usage in the United States are also presented.

  17. The feasibility of ethanol production in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbst, Brian Keith

    2003-01-01

    been done in Texas. Previous studies are typically for a generic location and only looked at ethanol production from corn. This study looks at four different plant sizes in three different regions using corn and grain sorghum. This study incorporates...

  18. Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrow, G.

    2008-05-14

    From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

  19. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    valid consideration when high grade fuel such as petroleum or natural gas is the energy source for the ethanol plant. But for plants running on coal or other solid fuels, ethanol production can be considered to be a form of "coal liquefaction.... The three main steps are cooking, which opens the starch bundles (called gelatinization) making them accessible for enzymatic action; liquefaction, in which large starch molecules are cut into smaller segments by enzymes, thus making the starch...

  20. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  1. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  2. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  3. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1981-09-24

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  6. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  7. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  8. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  9. RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

  10. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

  11. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

  12. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  13. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

  14. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

  15. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

  16. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  17. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports improved ethanol yields following the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. Profiles for ethanol production from 45 g/L xylose when grown on a medium containing ergosterol, linoleic acid, Tween-80, a mixture of the three lipids and no lipids (control) are presented. The enhancement in the amount of ethanol produced was most pronounced after 72 h fermentation.

  18. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  19. The U.S. Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry: Biobased Products and Bioenergy Initiative Success Stories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the history of ethanol production in the United States and describes innovations in dry-mill ethanol production.

  20. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  1. A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions (1 Activity) A Pre-Treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

  2. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  3. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  4. Comparison of ethanol production by different Zymomonas strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1981-04-01

    A comparison of the rates of growth and ethanol production by 11 different strains of Zymomonas revealed a wide range of characteristics, with some strains being more tolerant of high sugar or ethanol concentrations and high incubation temperatures than others. Some strains were unable to utilize sucrose; others produced large amounts of levan, and one strain grew well but produced no levan. One strain, CP4, was considerably better in all respects than most of the other strains and was chosen as a starting strain for genetic improvement of ethanol production.

  5. Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  6. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

  7. Energy, Carbon Dioxide and Water Use Implications of Hydrous Ethanol Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffy, Howard A.; Northrop, William; Kittelson, David; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-08-24

    than anhydrous ethanol. In this study, we investigate corn ethanol production from a dry-mill, natural gas-fired corn ethanol refinery, producing ethanol with a range of ethanol concentrations from 58°wt% - 100°wt% to determine the effect on energy use...

  8. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  9. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  10. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  11. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  12. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  13. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand—2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  14. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  15. The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The effect of CO 2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production This article has been) 024003 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024003 The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    ethanol production Naveen Narayanaswamy a , Ahmed Faik b , Douglas J. Goetz a , Tingyue Gu a, a Department). Increased demand in biofuels cannot be met by the use of corn and sugarcane. In the US, corn ethanol has in and Liska, 2007). The production of lignocellulosic ethanol from biomass gener- ally involves four major

  17. Author's personal copy Distributed hydrogen production from ethanol in a microfuel processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Author's personal copy Distributed hydrogen production from ethanol in a microfuel processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2. Methods of hydrogen production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 2.4. Bio-hydrogen

  18. Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

    2007-10-01

    The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

  19. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  20. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  1. Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using-glucosidase, with the fermentative synthesis of ethanol. Because the enzymatic step determines the availability of glucose

  2. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  3. Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A

    2013-10-01

    The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

  4. Economic contribution of lignins to ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Parker, S.K.; Feinberg, D.A.; Wright, J.D.; Rice, P.A.; Sinclair, S.A.; Glasser, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    Lignin, one of the three major polymeric components of biomass (16% to 33% by weight in wood), has the highest specific heat content. Therefore, it can be burned for process fuel. Compared to coal, its fuel value is 2.2 cents/lb. This report investigates markets for lignin utilization of higher value. After lignin isolation from the process, purchase of replacement fuel (coal was analyzed), lignin sale for the manufacture of solid materials or higher value octane enhancers was evaluated. Polymeric applications evaluated were: surfactants, asphalt, carbon black, adhesives, and lignin plastics; agricultural applications were briefly reviewed. These lignins would generate coproduct credits of 25 cents to 150 cents/gallon of ethanol respectively for 7.5 cents to 60 cents/lb lignin value (isolation and eventual modification costs were taken into account). Overall markets for these polymeric applications were projected at 11 billion lb/year by the year 2000. These projections are intensities of demand and not actual shipments of lignins. In addition, this report investigates the possibility of converting lignins into mixtures of methyls aryl ethers and methyl substituted-aryl ethers which are high value octane enhancers, fully compatible with gasoline. The report intends to show that if fuel ethanol production in the billions of gallons scale occurs lignin markets would not be saturated. 10 refs., 14 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  6. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  7. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and...

  8. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

  9. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

  10. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron

    Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of U.S. gasoline, up from 3% in 2003. This dramatic increase was spurred by recent policy initiatives such as the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level blend mandates and supported ...

  11. Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

  12. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer for these benefits to be realized. Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation processes offer important potential advantages in reducing costs, but little has been done on continuous processing of cellulosic biomass

  13. Fact #681: June 27, 2011 U.S. Ethanol Production, 2001-2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol production has been rising rapidly over the last 10 years driven largely by government standards requiring the use of renewable fuels. The first Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) was...

  14. A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Pre-treatment Model for Ethanol Production Using a Colorimetric Analysis of Starch Solutions AUTHORS: Eric Benson and Chris Ederer E-mail Addresses: eric.benson@theloganschool.o...

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN THE FERMENTATION OF TEMULOSE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalka, Jacquelyn

    2007-07-14

    OPTIMIZATION OF SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN THE FERMENTATION OF TEMULOSE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION A Senior Honors Thesis by JACQUELYN MICHALKA Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment... of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2007 Major: Biological Systems Engineering ii ABSTRACT Optimization of Sugar Consumption in the Fermentation of Temulose for the Production of Ethanol Jacquelyn Michalka...

  16. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  17. Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

    2008-07-17

    California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

  18. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  19. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  20. Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Fuel from farms: a guide to small-scale ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-02-01

    A guide on fermentation processes with emphasis on small-scale production of ethanol using farm crops as a source of raw material is published. The current status of on-farm ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors is presented. Decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in decision making are included. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Diagrams of fermentors and distilling apparatus are included. (DC)

  2. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  3. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from a , J. Magid b , B. Yang d , C.E. Wyman c a Forestry and Wood Products, Forest & Landscape, Faculty Received in revised form 8 November 2011 Accepted 9 December 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Bioethanol

  4. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  5. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  6. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-07-05

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  7. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  8. Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

  9. Enzymatically based cellulosic ethanol production technology was selected as a key area for biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Enzymatically based cellulosic ethanol production technology was selected as a key area for biomass crisis' of the 1970s. Although biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals through classical mutagenesis and strain Biofuels (2011) 2(4), 421­450 Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass

  10. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  11. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    change issues at the Center for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Nigeria from 1991-1996. HeGlobal Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security to gasoline over the next few decades. Specifically, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA

  12. East Kansas Agri-Energy, LLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 1.6 MW CHP application at East Kansas Agri-Energy, LLC in Garnett, Kansas.

  13. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  14. Production of ethanol by immobilized Saccharomyces bayanus in an extractive fermentation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barros, M.R.A.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An extractive fermentation system using immobilized yeast cells was developed to study the ethanol production at high sugar concentrations. Organic acids were used as extracting solvents of ethanol and their toxicity was tested in free and k-carrageenan entrapped cell preparations. Immobilization seems to protect cells against solvent toxicity, when long-chain organic acids, e.g., oleic acid, were used, probably due to steric and diffusional limitations, the free cells not being viable at high oleic acid concentrations. The entrapped cells also present a high metabolic activity than their free counterparts at high glucose concentrations. A solution of 300 g/L of glucose was totally fermented by the immobilized yeast cells, which when free cannot normally convert more than 200 g/L. In situ recovery of ethanol by oleic acid in a batch immobilized cell system led to higher ethanol productivities and to the fermentation of 400 g/L, when an oleic acid/medium ratio of 5 was used.

  15. Social Actors in the Implementation of EU Agri-Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyano, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    of EU Agri- Environmental Policy Eduardo Moyano Institute ofof EU Agri- Environmental Policy Eduardo Moyano and Fernandoof EU Agri-Environmental Policy”. Unfortunately, neither

  16. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Dry-grind Highly Digestible Grain Sorghum Lines for Ethanol Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Joan R.

    2010-07-14

    digestibility and corn; and 2. determine the best sorghum lines that have been developed by breeders that will require lower energy input during gelatinization and liquefaction and shorter SSF time for ethanol production. 7 CHAPTER... to explain this low digestibility and high energy requirements needed for gelatinization prior to liquefaction and saccharification. The predominant theory is that the starch being imbedded in the protein body (kafirin) matrices restricts gelatinization...

  17. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  18. Elimination of hydrogenase post-translational modification blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  19. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  20. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M.; Hart, M.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the commercial feasibility of producing between 76 and 189 million liters (20 and 50 million gallons) of ethanol annually in the San Luis Valley, Colorado using geothermal energy as the primary heat source. The San Luis Valley is located in south-central Colorado. The valley is a high basin situated approximately 2316 meters (7600 feet) above sea level which contains numerous warm water wells and springs. A known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in the east-central area of the valley. The main industry in the valley is agriculture, while the main industry in the surrounding mountains is lumber. Both of these industries can provide feedstock for the production of ethanol.

  1. Impact of demand-enhancing farm policy on the agricultural sector: a firm level simulation of ethanol production subsidies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasson, Leta Susanne

    1990-01-01

    to a 60 cent per gallon subsidy on each gallon of ethanol blended with gasoline. Other federal incentives include the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax of 1980 which gave blenders of ethanol an income tax credit and extended the gasoline tax exemption... subsidies providing for all off- highway uses of diesel fuel and gasoline to be exempt from Federal Excise taxes. Also, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation has provided insurance against production losses due to weather and other perils at subsidized...

  2. The Impact of Ethanol Production on U.S. and Regional Gasoline Prices and on the Profitability of the U.S. Oil Refinery Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Xiaodong; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2008-04-01

    This report details pooled regional time-series data and panel data estimation used to quantify the impact of monthly ethanol production on monthly retail regular gasoline prices.

  3. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  4. Recovery of near-anhydrous ethanol as gasoline additive from fermentation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukouvalas, C.; Markoulaki, E.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1995-06-01

    The use of near-anhydrous ethanol, obtained from fermentation products through low pressure distillation, as a gasoline additive is examined. To this purpose, a reliable model for predicting the azeotropic composition of an ethanol-water mixture as a function of the pressure is presented. It is developed by considering the available thermodynamic consistent experimental data and using the Wilson and the virial equations for the liquid-and vapor-phase nonideality, respectively. It is concluded that, for an area with no extremely cold winters-minimum ambient temperature -20{degrees}C-alcohol with 96.5%(wt) purity can be used in a 90/10 (vol) gasohol mixture. Such an alcohol can be produced with a single distillation column operating at 140 mmHg pressure with an energy consumption of 5150 kJ/kg of product; or with a system of two columns with lower energy consumption but higher capital cost. These energy consumptions are very sensitive to the accuracy of the predicted azeotropic composition at the operating pressures.

  5. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plants.1 billion liters (RFA, 2009). With this exponential growth in ethanol production, significant quantities

  7. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

  8. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

    2009-08-01

    An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

  9. The Political Economy of Agri-Environmental Policies in the EU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swinnen, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Economy of Agri-Environmental Policies in the EU JohanEconomy of Agri-Environmental Policies in the EU Johan F.M.changes” Agri-environmental policies are only fraction of

  10. Social Actors in the Implementation of EU Agri-Environmental Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyano, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Policy ? EU Agri-Environmental Policy and CAP Reforms ? Keybetween the EU agri-environmental policy and the CAP reformsof the EU agri-environmental policies and their specific

  11. EU Agri-Environmental Payments: Appropriate Policy or Protectionism in Disguise?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebe, Thilo

    2005-01-01

    1 Theory of agri-environmental policy Dr. Thilo Glebe EUto look at the agri-environmental policy from a theoreticalto the EU agri- environmental policy I want to ask therefore

  12. How EU Agri-Environmental Policy Might Have Differed Under Various WTO Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swinbank, Alan

    2005-01-01

    No. 12 How EU Agri-Environmental Policy Might Have DifferedEconomy of Agri-environmental Policies in the U.S. and the2005 How EU agri-environmental policy might have differed

  13. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    waste, such as food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper;waste in view of their transformation into ethanol. Belgian Journal of Foodwastes, ADC final, ADC green, acid pretreatment, ethanol, lignin blocking, bovine serum albumin, Aspen model Introduction Overcoming challenges of food

  14. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  15. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  16. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  17. Mid America Agri Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemiMicrosolMid

  18. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14

    to location differences. Changes in consumptive water use in the Texas High Plains, Southern Minnesota, and the Central Valley of California, as impacted by current and proposed grain-based ethanol plants were addressed. In addition, this research assesses...

  19. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Metal Oxide-Promoted Rh Nanocatalyst for Selective Production of Ethanol from Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Kraus

    2010-09-30

    The objective is to develop a process that will convert synthesis gas from coal into ethanol and then transform the ethanol into hydrogen. Principal investigators from Iowa State University include Dr. George Kraus, Dr. Victor Lin, Marek Pruski, and Dr. Robert Brown. Task 1 involves catalyst development and catalyst scale up. Mesoporous manganese silicate mixed oxide materials will be synthesized, characterized and evaluated. The first-and secondgeneration catalysts have been prepared and scaled up for use in Task 2. The construction of a high-pressure reactor system for producing synthetic liquid fuel from simulated synthesis gas stream has been completed as the first step in Task 2. Using the first- and second generation catalysts, the reactor has demonstrated the production of synthetic liquid fuel from a simulated synthesis gas stream.

  20. Guiding optimal biofuels : a comparative analysis of the biochemical production of ethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters from switchgrass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paap, Scott M.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Dibble, Dean C.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; Steen, Eric J.; Beller, Harry R.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chang, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, processes to produce either ethanol or a representative fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the fermentation of sugars liberated from lignocellulosic materials pretreated in acid or alkaline environments are analyzed in terms of economic and environmental metrics. Simplified process models are introduced and employed to estimate process performance, and Monte Carlo analyses were carried out to identify key sources of uncertainty and variability. We find that the near-term performance of processes to produce FAEE is significantly worse than that of ethanol production processes for all metrics considered, primarily due to poor fermentation yields and higher electricity demands for aerobic fermentation. In the longer term, the reduced cost and energy requirements of FAEE separation processes will be at least partially offset by inherent limitations in the relevant metabolic pathways that constrain the maximum yield potential of FAEE from biomass-derived sugars.

  1. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  2. Sunrise Agri Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren)Model for theSunLan SolarKorea Jump to:Sunreps Jump to:Agri

  3. American Agri diesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name:Ambata CapitalCorpAmerican Agri

  4. Nipa (Nypa fruticans) sap as a potential feedstock for ethanol production Pramila Tamunaidu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan Tel/Fax: +81(0)75 753 4738 Email address: saka@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp 2 feedstocks for ethanol at present are sugarcane juice in Brazil, and corn starch in the US. However, growing

  5. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  6. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  7. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Slininger, Patricia J; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A; Thompson, Stephanie R; Dien, Bruce S; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment.

  8. The threat of running out of fossil fuels has increased demand for alternative fuel sources. Grain-based ethanol production is one such

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    The threat of running out of fossil fuels has increased demand for alternative fuel sources. Grain-based ethanol production is one such alternative fuel option, but it relies heavily on grains previously availability. With the growing legislative endorsement for alternative fuel sources, grain production

  9. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  10. Ethanol Production from Rice-Straw Hydrolysate Using Zymomonas Mobilis in a Continuous Fluidized-Bed Reactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    deJesus, D.; Nghiem, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Rice-straw hydrolysate obtained by the Arkenol's concentrated acid hydrolysis process was fermented to ethanol using a recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain capable of utilizing both glucose and xylose in a continuous fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). The parameters studied included biocatalyst stability with and without antibiotic, feed composition, and retention time. Xylose utilization in the presence of tetracycline remained stable for at least 17 days. This was a significant improvement over the old strain, Z. mobilis CP4 (pZB5), which started to lose xylose utilization capability after seven days. In the absence of tetracycline, the xylose utilization rate started to decrease almost immediately. With tetracycline in the feed for the first six days, stability of xylose utilization was maintained for four days after the antibiotic was removed from the feed. The xylose utilization rate started to decrease on day 11. In the presence of tetracycline using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 48 g/L glucose and 13 g/L xylose at a retention time of 4.5 h, 95% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion occurred. The ethanol concentration was 29 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed or 94% of the theoretical yield. Using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 83 g/L glucose and 28 g/L xylose, 92% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion were obtained. The ethanol concentration was 48 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.45 g/ g sugar consumed or 88% of the theoretical yield. Maximum productivity of 25.5 g/L-h was obtained at a retention time of 1.9 h. In this case, 84% xylose conversion was obtained.

  11. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  12. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Process Development and Design Studies· . · 9 1. Continuous Cellulase ProductionPROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN STUDIES Continuous Cellulase Production

  13. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

  14. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vicari, Kristin Jenise

    Abstract Background Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuels remains a major financial and technical challenge at the industrial scale. A critical tool in biofuels process development is the techno-economic ...

  15. The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    in British Columbia and the European Union. While the term `carbon intensity' is popular, it does not include Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (2008, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production

  16. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli strains co-expressing Zymomonas PDC and ADH genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Lincoln, NE); Alterthum, Flavio (Gainesville, FL)

    1991-01-01

    A novel operon and plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase activities of Zymomonas mobilis are described. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of microorganisms or eukaryotic cells and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of microorganisms or cells.

  17. Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 24.01.01.A1.11 Hazardous Chemical Waste Disposal Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas AgriLife Research Procedure 24.01.01.A1.11 Hazardous Chemical Waste Disposal Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Research Procedures 24.01.01.A1.11 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL Approved: November, 2012 PROCEDURE STATEMENT The disposal of hazardous chemicals is governed by local, state, and federal

  18. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    2007-09-17

    that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production...

  19. Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

  20. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  1. Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficients of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, Anthony Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Acidified milk samples were prepared with fat concentrations from 0 to 20% and solids-not-fat concentrations from 6 to 12%. The partition coefficients of acetaldehyde, ethanol, and diacetyl were determined in acidified samples at pH 4.4 and 4...

  2. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6

  3. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasolinemonthlysummer

  4. MFRE 516 (3) FINANCIAL AND MARKETING MANAGEMENT IN AGRI-FOOD INDUSTRIES Winter 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MFRE 516 (3) FINANCIAL AND MARKETING MANAGEMENT IN AGRI-FOOD INDUSTRIES Winter 2015 Instructor of financial and marketing management that are most relevant to agri-food and related firms. The content financial and market strategies. This will be accomplished through the presentation of management

  5. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  6. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  7. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

  8. Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

    1981-07-07

    Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

  9. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, Angela

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  10. U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended Consequences 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.; Soto, Maricio Cifuentes

    2012-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) mandated a steep rise in domestic ethanol production. The goals were to ease dependency on imported petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional...

  11. AgriKomp GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolar EnergyAerodynall Countriescapital GmbH Jump to:AgriKomp

  12. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  13. Ethanol Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6 Weekly 4-Week Average

  14. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  15. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  16. Emissions from ethanol and LPG fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the US Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the US for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the US, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing US interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural emissions from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG compared to other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but the only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat ethanol fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG fueled vehicles.

  17. Biofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    · E10 vs. E85 choice · Examined of corn-based ethanol fuel systems on the following: - environmentalBiofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol #12;Outline · Production processes for each;Definitions Biofuel: clean fuel made from animal and plant fats and tissues (Hollebone, 2008) Ethanol

  18. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  19. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  20. PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JAN. 31, 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    investigations of both batch and semicontinuous recycle operations,investigation, it was frequently observed that rapid cellulase production was obtained when continuous operation

  1. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    "The production of cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol is a significant part of America's energy future. This new facility, one of six commercial scale biorefineries to be...

  2. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and...

  3. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

  4. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.187 24 Fukuda, H. et al. (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by26 Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol.

  5. Appendix D: 2012 Cellulosic Ethanol Success, Bioenergy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    produce cellulosic ethanol at commercial-scale costs that are competitive with gasoline production at 110barrel of crude oil. Many industry partners are also demonstrating...

  6. Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    lead with ethanol using primarily their by-product molasses production include Zimbabwe, Kenya, Egypt proponents have typically focused on the benefits of ethanol in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, local

  7. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  8. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  9. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 31.01.04.X0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Page 1 of 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 31.01.04.X0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Page 1 of 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 31.01.04.X0.01 Longevity and Hazardous), excluding law enforcement officers eligible for hazardous duty pay under state law, is entitled to longevity

  10. Texas AgriLife Extension Service Procedure 24.01.01.X1.11 Hazardous Chemical Waste Disposal Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Extension Service Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas AgriLife Extension Service Procedure 24.01.01.X1.11 Hazardous Chemical Waste Disposal Page 1 of 2 Texas AgriLife Extension Service Procedures 24.01.01.X1.11 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL: December 9, 2012 PROCEDURE STATEMENT The disposal of hazardous chemicals is governed by local, state

  11. Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficents of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kai-Ping

    1991-01-01

    under different fat concentrations Page 81 A13 Partition coefficient (Kd) of diacetyl at 20 ppm in milk with 6% SNF at pH 4. 4 under different fat concentrations 82 A14 Partition coefficient (Kd) of diacetyl at 20 ppm in milk with 6% SNF at pH 4... increased significantly (P ( . 05) from 0 (1. 0 ppm) to 24 d (1. 4 ppm), while acetaldehyde production decreased from 0 (29. 9 ppm) to 24 d (22. 2 ppm) in yogurt products. Metabolism of volatile compounds by lactic starter culture microorganisms has been...

  12. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM DIFFERENT CARBON SOURCES USING ANAEROBICALLY DIGESTED AND WETOXIDISED MANURE AS NUTRIENT AND WATER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gasses, great interest has arisen in production of biofuels. The idea of combining biogas and bioethanol and water in industry is a rather expensive medium. The remaining liquid after the biogas process is waste to pollution of ground waters. Furthermore the biogas process does not kill all pathogens. Anaerobically

  13. Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 29.01.03.A0.01 Information Resource Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information resources security and management guidelines for all Texas A&M AgriLife Research (Agri of these procedures. The Director (or a designee, usually the Information Security Officer), Information Technology shall coordinate exceptions of security controls with the Information Security Officer. D. Determine

  14. EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN U.S. ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM CORN GRAIN, CORN STOVER, AND SWITCHGRASS ON WORLD AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AND TRADE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campiche, Jody L.

    2010-07-14

    The renewable energy industry continues to expand at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to reduce our dependency on foreign oil. The evolution of these new biofuel markets could have significant effects...

  15. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  16. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R. [USDA-ARS-SRRC, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sanders, T.H. [USDA-ARS-NCSU, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  17. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  18. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Aging/Gerontology program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regular news releases about current trends in aging and general information about the well being of older Extension office. Other Resources Extension Resource Library The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service maintains a library populated with resource materials on aging, health, and many other topics

  19. Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR®-labeled appliances save you money by using less electricity and water than other appliances. Better appliance energy efficiency comes from quality materials and technologically advanced materials. Although energy efficient

  20. Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

  1. Saving the soil: AgriLife units work to improve training terrain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Saving the soil AgriLife units work to improve training terrain Story by Melanie Orth txH2O | pg. 9 Heavy tanks and armored vehicles that have continually rolled over the 67,000-acre West Range at Fort Hood for the past 60 years have...

  2. EIS-0300: Minnesota Agri-Power Project: Biomass for Rural Development, Granite Falls, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE and the Minnesota Environmental Quality Boards' [MEQB, a Minnesota State agency] decision to support a proposal by the Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) to construct and operate a 75–103 megawatt biomass fueled gasifier and electric generating facility, known as the Minnesota Agri-Power Plant (MAPP), and associated transmission lines and alfalfa processing facilities.

  3. Social, Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Beneficial Management Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Social, Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Beneficial Management Practices) develop a methodology to conduct a social, economic and environmental outcome evaluation of BMPs adopted on BC farms; (2) evaluate the social, economic and environmental outcomes of four BMPs and; (3) make

  4. AG-906 (08/11) Texas A&M AgriLife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this exception: Cost prohibitive Underlying EIR technology platform not accessible Adequate skilled resourcesAG-906 (08/11) Texas A&M AgriLife Administrative Services ­ Information Technology Electronic application Electronic Document (PDF, MS Word, PPT, etc.) Multimedia or video content Information technology

  5. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  6. Role of water activity in ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.P.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    A separate role for water activity in the conversion of sugars to ethanol by two strains of yeast is identified. During fermentation of both single and mixed sugar substrates, the water activity was shown to remain constant during the logarithmic growth phase. This is despite the changes in concentration of substrates and production, the constancy reflecting the fact that the greater influence of ethanol on the solution activity is counterbalanced, in the early stages of the fermentation, by its low yield. The end of the log phase of growth coincides with the start of a period of gradually decreasing water activity. For the more ethanol-tolerant strain UQM66Y, growth was found to cease at a constant value of water activity while that for the less tolerant strain UQM70Y depended on both ethanol concentration and water activity. It is argued that water activity is a more appropriate variable than ethanol concentration for describing some of the nonspecific inhibitory effects apparent in ethanol fermentations. A straightforward method for the calculation of water activity during such fermentations based on the use of solution osmolarity is presented.

  7. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles.

  8. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  9. Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    , transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

  10. Comparison of human resource management practices and perceptions of agri-business employees across three indonesian subcultures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Mark Christopher

    2009-05-15

    was then administered to personnel of 8 agri-businesses of similar size located in three geographical regions of Indonesian including West Java, Bali, and Northern Sulawesi. These regions represent the central locales of three of Indonesia?s prominent.... Delimitations This study was designed to measure agri-business employees? perceptions of human resource management practices in three Indonesian regions- Western Java, Bali, and Northern Sulawesi. The data collected in this study may not be generalizable...

  11. Ethanol Fuels Incentives Applied in the U.S.: Reviewed from California's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-01-01

    This report describes measures employed by state governments and by the federal government to advance the production and use of ethanol fuel in the United States. The future of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel poses a number of increasingly-important issues and decisions for California government, as the state becomes a larger consumer, and potentially a larger producer, of ethanol.

  12. ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline FOR ETHANOL CONCENTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. THE DEMAND FOR ETHANOL USED IN U.S. REGIONAL OXYGENATE- LIMITED GASOLINE PRODUCTON IN YEAR 2006

  13. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-02-20

    Despite the challenges to profitability the ethanol industry continues to expand. Total ethanol production for 2007 is estimated at nearly 6.5 billion gallons, 33 percent more than 2006. This study estimates the contribution of the ethanol industry to the American economy in 2007.

  14. Candida albicans Ethanol Stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-Controlled Biofilm Formation as Part of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Lars

    Candida albicans Ethanol Stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-Controlled Biofilm Formation formation and phenazine production were strongly influenced by ethanol produced by the fungus C. albicans. Ethanol stimulated phenotypes that are indicative of increased levels of cyclic- di-GMP (c

  15. In Sweden, as in many other coun-tries Ethanol is the most wide-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to gasoline and diesel. Sweden has more than 400 busses running on neat ethanol, about 4000 Ford FFV running and technology. BIOENERGY COMBINES Regional energy companies are the most committed stakeholders in ethanol PLANT To develop the technology for ethanol production from wood residues, some regional companies, five

  16. Production Planning with Uncertain Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Production Planning with Uncertain Power Supply Lehigh University Pietro Belotti C¸ agri Latifoglu Fay Li Larry Snyder Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Jim Hutton Peter Connard March 10, 2010 ­ EWO Meeting Carnegie Mellon University #12;Setting Two plants, two products Each has an inventory with given

  17. Biotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    , it actually assists with waste processing, vitamin K production and food absorption. The same principleBiotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin Doing something about global warming that this process creates large quantities of waste glycerin, that was so far impossible to put to good use

  18. Combating soil erosion: AgriLife scientist discovering what works for Fort Hood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    of this partnership, Dr. Dennis Hoffman, senior research scientist, and other researchers at Texas AgriLife Research Blackland Research and Extension Center began monitoring water quality. They measured nutrient and sediment losses across many of Fort Hood?s... watersheds. As a result of the monitoring NRCS and ITAM put in more than 30 sediment retention ponds to trap sediment contained in stormwater runoff. ?We then began to monitor watersheds to estimate sediment trapping as a result of the ponds,? Hoffman...

  19. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol production in place * U.S. 13.4 billion galsyear mostly from corn starch * Brazil 6.3 billion galsyear from cane sugar * Rest of world 2.8 billion galsyear *...

  20. EERE SBIR Case Study: Improving Hybrid Poplars as a Renewable Source of Ethanol Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreenWood Resources saw potential in growing poplar trees—remarkable for their sheer biomass productivity—to make ethanol.

  1. PREDICTING AGRI-COMMODITY PRICES: AN ASSET PRICING APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    movements is crucial for ination control and production planning. It is especially relevant to developing reading of future food price movements can be an invaluable budgetary planning tool for various government heavily on commodity productions for growth and export, governments often distribute foodgrains

  2. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  3. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  4. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  5. A coherent agri-energy policy to foster social inclusion for peasant families: the role of Petrobras on the Joo Cmara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A coherent agri-energy policy to foster social inclusion for peasant families: the role 63 53 81 Fax : 04 76 54 60 68 halshs-00534811,version1-10Nov2010 #12;A coherent agri-energy policy (Grenoble, France) and at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil. Email address : Claudia

  6. Assessing Impact of Biofuel Production on Regional Water Resource...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Achieving Water-Sustainable Bioenergy Production Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006...

  7. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  8. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  9. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01

    Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth EthanolEthanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

  10. Closure for Production Planning under Power Uncertainty Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Closure for Production Planning under Power Uncertainty Project Lehigh University Pietro Belotti C the power is recovered Production occurs at reduced rate The New Uncertainty Set Requires more binary¸ agri Latifoglu Fay Li Larry Snyder Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Jim Hutton Peter Connard September

  11. An Analysis of the Effects of Government Subsidies and the Renewable Fuels Standard on the Fuel Ethanol Industry: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    Ethanol Industry: A Structural Econometric Model By Fujin Yi, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Karen Thome This paper ethanol industry. Analyses that ignore the dynamic implications of these policies, including their effects on incumbent ethanol firms' investment, production, and exit decisions and on potential entrants' entry

  12. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  13. Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasch, Audrey P. (Madison, WI); Lewis, Jeffrey A. (Madison, WI)

    2012-05-15

    The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

  14. Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

  15. Ethanol Tolerant Yeast for Improved Production of Ethanol from Biomass -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy ServicesEnergy4thwritesOfficeEstimation ofEnergy

  16. Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyness, E.; Doelle, H.W.

    1981-07-01

    General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate at high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. The metabolic quotients for sucrose utilization, qs, and ethanol production, qp (g/g.hr), are unsuitable for describing sucrose utilization by Zymomonas mobilis as the logarithmic phase of growth precedes the phase of highest substrate utilization (g/liter.hr) and ethanol production (g/liter.hr) in batch culture. (Refs. 10).

  17. Designing Water Smart Landscapes 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Designing Water Smart Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designing Water Smart Landscapes 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Designing Water Smart with concepts like Xeriscape LandscapingTM and Water Smart landscapes. These concepts can save as much as 50, region-specific yards that anyone would be proud to call their own. Water-smart landscapes are not rock

  18. AGRY 598/FNR 598 Ecological Footprints, Spring 2010 Pfendler 203, TTh, 1:30 -2:45 pm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott A.

    that residents of Tippecanoe County can use to quantify their stormwater footprint, carbon footprint and backyard this tool. Students will learn how to: o Quantify a stormwater footprint o Quantify a carbon footprint o1/5 Syllabus AGRY 598/FNR 598 Ecological Footprints, Spring 2010 Pfendler 203, TTh, 1:30 - 2:45 pm

  19. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service is a nationally recognized nutrition education program funded by USDA's National Institute of Food.S. · Research suggests that people who are most food insecure are at greater risk for poor health and obesity

  20. The Passenger Safety Project at the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service works to reduce deaths and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    killed and 462 were injured every day in the United States in motor vehicle crashes during 2012 have a higher crash incidence and death rate than urban areas. Response The Passenger Safety ProjectThe Passenger Safety Project at the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service works to reduce deaths

  1. Come and Walk Across Texas! with us. The Texas AgriLife Extension Service and the Texas Education Agency are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Come and Walk Across Texas! with us. The Texas AgriLife Extension Service and the Texas Education Agency are partnering to Walk Across Texas! Walk Across Texas! is a great way to promote physical for people who work at all levels of Texas' school systems. Senate Bill 891 requires all public school

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

  3. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 21, 2015 - 10:35am Addthis An error occurred. Try...

  4. Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium...

  5. Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership October 2, 2015 - 11:28am Addthis An error occurred. Try...

  6. Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremy C. (Jeremy Clayton)

    2006-01-01

    A methodology is presented for assessing the current and future utilization of agricultural crops as feedstocks for the production of transportation fuels, specifically, the use of corn grain and stover for ethanol production. ...

  7. A Study of the Effectiveness of Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service's Program Excellence Academy for New Employees 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelm, Donald W.

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of the study was to determine if Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service’s Program Excellence Academy for new employees increased the knowledge and changed the behavior of new employees related to program development. ...

  8. Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene in a Stratified Autothermal Millisecond Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, MJ; Michor, EL; Fan, W; Tsapatsis, M; Bhan, A; Schmidt, LD

    2011-08-10

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions.

  9. 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

  10. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  11. In-situ measurement of ethanol tolerance in an operating fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    In-situ measurement of ethanol tolerance in an operating fuel cell Matt S. Naughton a , Claire E online xxx Keywords: Alkaline fuel cell Gas diffusion electrodes Ag cathode Electrode characterization for direct ethanol fuel cells and as a source for on-demand production of hydrogen in portable applications

  12. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle Midwest fields, waiting to rot or be processed into ethanol. Interestingly, the National Corn Growers

  13. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shihui; Pan, Chongle; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Engle, Nancy L; Zhou, Wen; Dam, Phuongan; Xu, Ying; Dice, Lezlee T; Davison, Brian H; Brown, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanogenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high level of ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol stress response have not been elucidated fully. In this study, ethanol stress responses were investigated using systems biology tools. Medium supplementation with an initial 47.3 g/L (6% v/v) ethanol reduced Z. mobilis ZM4 glucose consumption, growth rate and ethanol productivity compared to that of untreated controls. Metabolomic profiling showed that ethanol-treated ZM4 cells accumulated greater amounts of glycerol during the entire fermentation process, which may indicate an important role for this metabolite. A proteomic analysis of early exponential growth identified about one thousand proteins, or approximately 56% of the predicted ZM4 proteome. Proteins related to metabolism and stress response such as chaperones and key regulators were more abundant in the early ethanol stress condition. Transcriptomic studies indicated the response of ZM4 to ethanol is dynamic, complex and involves many genes from all the different functional categories. There were fewer genes significantly differentially expressed in the exponential phase compared to that of stationary phase and early stationary phase. Most down-regulated genes were related to translation and ribosome biogenesis, while the ethanol-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes and metabolism. Correlations among the transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolism were examined and among significantly expressed genes or proteins, we observe higher correlation coefficients when fold-change values are higher. This systems biology study elucidates key Z. mobilis ZM4 metabolites, genes and proteins that form the foundation of its distinctive physiology and its multifaceted response to ethanol stress.

  14. Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Because of the magnitude of the existing corn harvest shortfall coupled with the large ethanol mandates, policymakers face extreme uncertainties looking into the future with potentially large economic ramifications. Precisely, because neither...

  15. 23 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , for cellulosic biofuel produced through 2015. The $1.00 per gallon tax credit for biodiesel and renewable diesel for small agri-biodiesel producers. In addition, the $1.00 per gallon tax credit for diesel fuel created of the production tax credit. The credit applies to several types of renewable energy projects, including wind

  16. Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Weifeng Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

    2013-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-?B expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-?B expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

  17. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-01-01

    TS, Steen E, Keasling JD: Biofuel Alternatives to ethanol:in engineering microbes for biofuel production Aindrila

  18. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2008-10-10

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  19. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to...

  20. Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

    2009-05-15

    This research is aimed at assessing the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required...

  1. Yeast for Ethanol and Carotenoid Productions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Clint

    2015-05-07

    3.3 Primers and Plasmids ..................................................................................... 14 3.4 Mating ............................................................................................................ 19 3... .............................................................................43 viii LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Strains ............................................................................................................... 11 2 Primer Sequences for Cloning and Verification...

  2. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Iowa Ethanol Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  3. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENT OFBarriers to IndustrialStacksDepartment of Energy

  4. Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWest KentuckyRestorationThat SaveRM ExitEnergyDraft

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageBlender Pump Dispensers toStation Locations to someone

  6. Fuel ethanol produced from U.S. Midwest corn : help or hindrance to the vision of Kyoto?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Wu, M.; Energy Systems

    1999-07-01

    In this study, we examined the role of corn-feedstock ethanol in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, given present and near-future technology and practice for corn farming and ethanol production. We analyzed the full-fuel-cycle GHG effects of corn-based ethanol using updated information on corn operations in the upper Midwest and existing ethanol production technologies. Information was obtained from representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, faculty of midwestern universities with expertise in corn production and animal feed, and acknowledged authorities in the field of ethanol plant engineering, design, and operations. Cases examined included use of E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) and E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Among key findings is that Midwest-produced ethanol outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG emissions (on a mass emission per travel mile basis). The superiority of the energy and GHG results is well outside the range of model noise. An important facet of this work has been conducting sensitivity analyses. These analyses let us rank the factors in the corn-to-ethanol cycle that are most important for limiting GHG generation. These rankings could help ensure that efforts to reduce that generation are targeted more effectively.

  7. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  8. Ethanol's Effect on Grain Supply and Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides graphical information about ethanol's effect on grain supply and prices, uses of corn, and grain price trends.

  9. U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional gasoline was to cost- tive, the current blend of E10 (or 10% ethanol) gasoline offers pros and cons. The btu efficiency of a gallon of ethanol is about 40% less than a gallon of conventional gasoline. So, an E10 blend requires 4

  10. Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

  11. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  12. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  13. Ethanol annual report FY 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Bioenergy Impacts Â… Cellulosic Ethanol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make Fuels andfor its cellulosic ethanol

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg Find More places toEthanol Printable Version Share

  16. Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Approved Procedures 31.01.04.A0.01 Longevity and Hazardous Duty Pay Page 1 of 1 PROCEDURE STATEMENT Each regular officers eligible for hazardous duty pay under state law, is entitled to longevity pay as outlined

  17. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhăo, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  18. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowal, A.; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N; Liu, P; Frenkel, A; Adzic, R

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts1, 2. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO2/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO2, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  19. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Kowal, A.; Li, M.; Shao, M.; Sasaki, K.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Zhang, J.; Marinkovic, N.S. Liu, P.; Frenkel, A.I.

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO{sub 2}/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO{sub 2}, which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  20. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  1. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  2. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  3. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1 INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

  4. Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

  5. Assessing deployment strategies for ethanol and flex fuel vehicles in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAulay, Jeffrey L. (Jeffrey Lewis)

    2009-01-01

    Within the next 3-7 years the US light duty fleet and fuel supply will encounter what is commonly referred to as the "blend wall". This phenomenon describes the situation when more ethanol production has been mandated than ...

  6. An analysis of producing ethanol and electric power from woody residues and agricultural crops in East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismayilova, Rubaba Mammad

    2007-09-17

    ethanol production. The results were integrated into a comprehensive set of information that addresses the effects of biomass energy development in the region. The analysis indicates that none of the counties in East Texas have sufficient biomass...

  7. The Future of Corn-Ethanol in Fuel Sector of United States from Environmental and Economic Standpoint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tulva, Arya Nath

    2007-12-14

    The U.S. ethanol industry grew from practically zero production in the late 1970’s to over 1 billion gallons in 1994, spurred by national energy security concerns, new Federal gasoline standards, and government incentives. In 2006, approximately 4...

  8. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    global atmospheric budget of ethanol V. Naik 1,2,* , A. M.nitrate formation from ethanol-fueled ve- hicular emissions,A. : Ambient concentrations of ethanol and methyl tert-butyl

  9. Effects of ethanol and reactive species on Hepatitis C virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seronello, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Barlow, M. ; Choi, J. (2010) Ethanol and both endogenous andT. , and Choi, J. (2010) Ethanol enhances hepatitis C virusthe levels of NADH like ethanol but generates acetone

  10. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  11. Diversified Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOE GTP)DisplacementTudorOpen EnergyPage EditEthanol

  12. Orion Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg, Oregon:OGEProjects/DefinitionsOrchidx AmericaOrion Ethanol

  13. Ethanol Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA Jump to:EnergyEthanol Ventures Place: London,

  14. Dakota Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments Inc Jump to:67-2006-12DabbrookAssociation Jump to:Ethanol

  15. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends" by the US Department of Energy ( US DOE).1,2 The dominant ethanol/gasoline blends in the United States are up to 10% ethanol (E10) and up to 83% ethanol (E85). More

  16. Page 1 of 2 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion

  17. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  18. Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

  19. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Robert E.

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  20. Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Opening Plenary Session: Celebrating Successes-The...

  1. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

  2. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol...

  3. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

  4. Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

  5. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  6. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol...

  7. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  8. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  9. Fermentation pattern of sucrose to ethanol conversions by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyness, Ed.; Doelle, H.W.

    1981-07-01

    General patterns of sucrose fermentation by two strains of Zymomonas mobilis, designated Z7 and Z10, were established using sucrose concentrations from 50 to 200 g/liter. Strain Z7 showed a higher invertase activity than Z10. Strain Z10 showed a reduced specific growth rate a high sucrose concentrations while Z7 was unaffected. High sucrose hydrolyzing activity in strain Z7 lead to glucose accumulation in the medium at high sucrose concentrations. Ethanol production and fermentation time depend on the rate of catabolism of the products of sucrose hydrolysis, glucose and fructose. 10 refs.

  10. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

  11. Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

  12. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  13. Ethanol Pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    A paper discussing the various ethanol pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

  14. Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Nigel

    Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila Roshani B. Cowmeadow, Harish R in the ethanol response. Caenorhabditis elegans carrying mutations in this gene have altered ethanol sensitivity and Drosophila mutant for this gene are unable to acquire rapid tolerance to ethanol or anesthetics

  15. Three Essays on Bioenergy Production in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-12-02

    . ............................................................................. 20 8. Projected ethanol price and cost of satisfying cellulosic mandate per gallon (Annual Energy Outlook gasoline price projection is for Free On Board (F.O.B.) rack gasoline price... ethanol more cost-effective. Furthermore, several companies (e.g. BP, Coskata, DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, Range Fuels, Poet) have been considering cellulosic ethanol production (EPA 2009). , So far, none of them has achieved lignocellulosic...

  16. Integrating Food Production and Biodiversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with food, and NPK fluxes at farm level. The biofuels were crude rapeseed oil, horse draft, ethanol from a combination of a workhorse and a crude rapeseed oil-fuelled tractor. Ethanol from wheat had the largest impactIntegrating Food Production and Biodiversity Energy and Scale Issues in Implementation Kristina

  17. Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

  18. QER- Comment of ND Ethanol Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To whom it may concern, Attached please find comments from the North Dakota Ethanol Council regarding infrastructure constraints in preparation for the OER Public Meeting, which will be held in Bismarck, N.D., on August 8. Sincerely, Deana Wies

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  20. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  1. Length of Stay Following Trauma is not Affected by Ethnicity When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangum, Craig; LoVecchio, Frank; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication Craig Mangum, MD;properly controlled for ethanol and drug intoxication. Wepatients, controlling for ethanol intoxication. Methods:

  2. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    stimulation reward: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Resstimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Expthe "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

  3. Texas AgriLife Research with General Atomics Pilots Microalgae Ponds in Pecos BIOENERGY PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    production goal would be 5,000 gallons per acre, and researchers are evaluating hybrid systems that could tied to coal-fired power plants, which could use carbon dioxide emissions and waste heat for algae the raceways, and pumps move the water from one pond to another. A laboratory supports the production facility

  4. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlop, Mary J.; Keasling, Jay D.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2010-01-01

    Steen E, Keasling JD (2008) Biofuel alternatives to ethanol:gene expression. Microbial biofuel production is one areaet al. 2008). Typical biofuel production processes start

  5. The in vitro characterization of heterologously expressed enzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, David Ernest

    2013-01-01

    enzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization Byenzymes to inform in vivo biofuel production optimization byE & Keasling JD (2008) Biofuel alternatives to ethanol:

  6. Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-291

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  7. Natural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    and natural environment and contribute to water pollution and air pollution. Increasing the cost of food production and use con- tributes to air pollution and global warming (Sparks 1 College of Agriculture.S. corn is not a renewable energy source. KEY WORDS: Ethanol; costs; environment; food; pollution

  8. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to significantly alter the mixture of fermentation products. The initial application of this system successfully engineered a strain with high ethanol productivity from complex biomass substrates.

  9. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A Joint Research Agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, John; Weatherwax, Sharlene; Ferrell, John

    2006-06-07

    The Biomass to Biofuels Workshop, held December 7–9, 2005, was convened by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science; and the Office of the Biomass Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The purpose was to define barriers and challenges to a rapid expansion of cellulosic-ethanol production and determine ways to speed solutions through concerted application of modern biology tools as part of a joint research agenda. Although the focus was ethanol, the science applies to additional fuels that include biodiesel and other bioproducts or coproducts having critical roles in any deployment scheme.

  10. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  11. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, genetic information or veteran status. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without of the author. 1st edition, January 2009 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M System Family ....................................................................................................................... 7 SECTION 1: Resource Support for Worksite Wellness Programs

  12. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  13. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed...

  14. Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

  15. High ethanol sensitivity of Palladium/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures dominated by enlarged surface area and nano-Schottky junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    High ethanol sensitivity of Palladium/TiO2 nanobelt surface heterostructures dominated by enlarged [1­3], lithium-ion batteries [4,5], chemical and bio-sensors [6,7], hydrogen production and storage

  16. Effects of Age on Pavlovian Autoshaping of Ethanol Drinking in Non-Deprived Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomie, Arthur; Mohamed, Walaa M.; Pohorecky, Larissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Differential effects of ethanol on motor coordination into the motor-impairing effects of ethanol (Silveri & Spear,the present study. Ethanol’s effects on motor impairment are

  17. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  18. Feasibility study for a 10 MM GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume II. Geothermal resource, agricultural feedstock, markets and economic viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The issues of the geothermal resource at Brady's Hot Springs are dealt with: the prospective supply of feedstocks to the ethanol plant, the markets for the spent grain by-products of the plant, the storage, handling and transshipment requirements for the feedstocks and by-products from a rail siding facility at Fernley, the probable market for fuel ethanol in the region, and an assessment of the economic viability of the entire undertaking.

  19. Ethanol from biomass: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, R.

    1996-12-31

    Programmatic and technical activities of SWAN Biomass, a company formed by Amoco Corporation and Stone & Webster, to convert non-grain biomass material to ethanol, are highlighted in this presentation. The potential ethanol markets identified are: (1) fuel oxygenate and octane additive, and (2) waste reduction in the agricultural and forestry industries and in municipal waste streams. Differences in the SWAN process from that used in corn-based ethanol facilities include more intense pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, different enzymes, hydrolysis and fermentation of sugar polymers is performed in the same vessel, and a typical solid residue of lignin. The major market and technical risks have been assessed as being manageable. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethanol and Acetone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Ding, B.; Dong, S.

    2006-01-01

    In-situ transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone, ethanol and the interaction between acetone and ethanol. Compared with the degradation of acetone alone, it cannot...

  1. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01

    all but one energy source: petroleum – We use more petroleumMetrics for Ethanol Petroleum in/Energy out Fossil energyMetrics for Ethanol Petroleum in/Energy out Fossil energy

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanol Benefits andFuelingEthanol

  3. Home sweet home: Texas A&M AgriLife opens the first WaterSense-labeled house in Dallas-Fort Worth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    2013 Story by Leslie Lee Photo by Leslie Lee, Texas Water Resources Institute. Home sweet home Texas A&M AgriLife opens the ?rst WaterSense-labeled house in Dallas-Fort Worth On any given evening in the ????s, a?er a long day of working...-foot ?oor plan, the ??-year-old home wouldn?t have looked like much of an a?raction. But today, a?er a water-minded renovation of the once-abandoned house, the thousands of visitors who have toured it this year would probably disagree. ?e ???? version...

  4. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. ethanol vehicle and infrastructure projects.

  5. Renewable Fuels Association’s National Ethanol Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Elless, a BETO technology manager, will be representing BETO at the 20th anniversary of the National Ethanol Conference.

  6. Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbur, D.

    1998-05-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.

  7. EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

  8. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals Alexander E. Farrell,1 * Richard J. Plevin the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol studies indicated that current corn ethanol technologies are much less petroleum-intensive than gasoline

  9. What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol Charles E. Wyman Chemical of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506, USA Ethanol made biologically from cellulosic ethanol; however, government policies are needed to overcome the per- ceived risk of first applications

  10. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol intracellular cAMP levels in the brain. However, the role of PDE4 in ethanol consumption remains unknown

  11. The Real Corn-Ethanol Transportation Tad W. Patzek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    The Real Corn-Ethanol Transportation System Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil and Environmental of ethanol in the US is essentially equal to the unleaded gasoline prices in Europe research, mass transit systems, highway upgrades, etc. Corn and ethanol subsidies in the US channel money

  12. Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Larry, E.

    2007-04-30

    The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with much progress. However, the current state of biological technology is not deemed to be ready commercially. A preliminary estimate of capital and operating costs of a 12000 gallon per day gasification/biological facility was developed for comparison purposes. In addition, during the biological organism screening and testing, some possible alternative products were identified. One such possibility is the biological production of bio-diesel. Additional research is necessary for further evaluation of all of the biological concepts.

  13. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  14. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  15. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

  16. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  17. NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

  18. Assessment of the Electrohol process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol electrogeneratively. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevino, A.A.

    1985-04-10

    Preliminary process economics data for the electrogenerative process to manufacture acetaldehyde from ethanol were generated based on patent information. The technology was assessed in four alternative processing options. The Electrohol process is viable in the US only if integrated to the production of 190 pf ethanol from corn in a large scale unit. To be competitive, the Electrohol process must show yields in excess of 93%. Its attractiveness depends on corn prices remaining under $2.90/bu and DDG selling for more than $132/T. A corn price of $2.00/bu is needed to make a farm-size corn-based processing alternative competitive. A plant based on the fermentation of molasses proved too expensive under the US economic assumptions. The Electrohol technology based on purchased ethanol cannot compete with the existing ethylene-based process under current conditions. To become attractive, the Electrohol process must have access to cheap ethanol ($1.43/gal). The zero electricity generation mode is the most attractive mode of operation for the Electrohol technology in the US. The penalty for low levels of generation (0.130 kwh/kg AcH) is, however, negligible. The optimum operating mode in W. Europe is the generation of 0.312 kwh/kg AcH. In Japan, the low generation level is perferred (0.130 kwh/kg AcH). In general, higher energy prices improve the competitiveness of the Electrohol processing alternatives.

  19. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for ���°Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  20. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Pimphan A.; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi to identify promising opportunities, and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, filamentous fungi are applied in multi-organism and consolidated process configurations. Organism performance and technology readiness are categorized as near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years), and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. The results of the analysis suggest that the opportunity for fungal fermentation exists for lignocellulosic ethanol production.

  2. Analogies between the cracking noise of ethanol-damped charcoal and earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro, H V; Alves, L G A; Santoro, P A; Picoli, S; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S

    2015-01-01

    We report on an extensive characterization of the cracking noise produced by charcoal samples when damped with ethanol. We argue that the evaporation of ethanol causes transient and irregularly distributed internal stresses that promotes the fragmentation of samples and mimic some situations found in mining process. The results show that, in general, the most fundamental seismic laws ruling earthquakes (Gutenberg-Richter law, unified scaling law for the recurrence times, Omori's law, productivity law and Bath's law) hold under the conditions of the experiment. Some discrepancies were also identified (a smaller exponent in Gutenberg-Richter law, a stationary behavior in the aftershocks rates for long times and a double power-law relationship in productivity law) and related to the different loading condition. Our results thus corroborate to elucidate the parallel between seismic laws and fracture experiments caused by a more complex loading condition that also occurs in natural and induced seismicity (such as ...

  3. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

    2003-09-11

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

  4. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanol Benefits and

  6. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  7. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  8. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  9. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore »its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  10. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (?hads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  11. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  12. Energy, water and process technologies integration for the simultaneous production of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    the yields, reduce the consumption of utilities in the production process, while using a raw material1 Energy, water and process technologies integration for the simultaneous production of ethanol only 18 MW of energy, 51 MW of cooling and 2 gal/gal of freshwater, for an ethanol production cost of 1

  13. Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-09-22

    A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

  14. DOE Selects Five Ethanol Conversion Projects for $23 Million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of 35 billion gallons of ethanol a year by 2017. Funding for these projects, an integral part of the President's Biofuels Initiative, will enable biorefineries to produce...

  15. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01

    What is Holding Back Cellulosic Ethanol? • Capital costs arehigh • The cost of capital is high – particularly for newCost Elements Biomass Feedstock Feed Handling Capital

  16. Effects of ethanol and reactive species on Hepatitis C virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seronello, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    the mutation rate of hepatitis C virus RNA. Manuscript inreactive oxygen species during hepatitis C virus infection.2010) Ethanol enhances hepatitis C virus replication through

  17. An Environmental and Policy Evaluation of Cellulosic Ethanol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurtado, Lisa Diane

    2012-07-16

    of energy crops. A new policy is proposed to support the sustainable, environmentally responsible development of cellulosic ethanol in the US....

  18. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI and European certified lean-burn GDI vehicles operating on ethanol blends

  19. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process...

  20. Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel engines Anil Singh Bika, Luke Franklin, Prof. David B. Kittelson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) · A good diesel fuel has a low ignition delay period and hence a high CN · Ethanol has

  1. Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etges, William J.

    Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism IN CACTOPHILIC DROSOPHILA: THE EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ADULT ETHANOL METABOLISM WILLIAMJ. ETGES~ Department of volatile com- pounds, particularly ethanol, than Opuntia or other Sonoran Desert columnar cacti, because

  2. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  3. Comparative analysis of hospital and forensic laboratory ethanol concentrations: A 15 month investigation of antemortem specimens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitman, A; Estrada, J; Fitzgerald, RL; McIntyre, IM

    2015-01-01

    evident at lower blood ethanol concentrations and provideAW. Interpreting results of ethanol analysis in postmortemA. Fast quanti?cation of ethanol in whole blood specimens by

  4. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-12-15

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  5. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glassner, David A. (4454 Satinwood Rd., Okemos, MI 48864); Jain, Mahendra K. (3950 Jonquil La., Okemos, MI 48864); Datta, Rathin (442 W. Melrose Ave., #3, Chicago, IL 60657)

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  6. Genetic alteration of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skotnicki, M.L.; Lee, K.J.; Tribe, D.E.; Rogers, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Strain improvement by mutagenesis with UV resulted in Zymomonas mobilis strains which were highly EtOH and temperature tolerant and which were able to produce more than 100 g EtOH /h at EtOH concentrations of 80-90 g/L. Genetic engineering has the potential of producing strains with the ability to ferment starch and cellulose directly to EtOH.

  7. Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students will have the opportunity to investigate alternative catalysts for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide, which will be used as a model system for the breaking down of cellulose into sugar. After identifying other potential catalysts, students will develop their own research question about catalysts and conduct an additional experiment of their own design to investigate their question.

  8. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  9. Crop Production Variability and U.S. Ethanol Mandates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Jason P.

    2014-07-08

    . Second, the short-run economic impact of RFS relaxation alternatives is investigated using an optimization modeling framework where crop mix and livestock breeding herds are held fixed. Third, the long-run implications of RFS relaxation are investigated...

  10. More Efficient Ethanol Production from Mixed Sugars Using Spathaspora Yeast

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStress New WebpageJune0relocationJuly 1,- Energy

  11. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz -Technologies forBig

  12. U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat's NewBarrels, Except Where Noted)U.S.

  13. Pilot Scale Integrated Biorefinery for Producing Ethanol from Hybrid Algae: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-389

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, P. T.

    2013-11-01

    This collaboration between Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will provide valuable information regarding Direct to Ethanol technology. Specifically, the cooperative R&D will analyze the use of flue gas from industrial sources in the Direct to Ethanol process, which may demonstrate the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously producing a valuable product, i.e., ethanol. Additionally, Algenol Biofuels Inc. and NREL will develop both a techno-economic model with full material and energy balances and an updated life-cycle analysis to identify greenhouse gas emissions relative to gasoline, each of which will provide a better understanding of the Direct to Ethanol process and further demonstrate that it is a breakthrough technology with varied and significant benefits.

  14. Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

  15. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  16. NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milinkovic, M

    2012-01-01

    Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

  17. Great Valley Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia:Oregon: EnergyGreat Basin GeothermalValley Ethanol

  18. Didion Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsArea (DOE GTP) Jump to:SouthBar,eĂłlicoDidion Ethanol LLC

  19. Michigan Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO is developedShores,Ethanol LLC Jump to:

  20. Millennium Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPROLLC JumpEthanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search

  1. Kaapa Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills,New York:Just Hot ResourcesEnergyKaapa Ethanol LLC

  2. North Country Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNew Hampshire: EnergyReservoirBrookfield,CapeCastle,Country Ethanol

  3. Northern Lights Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNew Hampshire:sourceNortheast Aitkin,SHRM WindLights Ethanol LLC

  4. East Coast Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetek EuropeEPG| OpenEXLEasleyEthanol Jump

  5. Cardinal Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon TradeEthanol LLC Jump

  6. Missouri Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation,Mereg GmbH JumpLLC JumpMissouri Ethanol LLC Place:

  7. Ethanol Management Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA Jump to:Energy TechLtdaEstelarIllinoisEthanol

  8. Horizon Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimen RiverScoring Tool Jump to:Ethanol LLC Jump to:

  9. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbH Jump to: navigation,Show Me Ethanol LLC Jump to:

  10. Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -TelephoneInformation AlgerAlgodyne Ethanol

  11. BlueFire Ethanol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-GasIllinois: EnergyHills, Connecticut:NgBlueFire Ethanol Jump

  12. Central Indiana Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo EnergyOhio: EnergyFalls,Indiana Ethanol

  13. Ethanol Capital Funding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion Flume Jump to:Ethanol Capital Funding Jump

  14. Ethanol Capital Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion Flume Jump to:Ethanol Capital Funding

  15. Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:onItronKanosh Town Corporation (UtilityEthanol LLC Jump to:

  16. Brazil Ethanol Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac BiomassInformationSystemsBradfieldBravo WindEthanol

  17. Prairie Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, BluePoulsen Hybrid, LLCBiofuelsEthanol LLC Jump to:

  18. BlueFire Ethanol | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBio Centers AnnouncementandBlog BlogBlueFire Ethanol

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsas aEthanol Benefits andFueling Stations

  20. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  1. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Priyank

    2007-01-01

    of formaldehyde pyrolysis”, Proceedings of Combustionmodeling of ethanol pyrolysis and combustion”, Journal deG.I. , “High-temperature pyrolysis of ethanol”, Soviet

  2. Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the toxicity of methamphetamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

    2010-01-01

    C.F. , Chen, C. , 2002. Melatonin in concentrated ethanoland ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminewine polyphenol, attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress

  3. Key Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Key Benefits in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER...

  4. Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the neurotoxicity of methamphetamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondy, SC; Ali, SF

    2010-01-01

    C.F. , Chen, C. , 2002. Melatonin in concentrated ethanoland ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminewine polyphenol, attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress

  5. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  6. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

  7. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI...

  8. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Presentation given at the...

  9. Direct and correlated responses to selection for larval ethanol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fry, James D.

    heterogeneity; phenotypic plasticity; polymorphism; trade-offs. Abstract Ethanol is an important larval resource and toxin for natural Drosophila melanogaster populations, and ethanol tolerance is genetically variable

  10. Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil Sustainability & Renewability 28 1 Introduction 28 2 Disclaimer 28 #12;ii Thermodynamics of corn-ethanol biofuel. . . Web Version 3 Preliminaries 29 4 Laws of Thermodynamics 29 5 Thermodynamics and Economics 31 6

  11. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  12. Low-temperature aqueous-phase reforming of ethanol on bimetallic PdZn catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Haifeng; DelaRiva, Andrew; Wang, Yong; Dayte, Abhaya

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic PdZn catalysts supported on carbon black (CB) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to be selective for CO-free H-2 production from ethanol at low temperature (250 degrees C). On Pd, the H-2 yield was low (similar to 0.3 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and the CH4/CO2 ratio was high (similar to 1.7). Addition of Zn to Pd formed the intermetallic PdZn beta phase (atomic ratio of Zn to Pd is 1) with increased H-2 yield (similar to 1.9 mol H-2/mol ethanol reacted) and CH4/CO2 ratio of <1. The higher H-2 yield and low CH4 formation was related to the improved dehydrogenation activity of the L1(0) PdZn beta phase. The TOF increased with particle size and the CNTs provided the most active and selective catalysts, which may be ascribed to pore-confinement effects. Furthermore, no significant changes in either the supports or the PdZn beta particles was found after aqueous-phase reforming (APR) indicating that the metal nanoparticles and the carbon support are hydrothermally stable in the aqueous phase at elevated temperatures and pressures (>200 degrees C, 65 bar). No CO was detected for all the catalysts performed in aqueous-phase reaction, indicating that both monometallic Pd and bimetallic PdZn catalysts have high water-gas shift activity during APR. However, the yield of H-2 is considerably lower than the theoretical value of 6 H-2 per mole ethanol which is due to the presence of oxygenated products and methane on the PdZn catalysts.

  13. Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -source simulations imply that high-ethanol blends (e.g., E85) pose a lower risk of benzene reaching a receptor via gasoline, 15 years for E10, 9 years for E50, and 3 years for E85), indicating greater natural attenuationModeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels

  14. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  15. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  16. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Sun, Junming; Smith, Colin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-02

    ZnxZryOz mixed oxides were studied for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Reaction conditions (temperature, residence time, ethanol molar fraction, steam to carbon ratio), catalyst composition, and pretreatment conditions were investigated, aiming at high-yield production of isobutene under industrially relevant conditions. An isobutene yield of 79% was achieved with an ethanol molar fraction of 8.3% at 475 °C on fresh Zn1Zr8O17 catalysts. Further durability and regeneration tests revealed that the catalyst exhibited very slow deactivation via coking formation with isobutene yield maintained above 75% for more than 10 h time-on-stream. More importantly, the catalysts activity in terms of isobutene yield can be readily recovered after in situ calcination in air at 550 °C for 2.5 h. XRD, TPO, IR analysis of adsorbed pyridine (IR-Py), and nitrogen sorption have been used to characterize the surface physical/chemical properties to correlate the structure and performance of the catalysts.

  17. Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    plume lengths in subsurface environments following accidental spills of ethanol-blended gasoline. Two, 8% of all the gasoline sold in the United States contained ethanol. By 1998, ethanol-blended fuels. As a result, the use of ethanol-blended gasoline is expected to in- crease in the United States over the next

  18. IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels Ethanol as a Fuel for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................... 27 WATER AND BLENDING ISSUES........................................................................................ 28 Ethanol/Gasoline/Water Miscibility

  19. 2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estima- tion of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust

  20. Brief Communication Effect of asymmetric radiant heating on monodisperse acetone/ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard S.

    Brief Communication Effect of asymmetric radiant heating on monodisperse acetone/ethanol, exploring bi-component droplets of ace- tone/ethanol and acetone/2-propanol mixtures. The ethanol and 2-component droplets composed of acetone/ethanol and acetone/ 2-propanol mixtures (1:1 volume ratio). Fig. 1 shows

  1. MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiz, Leonor

    MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897± 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol L of liquid ethanol at three temperatures have been carried out. The hydrogen bonding states of ethanol measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of liquid ethanol. 1. Introduction A detailed

  2. O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for increasing ethanol of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Abstract This article reviews the history and current state of ethanol. We propose that it is possible to produce ethanol from sugarcane while maintaining or even recovering

  3. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-15

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  4. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

  5. Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

    2008-04-01

    This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

  6. Secretary Bodman Touts Importance of Cellulosic Ethanol at Georgia...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    million gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year. Funding for these projects is also an integral part of the President's Biofuels Initiative that will lead to the wide-scale use of...

  7. Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jessica J

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

  8. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbanchuk, John

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  9. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortman, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (2006) Bonkers about biofuels. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 755–Schubert, C. (2006) Can biofuels finally take center stage?

  10. Ethanol supply chain and industry overview : more harm than good?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study that aggregates the key aspects of ethanol including its supply chain, government legislation that impacts the use of, and the inherent material characteristics of the fuel as well as ...

  11. The Latest Unanticipated Consequence in the Ethanol Fiasco 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the 2007 ethanol mandates have been a story of very small environmental and security benefits and large, unexpected increases in food prices as corn was diverted from food to fuel uses. Now we have another unforeseen consequence...

  12. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01

    improve technology and reduce costs • In response to recentuses and to advance technologies to reduce costs Basis of MyEthanol • Operating costs are low • Technology is ready to

  13. Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL -Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pretreatment for Cellulosic Ethanol Production: Technology and Energy Consumption Evaluation." BioresourceDiagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL - Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest production industry in the Northwest United States. One of NARA's goals is to develop a production process

  14. Effects of ethanol, heat, and lipid treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, G.L.; Berger, L.L.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ruminant nitrogen utilization of soybean meal treated with (1) 70% ethanol at 23 or 78/sup 0/C, (2) 10% coconut oil or tallow, or (3) a combination of 70% ethanol at 78/sup 0/C and coconut oil or tallow was evaluated. Nitrogen solubility was lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil and ethanol plus tallow. In situ nitrogen disappearance was lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and ethanol plus tallow. Rates of nitrogen disappearance between 3 and 12 h were lowest for soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and ethanol plus tallow. Nitrogen retained by lambs was greater for lambs fed soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C than for those fed untreated soybean meal. Ruminal ammonia 4 h post feeding was lowest for lambs fed soybean meal treated with ethanol at 78/sup 0/C, ethanol plus coconut oil, and coconut oil. These data indicate that the 78/sup 0/C ethanol treatment improved nitrogen utilization.

  15. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01

    to gasoline. Rogowski and Taylor (1941) showed that alcohol could be used as an anti-knock agent for gasoline, but that alcohol could not compete economically with petroleum fuels as an engine fuel. These and many other studies show the potential... been identified in conversion of diesel engines of farm tractors for using alcohol fuels. Distillation at atmospheric pressure does not yield 200 proof ethanol, (Winston, 1981), so with present technology, ethanol produced on farms is aqueous. A...

  16. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12;The addition of other metals to Platinum improves its fuel cell performance Pt alone is easily

  17. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

  18. An Analysis of the Murine Neocortex: Normal Development and the Impact of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure on Connectivity, Gene Expression, and Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Shawa, Hani

    2012-01-01

    and  motor  INCs  after   prenatal  ethanol  exposure.    motor  and   sensory  areas,  including  visual  cortex.  It  is  likely  that  ethanol-­?motor  coordination.   Animals  exposed  prenatally  to  ethanol  

  19. Ethanol seeking triggered by environmental context is attenuated by blocking dopamine D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhri, Nadia; Sahuque, Lacey L.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    ment into the prior ethanol self-administration context. SCHreinstatement of responding for ethanol cues triggered byplacement into an ethanol-associated context. Keywords

  20. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  1. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Ĺ thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  2. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  3. Source/Sink Matching for U.S. Ethanol Plants and Candidate Deep Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2008-09-18

    This report presents data on the 140 existing and 74 planned ethanol production facilities and their proximity to candidate deep geologic storage formations. Half of the existing ethanol plants and 64% of the planned units sit directly atop a candidate geologic storage reservoir. While 70% of the existing and 97% of the planned units are within 100 miles of at least one candidate deep geologic storage reservoir. As a percent of the total CO2 emissions from these facilities, 92% of the exiting units CO2 and 97% of the planned units CO2 emissions are accounted for by facilities that are within 100 miles of at least one potential CO2 storage reservoir.

  4. Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. imports of fuel ethanol were low until 2004 when imports began to rise sharply. By 2006 imports of fuel ethanol reached a record high of 735.8 million gallons. As domestic supply of fuel...

  5. Fact #588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content Fact 588: September 14, 2009 Fuel Economy Changes Due to Ethanol Content The fuel economy of a vehicle is...

  6. ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol...

  7. EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV June 1, 2011 EA-1848:...

  8. Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

  9. Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs Pilot Plant Completes Two 1,000-Hour Ethanol Performance Runs October 19, 2015 - 12:38pm Addthis ICM Inc. announced...

  10. one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple-mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple- mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol (5% v/v), because the menadione was dissolved in ethanol as a stock solution. The reaction was ini

  11. DuPont's Cellulosic Ethanol Grand Opening Marks a Milestone for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DuPont's Cellulosic Ethanol Grand Opening Marks a Milestone for the Advanced Biofuels Industry DuPont's Cellulosic Ethanol Grand Opening Marks a Milestone for the Advanced Biofuels...

  12. Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  13. Dynamics of Evolution in the Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Jin Hooi; Reiner, David

    for fuel-ethanol. 5% v/v Directive 98/70/EC on the quality of petrol and diesel fuels. 10% v/v Directive 2009/30/EC - regards the specification of petrol, diesel and gas- oil and introducing a mechanism to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions... million tonnes by 2020. The 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-05): target 1 million tonnes by 2015 (expected). Pegged fuel-ethanol price to retail gasoline price and subsiding producers for losses. Import tax reduced from 30% to 5% in 2010. E10 Trial...

  14. Certification of the Cessna 152 on 100% ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    In June 1996, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, received a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) for the use of 100% ethanol as a fuel for the Cessna 152, the most popular training aircraft in the world. This is the first certification granted by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for a non-petroleum fuel. Certification of an aircraft on a new fuel requires a certification of the engine followed by a certification of the airframe/engine combination. This paper will describe the FAA airframe certification procedure, the tests required and their outcome using ethanol as an aviation fuel in a Cessna 152.

  15. Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D

    2012-01-01

    The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of corn stover fungal fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Pimphan; Tews, Iva J.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-11-01

    This techno-economic analysis assesses the process economics of ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock by fungi in order to identify promising opportunities and the research needed to achieve them. Based on literature derived data, four different ethanologen strains are considered in this study: native and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the natural pentose-fermenting yeast, Pichia stipitis and the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Organism performance and technology readiness are split into three groups: near-term (<5 years), mid-term (5-10 years) and long-term (>10 years) process deployment. Processes classified as near-term could reasonably be developed in this shorter time frame, as suggested by recent literature. Mid-term technology process models are based on lab-scale experimental data, and yields near the theoretical limit are used to estimate long-term technology goals. Further research and economic evaluation on the integrated production of chemicals and fuels in biorefineries are recommended.

  17. Calculations of annual ethanol fluxes from experimental data Kirstine et al. (1998) (pasture in Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    in Australia) Value Min Max Units Comments Total VOC flux 1.9 g(C) m -2 y -1 Percentage of ethanol 6 21 EthanolCalculations of annual ethanol fluxes from experimental data Kirstine et al. (1998) (pasture Units Comments Mean ethanol flux 206 µg(eth) m -2 h -1 =5760.9/28 (from Table 2) No.of daylight hours

  18. Ethanol Vehicle and Infrastructure Codes and Standards Chart (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    This chart shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for ethanol.

  19. Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future investigators have developed mathematical models for predicting the effect of ethanol (added to gasoline at 10 these models provide valuable insight into the potential ground water impacts of ethanol in gasoline

  20. The effects of ethanol on strychnine sensitive glycine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botting, Shaleen Kaye

    2000-01-01

    to measure the anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of chronic ethanol ingestion and withdrawal. In these tests we found that both the ethanol and control rats displayed a slightly greater interest in exploring the dark side of the box, while the ethanol...

  1. Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    E10 gasoline (i.e., a blend with 10% vol/vol ethanol/ gasoline) showed that mean benzene plume of E10 gasoline (10% vol/vol ethanol), which compares favorably to field observations. For low benzene Act requirements. The widespread use of ethanol in gasoline has led to an increase in its potential

  2. Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked porcine aortic cusps by ethanol preincubation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Robert

    Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked porcine aortic cusps by ethanol efficacious ethanol pre- treatment of BPHVs for the prevention of cuspal calcifica- tion. The aim of the present study is to extend our under- standing of the material changes brought about by ethanol

  3. Ethanol adsorbed on ice: A first-principles study C. Thierfelder*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    Ethanol adsorbed on ice: A first-principles study C. Thierfelder* Centre of Theoretical Chemistry of ethanol molecules on the ice Ih basal plane. Apart from smooth surfaces, also substrate models simulation for ethanol adsorbed on ice using the TIP4P potential16 for the water-water interaction. Recent

  4. TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-specic gene induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, J.A.H.

    TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-speci®c gene induction during plant is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during plant development. Here, we report ethanol inducible of an ethanol-regulated transcription factor, ALCR, is restricted to precise domains using speci®c promoters

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Methods Shici Duan and Selim Senkan* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1532 Ethanol in this area focused on steam reforming of ethanol at relatively high temperatures (T > 500 °C), where carbon

  6. 2-Undecyloxy-1-ethanol in combination with other semiochemicals attracts three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2-Undecyloxy-1-ethanol in combination with other semiochemicals attracts three Monochamus species: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol volatiles ethanol and a-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator

  7. TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G Engineering Dearborn, Michigan 48121 ABSTRACT Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). Existing FFVs rely

  8. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B (received for review September 1, 2004) Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol with- drawal (EW). Here we show that tissue

  9. Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

  10. WSU Program for TBI Research Summer School Neuroprotection & Mechanism of Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VandeVord, Pamela

    6/12/2013 1 WSU Program for TBI Research Summer School Neuroprotection & Mechanism of Ethanol Surgery June 7, 2013 Department of Neurological Surgery Wayne State University History of Alcohol (Ethanol) ·The earliest evidence of alcohol (ethanol) use is the discovery of beer jugs from the Neolithic age

  11. Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

  12. The Effect of Ethanol on Fuel Price Behavior and the Viability of Cellulosic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    The Effect of Ethanol on Fuel Price Behavior and the Viability of Cellulosic Biofuels Jacob La's transport fuel in 2010 corn ethanol. #12;Biofuels in the US Biofuels have traditionally been used's transport sector energy from sugar cane. 9.4% of US's transport fuel in 2010 corn ethanol. In 2007, US

  13. Ethanol Assay, UV-method (R-Biopharm, Cat. No. 10 176 290 035)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Maitreya

    Ethanol Assay, UV-method (R-Biopharm, Cat. No. 10 176 290 035) modified by Maitreya Dunham the assay since ethanol is volatile. Use the following chart to add the appropriate amount of reagents your samples at all times during the assay since ethanol is volatile. According to the kit, _A must

  14. Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of 5 mm Hexagonal Single-Crystal Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen1 as large as 5 mm can be synthesized from ethanol via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Key conditions for the successful reduction in nucleation density are extremely low partial pressure of ethanol vapor and pre

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayar, Abdallah

    DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL 72205-7199, USA Abstract--Ethanol exposure during postnatal days (PN) 4­6 in rats alters cerebellar happens to the neurons that survive. In this study, rat pups were treated with a daily dose of ethanol

  16. Comparison of the structural and orientational glass-transition dynamics in ethanol M. A. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, Norman

    Comparison of the structural and orientational glass-transition dynamics in ethanol M. A. Miller 1997 The dynamics of the supercooled-liquid and rotator-phase crystal of the same material, ethanol that ethanol (C2H5OH) exhibits interesting phase polymorphism, and ap- pears to be quite unique in that it can

  17. Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

  18. Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol Pei Zhao, and systematically investigate the growth of graphene from ethanol and compare its self-limiting behavior over copper facets with different identities. Results show that the growth of graphene from ethanol in the LPCVD

  19. LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol

  20. Vesicle Formation of a 1:1 Catanionic Surfactant Mixture in Ethanol Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianbin

    Vesicle Formation of a 1:1 Catanionic Surfactant Mixture in Ethanol Solution J.-B. Huang,* B on the liposome of natural phospho- lipids.10,11 As for the situation in ethanol solution, early studies showed that ethanol addition deteriorates the molecular order in lipid bilayers,12-16 although a small amount

  1. Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung-ho Ahn, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, and Mrdjan Jankovic Abstract--Ethanol is being increasingly flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up

  2. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason- out reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodie- sel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested

  3. ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    by agricultural and chemical companies for many reasons. However, ethanol does not mix well with gasoline that one burns 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent in fossil fuels to pro- duce 1 gallon of gasoline equivalent as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or fuel, its use amounts

  4. Educational programs of Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating Name & Phone Number

  5. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, or veteran status. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Departmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without status. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating 2015 4-H Clothing and Textiles Advisory Board OVERVIEW The Texas 4-H Clothing

  6. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Comm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating. What

  7. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Comm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating Health

  8. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, or veteran status. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Departmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without status. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating 2015 2015 Texas 4-H Trashion Show Interview Score Sheet Team Members: County

  9. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in C–C bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2–C4 product distributions.

  10. Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September 19, 2003 Prepared by The Minnesota Department of Health Under Cooperative Agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry #12;Foreword This document summarizes health concerns associated

  11. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    blended into gasoline in 2004 amounted to about 2% of all gasoline sold by volume and 1.3% (2.5 Â 1017 J studies indicated that current corn ethanol technologies are much less petroleum-intensive than gasoline but have greenhouse gas emissions similar to those of gasoline. However, many important environmental

  12. The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNair, Robert

    2014-04-18

    and gasoline. In 2014, it is projected oil refineries will hit the blend wall (BW). In short, oil refineries are required to blend more ethanol into gasoline than is allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a consequence, the EPA will need...

  13. Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Cornbased Ethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and waste water discharge. We consider the corn-based ethanol plant reported in Karuppiah et al. (2008 industrial operation and waste water is no longer discharged. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, including the treatment and recycling of waste water (Petrakis, 2008) as shown later in this paper. The task

  14. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  15. Ethanol Negatively Regulates Hepatic Differentiation of hESC by Inhibition of the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Ethanol Negatively Regulates Hepatic Differentiation of hESC by Inhibition of the MAPK progenitor cells derived from hESCs to study the impact of ethanol on hepatocyte differentiation by exposure of these progenitor cells to ethanol during hepatocyte differentiation. Results: We found that ethanol negatively

  16. Heartland Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent|Corn Products Jump

  17. Pathways for Ethanol Dehydrogenation and Dehydration Catalyzed by Ceria (111) and (100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beste, Ariana; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed computations to better understand how surface structure affects selectivity in dehydrogenation and dehydration reactions of alcohols. Ethanol reactions on the (111) and (100) ceria surfaces were studied starting from the dominant surface species, ethoxy. We used DFT (PBE+U) to explore reaction pathways leading to ethylene and acetaldehyde and calculated estimates of rate constants employing transition state theory. To assess pathway contributions, we carried out kinetic analysis. Our results show that intermediate and transition state structures are stabilized on the (100) surface compared to the (111) surface. Formation of acetaldehyde over ethylene is kinetically and thermodynamically preferred on both surfaces. Our results are consistent with temperature programmed surface reaction and steady-state experiments, where acetaldehyde was found as the main product and evidence was presented that ethylene formation at higher temperature originates from changes in adsorbate and surface structure.

  18. ARE Update Volume 9, Number 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    that while current biofuel production and agri- culturalto innovation in biofuel production and agriculturaltechnologies will make biofuel production more efficient

  19. Fact #894: October 12, 2015 U.S. Petroleum Production and Consumption...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    petroleum and non-petroleum sources (ethanol, biomass, etc.) are included. U.S. Petroleum Production and Consumption by Sector, 1973-2040 Graphic showing U.S. Petroleum and...

  20. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.